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Table of Contents

I.OBJECTIVE
II.SCOPE
III.INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY TRAINING MANUAL FOR SUPERVISORS
i. Overview
ii. Timeline
iii. Training concept
IV.IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY TRAINING MANUAL
V.TRAINING METHODOLOGY
VI.MODE OF TRAINING
VII.TRAINING COURSE CONTENT
i.Roles & responsibilities of Supervisors in Quality
ii.Roles & responsibilities of Quality related Personnel
iii.Equipment requirements for Quality
iv.Operation based training
 Module 1: Pre- Production (Supervise in cutting)
 Module 2: Production (Supervise in manufacturing)
 Module 3: Post- Production (Supervise finishing and pressing)
 Module 4: Supervise and monitor quality

v.Defect analysis training


 Module 5: Pre- Production
5.1 Fabric in- house inspection
5.2 Spreading
5.3 Cutting
 Module 6: Production
 Module 7: Post- Production
vi.Maintenance requirements for Quality in Production

VIII.TRAINING ASSESSMENT & TESTS


i. Training exercises
ii. Training assessment tests

IX.TRAINING OUTCOME
i. KPI Mapping

I. OBJECTIVE
The objectives of the quality training module for supervisors are:

 Acquire the operating skill and knowledge of Stitching Machine for industrial stitching
along with minor maintenance of machine.
 Qualitative production of the garments and ensure quality training in each and every
aspects
 Produce skilled supervisor for garment Industry in the field of garment manufacturing.
 Improve the level of skill of supervisory staff in industry and increase the economic
potential of the country.
 Provide industry with workers whose scope with job knowledge and skills are identified.
 Assist in human resources development by providing precise and assessed country’s
skilled manpower quantitatively as well as qualitatively.
 Provide technical and vocational training which reflects the requirements of industry.
 Defect training in terms of identification, isolation and rectification thus imparting quality.
 Assessment of different kind of production processes and various quality issues prevalent
in them.

II. SCOPE

 Aligning individual performance expectations with organizational goals.


 Developing performance goals collaboratively with their direct reports.
 Ensuring that performance goals are clearly communicated and current.
 Providing fair, constructive, and timely feedback towards performance expectations and
goals.
 Providing assistance, guidance, and coaching support as needed.
 Ensuring that staff has professional development plans in place.
 Conducting performance evaluations according to established systems and policies.

III. INTRODUCTION OF QUALITY TRAINING MANUAL OF SUPERVISORS

The quality training manual consists of modules which are a combination of training
activities focusing on the aspect of quality through visual mode of training through mediums
such as power point presentations, images and cue cards, having duration of 15- days.

i. Overview
The training module has been designed on the basis of the basic requirements which benefits
quality as well as overall skills of a supervisor. The following are the major activities on
which the training module is based upon:
(a) Identification of Needs
(b) Design Training
(c) Implementation of the training
(d) Evaluation of the training
(e) Feedback
The Training Model

ii. Timeline

iii. Training concept


The training concept is based on the key competencies which are to be required in a
production supervisor in order to achieve quality and efficient production. This framework of
the competencies focuses more on the quality side of the production process as it involves
functional analysis which tells about the key roles, key functions, and unit of competence, on
the basis of which the training program is designed. The implementation is followed by
evaluation in which mapping of the supervisor performance will be done on the basis of KPIs
which will be the outcome of the training.
IV. IMPORTANCE OF QUALITY TRAINING MANUAL

It helps supervisor to achieve the following:

 To understand and resolve the levels of delay, mistakes, or defects.


 To do continually improvement in the processes.
 To focus supervision efforts on helping employees do a better job.
 To empower through two way communication: listen to employees.
 To eliminate barriers among departments: close relationship.
 To provide on-going education and training: in quality, productivity, and competitiveness.
 Helps supervisor emphasize quality.
 To make the quality commitment visual: displays of good and poor quality.
 To make sure that all employees understand the expectations.
 To personally conduct periodic inspections.
 To take the necessary action to correct problems or defects immediately.
 Helps the supervisor to make sure all employees are aware of their role in quality
improvement.
V. TRAINING METHODOLOGY

The design of training programs covers the planning and creation of training and development
programs. Instructional systems design includes the systematic design and development of
instructional methods and materials to facilitate the process of training and development and
ensure that training programs are necessary, valid, and effective. Although the instructional
design process can take on variety of sequences, the process must include the collection of data on
the tasks or skills to be learned or improved, the analysis of these skills and tasks, the development
of methods and materials, delivery of the program, and finally the evaluation of the training's
effectiveness.

Selection of areas to be covered for development of Training Module

Standardisation of contents based on the parameters

Development of training module

Implementation of the module

Impact assessment of training module

VI. MODE OF TRAINING


The mode of training will be through “Visual demonstration”.
The learning (theoretical) aspect will involve presentations, videos, image displays such as
cue cards and brochures.
The practical aspect will consist of the visual demonstration of threading mechanisms,
operations, and practise sessions for the same.

VII. TRAINING COURSE CONTENT


i. Roles & responsibilities of Supervisors in Quality

ii. Roles & responsibilities of Quality related Personnel


Job role of In-line quality checker:
 Responsible for doing inline inspections on all operations / operators in a day.

 Responsible for generating all reports relating to inline inspection.

 Responsible for ensuring that during inline inspection standard quality specifications for each
operation are being met at all the operation points.

 Responsible for communicating any quality discrepancy during inline inspection to the Quality
Assurance Head and bringing the same to the immediate notice of the Line In charge.

 While Checking the Cut Parts of the garment should be properly maintain with the bundle number.
If any basket is available the cut parts should be put in the basket and put forward. Make sure if any
parts doesn’t fall apart or get soiled. Keep your hand clean or Wear the gloves.

Job Role of quality assurance personnel:

The duties of quality assurance personnel in the garment industry will typically include:

 determining, negotiating and agreeing on in-house quality procedures, standards and


specifications
 assessing customer requirements and ensuring that these are met
 setting customer service standards
 specifying quality requirements of raw materials with suppliers
 investigating and setting standards for quality and health and safety
 ensuring that manufacturing processes comply with standards at both national and international
level
 working with operating staff to establish procedures, standards, systems and procedures
 writing management and technical reports and customers’ charters
 determining training needs
 acting as a catalyst for change and improvement in performance and quality
 directing objectives to maximise profitability
 recording, analysing and distributing statistical information
 monitoring performance
 Supervising technical or laboratory staff.

iii. Equipment requirements for Quality

To control quality of garments checking should be done:


 Fabric

 Sewing thread

 Button

 Stitch

 Zipper

 Cut panels

 Assembly

 Garment Size etc., according to the required standards and specification.

iv. Factors

1. Needle Selection

Tip Symbol Shape of the needle Shape Application and


point tip of feature
Sharp and Spi point Light -weight fabrics, light-
slim type weight leather
point
Regular R General fabrics Mainly for
type
point button Slim shape and J
sewing
point attip, for high gauge
needle
Butt type But knit
point
S
Slim point
J ball point J For general knit, suitable for
standard material as well
B ball point B
U ball point U For relatively coarse knit,
ball is Ø 1/3 trunk For
Y ball point Y elastic materials ball is Ø ½
Flat tip LL 45°
of trunktwisted type knife
shape LR needle
mainly for leather goods
45°
reversely twisted type
knife needle mainly for
leather goods

Selection of needles
When we select the needle for a specific fabric, we have to decide on two things,
Needle thickness
Point shape

Choice of Needle Thickness

We sew some rough cloth using different needles and check the seams. If the
needle is not right, we can see the damage to the cloth by pulling it slightly.

2. Thread
Suitable filament
Needle Suitable spun thread Cloth material
thread
Glossy silk, synthetic
No.5 No.120 No.100 ultra-light weight
cloth (satin etc.)
Glossy silk, synthetic
light weight cloth
No.7 to No.8 No.100 No.80 to No.100
(satin, crepe de chine
etc.)
Light weight silk,
satin, crepe de chine,
No.9 to No.10 No.80 No.60 to No.80 georgette, voile, knit
20G to 26G
(single/double)
Light- weight calico,
broadcloth, light-
No.11 to No.12 No.60 No.50 to No.60 weight wool,
knit/double 16G to
20G
Normal broadcloth,
No.13 to No.14 No.40 to No.50 No.50 wool cloth, general
fabric
General heavy-
weight fabric(
No.16 No.30 to No.40 No.40
overcoat etc.) water-
proof cloth
Bed- clothes, bags,
No.18 No.20 to No.30 No.20 to No.30
vinyl shoes
No.19 No.10 to No.20 No.10 to No.20 Leather shoes, sheets
No.20 to No.21 No.10 No.8 to No.10 Leather shoes, tents
Extra heavy weight
No.23 to No.24 No.8 No.8
materials, tent, sheets

v. Operation based training

 Module 1: Pre- Production (Supervise in cutting)


Aim: This module develops competency to get acquaintance and understanding of cutting and
technical knowledge of cutting.
Learning units:

(a) Cutting plan as per customer orders and size wise

(b) Arrange fabric from store

(c) Arrange pattern

(d) Layer as per plan

(e) Cutting as per pattern

(f) Numbering and bundling

(g) Issuance of raw cutting to stitching

(h) Develop reports

(i) Consumption control

(j) Balance fabric to store

(k) Develop Monthly reports

 Module 2: Production (Supervise in production)

Aim: This module develops competency to get acquaintance with the production process of
garment and understanding of technical garment knowledge.
Learning units:

(a) Arrangement of Approved samples

(b) Arrangement of trim cards

(c) Arrangement of accessories

(d) Arrangement of raw cuttings from cutting


Instruct to Set the machine layout as per garment
(e) operation

(f) Balance of the line

(g) Check each operation as per approved sample

(h) Set the target of each operation


(i) Achieve the target

(j) Manage alteration if required

(k) Measurement specs of garments as per customer requirements

(l) Colour combination of garments

 Module 3: Post- Production (Supervise finishing and pressing)

Aim: This module develops competency to get acquaintance with finishing and pressing
processes.

Learning units:

(a) Trimming of access thread

(b) Button attaching

(c) Label attaching

(d) Instruct eyelet / button hole


Instruct to Set the machine layout as per garment
(e) operation

(f) Manage alteration of the garment

(g) Manage pressing and folding

 Module 4: Supervise and monitor quality

Aim: This module develops competency to get acquaintance with the quality of product.
Learning units:

(a) Gauge setting at the machine for proper allowance

(b) SPI setting as per customer requirements

(c) Measurement on each operation

(d) Manage to avoid colour shading

(e) Supervise and coordinate inspection

(f) Attachment of QC passed sticker


vi. Defect Analysis training

 Module 5: Pre –Production

5.1 Fabric In House Inspection

Process - Fabric rolls are opened and passed through a fabric checking machine having the light
under the fabric and the fabric checker does the visual inspection of the fabric. While checking
fabric checker marks the defects with a chalk or put a sticker on the defects.
At the end of the checking, a fabric roll inspection report is made for that fabric roll.

Objective- To deliver quality fabric to the garment makers and to make quality garments. To
avoid processing defective fabric in production, as a preventive action, fabric rolls are inspected.
This way defective and damaged fabric can be separated and sent back to the fabric suppliers.

Learning Learning Learning Duration Material Learning


Unit Outcome Elements - hours Required place
Arranging Understand Knowledge of 1 hour Fabric roll, Workplace/
the fabric roll correct placing importance of inspection Workshop
on machine of roll so that correct placing machine,
movement of of material for correct lighting
fabric is smooth correct and easy
and unhindered movement
Inspection knowledge of 4-point system / 6 hours Fabric roll, Workshop/
Method the method 10 point system/ defect library, workplace
being used for random notebook,
inspection and sampling pen
being able to
grade the quality
of the fabric
Inspection Learning to Knowledge of 14 hours Fabric roll, Workshop/
Process recognize fast defects and theory required workplace
various defects how to mark and lighting,
and mark them them practical marker/chalk,
into categories defect library to
show examples

5.2 Spreading

Process - It is pre preparatory process of cutting fabric. Fabric spreading is done after marker
making. Fabric spreading is an important part of a garments construction to cut the fabric and
sewing properly and proper shape. Maintaining quality in fabric spreading is an important factor.

Objective – To carry out the spreading process in ways which should not affect the quality while
spreading the fabric?
Defect Description Cause Remedy
Crack A crack seen along the  Differences in warp  Avoid uneven
between length of the fabric between release due to uneven build of beam
stripes the stripes woven with beam surface. surface by proper
different weaves. system of denting
 Differences in crimp
relationship of ends at the sizing
grouped in separate machine.
dents in the reed and  Ensure that
in weaves. denting at weaving
is such that ends of
the two weaves are
not separated by a
reed dent.

Double More than one end working Sticky ends on  Take


End in a heald eye without the weavers beam precautionary
adjacent end missing. measures during
 Wrong drawing-in of
ends through heald sizing.
eyes.  Bring the defect to
the notice of the
drawing-in
operator.
 Instruct weavers
and supervisors to
periodically check
fabric to remove
double ends.

Float  Knots with long tail ends  Attend to broken  Ensure cleanliness
leading to entanglement ends without delay of loom.
of ends. on looms equipped  Take maximum
 Fluff with long tail ends with warp stop possible care while
leading to entanglement motion; ensure blowing the looms.
of ends. proper functioning of
 Use screens to
the same.
 Fluff or foreign matter avoid fluff flying
trapped in the shed.  Avoid long tail ends to adjacent looms.
in knots in weaving
 Broken heald unable to  Inspect the healds
preparatory and
lift or lower the thread. for wear before
weaving.
putting on a new
beam.
 Ensure proper
selection of drop
pins.
Misdraws Incorrect positions of ends  Faulty drawing-in of  Bring the defect to
in the fabric causing beam. the notice of the
considerable damage in drawing-in
 Faulty drawing-in of
fabrics with woven design operator.
broken ends by the
or stripes.
weaver.  Ensure periodic
inspection of the
fabric on loom by
the supervisory
stuff.

Missing Void caused by a missing  Failure of weaver in  Instruct the weaver


End warp thread in the fabric. attending to warp to attend to warp
breaks immediately. breaks
 Warp stop motion immediately.
not acting properly.  Discourage the
weaver’s habit of
waiting for the
broken end on the
beam to advance
sufficiently for
knotting.
 Inspect the drop
pins while putting
on a new beam
and weed out the
defective ones.
 Check the warp
stop motion
assembly.

Reedy Fine cracks appearing  Excessive warp  Adjust the warp


fabric across the fabric between tension. tension.
groups of warp ends,
 Late shed timing  Resort to early
matching with the pattern of
leading to lack of shed timing.
denting in the reed.
proper tension at  Raise the back-rest
beat-up. 12-24 mm above
 Insufficient toughing the front-rest level.
of shade.

Stitches Individual warp thread  Soft sized beam.  Ensure proper


floating over a group of sizing.
 Inadequate amount of
weft threads. Defect is more
antistatic agent in the  Ensure proper size
prominent in synthetic
size recipe. recipe.
blended warps due to static
electricity generation and  Improper tensioning  Prefer slightly
hairiness of these yarns. of warp. higher tension on
warp.
 If necessary,
introduce lease
rods between the
healds and the
drop pins.

Thick end A warp end having diameter Excessive count  Avoid it.
larger than normal. variation.  Conduct frequent
 Accidental mixed-up checks to avoid
of counts in winding mix-up of counts.
and warping.  Inspect the thrums
 Piecing up of broken provided on the
end with a wrong loom.
thread during
weaving.

Warp Stripes running in warp way Mix-up of yarns of  Improve the


streaks direction characterized by different luster, count quality of warp
apparent differences in or blend proportion. since normal
shade from the adjoining control exercised
 Faulty drawing-in
portions, arising mainly as a on count variation
ends, e.g. double
result of variation in the proves inadequate
ends, missing ends
amount of light transmitted to prevent
etc.
and reflected from groups of streakiness.
threads.  Variations in package
and beam dyeing.  Check the
condition of reed.
 Use all metal reeds
which give better
results compared
to pitch-bound
reeds.

Broken Restricted to fabric woven  Improper adjustment  Check and adjust


Pattern with patterns on drop box of pattern cards or the pattern cards or
looms. It occurs either when lattices. lattices at the start
the sequence of weft colours of beam.
 Weaver neglecting to
to be put is disturbed or
adjust the pattern  Make the weaver’s
when the width of colour
chain before quality conscious.
band is affected.
restarting the loom  Resort to pick
after mending a finding prior to
break or a crack. restarting the
loom.

Broken  Weft is inserted only for  Weft break or weft  Check the shuttle
pick a portion of a pick. exhaustion on for loose fitting of
ordinary looms. pirn or roughness
 Weft break or of surfaces as
improper size of these cause more
bunch on auto-pirns. weft breaks.
 Improper functioning  Check also the
of weft fork. shuttle boxes for
 Weft change effected settings and
through weft fork surface condition
mechanism on to prevent cutting
automatic looms. of weft.
 Check the shuttle
and shuttle boxes.
 Ensure proper size
of bunch on auto-
pirns.

Cut Weft A defect generally randomly  Improper condition  Check the emery
distributed over the fabric, or quality of emery roller covering.
not clearly visible in the roller covering.  Ensure proper
grey stage, but becomes
 Viscose yarn from check on the
pronounced in the finished
old lot or of lower quality of blended
fabric.
strength is used. yarn.

Double Two or more picks inserted Failure of the weaver  Resort to pick
Pick in the same shed where only to find out the correct finding while
one is desired. shed when restarting restarting.
an ordinary loom.  Effect the pirn
 Pirn change when change with weft
affected by weft fork feeler mechanism.
on automatic loom.

Gout Foreign matters like lint or  Indiscriminate  Ensure cleanliness


waste or pieces of harness throwing of waste by of machines and
strapping and leather weavers. surroundings in
accessories woven into the the loom shed.
 Foreign matter
fabric.
getting into the shed  Keep frequent
during weaving. check on harness
strappings and
leather accessories
for undue wear
and replace them,
if necessary.

Sloughing Thick bunches of yarn are  Improper package  Employ correct


off woven into the fabric in the characteristics. package
weft direction due to characteristics in
 Softly wound pirns.
slipping off of coils of yarn pirn winding.
from the pirn during  Harsh picking and/or
poor shuttle  Ensure proper yarn
weaving.
checking. tension during pirn
winding in the
 Poor humidity
conditions during the case of rewound
storage of pirns. weft and in
spinning in the
case of direct weft.
 Check the picking
and checking
mechanisms.
 Condition the weft
before putting it on
loom.

5.3Cutting

Process - cut out the pattern pieces from specified fabric for making garments. Using the markers
made from graded patterns and in accordance with the issue plan, fabrics are cut to
prepare garment assembly.

Objective – To carry out the cutting process in ways which should not affect the quality of cut
pieces?

Learning Unit Learning Learning Duratio Material Learning


Outcome Elements n Required place
- hours
Cutting Process Understanding Knowledge of 12 Reading Workshop/
the whole process as a hours material, Work place
process of whole process
cutting and how definition
it is done.

Machine Learning about Technical 18 Machine and Workshop/


knowledge the equipment machine hours equipment’s, Workplace
used knowledge, fabric,
technically, its correct reading
application and application of material,
ensuring safety the machine on machine
various kinds of manual if
fabric required
Fabric To understand Physical 60 Reading Workshop/
Knowledge the different properties of hours material, Workplace
physical fabric, fabric sample,
properties of effect of machine,
fabric and know cutting, notebook,
how it will be pen,
affected in the defect sample
cutting process
Cutting plan as Understand Knowledge of 6 hours Computer, Workshop/
per customer cutting ratio and the importance Paper, workplace
orders and size preparation of of how cutting Cutting
wise cutting plan as plan and cutting machine,
per customer ratio as per Table fabric ,
orders, customer Pattern,
Able to handle orders, Chalk,
cutting Ability to Size wise,
effectively manage cutting, production
ratio wise and order
colour wise as
per plan
Layer asper Understand Knowledge of 6 hours Computer, Workshop/
plan Layering of cutting plan, Paper , Workplace
fabric and mini mini marker, Cutting
marker, consumption of machine,
Able to fix the fabric and Table fabric,
layer length as fixing marker, Pattern,
per marker Ability to Chalk
length, understand
Able to fix cutting plan,
number of mini markers,
layers Able to fabric
control fabric consumption
consumption etc.
Develop reports Understand the Knowledge of 6 hours Paper, Workshop/
importance of recording of Pen Workplace
recording the quality updates
information for
smooth
production
outputs

 Module 6: Production
 Aim: This module develops competency to get acquaintance with the quality of product.
 Learning units:

(a) Open Seam

(b) Arrangement of trim cards

(c) Arrangement of accessories

(d) Arrangement of raw cuttings from cutting


Instruct to Set the machine layout as per garment
(e) operation
(f) Balance of the line

(g) Check each operation as per approved sample

(h) Set the target of each operation

(i) Achieve the target

(j) Manage alteration if required

(k) Measurement specs of garments as per customer requirements

(l) Colour combination of garments

OPEN SEAM

Provided solutions:

Causes Solutions

Open seam of piping As the operator was not skilled for that

operation was suggested that send in training

and new skilled operator from training was

kept.
Placement of the panel A well skilled operator of that operation

showed the handling of the garment and how

to place the garment; a video can be created

for further use.

Lack of skill Worker sent into training department

Faulty fee dog Feed dog and hook set timing should be

checked periodically

TWISTED ALLOWANCE

Provided solution:

Causes Solutions

In order to produce more, garment tampered Incentives were suggested for morale

boosting of the worker


BROKEN STITCH

Provided solution:

Causes Solutions

Fabric holding too tight Before the style starts concerned person will

be shown the fabric handling technique to the

Operator

Thread getting stuck in machine Machine should be checked by maintenance

department before the style starts as informed

by line supervisor

Tension high Tension and threading should not be fiddled

much

Incorrect needle eye position Needle alignment should be right and

checked before operator starts stitching

Needle-thread-fabric combination should be

well judged
LOOSE/SKIP STITCH

Provided solution:

Causes Solutions

Handling issues Operator should be shown the way garment

is been handles

Needle worn out New needle has to be replaced and forte keep

on checking if any needle issue

PIPING WAVY
Provided solution:

Causes Solutions

Width of piping improper This was informed in cutting department

about the width issue in fabric. Hence

forward checking the measure and then

putting it in the line

Folder used not proper As the folder was slightly tilted new folder
was need to be attached

Tension, SPI and presser foot pressure should

not be fiddled with much

Faulty feed dog Feed dog should be checked periodically

PUCKERING

Provided solution:

Causes Solutions

Twisted tread used Normal twist thread were told to use


Both ply’s not similar Lot has to stopped there and both ply’s

coming from cutting department are

checked
UBT/trimmer should be used instead of

pulling and breaking thread

Rusty eyelids and thread Feed dog, eyelets and thread guides
guides
should be checked periodically for

damages
Needle-thread-fabric combination should

be well judged

Operator training

 Module 7: Post- Production

Finishing

Process - Finishing defects is very important issue for the buyers. Generally defects signify
lack of quality. During apparel manufacturing process various types of defects occur in
garments like faulty zippers, irregular hemming, loose buttons, raw edges, improper button
holes, uneven parts, inappropriate trimming, and difference in fabric colours.

Objective – To carry out the finishing process properly such that the quality will be followed
in the last step of the production process

Defect Description Cause Remedy


Different Seams appear  It arises due  After cutting the
shades in same to be lighter to improper garment parts must be kept in
garment or darker cutting, bundling proper bundle with number.
than the other and numbering.  One batch fabric shade
seams  Uneven to is used for same garment in
surrounding batch missing every part.
it. shade. Shade is marking each part due
 Different to fabric cutting.
Batch mixing for
same garment.
Hole Broken holes  Holes can  Better inspection of
in the fabric come from fabric fabric and cut piece.
where you or it could be  Use a fabric fault
are able to caused by the detector.
see through production side,  Air humidification
the fabric to either by  Use of yarn having
the other improper lower hairiness.
side. trimming or
broken needle
puncturing the
fabric.
 Very stiff &
dry yarn
 Fluff
 Improper
cleaning

Seam Seam This problem arises  Feed dog, eyelets and


Puckering puckering due to uneven thread guides should be
refers to the stretching on to plies checked periodically for
gathering of a of fabric during damages
seam either sewing , improper  Machine feed
just after thread tension , wrong mechanism must be better
sewing or sewing thread quality
after selection ,  Operator training
laundering dimensional instability  Tension, SPI and presser
causing an of the plies of fabric foot pressure should not be
unacceptable etc. fiddled with much
seam  UBT/trimmer should be
appearance. used instead of pulling and
breaking thread
 Needle-thread-fabric
combination should be well
judged

Open Seam or Portion of the  This


Broken Seam garment that happens due to  Pattern needs to be
has not been improper handling correct
covered by of the parts of  Clear markings for stitch
sewing garments, line
thread. improper setting  Good quality or D-core
and timing thread should be used
between needle Proper setting and timing
and looper or
hook etc.
Broken Stitch Non  It appears  Needle plate, presser
continuous due to improper foot and feed dog should be
thread trimming or checked periodically for
machine usage. damages
  Proper machine usage
 Tension and threading
should not be fiddled with
much
 Washing parameters
should be strictly followed

Drop Stitch Irregular  It appears  Examine the setting and


stitch due to improper timing between needle and
along the handling of cut hook or looped.
seam pieces or machine  Placing of needle
usage. properly.
  The tension of thread
should be adjusted.

Uncut Lose Extra thread  It appears


Thread or loose due to improper  UBT/thread trimmer
thread on trimming or should be used
seam line. finishing.  Operator training
 Garments finishing
should be checked properly.

Seams not Seams are  Defects  When these defects


aligned at not lined up generally come starts to appear at close to 2%
crossing of at about either from or 5 pieces, the production
seams: intersection improper handling must be informed and the
of seams. of the cut piece. operator must re-trained in the
proper usage of the machine.

Distorted  App  These  Better inspection of


Knitting ears due defects can be fabric and cut piece. Ensure
to poor identified by that fabric and cut pieces that
knitting looking at the are not up to standard are not
surface area; they put into line and production is
usually appear as wasted. Replace not standard
irregular on the cut pieces with usable ones
fabric. before input.
Cue cards:

VIII. TRAINING ASSESSMENT & TESTS

i. Training exercises
Step 1:
Approx. Duration:
Theory:
1. General idea of other departments in the factory.
2. Different types of Sewing Machines
3. Sewing Machine and its parts.
4. Threading sequence for different types of Sewing Machines (S/N,O/L,D/N,F/L,FOA)

Step 2:
Approx. Duration:
Practical

1. Treadle movement, Treadle Control PART-I


a. Running the machine at high Speed
b. Running the machine at low Speed
c. Running the machine at very low speed,
d. Needle up & Needle down.
e. Full speed & stop at stop points.
f. Roughing exercises. Theory

2. Different kinds of Stitches.

3. Different kinds of Fabric, and its general use.

4. Different kinds of Needles, Threads and their use.

5. Stitches per Inch (SPI) & Stitches per Cms (SPC) and adjustments.

Step 3:
Approx. Duration: 3 Days

Theory
Adjusting Sewing conditions - SPI, Thread tension, Presser Foot, Feed dog etc.
Needle change, Tension adjustment.
Selection of Needle, Thread and SPI for given Fabric.
Folders, Attachments and their use.
Importance of Daily Machine Cleaning and Preventive Maintenance check-up.

Practical
Treadle movement, Treadle Control PART-II
Fabric Exercises (Single ply) with threaded machine.
1. Straight line (single ply)
2. Square (single ply)
3. Triangle (single ply)
4. Curve. (Single ply)
5. Circle or oval shape (single ply)
6. Zigzag Exercises.
Step 4:
Approx. Duration:
Practical

Exercises to improve handling & increase M/c time


1. Long burst practice on waste fabric
2. Practice of Run stitch, Edge stitch, pointed stitch, Precision Start & Stop & various
other sewing exercises.
3. Two ply attaching by Run stitch, Turn & stitch pointed or edge (kinari).
Theory
Structure and Principle of Assembly of Cloths.
Sewing Defects, Cause and Effect diagram, Trouble shooting.
Importance of “Alignment” while stitching and its importance to Quality.
Quality Requirement, Quality Control and Reliability.
Work place Layout & Principles of Motion economy:
In this Session we particular train operators on better handling techniques, arranging
their work place according to the sequence of motion to reduce handling & increase
machine time.

Step 5:
Approx Duration:

Practical
1. Practical Exercise - To consolidate all the above steps.

2. Common Operations in Garmenting of Different Styles


a. Collar operation (collar run stitch, collar top or edge or pointed stitch)
b. Sleeve operations (placket attach by using folder)
c. Hemming Operations

3. Quality Exercises
Objective: To make more Quality awareness to all trainees by showing & explaining the
different types of defects showing in the readymade board. Here we should make job
cards showing correct method (it shows good quality) & wrong method of sewing (it
shows defects).

Step 6:
Released to Production Line & Follow up

Once the training instructor has been satisfied about trainee performance during training,
then he /she can been released into the production line using Trainee Operator Release
Slip.
While releasing the operator to production line, performance report of the operator
during training, detailing the skill level, the recommendation of the instructor & the
strength & weakness of the operator is given to IE team for their reference.
Newly trained operators have to be constantly monitored by the Training instructor
seeking the help of the work analyst & Online training instructor in the line and the
industrial engineer of the factory.

ii. Training assessment tests


The following are the assessment tests on the basis of which supervisor skills can be
evaluated:
 Peg board tests
 Pin board test
 Ball &tube test
 Visual Accuracy test
 Colour Perception test

Objective: Assessment of Basic Skills for making successful Sewing Operators

These tests are very important for assessment of basic Skills such as Manual dexterity
(Speed of Hand Movements), Finger Dexterity (Speed of hand movements), and Hand
Eye Co-ordination & Sewing tests (Only for experienced operator, these basic skills are
very Important for making successful Sewing Operators).

1. PEG BOARD DEXTERITY TESTS:

A. Peg Board Dexterity Test A (PBDA):


In this test, we can assess the ability of applicant’s Hand & Arm movements, Two Hand
Co-ordination

Apparatus Required: Peg Board, Metal pegs (120), Stopwatch


Grade: 1to 5 (Grade 5(75 sec); Grade 4(76-80 Sec); Grade3 (81- 86Sec); Grade
2(8790sec) Grade1 (Above 90 sec).
Target: 75 seconds
Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest

B. Peg Board Dexterity Test B (PBDB):


In this test we can assess the ability of finger movements, & two hand Co-Ordination.

Apparatus Required: Peg Board, Metal pegs (120) one end painted red, & Stopwatch
Grade: 1to5 (Grade 5(82 sec); Grade 4(83-90 Sec); Grade3 (91-100Sec); Grade2 (101-
105 sec); Grade1 (Above 105 sec)
Target: 82 seconds
Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest

2. PIN BOARD TEST (PBT):


In these tests, we can tests the ability to do the fine work with the fingers. It tests the
ability to make rapid finger movements, neatly, accurately & sensitivity.

Apparatus Required: Standard Pin board, 135 pins, & Stopwatch,


Target: 90 seconds
Test: Right Hand & Left Hand
Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest

3. BALL & TUBE TESTS (BTT):


In this test, we can measure the main manual Co-ordination together with the Finger
dexterity

Apparatus Required: Ball tube Stand & Boxes with one lid, 25 balls & Stopwatch
Target: 25 Seconds
Test: Right Hand & Left Hand

4. VISUAL ACCURACY TEST (VAT):


In this test, we can measure the visual Accuracy & Speed

Apparatus Required: Visual forms, pencils, & Stopwatch.


Target: 48 Seconds
Grade: 1to5 (Grade 5(17-20); Grade 4(13-16); Grade3 (10-12); Grade 2(7-9);
Grade1(less than 7))
Note: 1 Being Least & 5 Being Highest

5. COLOUR PERCEPTION TEST (CPT):

This test is conducted to analyse the colour sensitivity of the operator. In this test
operators are asked to differentiate and rank different shades of the same colour in
Ascending Order. We also can give them some cones of thread of different colours and
blocks of same or nearly same colours and asked to match the thread to the block of
colours.

After passing of above tests by trainees, then only they are eligible for to entering the
training department

Resources Required:
Sewing Machines
Single Needle Lock Stitch – 10 No’s
Double Needle Lock Stitch – 1 No
Over Lock Machine – 3Thd – 1 No
Over Lock Machine – 5Thd – 1 No
Flat Lock Machine – 3Thd - 1 No
Manpower – Sewing Instructor – 1 Person
Continuous Availability of Fabric, Thread & Needle for Sewing Training
Cupboard of Documentation – 1 No
Soft Board – 4X4 – 1 No
While Board – 4X4 – 1 No
Duster - 1, White Board Marker – 4, Permanent Marker – 1, Measuring Tape – 5
Stop Clock – 2 No’s
Peg Boards – 1 No & Metal Pegs – 120 No’s
Pin Board – 1 No & Pins – 135 No’s
Ball & Tube Stand – 1 No & Marble Balls – 25 No’s

IX. TRAINING OUTCOME


ii. KPI Mapping