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PHYSICAL METALLURGY OF SOME IMPORTANT

NON-FERROUS METALS AND ALLOYS

Sridhar Gudipati
Scientist
National Metallurgical Laboratory
Jamshedpur - 831 007

It is the purpose of this lecture to discuss some of the important


non-ferrous metals and alloys from the aspect of physical metallurgy.
Particular emphasis is placed on their commercial importance. Portions
of tentative equilibrium diagrams are presented for a number of non-
ferrous alloys. Numerous photomicrographs have been used to illustrate
typical structures. For complete understanding, the reader is requested
to consult the references given at the end of the notes.
METALLIC MATERIALS
\au
Ferrous Non-Ferrous
Iron and its alloys the other metallic elements (some
70 in number and their alloys)
Iron —> abundant availability Out of all the non-ferrous metals
—> low cost
—> forms very useful
range of alloys with only —> a few
carbon and other
elements Aluminium
Copper
Lead produced in
Steels and cast iron (94% Magnesium moderately
world of total consumption of Nickel large quantities
metallic materials) Tin
Titanium
Zinc
Other non-ferrous metals & alloys
Cadmium
Molybdenum
Cobalt
Zirconium
Beryllium
Tantalum
The precious metals
Gold
Silver
Platinum group
L COPPER AND COPPER ALLOYS

Copper > one of the oldest metals known to man

Pure Copper —> Properties

Melting point 1083°C


Crystal structure face centered cubic
Density 8.93 x 103 kg/m3
Young's modulus,E 122.5 GPa
Tensile strength 220 MPa
Electrical resistivity 1.67 x 10-8 f2m at 20°C
Corrosion resistance Very good

* High electrical conductivity,


* High thermal conductivity,
* Good corrosion resistance,
* Good machinability,
* Good strength,
* Ease of fabrication
* Non-magnetic
* Has a pleasing colour
*Pure copper is red
* Zinc additions produce a yellow colour
* Nickel addition produce a silver colour
* Can be welded, soldered, brazed
* Is easily finished by plating or lacquering

Applications —> Pure copper —> extensively used for —>

o Sheet, for architectural o Cables; wires—> for electrical


cladding windings
o Tubes, for heat exchangers o electrical contacts
and domestic installations o wide variety of other parts that
are required to pass electrical
current —> i.e. electrical
conductors

99.9% Cu -> This is electrolytic tough-pitch


0.02 to 0.05% oxygen copper (ETP)
or
combined with copper as the oxygen-free high conductivity
compound cuprous oxide (Cu20) copper (OFHC)

As cast, copper oxide and copper form an interdendritic eutectic


mixture (Fig.1).

After working and annealing, the interdendritic network is


destroyed and the strength in improved (Fig.2).
•7

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Fig.1 Copper-copper oxide eutectic in cast tough-pitch copper.


Lightly etched with sodium dichromate

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Fig.2: Particles of copper oxide (black spots) in wrought


tough-pitch copper. Lightly etched in ammonium
hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide

Types of Copper
Arsenical copper Free-cutting copper Silver-bearing copper
about 0.3% arsenic 0.6% tellurium 7 to 30 oz per ton

Copper may be alloyed with a number of elements to provide a


range of useful alloys.
Most important commercial copper alloys

1. Brasses - alloys of copper and zinc


A. Alpha brasses - alloys containing up to 36% zinc
i) Yellow alpha brasses - 20 to 36% zinc
ii) Red brasses - 5 to 20% zinc
B. Alpha plus beta brasses - 54 to 62% copper

2. Bronzes - up to 12% of alloying element


A Tin bronzes
B Silicon bronzes
C Aluminium bronzes
D Beryllium bronzes
3. Cupronickels - alloys of copper and nickel
4, Nickel silvers - alloys of copper, nickel, and zinc.

Designations system for copper-base alloys

Wrought alloys

100x - 159xx Commercially pure Cu


160)a - 199xx Nearly pure Cu but age hardenable due to Cd, Be or Cr
2xxxx Cu-Zn (brass)
3,ocxx Cu-Zn-Pb (leaded brass)
4xxxx Cu-Zn-Sn (tin bronze)
5xxxx Cu-Sn and Cu-Sn-Pb (phosphor bronze)
6xxxx Cu-Al (aluminium bronze)
7xxxx Cu-Ni (cupronickel), Cu-Ni-Zn (nickel silver)

Cast alloys

800xx - 811xx Commercially pure Cu


813xx - 828xx 95-99% Cu
833xx 899xx Cu-Zn alloys containing Sn, Pb, Mn, or Si
9xxxx Other copper alloys, including tin bronze, aluminium
bronze, cupronickel and nickel silver
Brasses - general

• Commercially important alloys of copper and zinc


• Have composition up to 40% Zn
• Addition of zinc to copper increases in strength because zinc
enters into solid solution in the copper.
• Unusual feature : ductility also increases with dissolved zinc
content, reaches a maximum ductility value at a zinc content
of 30%
• Zinc in cheaper than copper, so brasses are more economical
than pure copper.
• Brasses are widely used in a variety of applications
• where electrical conductivity is important, pure Cu is used.
Copper - zinc phase diagram (Fig.3)
• This portion of binary alloy phase diagram is applicable to
commercial alloys (from 0 to 40%). Zinc melts at 419°C and
copper at 1083°C
• The solubility of zinc in the alpha (a) solid solution increases
from 32.5% at 903°C to about 39% at 400°C.
• Since copper is fcc, the a solid solution is fcc.
• 0 phase is bcc, changes from random to ordered structure in the
region of 454°C to 468°C as indicated by the broken line on the
diagram.
This 01 is still bcc but Cu atoms at the coners and the zinc atoms
at the centers of the unit cubes.
• On cooling in this temperature range, the bcc 0 phase, with Cu
and Zinc atoms randomly dispersed at lattice points, changes
contineous to the ordered structure i31.
But ordering takes place in certain solid solution alloys at specific
composition ranges.
• The ordering reaction is so rapid that it cannot be retarded or
prevented by quenching.
Atomic percent zinc
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90
11 - .s. .7:-•:. 2000
-,,,• -• . -1=f --,
- • - - a -r ' ,,:: st.,...':!: =
08A;p,
? ' 1= Liquid .
, 2: -:. .,..
,......
903°
. - P..TT. - ''''' . .? ..._.1-i.,- ::i'-'-'4 ,..:, 1." 1800
... , .: - ."- ..; Boiling point
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,.... 4,, .
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8.4—
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.? -1 45
rk...,
58 : -
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1 424° f,
4,6 (.2 800
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-r.-.,„,. . •., t/3 13' 97:3
9•1_,..,
, 1- c+` 5• ÷ •,. ,,i
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300 _•:. -'•-•
,4. • ' t
- .4C ---- 71.
'NA: %.,
il""t rte '11k- L.
0 10 20 30 40 50 - 60 70 80 90 Zn
Cu 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Composition, w/o
Fig.3 : Copper-zinc phase diagram
- Commercial Brasses
a Brasses a + 0 Brasses
* for cold working * for hot working
Yellow a Brasses
• Contain 20 to 36% zinc
• Good strength & high ductility
Common practice : Stress relief anneal after cold working to
prevent season cracking/stress corrosion cracking.
This is because of high residual stresses left in the brass as a
result --")1,/ ti/

-P 47
.
11
''.t 1':''
, : ,• ,
.. ( -' i"t

Fig.4 : Micrograph of cold worked and annealed deoXidized copper.


Some of the equiaxed crystals show pronounced annealing twins. a
Brass and other a-phase copper alloys have a similar microstructure

• Yellow a brasses are also subject to a pitting corrosion, called


Dezincification. When brass is in contact with sea water or fresh
waters that have a high content of oxygen and carbon dioxide.

Dezincification : Dissolution of the alloy and a subsequent deposition of


porous nonadherent copper. Action of this kind, unless stopped. will
eventually penetrate the cross section of the metal and lead to leakage
through the porous copper layer. Small amounts of tin/antimony
minimize dezincification in yellow brasses.
LY• •

Fig. 5 : Stress-corrosion cracking in a brass (cartridge brass)

1-6
Most widely used yellow a brasses : Cartridge brass, 70 Cu - 30 Zn
Used for the manufacture of cartridge and shell cases because of
its high ductility (ReferFig. 5).

Red Brasses

Contain between 5 and 20% zinc


better corrosion resistance than yellow brasses
not susceptible to season cracking or dezincification

For example, * Gilding metal —> 95 Cu - 5 Zn --> used for coins,


medals tokens, emblems.
Commercial bronze —> 90 Cu - 10 Zn --> costume jewelry,
lipstick cases, marine hardware,screws, rivets
Red brass —> 85 Cu - 15 Zn --> electrical circuit, sockets, heat-
exchanger tubes
Low brass —> 80 Cu - 20 Zn - -> ornamental metal work,
thermostat bellows,musical instruments.

a + f3 Brasses

• Contain from 54 to 62% copper, remaining zinc


Consider Fig.3, these alloys consist of two phases a and 131
J3 1 is harder and more brittle at room temperature than a
• That's why, these alloys are more difficult to cold-work than the
a brasses
At elevated temperatures, the 13 phase becomes very plastic
• Therefore, heat-treat into the single phase [3, region then they
have excellent hot-working properties

Most widely used a + [31 brass : Muntz metal (60 Cu - 40 Zn)

• High strength & excellent hot-working properties.

Fig.6: Two-phase structure of annealed muntz metal. Light area is R.


Dark area is a. Etched in ammonium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide
• Rapid cooling from the p region may suppress the precipitation of
most of the a phase. The quench preserved most of the p, but
some a has formed, particularly at the grain boundaries.

• Subsequent reheating to a low temperature will allow more of the


a to come out of the supersaturated solid solution. Therefore it is
possible to heat treat this alloy.

Uses : in the sheet form —> for ship sheathing, condenser heads,
perforated metal, architectural work, valve stems, brazing rods,
condenser tubes.

• If we add 0.40 to 0.80% Pb to Muntz metal, machinability will be


improved.

Naval Brass : also known as "tobin bronze" 60 Cu - 39.25 Zn - 0.75 Sn

• High resistance to salt-water corrosion

Uses : Condenser plate, welding rod, piston rods, propeller shafts,


valve stems.

Note : The structures of high-tensile brasses are generally (a + p), but may
sometimes be wholly 13. Used in the form of castings and hot worked
products.

Typical Applications

1) For the manufacture of ships' screws and marine fittings


2) In the brazing alloys.

Important : No commercial alloys are made containing more than 50%


zinc, as above this value, the presence of y phase in the structure would
embrittle the alloy.

BRONZES

• originally they are copper-tin alloys


• Now, any copper alloy contains up to - 12% principal alloying
element (except Cu-Zn alloys).
Commercial bronzes are primarily alloys of Cu and tin,
aluminum, silicon or beryllium.

Bronzes

Tin Silicon Aluminium Beryllium Cupronickels Nickel


bronzes bronzes bronzes bronzes silicon

1. Uri bronzes :

• Generally referred to as phosphor bronzes because phosphorus


is always present as a deoxidizer in casting
• Tin between 1 and 11%

I-8
Phosphorus between 0.01 and 0.5%
Refer Fig.7 —>
1. The 13 phase, within the limits shown, forms as the result of a
peritectic reaction between a and melt of 25% tin at 798°C
2. is bcc and transfoiins eutectoidally at 586°C to a + y, y is also bcc
3. Now, 7undergoes a eutectoid transformation at 520°C
to a and 8(Cu31Sn8) ---> new two-phase constituent (a+6)
4. Again, 8 phase by eutectoid reaction at 350°C to (a +e)
5. The solvus line on the diagram below 520°C indicates a decrease
in the solubility of tin as the a phase cools. These changes are so
sluggish, so they may be disregarded. So, for all practical
purposes, the reaction 5—> a ÷ c, may be considered non-
existent. Atomic percent tin

11
to 20 30 40 50 60 7
I 2000
1084°
1
1800
a± L 72 Liquid
-s- I f I
5.5 /9+ L 1600
...,....
A 798° , I 756°
800 ,13.5
.- ti;:rif ''z' 30.6
t _ _ 1400
70(

Tempera ture, `I '


."7"4''1?-1 y L
;-.3■X:c1( 6, i eZ'' a +$ - Ai 58 6 1200
gl-7 ..!." iiiiry+E ,640°
600
1;47' • 15.8 586' rintlign.
....t
... 15.8 520' 4 E + L-411111111111 1000
5(X) . . s- i 27.0 !

- tl.,:e.... ,1 I i
tzfrrk,
,?.4....o: 38.2 59 415'
400 9 .4— 00

-' -,...i....ir +
— -•
300
,.... 7)-1 -,t10
a+f f 227°
200 8.2 189° ,i -- 6 I 186'
T-0 991 - 00
E+ 7j` i
I
0 ---
1001)
10 20 30 40 50 70 80 90 Sn
Cu 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0
Composition. wio

Fig.7 : Copper-tin alloy system

Properties : High strength. toughness, high corrosion resistance, low


coefficient of friction. freedom from season cracking

Applications : Diaphragms, bellows, lock washers, cotton pins,


bushings, clutch disks, springs

2. Silicon Bronzes

Commercial silicon bronzes, generally contain < 5% Si are


SINGLE PHASE ALLOYS (a). a is fcc. So these alloys are not hardenable
by heat treatment.

1-9
Properties :

1. Silicon bronzes are the strongest of the work-hardenable copper


alloys.
2. Mechanical properties comparable to those of mild steel &
corrosion resistance comparable to that of copper.

Applications:, Tanks, pressure vessels, marine construction, hydraulic


pressure lines

3. Aluminum Bronzes

Most commercial aluminium bronzes —> contain 4 to 11% AI

Single phase Al-bronzes

Properties : 1. Good cold working properties


2. Good strength combined with corrosion resistance
to atmospheric and water attack

Uses : Condenser tubes, corrosion-resistant vessels, nuts, bolts, for


protecting sheathing in marine applications.

Two-phase Al-bronzes :

1. They can be heat-treated to obtain structures similar to those in


steel.
2. Cold-working properties are not good
3. ct+ p, Al-bronzes are quench hardenable
water quenched from 815 - 870°C and Tempered at 370 -590°C
to increase strength and hardness
4. 10.7% Al bronze quenched (13) —> martensite 13
5. On furnace cooling from above the eutectoid temperature, 13 will
transform to a lamellar structure resembling pearlite in steel.

Uses : Heat treated ones; gears. propeller hubs, blades. pump parts.
bearings. bushings. nonsparking tools. drawing and forming dies.
11 0
c 000
Beryllium Bronzes t i
100
L 1 .1
; 1. 1800
1,i i 0 1- t 1
900
q
t
F t. , , 1t _.
1----1--------
........
I —
'600

800 I _/-----"
— •1—

ai
1,
1 i _ •1400 4
-
i a + a I
700 I— ■ r —4
:
I 0 + Y . — 1200
.7?
500

I I _ 1000
500 i
1
!
1+ Y i BOO
400

300 — BOO
2 4 5 6 10

.ye.qht cement terythum

Fig.8 : Copper-rich portion of the copper-beryllium alloy system

I-10
1. The solubility of beryllium in the a solid solution decreases from
2.1% at 1590°F to less than 0.25% at room temperature.
2. This indicates the possibilities of age-hardening

For a given alloy —> two principal methods to increase strength &
hardness : (1) cold working, (2) heat-treatment

For non-ferrous alloys —> heat treatment --> age hardening/


precipitation hardening

Conditions : (1) Most metals show some solubility for each other in the
solid state and therefore they form solid solutions. So, the equilibrium
diagram must show partial solid solubility. (2) The slope of the solvus
line must be such that there is greater solubility at a higher
temperature than at a lower temperature i.e. the solid solubility limit
should decrease with decreasing temperature.
Atop Alloy Alloy Alloy
1 4 3 2

IT
Lliqutd

Tj

eutectic m.ture_.-1, 0 4 tuleCti:


m:xt ore

4 0 !0 <0 50 60 70 =

Coo, osi'l ■
on, weight percent

Fig.9: Phase diagram illustrating partial solid solubility

/3 particles (ccteally
submicroscopic)
a groins

(b) (c)

Fig.10 Microstructure of an 85A-15 B alloy


Solution Treatment

Alloy 4 microstructure is shown in Fig.10(a)


This alloy is reheated to point M, then all the excess p will be dis-
solved and the structure well be a homogeneous a solid solution
Now, this alloy is rapidly cooled (quenched) to room temperature
A supersaturated solid solution (SSS) forms (with excess 13
trapped in solution). Now the microstructure looks like Fig.10(b).
The SSS is unstable and the excess solute will tend to come out
of solution. The speed at which precipitation (by nucleation and
growth process) occurs varies with temperature. This is called
Ageing. This will lead to hardening.
The size of the precipitate becomes finer as the temperature at
which precipitation occurs is lowered.
Extensive hardening of the alloy is associated with a critical
disperson of the precipitate.
If ageing is too far at any given temperature, coarsening of
precipitates occur (the small ones tend to re-dissolve, and the
large ones to grow still larger), the alloy becomes softer.

800

600

2 400
0
E
V

200

wt % Cu

Fig. 11 : Al-rich Al-Cu binary diagram


showing GP (1) 0" and 0' solves lines (dotted)

Fig.12 : 1E,M of A1-4% Cu aged 16 hrs. at 130°C showing GP(1) zones

1-12
5. Cupronickels :
1500

1400 2600
U-
e- 1300 2400
TT;
1200 2200 t
a
1100
2000

IWO
Ni 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 Cu
Weight percent. copper

Fig.13 : Copper-nickel equilibrium diagram

1. It shows complete solubility (both at liquid & solid states)


2. That is why, all cupronickels are single-phase alloys
3. They are not heat-treatable
4. Their properties change only by cold working.

Properties : (1) High resistance to corrosion fatigue (2) High resistance


to corrosive & erosive action of rapidly moving sea water.

Uses : Condenser, distiller, evaporator, heat exchanger tubes, nickel


silvers —> for naval vessels & coastal power plants.

6. Nickel Silvers

Essentially ternary alloys of copper (50-70%) nickel (5-30%)


zinc (5-40%)

Properties : Excellent base metals for plating with chromium, nickel or


silver.

Uses : Rivets, screws, zippers, costume jewelry, nameplates, nadiodials.

Important etchants for coppers. brasses, bronzes. nickel silver.


aluminum bronze

1. 20 ml NH4OH, 0-20 ml H2O, 8-20 ml H202


Immersion or swabbing 1 minute.
2. Cr03 (saturated aqueous solution)
Immersion or swabbing
3. 10 g (NH4)2 S208 and 90 ml H2O
Immersion : use cold or boiling
4. 5 g Fec13, 100 ml ethanol, 5-30 ml Hcl
Immersion or swabbing for 1 second to several minutes
5. 5 Parts HNO3, 5 parts acetic acid, 1 part H3PO4
Immersion
6. Equal parts of NH4CI and H2O
Immersion
IL LEAD AND LEAD ALLOYS

Properties

• Melting point : 327°C


• Crystal structure: face centered cubic
• Density : 11.34 x 103 kg/m3
• E : 16.5 GPa
• Electrical resistivity : 2.1 x 10-7 S2 m at 20°C
• corrosion resistance : very good
• Heavy weight, High density, Softness, Malleability, Low melting
point, Low strength, Lubricating property, Low electrical
conductivity, High co-efficient of expansion, High corrosion
resistance

Uses : In the manufacture of storage batteries, In the high-grade points


as lead compounds, As a shielding material against p rays/r rays/neclear
waste (because of its high density), Because of its softness, for
gaskets,Because of its flexibility, for cable sheathing,In chemical
industry, because of its high corrosion resistance, As a roofing material,
Bearing metals, Solders

Common Etchant : 3 Parts acetic acid, 4 parts nitric acid (cone), 16


parts distilled water.
Procedure : Use freshly prepared solution at 40-42°C
Immerse specimen for 4-30 min : clean with cotton in running water.

Lead-tin eviiiihrium. diagram (Fig.14)

1. Alloy 1 contains 70% tin, is to the right of the eutectic composi-


tion. The microstructure consists of primary 3 dendrites (white)
surrounded by the eutectic mixture (Fig.15a).
2. Alloy 2 is the eutectic composition : This is known as tinman's
solder. Microstructure --> very fine mixture of a and (3 solid
solutions Fig.15b. Back-scattered SEM. a is white, 13 is dark.
T inman's Pi umber's
solder solder

Liquid
300 —

2 C0i- a + Liquid

100

1
100% Sn 20 40 60 50 0 % Sn
C% Pb 100% Pb
Composition (% Pb)

Fig.14 : Lead-tin equilibrium diagram


Fig.15(b)

Lead-base Babbitts or white metal alloys

Known as bearing materials


They should possess sufficient hardness and wear resistance so
that it does not wear away during service but its hardness should
be low relative to the shaft or journal in order to avoid wear or
damage to the shaft, particularly during a start-up when, because
of low oil pressure, there may be metal-to-metal contact.
The strength of the bearing material should be sufficient to
sustain the load without deformation and yet possess
considerable toughness to resist shock loading.
These requirements can be met by metallic alloys possessing a
duplex structure with hard constituents to sustain the load
embedded in a softer and tough matrix.
They are used in automotive connecting rods, main and camshaft
bearings, diesel engine bearings, electric motor bearings.
^

'1/44•
Fig. 16 : Lead-base babbitt (Pb-10 Sb-5 Sn-0.5 Cu)
Etchant : 15 ml acetic acid, 20 ml nitric acid, 80 ml water at 42°C
Features: (1) Dendritic grains of lead rich solid solution (black),
(2) Primary cuboids of antimony-tin intermetallic phase (white),
(3) matrix: ternary eutectic; (a) antimony-rich solid solution
(white) (b) lead-such solid solution (black) (c) antimony-tin phase
(also white).

Tin and Tin Alloys

Properties
Melting point 232°C
Crystal structure Body centered tetragonal
Density 7.29 x 103 kg/m3
E, Young's modulus 40.8 GPa
Electrical resistivity 1.15 x 10-7 S2 m at 20°C
Corrosion resistance Very good

Uses
1. Tin is an ideal metal for coating mild steel to make tin-plate for
the manufacture of cans because tin is attractive in appearance,
low melting point, good corrosion resistance and lack of toxicity.
In the beginning, tin-plate was made by dipping sheets of mild
steel into baths of molten tin. Now-a-days it is done by
electrolysis.
2. Used in the manufacture of white metal bearings.
3. As an alloying element.
4. Earlier, tin foils were used for packaging, because of its high
price, aluminium is being used now-a-days.

General Etchants
1. 2 ml Hcl. 5 ml HNO3, 93 ml methnol : Immersion
2. 5 ml Hcl, 2g Fecl3, 30 ml 1-120, 60 ml methanol or ethanol :
Immersion
3. Picral (4g picric acid, 100 ml methanol or ethanol) : Immersion

Tin-base Babbitts

Fig.17 : Tin-base babbitt (80% Sn, 11% Sb, 6% Pb, 3% Cu). Showing
cuboids of SbSn and network of Cu6Sn5 needles

1-16
1. Tin and antimony conbine to form a very hard intermetallic
compound, with the formula SbSn.
2. SbSn appear as cuboids
3. They appear in a soft matrix of ternary tin-lead-antimony eutectic
4. During the solidification of bearing metals, the hard SbSn cuboids
solidify from the liquid first.
5. Since they are having low density, they come to the surface of the
liquid metal.
6. To prevent the presence of SbSn cuboids (to some extent),
copper (- 3%) is added to the alloy.
7. Now, Cu6Sn5 (intermetallic compound) —> which is hard,
solidifies first
8. Cu6Sn5 looks like needle-shaped crystals
9. They form a continuous network throughout the melt.
10. This network largely prevents the SbSn cuboids from segregating
to the surface of the melt when they begin to solidify.

IV. TITANIUM AND TITANIUM ALLOYS

Properties

Melting point • 1660°C


Crystal structure •• Close packed hexagonal(a) up to 880°C
body centered cubic (13) above 880°C
Density 4. 54 x 103 kg/m3 (low density)
E, Young's modulus : 106 GPa
Tensile strength : 30 MPa (relatively high strength)
Corrosion resistance : Excellent
(with respect to most acids, alkalies and chlorides)
• Processing of titanium is difficult and costly
• At very high temperatures (>700°C), titanium will readily dissolve
oxygen. nitrogen and carbon, all of which cause embrittlement.
(Small amounts will cause strengthening. with loss of ductility).

Commercially Pure Titanium : Lower strength, more corrosion


resistant, less expensive than Ti alloys

Uses : Applications requiring high ductility for fabrication but little


strength, such as : chemical process piping, valves and tanks.
aircraft firewalls, compressor cases

Titanium Alloys

• Addition of alloying elements to titanium will influence the a ->


transformation temperature.
a stabilizers/13 stabilizers (this happens because of the number of
bonding electrons).
a stabilizers : aluminium and oxygen (most important)
they dissolve preferentially in the a phase
expand this field
raise the a/13 transus
13 stabilizers : molybdenum, vanadium
- they depress the cc/13 transus and stabilize the 13 phase

1-17
• Neutral element Zirconium, tin and silicon
- they do not have effect on either a or (3 phases
Alpha Alloys
The compositions of these alloys are balanced by high aluminium
content so that the alloys are essentially one-phase alpha.
• Because of the one-phase microstructure, weldability is very good.
• Because of the aluminium, retention of strength at high
temperature is obtained. They cannot be strengthened by heat
treatment (Ti-5 Al- 2.5 Sn).

Applications :
Aircraft tail pipe assemblies, formed sheet components operating
up to 900°F, missile fuel tanks and structural parts operating for
short times up to 1100°F.

Alpha -Beta Alloys


Contain enough beta-stabilizing elements to cause the f3 phase to
persist down to room temperature.
These alloys are stronger than a alloys.
They can be further strengthened by heat treatment
Quench from a temperature in the (a+(3) phase field and age at
moderately at elevated temperature
(homogeneous (3 solid solution . is not formed here which is very
common in age-hardening procedure).
* Quenching suppresses the transformation of the elevated-
temperature beta phase that would occur on slow cooling.
Aging at elevated temperatures causes precipitation of fine a . So.
thin fine structure is stronger than a+ (coarse, annealed).
The most commonly used titanium alloy is Ti - 6A1- 4V ((a - ( alloy).
It is a general purpose alloy. Usually used in the annealed
condition: i.e. solution-treated high in the (a+13) phase field.
quenched and aged or annealed at around 700°C. The resultant
microstructure comprises equiaxed a-grains in a matrix of fully
transformed fi.Vr"

Fig.18 : Ti-6A1-4V ( p treated. above the p transus), TEM photograph.


shows plate like a grains (white), intergranular f3 (black).

1-18

Typical application of Ti-6 Al-4V

Aircraft gas turbine compressor blades and disks, forged airframe


fittings, sheet metal airframe parts.

General Etchant : Kroll's reagent : 10 ml HF, 5 ml HNO3, 85 ml H2O


Immerse for 10 seconds.

Beta Alloys

Can be strengthened by heat treatment


Ti- 13V-11Cr-3A1
• Structure consists of equiaxed grains of metastable fa.
• Ageingleads to a precipitates in 13 grains

Uses : High strength fasteners, Aerospace components requiring high


strength at moderate temperatures.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. Introduction to Physical Metallurgy (Second Edition) by Sidney


H.Avner, McGraw-Hill Kogakusha Ltd. (Chapter 12, p.461.
Nonferrous Metals and Alloys).
2. Introduction to Engineering Materials (Third Edition) by
V.B.John, ELBS with Macmillan (Chapter 15. p. 195, Non-ferrous
Metals and Alloys).
3. The Science and Engineering of Materials (1984 by Wadworth,
Inc., Belmont, California) by Donald R.Askeland, Chapter 12,
p.313, Non-ferrous Alloys.
4. Materials Science and Engineering (Third Edition) by
V.Raghavan, Prentice-Hall of India Pvt.Ltd. New Delhi-1 10001.
1993. Chapter 9, p.191, Phase Transformations.
5. Elements of Materials Science and Engineering (Sixth Edition) by
Lawrence H.Van Vlack, Addison-Wesley Publishing Company.
1989. Chapter 7. P.215, Microstructures.
6. Metals Hand Book, Vol.9, Ninth Edition. Metallographv and
Microstructures: pp.440-470.
7. G.Kehl. Metallurgical Laboratory Practices McGraw-Hill, 1949.
8. W.Hoffman, Lead and Lead Alloys, 2nd Edition, Springer-Verlag,
1970.
9. Modern Physical Metallurgy by R.E.Smallman (Fourth Edition)
Butterworth & Coltd,1985. Chapter 11, Precipitation Hardening,
p.380.