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Battery pack Specifications

This report is in response to the requirement initiated by Okinawa Auto


tech private limited of battery pack and battery management system.

Requirement posted was of a lithium-ion battery pack with the following


technical and physical specifications:

Voltage: 60 Volts (nominal)


Ampere Hours: 24Ah
Energy Storage capacity = 60 V * 24Ah = 1440 Wh = 1.44 kWh

Dimension of the pack should be:


Width: 241mm, Length: 185mm, & Height: 165mm
2. Design and proposed solution:
1) Cells for battery pack

Cells to be employed: Samsung-ICR18650-26F

Cell Chemistry: Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC)

Energy Density (cell): 204.3Wh/kg

Cell topology: Cylindrical

Cell Dimension: Diameter = 18mm; Height = 65mm.


3. Cell Specifications:
4. Pack design:
The cells are employed is ns-mp configuration to get the desired voltage and amp-hour
requirements.

Calculating n;

In Series:
Nominal voltage of each cell: 3.7 Volts
Required voltage = 60 Volts
Thus: no of cells in series = 60 V / 3.7 V = 16.2 == 16 cells in series

Calculating m;

In parallel:
Rated capacity of each cell:
At 25 Degrees: 100% of 2.6 Ah
At 45 degrees capacity is 95% of rated capacity. 0.95*2.6 = 2.47 Ah = = 2.4 Ah
Required Ah = 24 Ah
Thus, no of cells in parallel = 24/2.4 = 10 cells in parallel

Total cells employed:

16s-10p

160 cells

Total no of cells employed thus is a matrix of 16*10 cells = 160 Cells

5. Physical Parameters:
Weight: 160 cells * 47 gram per cell == 7.52 kg + packaging material weight

Thus, total Weight (Estimated) == 9Kg

Volume (Estimated) = 6.1 litres


6. Charging Specs (Estimated):

Standard Charging:

Full Charging: 130 Minutes. (2 Hours, 10 Minutes) 80% Charging: 100 Minutes. (1 Hour, 40 Minutes)
Charging current: (1.3*10) = 13 Ampere.

Charger output Voltage: (4.2*16) = 67.2

Super Charging:

Full Charging: 90 Minutes. (1 Hour, 30 Minutes)

80% Charging: 45 Minutes. Charging current: (2.6*10) = 26 Ampere.

Charger output Voltage: (4.2*16) = 67.2


Issues in prototyping vs product design

1) Availability of components :
One of the most pertinent issues in manufacturing is the availability of components in the relevant
quantity. Always the case maybe, that the components that you require is either not available in
either the quantities you require or within the specific time frame and the cost is invariably too high
in those quantities. We faced this issue is sourcing ICs, MOSFETs, Getting PCB printed, nickel strips

2) Availability of tools:
Tools to manufacture are readily not available when you are making prototype, and that lead to
imperfections in dimensions and overall design. Also the details of manufacturing have to be done
away with. For instance, in this battery pack we did not have a long length spot welder. That has
forced us to design a makeshift spot welder on our own, with not so perfect results. The image
below is a testament to that fact. Apart from it, non-availability of large 3-D printer to make the
casing made us switch to Aluminum casing. Which brings fitting issues because of imperfect
manufacturing.

3) Relevant skill in manufacturing:


We also lack the necessary skill when it comes to manufacturing the prototype, we are technologists
and designers, so we can design the PCB, write software codes to run the functions, design the
components and packaging to do a particular job, we do not have the skill set to populate the PCB, or
to shear aluminum sheets, to do spot welding, that has led to issues far difficult for us because we do
not harbor that skill set.
Test status :

Four cases studied on mode ( 2) and Load conditions (2)

1) Mode : sports ; Load : 150 ; Range = 38 kms ; trailing


off @ 32 km ; stalling speed : 13 kmph

#: In sports mode with a load of 150 km the vehicle


offers a range of 38 km. started trailing of @ 32 km
range.

2) Mode : sports ; Load : 70 ; Range = 50 kms; trailing


off @ 43 kms ; staling speed : 13 kmph ( gets deep
discharged )

3) Mode : Economy ; Load : 150 ; Range = 59 kms ;


trailing off @ 51 kms ; stalling speed : 17 kmph
4) Mode : Economy ; Load : 70 ; Range = 66 kms ;
trailing off @ 58 kms ; stalling speed : 17 kmph

5) Road conditions factor : 38 %


 The vehicle was tested using our pack on varable
road conditions.
 The same energy was able to derive 38% less gross
distance in terms of range for equivalent watt-
hours.
 During bad road conditions, the vehicle was losing
considerable kinetic energy to overcomes the
bumps and uneven road conditions. The constant
break of motion lead to not just the loss of energy
on the system but a very variable current load,
which is not the best condition for batteries.
 This Variation of 38% is considerable.
Day / night. : We have also observed a slight variation in
performance in the dinural cycle. The vehicle seems to
perform slightly better during the night. But that should
not have been the case. As the load cases of auxiliary
systems during the night are higher.
There has been no quantifiable validation for the same.
Tests are required to establish any specific conclusion.

6 ) Speedometer overclock ! by around 13 – 17%


1 km – 1.1 km ; 2 km – 2.3 km ; 3km – 3.4 km

Real range in four cases :


66*114/100 = 57.8 km. ( best case scenario )
The similar variation was reflected on the speed.
A speed of 47 kmph is actually 39.46 kmph.

59*114/100 = 51.7 km ( Eco – 150 )


A speed of 35 kmph is actually 30.69 kmph.
50*114/100 = 43.8 km ( Sport-70)
38*114/100 = 33.2 km (sport – 150)

7 ) Motor of the vehicle is under rated !


The motor during Peak power derive ( 31.5 ampere
continuous at 65 volts )
For first 4 secs in eco.
And continuous on sports.

2.016 kw in peak conditions ( continuous )


Rated for 0.8
Above 2.5 times the rated power extraction.
Generally BLDC rated up to : 1.8 times for pulses of 2
seconds.
800 watt of energy is employed as heat waste.
Awful for the battery
Awful for the motor !

BMS technical issues:


1) Ground plane noise. // unsolved
2) Current sense resistor shorting. // solved
3) Linear regulator (7812 & 7805) drawing excess
current ( leads to heating ) // need to design the
buck convertor and test.
4) Microcontroller ( automotive grade ). // component
issue.

Software :
1) The declaration of variable.
2) Controller Area Network, sequencing.
3) The Script for (dot)txt to dot(exl) in R or python

Pack issues :
The pack is getting heated, heat evacuation needs to be
channeled.
Log files attached.

Few logistic difficulties:


1) Hard to swap batteries every time. Takes around 1.5
hour.
2) Intermittent connections and data logging.