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National Institute of Technology Karnataka, Surathkal Department of Mathematical and Computational Sciences Calculus of Several Variables - MA110 Odd Semester 2018

Problem Sheet - 2 Functions of Several Variables

1. Show that the following functions are discontinuous at origin:

 (a) f (x, y) = (b) f (x, y) = (c) f (x, y) =

(x, y)

1

  0,

x 2 +y 2 ,

= (0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

x 4 y 4 x 4 +y

4 ,

0,

x 2 y 2 x 4 +y

0,

4 ,

(x, y)

=

(0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

(x, y)

=

(0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

2. Show that the following functions are continuous at origin:

 (a) f (x, y) = (b) f (x, y) =

x 2 y 2 x 2 +y

0,

x 3 y 3 x 2 +y

0,

2 ,

2 ,

(x, y)

= (0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

(x, y)

= (0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

3. Show that the following functions are discontinuous at (0, 0):

 (a) f (x, y) = (b) f (x, y) = (c) f (x, y) =

x

2

y

x 3

0,

+y 3 ,

x 3 +y 3

xy

0,

,

3

xy +y 6 ,

2

x

0,

(x, y)

= (0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

x

= y,

x = y.

(x, y)

=

(0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

4. Discuss the following functions for continuity at (0, 0) :

(a) f (x, y) =

x

2

y

x 3

0,

+y 3 ,

x 2 + y 2 = 0,

x = y = 0.

1

5.

6.

7.

8.

9.

10.

11.

 (b) f (x, y) = (c) f (x, y) =

2xy

0,

x 2 y 2 x 2 +y 2

,

(x, y)

(x, y)

= (0, 0),

= (0, 0).

0,

exp{|x 2y|/(x 2 4xy + 4y 2 )},

(x, y) = (2y, y),

(x, y)

= (2y, y).

Show that f has a removable discontinuity at (2, 3).

f (x, y) =

3xy,

6,

(x, y)

= (2, 3),

(x, y) = (2, 3).

Suitably redeﬁne the function f to make it continuous.

Show that the function f is continuous at the origin, where

f (x, y) =

x 3 y 3 x 2 +y 2

0,

,

(x, y)

= (0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

Can the given functions be appropriately deﬁned at (0, 0) in order to be continuous there?

(a)

(b)

f (x, y) = |x| y ,

f (x, y) = sin x y ,

(c)

(d)

f (x, y) =

f (x,

x 3 +y 3 x 2 +y 2 ,

y) = x 2 log (x 2 + y 2 ).

If f (x, y) = x 3 y + e xy 2 , ﬁnd f x and f y .

If f (x, y) = xy x 2 y 2 2 , when x 2 + y 2 = 0, and f (0, 0) = 0, show that

x 2 +y

f x (x, 0) = 0 = f y (0, y)

f x (0, y) = y, f y (x, 0) = x

If

If

f (x, y) =

f (x, y) =

x 2 yx

x+y

0,

x 3 +y 3

xy

0,

,

,

(x, y)

= (0, 0),

(x, y) = (0, 0).

, ﬁnd f x (0, 0) and f y (0, 0).

x

= y,

x = y

, show that the function is discontinuous at the origin but

possesses partial derivatives f x and f y at every point, including the origin.

12.

13.

If f (x, y) =

xy tan x ,

0,

(x, y)

= (0, 0),

y

(x, y) = (0, 0).

, show that

xf x + yf y = 2f.

Calculate f x , f y , f x (0, 0), f y (0, 0) for the following:

(a) f (x, y) =

x 3 y 3 x 2 +y 2

0,

,

= 0, y

x

= 0,

x = 0 = y.

2

(b)

f (x, y) =

  xy

x 2 + y 2 = 0,

x 2

+y 2 ,

  x 2 + y 2 = 0.

0,

14. Show that the function

f (x, y) =

x

2

y

x 4

0,

+y 2 ,

x 2 + y 2 = 0,

(x, y) = (0, 0).

, possesses ﬁrst partial derivatives everywhere, includ-

ing the origin, but the function is discontinuous at the origin.

15. If f (x, y) = |xy|, ﬁnd f x (0, 0) and f y (0, 0).

16. Verify that f xy = f yx for the following functions:

(a)

(b)

2xy

x+y ,

x tan xy,

 (c) cosh (y + cos x), (d) x y .

indicating possible exceptional points and investigate these points.

17. Show that z = log{(x a) 2 + (y b) 2 }, satisﬁes

18. Show that z = x cos x + tan x , satisﬁes x 2 z xx + 2xyz xy + y 2 z yy = 0, except at points for

2 z ∂x

2

+

2 z ∂y 2

= 0, except at (a, b).

y

y

which x = 0.

19. Prove that f xy = f yx at the origin for the function: f (x, y) =

  x 2 tan 1 x y 2 tan 1 x ,

0,

y

elsewhere.

y

= 0, y

x

= 0,

20. If f (x, y, z) =

+

21. Examine for the change in the order of derivation at the origin for the functions:

(x 2 +y 2 +z 2 ) , show that

2 f ∂z 2

= 0

1

2 f ∂x 2

2 f ∂y 2

+

(a)

(b)

(c)

f (x, y) = e x (cos y + x sin y).

f (x, y) = x 2 + y 2 sin 2φ., where f (0, 0) = 0 and φ = tan 1 x y .

f (x, y) = |x 2 y 2 |.

22. Examine the equality of f xy (0, 0) and f yx (0, 0) for the function: f (x, y) = (x 2 +y 2 ) tan 1 x ,

y

0, f (0, y) = πy 2

2

.

x

=

23. Given u = e x cos y + e y sin z, ﬁnd all ﬁrst partial derivatives and verify that

2 u ∂x∂y =

2

∂y∂x ;

u

2 u ∂x∂z =

2

∂z∂x ;

u

2 u ∂y∂z =

2 u ∂z∂y .

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