Sei sulla pagina 1di 6

International Journal of Trend in Scientific

Research and Development (IJTSRD)

International Open Access Journal
ISSN No: 2456 - 6470 | | Volume - 2 | Issue – 4

Performance Improvement Analysis and

Simulation of Solar PV/T Water Collector

Amarnath. K1, Dr. Gopal. P1, Sridharan. M1, Dr. T. Senthil Kumar2
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Engineering, University College of Engineering,
BIT Campus, Tiruchirappalii, Tamil Nadu, India
Dean, University College of Engineering, BIT Campus, Anna University,
rsity, Trichy, Tamil Nadu, India


The objective of this paper is to review the collection 1. INTRODUCTION

of literature available on the Photo Voltaic and
Thermal Solar Collector. The review paper is Photovoltaic thermal hybrid solar collectors,
presented to show the comparison of findings sometimes known as hybrid PV/T systems or PVT,
obtained by various research works. In solar collector, are systems that convert solar
the solar
olar energy from the sun is converted in to radiation into thermal and electrical energy. These
electrical energy by means of Photo Voltaic panel and systems combine a solar cell, which converts sunlight
thermal energy by converting cold water into hot into electricity, with a solar
olar thermal collector, which
water. Nowadays, solar collector is preferred in many captures the remaining energy and removes waste
industries and house hold applications to reduce the heat from the PV module and thus be more overall
mand of electricity by increasing the effective energy efficient than solar photovoltaic (PV) or solar
utilization of solar energy coming from the sun. The thermal alone.[1] A significant amount of research has
selection of collector design plays vital role in the gone into developing g PVT technology since the
development of heat energy and electrical energy. The 1970s.[2] Photovoltaic cells suffer from a drop in
input process parameters such as type of colleccollector, efficiency with the rise in temperature due to
time, mass flow rate, flow direction, flow pattern and increased resistance. Such systems can be engineered
size of the flow tube are normally considered for the to carry heat away from the PV cells thereby cooling
research work and the output responses like thermal the cells and thus improving ing their efficiency by
efficiency and electrical efficiency are appraised by lowering resistance.
using the Photo Voltaic Thermal Hybr Hybrid Solar 2. PV/T collector types
Collector. Normally experiments are to be conducted
based on the recommendation by the Traditional and PV/T collectors can be flat plate or concentrating and
Traditional techniques. The output efficiency of are classified according to the type of the working
the solar collector is purely based on the selection of fluid used water or air).
input process parameters. Based on the literature
review, an investigation is essential to improve the 2.1. Flat plate PV/T collectors
performance of the solar collector. The authors found
Flat plate PV/T collectors
ctors look very similar to the
that input process parameters plays vital role in the
known flat plate thermal collectors. The only
quality and efficiency of the solar collector.
significant difference, as shown by the schematic of
Keywords: Solar Collector, Input process parameters, Fig. 1, is the PV panel which is attached on the top of
Output responses, Optimization techniques the metallic absorber plate. The absorber plate with

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun

Jun 2018 Page: 960
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
the tubes, the PV module, the glass cover as well as
the insulation.

2.2. Concentrating PV/T collectors:

PV cost is relatively high, concentrators are often
used to increase the irradiance level on PV modules.
A low concentrating water cooled type PV/T collector
of the building integrated type, was recently
investigated by Brogren et al. [2]. It incorporates
PV/T string modules with low cost aluminum foil
reflectors with a concentration ratio of 4.3 times.
Coventry [3] developed the so called CHAPS
(combined heat and power solar) PV/T collector.
It involves a parabolic trough of concentration ratio of
37 times with mono crystalline silicon cells and a
two-axis tracking system At the back of the cells a Figure 2.1 PV/T CROSS SECTION
tube with water and anti-freeze was attached to collect
most of the generated heat produced. various
engineering systems including electronic components. Traveling through the adiabatic section the vapor
reaches the condenser region where condensation
Heat pipe has ability to dissipate huge amount of heat
rejects the latent heat of the fluid to the sink. The
with small temperature drop along the heat pipe while
condensed liquid is pumped back against an adverse
providing a self-pumping capable through a porous
pressure gradient to the evaporator by a combination
material in its structure. A limiting factor for the heat
of the capillary pumping action and/or bulk forces.
transfer potential of a heat pipe is depends working
fluid properties. This fluid circuit is repeated during the normal
operation of the heat pipe and can continue as long as
The thermo physical properties of the fluid can be
there is sufficient vapor pressure and capillary
improved. An innovative way to enhance liquid
pressure to support its operation. Simple heat pipe as
thermal conductivity is the dispersion of highly
shown Figure 2.1.At the evaporator end the liquid
conductive solid nanoparticles within the base fluid.
recedes into the wick pores and hence the menisci in
Copper heat pipe and stainless steel heat pipe as
the pores at the vapor interface are highly curved.
shown in figure
Whereas the liquid menisci at vapor interface in the
condenser end are almost flat. This difference in the
interface curvature of the menisci at the vapor
interface coupled with the surface tension of the
working fluid causes a capillary pressure gradient at
the liquid-vapor interface along the length of the pipe.
This capillary pressure gradient pumps the working
fluid against various pressure losses such as friction,
inertia and against bulk body forces. This axial
variation of pressure is illustrated in Figure 2.

2.3 Parametric studies of PV/T

Packing factor one of the important parameters in
designing and studying a PV/T system is packing
factor, which generally means the fraction of absorber
plate area covered by the solar cells. In specific
applications such as buildings, Vats et al. [27] studied

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018 Page: 961
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
the effects of packing factor on energy and performed
energy analysis of a PV/T system with air duct flow.
Fig. 4 demonstrates the efficiency behaviors of
different PV cell materials due to change in packing
factor. For example, Fig. 1a shows the thermal and
electrical annual energy variations caused by
changing of packing factor in each PV cell modules.
The overall annual thermal energy and energy
variations are shown in Fig. 1b and c respectively at
two different packing factors in each PV cells. The
increase of packing factor doesn’t always increase the
annual energy gain or electrical efficiency. In the
figure above, the effect of higher packing factor on
the annual thermal efficiency and annual exergy
analysis is also shown. If the packing factor is raised
too much the thermal exit temperature will get higher
due to absorbing high amount of thermal energy so it
will increase the cell temperature, which causes the
decrease in electrical efficiency. Meanwhile
decreasing the packing factor too much will decrease
the electrical efficiency because the radiation absorber 3.1.1 Schematic diagram of a PV/T system
area is less.
In the study of Wu et al. [25] on PV/T hybrid system,
the energy analysis showed that the energy efficiency
behaves quite irregularly .For example, according to
the Fig. 2, the lower energy efficiency happens in
packing factor equal to 0.8 in the experiment when
they had three packing factors as 0.7, 0.8 and 0.9. The
higher energy efficiency is related to the packing
factor equals to 0.9.In Fig. 5, we show the packing
factors that different researchers have been used. It is
obvious that most of the researchers chose the packing
factors higher than 50% and less than 90%.Generally
speaking, a comprehensive knowledge about the
variation of packing factor and its effects with
different fluids in different PV/T systems still does
not exist. This also opened the door for optimization
of the system design.
Fig: 3.1.2 PV Module
3. Experimental setup
Photovoltaic (PV) is a method of generating electrical
power by converting sunlight into direct
current electricity using semiconducting materials that
exhibit the photovoltaic effect. A photovoltaic
system employs solar panels composed of a number
of solar cells (PV cells) to supply usable solar power.
The photovoltaic cell is the basic building block of a
PV system. Individual cells can vary in sizes from
about 1cm to about 10 cm across. Most cells are made

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018 Page: 962
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
with silicon today. Silicon must be purified. This is T = inlet fluid temperature
one of the biggest expenses in the production of solar
cells. T = ambient temperature
The collector heat removal factor may be calculated
from the following equation:
ṁC U A F
F = 1 − exp −
U A ṁC

ṁ = mass flow rate of the fluid

C = heat capacity of fluid

The plate efficiency factor Fpis defined as

The plate efficiency factor (Fp) for a tube in plate type
of collector may be calculated from the following
F =
Figure 3.2.1: working principle of PV cell 1 m 1 1
W + + +
πDh πDK C U [D + (W − D)F]

COLLECTORS: = center to center tube spacing
The solar collector efficiency η is defined as: = outside diameter of the tube
actual useful energy collected h = tube to fluid (film) heat transfer coefficient
solar energy incident on the collector
K = thermal conductivity of the tube
η= C = bond conductance (= Kb b/t)
Kb =bond material thermal conductivity
b= bond width
Q = rate of useful heat collected from the collector
t= bond thickness
I = total solar radiation incident on the collector per
unit area and time mt = tube thickness
A = aperture area of the absorber F = fin efficiency factor given as:
Thus instantaneous efficiency of the flat plate tanh[a(W − D)/2]
collector is given as: F=
a(W − D)/2
(T − T )
η = F (τα) − F U Efficiency of solar cell:
incident radiation
= transmittance of the cover plates η=
power radiation
= absorptance of the black absorber surface Typical standard test condition for efficiency

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018 Page: 963
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
Irradiance 1000w/m2 or 800 w/m2

4.2. Effect of mass flow rate on the PVT collectors

The mass flow rate through the collectors and into the
designated channels indirectly affects PV module
cooling. The effects of the mass flow rate on the Fig4.2.2. Changes in PV efficiency with the mean PV
absorber collectors are shown in Figs. 9–11. The mass temperature of the PVT absorber collectors under 600
flow rates used in this analysis (0.011– 0.041 kg/s) W/m2 of solar radiation.
were later applied under various solar radiation levels.
The results show that increasing the mass flow rate
simultaneously decreased the PV temperature of the
PVT collectors at all solar radiation levels. At the
same mass flow rate, the PV temperatures in-creased
in the solar radiation level. Figs. 5–9 show that from
0.011 kg/s to 0.041 kg/s mass flow rates and under
500 W/m2 solar Fig: 5.2.3

Fig: 4.2.4 Changes in PV efficiency with the mean PV

temperature of the PVT absorber collectors under 700
W/m2 of solar radiation.

Fig: 4.2.5
Fig:4.2.5 Changes in PV efficiency with the mean PV
Fig. 4.2.1. Changes in PV efficiency with the mean temperature of the PVT absorber collectors under 800
PV temperature of the PVT absorber collectors under W/m2 of solar radiation.
500 W/m2 of solar radiation.
The temperature decreased from 50.20 LC to 47.76
LC and PV efficiency simultaneously increased from
11.07% to 11.42%. When solar radiation was
increased to 800 W/m2, temperature dropped from
53.5 LC to 50 LC, whereas PV efficiency increased
from 11.91% to 12.37%. For the direct flow absorber
as (Fig. 10) and referring to Figs. 5–8, at solar
radiation of 500 W/m2 and when mass flow rate
increased from 0.011 kg/s to 0.041 kg/s, PV temper-
ature dropped from 50.11 LC to 47.18 LC, and PV

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018 Page: 964
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470
efficiency in-creased from 11.41% to 11.78%. The by the advantage materials and technical means used
same result was obtained when the solar radiation (galvanized steel, water) that reduce costs and
increased to 800 W/m2: temperature de-creased from required installation area, and of the part photovoltaic
53.6 LC to 49.8 LC, whereas PV efficiency increased simply we get a better performance of the Collector.
from 12.19% to 12.69%. For which reason its use does not change, with the
removal of the thermal energy produced What’s used
5. TABULATION in various other applications exist (water heating,
drying, air conditioning, etc.).
Result of PV module and PV/T system Flow under
various mass flow rates and solar radiations
Table : 5.2.3 Mechanical Energy
Mass flow
Timing T in Tout
10 0.011 26 32 1. Alibakhsh Kasaeiana & Giti Nouria, Parisa
11 0.013 26 38 (2018), Solar collectors and photovoltaic as
combined heat and power systems:
12 0.015 26 38
2. Sobrina Sobria, & Sam Koohi-Kamalia (2018)
1 0.016 27 39 solar photovoltaic integration requires the
2 0.018 28 38 capability of handling the uncertainty and
3 0.017 28 38 fluctuations of power output.
4 0.016 28 38 3. Yunfeng Wang & and Ming Li (2018)
Experimental investigation of a solar-powered
Table : 5.2.3 Electrical Energy
adsorption refrigeration system with the
Timing V l Il Voc Ioc enhancing desorption
10 17 0.4 17 0.6 4. Xiao Jiao Yang, & Liang Liang Sun (2017) the
11 16 0.3 18 0.7 Experimental investigation on performance
comparison of PV/T-PCM system and PV/T
12 15 0.3 17 0.8 system
1 16 0.4 17 0.8 5. Hasan Saygin & Raheleh Nowzari (2017)
2 16 0.5 17 0.9 Performance evaluation of a modified PV/T solar
collector: A case study in design and analysis of
3 7 0.6 18 0.7 experiment: Solar Energy 141 (2017) 210–221.
6. Pierre-Luc Paradis a & Daniel R. Rousse a (2017)
2-D transient numerical heat transfer model of the
The efficiency of photovoltaic panel is sensitive to solar absorber plate to improve PV/T solar
operating temperature and decreases when the collector systems: .
temperature of the PV increases. Therefore, the PV/T 7. Arunkumar. G | Dr. P. Navaneetha
hybrid systems are one means used to improve the Krishnan "Experimental Enhancement of Heat
electrical efficiency of the panel. In the study, the Transfer Analysis on Heat Pipe using SiO2 and
photo voltaic panel temperature significantly reduced TiO2 Nano Fluid" Published in International
by 15–20% due to the flow of water through the Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and
manifold to the rear of the PV panel (recalling that it Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-
is about 60 _C to 80 _C in the conventional 2 | Issue-4 , June 2018
photovoltaic solar panel)
8. Gang Wang, Yaohua Zhao & Zhenhua Quan, and
For all previously stated, we can say that our objective Jiannan Tong (2017) Application of a multi-
is to get a more effective exploitation of solar energy function solar-heat pump system in residential

@ IJTSRD | Available Online @ | Volume – 2 | Issue – 4 | May-Jun 2018 Page: 965