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Engineering Encyclopedia

Piping, Pipelines & Valves

Piping Fabrication and Construction

Module Component

Page

INTRODUCTION

3

01-SAMSS-010

4

SAES-L-050 and SAES-L-051

4

DETERMINING WHETHER PIPING MEETS FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS

5

Material Limitations

5

Pipe

5

Material Limitations, Cont'd Pipe Nipples Flanges 7 Pipe Fittings 7

6

6

Drawings

8

Fitup Tolerances

8

Mitered Joints

10

Ends for Field Welding

10

Pipe Bending 10

13

Hot Bending 14 Sample Problem 1 15

Cold Bending

Solution

17

Welding and Heat Treatment

18

Butt-Welds 19 Fillet Weld 23

Welding Steps

23

Inspection and Testing of Pipe Spools

26

Product Marking and Preparation for Shipment

27

Identification

27

Cleaning

28

Painting

28

Protection

28

DETERMINING WHETHER METALLIC PLANT PIPING MEETS INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

29

Storage and Handling 29

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Pipe Fitup and Tolerances

Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment 31

30

Flange Joint Assembly

33

Cleaning

38

Buried Installation 38

Sample Problem 2 39

40

Solution

DETERMINING WHETHER ABOVEGROUND AND BURIED PIPING MEET INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS 41

Vertical Profile

Elastic Bends 42 Preformed Bends 43

Preformed Bends for Aboveground Pipelines 44 Preformed Bends for Buried Pipelines 45 Storage and Handling 46

41

Installation of Aboveground Pipelines

46

Installation of Buried Pipelines

48

Tie-in Temperature 49

Cleanup and Records

51

SUMMARY

52

WORK AID 1: PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING WHETHER PIPING MEETS FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS 53

WORK AID 2:

WHETHER METALLIC PLANT PIPING MEETS

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING

INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

58

WORK AID 3:

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING

WHETHER ABOVEGROUND AND BURIED PIPELINES MEET INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

59

GLOSSARY

60

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INTRODUCTION

An engineer will often be asked to participate in the design of a piping system by evaluating a contractor's proposal, auditing a contractor's work, performing a screening study for cost estimating purposes, or actually designing and managing pieces of the project.

The previous module discussed the layout, support and flexibility design of a piping system, one step in designing the overall piping system. This module discusses another step in putting the pieces of the system together:

the fabrication and construction of the piping system. Portions of the piping system are prefabricated by contractors. After these portions are fabricated, they are assembled wherever the piping system will be located. This assembly includes aligning, bolting up, and welding pieces together. The engineer must ensure that the fabricated portions of the piping system remain consistent with the system design, and that they meet Saudi Aramco requirements. If the pieces of the piping system do not fit well together, the original design assumptions may not be valid, and the piping system may not meet expectations and could fail prematurely.

This module assumes Saudi Aramco Standards will be used to audit a contractor's fabrication drawings, and field erection standards, specifically: SAES-L-050, SAES-L- 051, and 01-SAMSS-010. This auditing ensures that the fabrication and construction of the system meets design requirements. These requirements, or quality control items, include:

• Material limitations.

• Fitup tolerances.

• Pipe bending limitations.

• Welding and heat treatment requirements.

• Product marking and preparation for shipment requirements.

• Flange bolt-up requirements.

• Alignment requirements for critical equipment.

This module discusses the quality control items set forth by the standards and construction requirements for plant piping systems and cross-country pipelines.

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01-SAMSS-010

Saudi Aramco Materials System Specification 01- SAMSS-010, Fabricated Carbon Steel Piping, is the basis for piping fabrication requirements. This specification covers the minimum requirements for the fabrication of regular carbon steel pipe spools, including welding, heat treatment, bending, and threading. It may also be used for special steels or alloys, in which case, exceptions and additions to this specification will be stated in the purchase order. 01-SAMSS-010 serves as the primary document in all purchase orders for piping fabrication.

SAES-L-050 and SAES-L-051

Saudi Aramco Engineering Standard SAES-L-050, Construction Requirements for Metallic Plant Piping, and SAES-L-051, Construction Requirements for Cross- Country Pipelines, supplement fabrication requirements that are established in the applicable ASME/ANSI B31 Codes.

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DETERMINING WHETHER PIPING MEETS FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS

If a system is not fabricated with reasonable quality, the design assumptions will not be met, and problems can occur during construction and subsequent operation. For example, forcing pieces of the system together imposes loads that were not accounted for in the original design. These loads could lead to system reliability and maintenance problems, and eventual failure in extreme cases. Saudi Aramco standards SAES-L-050, SAES-L- 051, and 01-SAMSS-010 provide the requirements that ensure a piping system is fabricated properly. For example, the standards give welding requirements for fabrication that specify criteria, such as matching diameter, angularity, and material. The Saudi Aramco engineer must examine the contractor's work to confirm that tolerances and other fabrication requirements meet the standards. Work Aid 1 summarizes these fabrication requirements.

Material Limitations

Compatible materials are essential for piping fabrication. All materials that are used for piping elements or structural attachments must conform to a listed specification in accordance with ASME/ANSI B31 Codes, and shall be traceable to mill certificates. This ensures that basic material quality conforms to recognized specifications, and that confirming documentation is supplied for the materials that are actually used. 01- SAMSS-010 provides specific additional material requirements for fabrication. These are summarized as follows.

Pipe

• Pipe for plant applications shall be seamless or single-longitudinal seam submerged arc-welded (MEX 101.02) and conform to one of the following:

- API Spec 5L, Grade B through X60.

- ASTM A53, Seamless Grade B, black (not galvanized).

- ASTM A106, Grade B.

These specifications are all readily available and result in pipe of comparable strength.

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Material Limitations, Cont'd

• Pipe for cross-country pipelines shall conform to one of the following:

- Electric Resistance Welded (ERW) pipe in accordance with 01-SAMSS-033, API 5L Electric Welded Line Pipe.

- Spiral-welded pipe in accordance with 01- SAMSS-035, API Line Pipe.

- If 01-SAMSS-035 pipe is not available, API 5L or ASTM A106 pipe may be used provided it meets the chemical composition and hardness test requirements that are specified in 01-

Pipe Nipples

SAMSS-035.

For wet, sour service, the pipe must be seamless, or conform to 01-SAMSS-016, Sour, Wet Service Line Pipe, for welded pipe.

• Nipples shall conform to one of the pipe specifications previously listed, and shall be Schedule 80 minimum thickness. This minimum thickness is required regardless of the design conditions and is specified to ensure that these small diameter nipples have adequate strength to resist mechanical damage that could occur in the shop or field. If threading is required, it must be a taper pipe thread in accordance with ANSI B1.20.1, Pipe Threads, General Purpose (inch).

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Flanges

 

Weld-neck flanges and blind flanges that conform to one of the following must be used unless otherwise specified in the purchase order.

• ASME/ANSI B16.5 using ASTM A350, Grade LF2 normalized material.

• 02-SAMSS-011.

• Saudi Aramco Standard Drawing attached to the purchase order.

MSS-SP-44 when not specified by either B16.5 or Saudi Aramco Standard Drawings. Here again, basic material strength and quality levels are being established for standardization purposes. The strongest flange type, i.e., a weld-neck, is being specified to avoid any additional design consideration necessary for slip-on or lap-joint-type flanges. However, remember that general flange type and material selection requirements are governed by SAES-L-009 and 02- SAMSS-011 (as discussed in MEX 101.04), and may differ from what is stated here for specific cases.

Pipe Fittings

• Butt-welded fittings shall be used for nominal pipe sizes 50 mm (2 in.) and larger, and conform to 02- SAMSS-005. Material grade and nominal wall thickness shall be the same or equal to the adjoining pipe.

• Forged steel threaded or socket-welded fittings shall conform to ANSI B16.11, pressure class 3000, ASTM A105, and unions shall conform to MSS-SP-

83. While class 2000 fittings are available, this

requirement specifies a stronger fitting as the base case. Threaded or socket-welded fittings can only be used for pipe sizes smaller than 50 mm (2 in.). However, the size may include 50 mm (2 in.) NPS for minor field repairs or maintenance.

• Forged steel welding bosses shall conform to either Aramco Standard Drawing AE-036175 or AE-036643 or equivalent forged steel welding outlets, ASTM A105, pressure class 3000 minimum. These must abut the pipe wall and be attached with a full-penetration weld. They may only be used for NPS 50 mm (2 in.) or smaller.

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Drawings

Fabrication drawings are provided to the contractor for fabrication work. These drawings specify piping component materials, dimensions, and specific tolerances for piping fabrication. The Saudi Aramco engineer needs to check that the drawings conform to all fabrication requirements, and that these are also being followed in the field.

• The vendor shall prepare the detailed shop fabrication drawings.

• Any details not shown on the buyer's drawings shall be designed by the vendor in accordance with the applicable ASME/ANSI B31 Code.

• Welded branch connections and other joints shall be full-strength reinforced such that the MAOP of a pipe spool shall be as limited by either the specified pipe or the flange rating. In this way, branch reinforcement will not be the limiting factor in setting the piping system MAOP, and would not need to be considered in any potential future projects to increase system design pressure.

• Standard piping symbols that are used on Piping Detail Sheets and Isometrics are identified on Standard Drawing AB-036227.

Fitup Tolerances

Fitup tolerances specify the allowable limits that are placed on mismatch between sections of piping. These tolerances are established to limit any extra load that is placed on the piping system or connected equipment, and to provide greater assurance of obtaining acceptable weld quality. Fitup tolerances apply to all pipe fabrication.

Established tolerances control the fabrication of the pipe spool in the shop, and ultimately the assembly of multiple spool pieces in the field to make up a complete piping system. Normal practice is to maximize the

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amount of shop fabrication to bring the largest possible spool pieces to the field for final assembly. This minimizes the amount of work to be done in the field. The Saudi Aramco engineer must ensure that the specified fitup tolerances are applied to a contractor's work. 01-SAMSS-010 provides these tolerances for fabricated pipe sections, as summarized in Work Aid 1. The fitup tolerances required for the installation of plant piping are in SAES-L-050 and will be discussed later in this module.

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Mitered Joints

• Mitered joints are changes in direction that are obtained by welding short pipe sections together. Mitered joints with angular offset larger than 3° are not permitted unless specified on the buyer's drawing.

• A welding technique shall be used which provides a smooth, regular, and fully penetrated internal surface. This, plus the detailed design specified for the miter, ensures that it will be as strong as the straight runs of connected pipe.

Ends for Field Welding

• All welding ends shall be beveled with an angle of 35°, plus or minus 5°, and a root face of 1.5 mm (1/16 in.). The bevels shall be machine-cut bevels or smooth, clean, slag-free flame cut. The end plane shall be normal to the pipe axis as defined on the piping drawing, within 0.25°. In this way, spool- piece weld ends are already prepared for welding in the field, when required.

Pipe Bending

A bend is a change in direction that is made by physically

bending a straight section of pipe, rather than by using a

wrought or forged elbow. Pipe bends are prefabricated, or done by the contractor, and need to be checked by the Saudi Aramco engineer. Bending is normally done when

a long, gradual change in direction is required, either

because of fluid flow considerations, the local terrain for pipeline applications, or to permit pipe scraping.

• Bends shall be completely free from buckles, dents, cracks, wrinkles, other mechanical damage or indentations such as could be caused by the grips of the bending machine. These could act as localized stress-concentration points or obstructions to pipe scrapers.

• Flat spots shall have no dimension exceeding the value given by the following formula:

d =

2tD
2tD

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where:

d

=

Largest dimension of the flat spot

t

=

Nominal wall thickness

D

=

Nominal pipe diameter

Larger flat spots could cause higher local stresses or obstruct pipe scrapers.

Pipe Bending, Cont’d

• The difference between the largest and smallest diameter (flattening) of the cross-section shall not exceed 5% of the nominal pipe diameter at any point in the bend, nor 3% of the nominal pipe diameter at the ends. A larger difference could cause excessive local stress, make the bend more prone to buckling, or obstruct passage of a scraper.

• The minimum wall thickness shall not be less than the minimum allowed wall thickness of the pipe. Some pipe thinning will occur during the bending process. This requirement ensures that the bend will not limit the MAOP of the system.

• Unless otherwise specified, the centerline radius of pipe bends shall be at least five times the nominal pipe diameter (5D). This will minimize local stresses in the bend.

• When bends are supplied with welding ends for field welding, a minimum straight tangent length of the smaller of 1 1/2 times the nominal pipe diameter or 600 mm (2 ft.) shall be provided at each end. This will provide easier access for welding at the bend.

• Bend tolerances shall be as follows (unless otherwise specified):

- ± 0.5° on bend angle.

- ± 1% on bend radius.

These points are illustrated in Figure 1.

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TOLERANCES AT PIPE BENDS

Piping Fabrication and Construction TOLERANCES AT PIPE BENDS Notes • (E-C) Š 0.05D at any point,

Notes

• (E-C) Š 0.05D at any point, 0.03D at ends

• A 5D

• B 1.5D or 600 mm (2 ft.), based on smaller value

• Bend Minimum Thickness Not Less Than Straight Pipe Minimum Allowable Thickness

• Bend Tolerances: ±5° on angle, ±1% on radius

FIGURE 1

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Cold Bending

Cold bending is normally done on tubing and on pipe with relatively small diameters and wall thicknesses. Proper equipment and dies are essential to avoid wrinkling, excessive thinning, and excessive ovality. Saudi Aramco requires that:

• Cold bends shall be made below 649°C (1,200°F), and seamless, Grade B pipe shall be used. The temperature shall be below 316°C (600°F) if pipe material that has been strengthened by cold work is used (such as the "X" grades of the API 5L specification). Using a higher bending temperature with a cold-worked material will reduce the material strength.

• For pipe that is 150 mm (6 in.) and larger in outside diameter, cold bends shall not be used unless they were specified in the Purchase Order, and have at least a 10D bend radius.

• For cold bends with a radius of less the 30D, the nominal outside diameter divided by the nominal wall thickness shall not exceed 35.

• For wet, sour service, cold bends to a radius of 5D or less shall be heat treated at 593-649°C (1,100- 1,200°F) for one hour per 25 mm (1 in.) nominal wall thickness, but not less than one hour.

• For wet, sour service, a hardness measurement shall be made on each bend at the outer radius of the bend area. The maximum hardness is limited to 237 Brinell. Limiting the hardness level at the maximum stress point of the bend minimizes the probability of cracking in this service.

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Hot Bending

Pipe hot bending may be done either in a furnace, or by passing the pipe through an induction heating coil. 01- SAMSS-010 specifies general requirements for hot bending, and specific requirements for both the furnace and induction methods. The following highlights several of these requirements. Participants are referred to 01- SAMSS-010 for additional details.

• Detailed procedures must be submitted for review and approval by the Consulting Services Department.

• Impact test requirements are specified for low- temperature service [below -18°C (0°F)].

• Hardness measurements and acceptance criteria are specified. This will ensure that the bending procedure did not produce any locally hard areas that would be more prone to cracking.

• Wall thickness measurements must be made along the bend to ensure that excessive thinning did not occur.

• Pipe material and bending temperature requirements are specified for furnace hot bends.

• Procedural requirements are specified for induction bends.

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Sample Problem 1

This sample problem will review what has been discussed thus far regarding fabrication and installation of plant piping systems. Work Aid 1 may be used to help solve this problem.

A contractor has been engaged by Saudi Aramco to fabricate and install a piping system at a new pump. There have been reports from the field that pipe fitup and pump alignment have not been going smoothly. Field personnel have expressed concern that the fabrication and installation quality is not good. You have been asked to begin reviewing the situation.

Figure 2 is a representation of a fabrication drawing for one portion of the piping system. Your intent is to use this as a sample to see if further review of the contractor's work is necessary. In addition to this, flange alignment measurements were made in the field at the P- 602 suction flange. The following misalignments were measured:

• Vertical bolt-hole offset

• Horizontal bolt-hole offset

• Rotational offset

+1.5 mm (+ 1/16 in.)

-0.8 mm (- 1/32 in.)

+0.4 mm (+ 1/64 in.)

• Flange-face tilt across diameter +2.4 mm (+ 3/32 in.)

• Flange-face separation

+1.5 mm (+ 1/16 in.)

No deviations or additions from 01-SAMSS-010 were permitted by the original purchase specification. Use 01- SAMSS-010, SAES-L-050, and Work Aid 1 to assist in your review.

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FABRICATION DRAWING E D A B Connect to P-602 Suction Flange C
FABRICATION DRAWING
E
D
A
B
Connect to P-602
Suction Flange
C

Dimensions

A = 37'6" ±1/4"

B = 13'-4" ±1/8"

C = 22'-0" ±1/8"

D = On Pipe Centerline ±3/16"

E = 96" Bend Radius

Notes

-

Pipe: A106, Gr. A, 16 in., Sch 40.

-

Nipples for Vents and Drains: 3/4 in., Sch 40, A106, Gr. B.

-

Weld-Neck Flanges: ASME/ANSI B16.5, Class 300, A350 LF2.

-

Butt-Weld Fittings: A234, Gr. WPB.

-

3/4 in. Forged Couplings for Vents and Drains:

ANSI B16.11, Class 2000, A105

-

Conform to ASME/ANSI B31.3 and 01-

SAMSS-010

FIGURE 2

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Solution

1. The fabrication drawing shows the pipe material to be A106, Gr. A. This is not an acceptable material per 01-SAMSS-010. It should be A106, Gr. B, or one of the other acceptable pipe material specifications.

2. The nipples are specified to be A106, Gr. B material, which is acceptable. However, their wall thickness is specified as Sch. 40. They should be Sch. 80 minimum per 01-SAMSS-010.

3. The flanges are specified to be weld-neck, ASME/ANSI B16.5, Class 300, A350 LF2 material. This is acceptable.

4. The butt-weld fittings are specified to be A234, Gr. WPB. This is acceptable.

5. The forged couplings are specified to be A105 material, ANSI B16.11, Class 2000. They should be Class 3000 per 01-SAMSS-010.

6. A note indicates that the fabrication conforms to ASME/ANSI B31.3 and 01-SAMSS-010. Based on previous information, this is not in conformance with at least 01-SAMSS-010 requirements.

7. The dimensional tolerances should conform to 01- SAMSS-010 and SAES-L-050.

Dimensions B & C conform to the required 1/8 in. tolerance.

Dimension A has a + 1/4 in. tolerance and is not acceptable.

Dimension D indicates the flanged branch connection can be off the pipe centerline by 3/16 in. It should have a 1/16 in. tolerance.

The bend radius of 96 in. is acceptable since it exceeds the minimum of five times (Nominal Pipe Diameter) required by 01-SAMSS-010.

8. The flange alignment tolerances generally exceed the 1/64 in. maximum misalignment tolerance specified in SAES-L-050, since several exceed the maximum 1/64 in. permitted.

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Solution, Cont’d

In reviewing this one fabrication drawing, a large number of relatively serious fabrication and construction discrepancies were found. The fabrication and erection tolerances do not conform to Saudi Aramco requirements. Therefore, it should not be surprising that there are problems in the field with the installation. In addition, several material and piping component design deficiencies were also noted. Because of all these deficiencies, a complete design review of the contractor's work is warranted.

It should be noted that this review was only made on the basis of conforming to the minimum Saudi Aramco requirements for fabrication and erection. It was not a design review. For example, it was tacitly assumed that Class 300 flanges and Schedule 40 thickness for the 16 in. pipe were acceptable for the design conditions. A complete design review would at least spot check these items, as well, at some point during project execution.

Welding and Heat Treatment

Welding is one of the primary ways of joining pipe. Welded joints represent the ultimate in safety and reliability. All codes call for welding to be carried out using a qualified procedure and welders. Included in the standard procedure are: base-metal specifications, electrode, joint preparation, weld position, welding process (including whether it is manual or automatic), techniques, electrical details, preheat and interpass temperatures, and post-weld heat treatment requirements. The Saudi Aramco engineer needs to check how the contractor plans to weld pipe together. This requires knowing the primary welding types and where they are typically employed in piping systems. 01- SAMSS-010 and the applicable ASME/ANSI B31 Code provide considerations for heat treatment and the two primary weld types used: butt welds and fillet welds. Saudi Aramco welding requirements are specified in the following SAES's:

• SAES-W-001, Basic Welding Requirements.

• SAES-W-011, Welding Requirements for On-plot Piping.

• SAES-W-012, Welding Requirements for Pipelines.

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Butt-Welds

Butt-welds are made between two components whose edges are in close proximity. Butt-welded joints in piping systems are primarily of the single-V configuration and are welded from the pipe outside surface. Larger diameter pipes which can be accessed from the inside will often be welded from both sides using a double-V type of joint preparation. The joint preparation and the procedure that is used ensure that there is complete fusion between the edges of the components being joined. Joint designs shown in Figure 3 or applicable combinations of these joint design details are typically used for ends of equal thickness. The transition between ends of unequal thickness may be accomplished by taper grinding the thicker pipe to match the thinner, or by using weld metal to provide a smooth transition as shown in Figure 4. A prefabricated thickness transition section of not less than one-half pipe diameter in length is another means to make the change between pipe thickness. Butt-welds will always be used to weld pipe ends together, to weld butt-weld-type flanges or fittings to pipe ends, or to weld the edges of formed plate together when plate is used to manufacture pipe.

37-1/2 deg. + 2-1/2 deg.

to

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ACCEPTABLE BUTT-WELDED JOINT DESIGN FOR EQUAL WALL THICKNESS

+ 5 deg. 0 deg. 1/16 in. + 1/32 in. 1/16 in. + 1/32 in.
+ 5 deg.
0 deg.
1/16 in. + 1/32 in.
1/16 in. + 1/32 in.
30 degree -
37-1/2 deg.
+ 2-1/2 deg.
10 deg. + 1 deg.
t > 7/8 in.
7/8 in.
Rounded
37 1/2 deg.
+ 2-1/2 deg.
3/4 in.
(a) Standard End Preparation
of Pipe
(b) Standard End Preparation
of Butt-Welding Fittings and
Optional End Preparation of
Pipe 7/8 in. and Thinner
1/16 in + 1/32 in.
60 deg. to 80 deg.
60
deg.
to
80
deg.
in. and Thinner 1/16 in + 1/32 in. 60 deg. to 80 deg. (d) Standard End
in. and Thinner 1/16 in + 1/32 in. 60 deg. to 80 deg. (d) Standard End

(d)

Standard End Preparations

+ 5 deg. 30 deg. - 0 deg. 37-1/2 deg. + 2-1/2 deg.
+ 5 deg.
30 deg.
-
0 deg.
37-1/2 deg.
+ 2-1/2 deg.

(e)

( c) Suggested End Preparation, Pipe and Fittings Over 7/8 in. Thickness

10 deg. + 1 deg. 30 deg. - + 5 0 deg. deg. 37-1/2 deg.
10 deg. + 1 deg.
30 deg. - + 5 0 deg.
deg.
37-1/2 deg.
+ 2-1/2 deg.

(f)

Acceptable Combinations of Pipe End Preparations

Source: ASME/ANSI B31.4 - 1989. With permission from American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 3

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ACCEPTABLE BUTT-WELDED JOINT DESIGN FOR UNEQUAL WALL THICKNESS

t t w 3/32 in. max.
t
t w
3/32 in. max.
t t w t D 2 1/2 t max. 1
t
t w
t D 2
1/2 t max.
1

30 deg. max. to 14 deg. min. (1:4)

t t w t D 2 1/2 t max.
t
t w
t D 2
1/2 t max.

30 deg. max.

(a) t t w t D 2 1/2 t max. 30 deg. max. to 14
(a)
t
t w
t D 2
1/2 t max.
30 deg. max. to 14 deg. min. (1:4)
1
(d)
30 deg. max. to 14 deg. min. (1:4) 1
30 deg. max.
1/2 t max.
t
D 2
t
w
t
(b) (c) 30 deg. max. 1/2 t max. t t D 2 w t
(b)
(c)
30 deg. max.
1/2 t max.
t
t
D 2
w
t

(e)

30 deg. max. to 14 deg. min. (1:4) 1 1/2 t max. 30 deg. max.
30 deg. max. to 14 deg. min. (1:4) 1
1/2 t max.
30 deg. max.
t
t D 2
t w
30 deg. max. to 14 deg. min. (1:4) 1

(f)

(g)

Source: ASME/ANSI B31.4 - 1989. With permission from American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 4

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FILLET WELDS

Fillet Weld Size

Surface of Perpendicular Member

WELDS Fillet Weld Size Surface of Perpendicular Member Size of Weld Concave Fillet Weld Convex Fillet
Size of Weld
Size of
Weld

Concave

Fillet Weld

Convex Fillet Weld

Surface of

Horizontal

Member

Size of

Weld

Theoretical Throat Equal Leg Fillet Weld

Surface of Perpendicular Member

Convex Filled Weld
Convex Filled Weld

Surface of Horizontal Member Theoretical Throat Unequal Leg Fillet Weld

Concave

Fillet Weld

Size of

Weld

GENRAL NOTE:

The size of An Equal Leg fillet Weld Is the Length of the Largest Inscribed Isosceles Right triangle (Theoretical Throat = 0.707 X Size).

GENRAL NOTE:

The size of an Unequal Leg fillet Weld Is the Lengths of the Largest Right triangle Which Can Be Inscribed Within the Weld Cross Section (e.g. 1/2 in. x 3/4 in.)

Typical Details for Double-Welded Slip-on and Socket Welding Flange Attachment Welds

X X min X min X X min X min The Lesser of T or
X
X
min
X min
X
X
min
X min
The Lesser of T or 1/4 in.
(1) Front and Back Welds
(2) Face and Back Welds

min

min

X min X min 1/16 in. Approx. Gap Before Welding (3) Socket Welding Flange
X
min
X
min
1/16 in.
Approx. Gap
Before Welding
(3) Socket Welding Flange

x min. = the Lesser of 1.4 T or the Thickness of the Hub

t c x Minimum Welding Dimensions for Socket Welding Components Other Then Flanges t =
t
c x
Minimum Welding Dimensions
for Socket Welding
Components Other Then Flanges
t = Pressure Design Thickness
c x
1/16 in. Approx. Gap
Before Welding
c
x (min.) = 1-1/4 but Not
Less Than 1/8 in. (3.2mm)

Typical Backing Rings and Consumable Inserts

3/16 in. t m 3/4 in. 1/8 in. to 3/16 in. (a) Butt Joint with
3/16 in.
t
m
3/4 in.
1/8 in. to 3/16 in.
(a)
Butt Joint with Bored Pipe Ends
and Solid or Split Backing Ring
3/16 in.
Typical
Consumable
t
m
Inserts
3/4 in.
1/8 in. to 3/16 in.
(b)
Butt Joint with Taper-Bored Ends
and Solid Backing Ring
Butt Joint with Taper-Bored Ends and Solid Backing Ring (c) Nonmetallic Removable Backing Ring (Refractory (d)

(c) Nonmetallic Removable Backing Ring (Refractory

(d) Square Ring or Round Wire Type

(d)

Square Ring or Round Wire Type

(e)

Flat Rectangular Ring

(f)Formed Ring Type

Formed Ring Type

(g)Y-Type

Y-Type

Source: ASME/ANSI B31.3 - 1988. With permission from American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

FIGURE 5

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Fillet Weld

The fillet weld generally requires no special preparation of the joints. It is an angular weld bead that joins components positioned normally at a 90° angle to each other. Fillet welds may be concave to slightly convex in shape. The size of a fillet weld is stated as a leg length of the largest inscribed right isosceles triangle as shown in Figure 5 covering typical attachment details of slip-on flanges. In piping systems, fillet welds are only used for slip-on flanges, socket welds, and for welding attachments to piping components (e.g., reinforcing pads, supports, etc.).

Welding Steps

The following outlines the overall steps that are required for welding.

Preparation for Welding - Procedure and Welder Qualification:

• Before any welding is done, the specific details of how it will be carried out, i.e. the welding procedure, must be specified and demonstrated to achieve acceptable results. A welding procedure is as important to the welder as a blueprint or drawing is to a machinist. Each of the ASME/ANSI B31 Codes, plus modifications contained in SAES-W- 001 (and SAES-W-011 or SAES-W-012 as applicable), specify welding procedure qualification requirements.

• Welding procedure qualification demonstrates that the approach specified for doing the weld will achieve acceptable results when properly applied. The next step is to qualify the particular welders and welding equipment to carry out the specific welding procedure. Here again, the relevant ASME/ANSI B31 Code plus Saudi Aramco requirements must be met.

• The end result of these two steps is that both the welding procedure, and the individuals and equipment executing it, have been confirmed to produce acceptable results.

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Welding and Heat Treatment, Cont’d

Cleaning:

• Internal and external surface to be thermally cut or welded shall be clean and free from paint, oil, rust,

scale, or other material that would be detrimental to either the weld or base metal when heat is applied.

If such items are not cleaned, they could mix with

the weld metal at elevated temperatures and result in poor quality welds.

End Preparation:

The ends of the components to be welded must be set to the correct geometric shape suitable for the materials, wall thickness, and welding process involved.

End preparation is acceptable only if the surface is reasonable smooth and true, and slag from oxygen or arc cutting is cleaned from thermally cut surfaces. Discoloration that remains on a thermally cut surface is not considered to be detrimental oxidation.

Component ends may be trimmed to allow for fitting

a

backing ring, provided that the remaining net

thickness of the finished ends is not less than the minimum required wall thickness for the service conditions. A backing ring is often placed at the inside surface of pipe sections to be joined by butt- welds to assist in achieving full penetration and fusion.

It

is permissible to size pipe ends to be of the same

nominal size to improve alignment if wall thickness

requirements are maintained.

Where necessary, weld metal may be deposited inside or outside the component to permit alignment or provide for machining to ensure satisfactory seating of rings or inserts.

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Welding and Heat Treatment, Cont’d

Preheating is used, along with heat treatment, to minimize the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe thermal gradients that are inherent in welding. The necessity for preheating and the temperature to be used shall be specified in the engineering design and stated by procedure qualification. Specific preheat temperature requirements are specified in the appropriate ASME/ANSI B31 Code based on the pipe material and wall thickness that are being joined.

The following identifies specific benefits of preheating:

• Dries the metal and removes surface moisture which could, if present, result in porosity of the weld metal.

• Reduces the temperature difference between the base metal and the weld to reduce the cooling rate of the weldment, lowers the weld hardness to reduce residual stresses, and reduces cooling/shrinkage stresses.

• Helps maintain the weld pool molten for a longer time to permit maximum fluxing and separation of impurities.

• Helps drive off absorbed gases (such as hydrogen) which could contribute to weld porosity.

Welding and Heat Treatment, Cont’d

Postweld-heat treatment is used to avert or relieve the detrimental effects of high temperature and severe temperature gradients that are inherent in welding, and to relieve residual stresses that are created by bending and forming. Specific heat treatment temperature and procedure requirements are specified in the appropriate ASME/ANSI B31 Code based on the pipe material and wall thickness being joined.

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The following summarizes the principal reasons for PWHT:

• Stress relief is the most common reason for specifying PWHT, and is the only consideration for the requirements that are specified in the ASME/ANSI B31 Codes. Residual stresses will remain in the pipe and result from shrinkage as the weld and adjacent pipe metal cool down from elevated welding temperatures. Residual stresses will also remain after bending or forming processes. If these residual stresses are too high, they can lead to premature failure of the pipe. ASME/ANSI B31 Code requirements specify when PWHT is required to relieve these residual stresses and bring the pipe to an initial stress-free state. PWHT is also required to reduce fabrication stresses to minimize the potential for stress-corrosion cracking in certain process environments, such as caustic, amines, and wet H 2 S.

• After welding the normal grades of stainless steels (i.e., those that are not stabilized with alloy additions), it is necessary to heat treat the material to restore maximum corrosion resistance.

• PWHT is required to prevent caustic embrittlement of welded carbon steel pipe that handles alkaline solutions. Caustic embrittlement is a form of stress corrosion where the residual stresses due to welding are sufficient to cause failure.

• PWHT is also sometimes necessary to reduce weld hardness in certain materials. Minimizing weld hardness reduces the tendency to crack, especially in certain process environments such as caustic or wet H 2 S.

Inspection and Testing of Pipe Spools

When the pipe spool piece has been completely fabricated, it is ready for final inspection and testing. The vendor shall give reasonably advanced notice regarding the dates that fabrication and tests will be made. All materials, certificates, fabrication, testing, and examination shall be in accordance with ASME/ANSI

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B31.3, Chapter VI, and are subject to verification by the buyer's inspector.

When all openings on a pipe spool are either flanged or threaded, the spool shall be hydrostatically tested. When no test pressure is indicated in the purchase order, the hydrostatic test pressure shall be based on the flange rating per ASME/ANSI B16.5, but in no case shall the pipe be stressed to more than 90% of the specified minimum yield strength based on the nominal pipe thickness.

The vendor must provide the blind flanges, plugs and caps that are needed to close off open spool piece ends. This prevents the entry of dirt and debris during transportation and subsequent storage prior to field installation, and reduces the amount of cleaning and flushing required in the field.

Pipe spools with welded ends shall not be pressure tested unless specified in the purchase order. In these cases, the spools will be tested in the field after the entire piping system has been assembled.

Product Marking and Preparation for Shipment

In order to properly assemble the piping spools in the field, the vendor must properly identify and prepare each segment for shipment.

Identification

• Each spool shall be marked with the spool mark number painted at the ends as shown on the

drawings. The numbers shall not be less than 25

mm

(1 in.) in height.

• spool number will be die-stamped on the rim of

The

each flange.

• Pipe bends that are delivered as separate components must also be marked, as specified in

01-SAMSS-010.

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Product Marking and Preparation for Shipment, Cont’d

Cleaning

 

• All loose, foreign material and weld spatter shall be removed. The spool shall be clean and dry.

Painting

 

• Unless specified otherwise, spools shall not be painted or coated.

Protection

• When spools are supplied with blind flanges, the latter shall be bolted on with the specified gaskets and stud bolts. Other flange faces shall be protected by a cover that is bolted to the flange.

• Threaded pipe ends shall be provided with steel or malleable iron pipe caps.

• Threads shall be coated with a graphite and oil paste.

• Welding ends shall be protected by a securely fastened bevel protector.

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DETERMINING WHETHER METALLIC PLANT PIPING MEETS INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

The piping fabrication requirements that were discussed in the previous section apply primarily to carbon steel piping, but may be used for alloy piping as well, with some modifications. For plant piping, there are additional piping fabrication requirements that the engineer must be able to identify when auditing a contractor's work. These requirements are outlined in SAES-L-050, which supplements ASME/ANSI Code B31.3. This section discusses some of the requirements that are established in ASME/ANSI B31.3 and SAES-L-050. These requirements are highlighted in Work Aid 2.

Storage and Handling

Improper handling and storage of pipe materials and welding filler metals can cause damage and result in poor construction quality and failures during operation.

• Pipe shall not be stored directly on the ground, and shall be placed on mounds or sleepers. This will help prevent the accumulation of rainwater around the pipe, which could result in corrosion.

• Pipe shall not be stacked so high that pipes or their coatings may be damaged.

• Fittings and valves shall be stored in shipping crates or on racks. This is to provide greater protection from damage until these components are used.

• End protectors shall be firmly attached to prevent damage to weld bevels, flange faces, threads, or socket-weld ends.

• Lined and coated pipes and fittings shall be lifted with wide fabric or rubber-covered slings and padding to prevent damage. This prevents overly- localized load application which could lead to excessive pipe deformation and damage to the lining or coating.

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Pipe Fitup and Tolerances

Good joint fitup is essential to making a sound weld and minimizing the loads imposed on the piping system and connected equipment. Depending on the welding process used, a slight mismatch may be permissible. The applicable ASME/ANSI B31 Code specifies welding requirements, which are supplemented by Saudi Aramco requirements. For example, in pipe joints where the inside diameters have not been matched up by internal boring or tapering, fitup may become a problem, particularly when backing rings are not used.

• Pipe fitup for welded joints shall be as required by SAES-W-001, Section 7.

• The tolerance for axial dimensions, face-to-face, center-to-face, and location of attachments shall be ±3 mm (±1/8 in.) maximum.

• Flattening of bends, measured as the difference between the largest and smallest outside diameter at any cross-section, shall not exceed 5% of the nominal diameter of the pipe (3% at the ends).

• Lateral translation of branches and connections from centerline of run shall not exceed ±1.5 mm (±1/16 in.).

• Flange bolt holes shall straddle the centerlines. Rotation of flanges, measured as the offset between elevation of bolt holes on opposite sides of a flange centerline, shall not exceed ±1.5 mm (±1/16 in.).

• The tilt of flange measured at the periphery across any diameter shall not exceed 1 mm (1/32 in.) from the square position.

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Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment

As discussed in MEX 101.07, special care must be taken for load-sensitive equipment, especially rotating equipment. Specifically, in attaching pipe to rotating equipment, the installation should avoid putting excessive forces and moments on the machinery nozzles which could result in misalignment. The flexibility calculations that were discussed in MEX 101.07 do not account for loads imposed on equipment nozzles during erection, and tacitly assume that these will be relatively small. Adhering to relatively small installation tolerances makes this a valid assumption.

• Installation of piping that is connected to rotating equipment should preferably start at the machine nozzle flange. This will reduce the possibility of having a large mismatch between the pipe and machine flanges if pipe installation is begun from the opposite end of the system. The first piping section up to the first flange should be loosely bolted to the machine nozzle flange. Gaskets should be used during fabrication procedures and renewed before final boltup. Temporary supports may be required during installation until all pipe sections and permanent supports are installed.

• Bolt on succeeding pipe sections as appropriate up to the first support. Adjust this support as required to just contact the pipe at its bearing point before any temporary pipe supports are removed. Proceed to any other adjacent supports which should be similarly adjusted.

• One or more field welds are typically used to join the piping nearest to the machine with the rest of the system. The number and location of these field welds are determined such that they will permit final position adjustments to achieve acceptable flange alignment at the machine nozzle. The piping system should generally be freestanding on its permanent support system without any additional support or restraint prior to making these field welds. If this were not the case, additional loads could be imposed on the machine nozzle when the temporary supports or restraints are subsequently removed after making the field welds.

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• Spring supports should be locked in their cold position during pipe installation.

• All spring supports will be adjusted in the locked position just until they contact their respective support points. If spring-support adjustment is insufficient, modifications to associated structural members or shimming will be required. Spring hangers should also be locked and hanger rods adjusted until free movement is eliminated. Vertical flange misalignment should never be corrected by using spring-support adjusters or spring-hanger rods.

Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment, Cont’d

• Final bolt tensioning of component flanges close to the machinery should be done after initial alignment of nozzle flanges.

• Piping that requires any sections to be removed for flushing after completing field welds should have final nozzle alignment and component flange boltup completed after replacing flushed sections.

• For piping over 75 mm (3 in.) NPS connected to machinery, flange alignment must be within more stringent limits than is specified for general piping systems. More stringent limits are required to minimize the loads that are imposed by flange boltup. These flange alignment limits are summarized in Work Aid 1.

• Precautions should be taken to prevent ingress of debris into machine internals during construction of connecting pipework.

• Spring supports are designed to support the weight of the pipe, insulation, and contents during operation. Flange alignment is most easily accomplished with the spring locking stops installed, which makes the spring a rigid support. Since alignment is being done with the pipe empty, and the spring support was designed for the line full,

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trying to do a pipe alignment with the spring stops removed could be an unreasonable exercise (especially if the springs are designed for liquid loading during operation).

Flange Joint Assembly

Flange joint assembly procedures directly affect the ability of the flange to be leak-tight in service. In many low-pressure, low-temperature, and/or nonflammable services, many rules of good flanged joint design and makeup can and have been violated with no adverse consequences. However, it is dangerous to break these rules in critical, high-temperature services since the results can be serious leakage problems with consequent fires. The primary factors for successfully making up a flanged joint and controlling leakage are the following:

• Proper selection and design of the flanged joint.

• Proper preparation, inspection, and installation of the flanged joint.

• Identifying and controlling the causes of leakage.

Flanged joint assembly and leakage control are discussed below.

Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment, Cont’d

Preparation, Inspection, and Installation The following

discusses the primary steps that are required to achieve a properly assembled flanged joint. These are summarized in Work Aid 2.

• Redo Damaged Surfaces — Warped or badly corroded flanges should be replaced or refaced. Flanges with tool marks or scratches across the gasket seating surface should be refaced, since these form leakage paths.

• Clean Faces — All gasket and flange surfaces should be clean. Remove all burrs, rust, and dirt from flange faces with scrapers or wire brushes. This step is often overlooked.

• Align flanges — Flanges at rest should be within the

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alignment tolerances previously discussed, with the flanges practically mating before the bolts are installed. Nonparallel flanges are sometimes straightened by applying heat or by bending the pipe. However, the best alignment approach usually involves cutting off the flange and rewelding it to the pipe.

Bringing the flanges into alignment should not leave any residual stresses in the piping system. Residual stresses could lead to flange leakage in service or overload problems in systems that are connected to load-sensitive equipment. This becomes more important with increasing pipe diameter, as the residual stress increases with increasing diameter for the same amount of misalignment.

• Lubricate Threads and Nuts — Lubricate the bolt threads and the nut faces where they will contact the flange. An oil-graphite mixture works well. For high temperatures, use high-temperature silicone grease or a colloidal copper compound. Lubrication helps increase the amount of bolt load that goes into tightening the flange rather than into overcoming friction. Lubrication also aids in achieving high enough and uniform bolt tension required to achieve a leak-free joint during operation.

Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment, Cont’d

• Place Gasket Properly — The gasket must be centered on the flange faces to achieve a reliable joint, but holding the gasket in place can be a problem. If something must be used to hold the gasket, a high-temperature grease may be used sparingly in systems that operate at less than 93°C (200°F). No grease, paste, or adhesive should be used to hold gaskets for systems operating at 93°C (200°F) or more. The high temperature causes these materials to burn off, which could damage the gasket and cause leakage.

Thin cellophane tape may be used on the outside edges of a gasket, but never on the seating

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surfaces. Tape on the seating surfaces will deform the gasket during joint assembly, burn out at operating temperature, and thus provide a leakage path. Centering rings on spiral-wound gaskets help by allowing the gasket to be supported in the proper position by a few bolts while the other bolts are inserted. Sheet gaskets should be cut so that their outside diameter corresponds to the bolt position, again to help centering.

• Use Proper Flange Boltup Procedure — Flanges may be made up using a wrench and hammer, an impact wrench, a torque wrench, or a stud tensioner. The most important aspects of a proper boltup procedure, regardless of method, are to:

– Use a "criss-cross" pattern bolt-tightening sequence, as is used when bolting a wheel onto a car. Examples of such bolting patterns are shown in Figure 6. This approach helps to achieve a uniform bolt load around the flange.

– Use at least three rounds of tightening around the flange, increasing the applied load in each round, with two rounds at the maximum load. This approach also helps achieve uniform bolt load around the flange circumference.

– For the most critical high-temperature or high- pressure flanges, use a method that permits measuring the applied load (i.e., torque wrench or stud tensioner). In this way, there is greater assurance that uniform bolt load is achieved. For such applications, a maximum stud stress during boltup of 275-345 MPa (40-50,000 psi) is the normal target.

Alignment of Pipe Attached to Load-Sensitive Equipment, Cont’d

Causes of Flange Leakage – Most of the primary causes of flange leakage are directly related to poor inspection or installation. These are summarized below:

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• Uneven Bolt Stress — An incorrect boltup procedure or limited working space near one side of a flange can leave some bolts loose while others crush the gasket. This is especially troublesome in high- temperature services, when the heavily loaded bolts relax during operation.

• Improper Flange Alignment — Improper flange alignment, especially nonparallel faces, causes uneven gasket compression, local crushing, and subsequent leakage.

• Improper Gasket Centering — If a gasket is off- center compared to the flange faces, the gasket will be unevenly compressed and more prone to leakage.

• Dirty or Damaged Flange Faces — Dirt, scale, scratches, protrusions, or weld spatter on gasket seating surfaces provide leakage paths or can cause uneven gasket compression that results in leakage.

• Excessive Loads in the Piping System at Flange Locations — Excessive piping system forces and moments at flanges can distort them and cause leaks. Common causes of this are inadequate flexibility, using excessive force to align flanges, and improper location of supports or restraints.

• Thermal Shock — Rapid temperature fluctuations can cause flanges to deform temporarily, resulting in leakage.

• Improper Gasket Size or Material. — Using the wrong gasket size or material can result in leakage.

• Improper Flange Facing — A rougher flange-surface finish than specified for spiral-wound gaskets can result in leakage.

Discussing the principal methods for correcting flange leakage problems is beyond the scope of this course. However, several of them will be quite obvious based on the causes of leakage highlighted above.

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TYPICAL "CRISS-CROSS" BOLT-TIGHTENING SEQUENCE

3 3 7 5 4 Bolt 8 Bolt 1 2 1 2 Flange Flange 6
3
3
7
5
4 Bolt
8 Bolt
1
2
1
2
Flange
Flange
6
8
4
4
3
3
11
9
13
7
5
7
5
11
9
15
16
Bolt
12
Bolt
1
2
1
2
Flange
Flange
16
10
12
6
8
6
8
10
12
14
4
4
3
3
13
17
15
21
11 19 7
9
7
5
5
11
17
23
19
15
9
14
20
Bolt
24
Bolt
1
2
1
2
16
Flange
20
Flange
13
10
12
6
24
18
8
6
22
18
14 10
4
8 20 12
4
16

FIGURE 6

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Cleaning

• Prefabricated pipe spools shall be visually inspected for cleanliness, have foreign matter removed from the inside, and have end protectors installed.

• After assembly and installation, the piping shall be cleaned inside to remove all material, either by flushing or blowing with air as a minimum. Excess debris that is left in the line could adversely impact process operations and cause equipment damage.

• The interior of carbon steel piping for specific services such as boiler-feed water, lube and seal oil, must be chemically cleaned since these services are especially sensitive to even small quantities of dirt and corrosion products that remain in the pipe.

• Pipe cleaning must be done so that soft seats of valves, control valves, and instruments are not damaged. These components are typically removed from the system prior to cleaning.

Buried Installation

• Buried metallic plant piping shall have corrosion protection in accordance with the applicable SAES- H and SAES-X standards. Buried installations shall be in accordance with SAES-L-051.

• The minimum cover in paved or otherwise stabilized areas shall be 450 mm (18 in.), or as required by SAES-L-046. The minimum cover under paved roads shall be 760 mm (30 in.).

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Sample Problem 2

You have been assigned to review the installation of

several new piping systems being installed at Ras Tanura. As part of your effort, you have been watching flange installation procedures being used by the

contractor. The particular flange being installed is 600

mm (24 in.) in diameter and has 24, 38 mm (1-1/2 in.)

diameter studs. The design pressure and temperature of the system are 3,103 kPa (450 psig) and 427°C (800°F) respectively, and is in a dangerous, hydrocarbon service. This is what you have observed:

• The flange make-up crew inspected the flange surfaces and used a wire brush to clean them.

• Flange alignment was measured and compared to the required acceptance criteria. No excessive force was used to bring the flanges into alignment.

• They are having difficulty keeping the gasket in place since the flange is in a horizontal pipe run. They solved this problem by using two strips of adhesive tape across the gasket and attached to the flange.

• The studs are inserted and the nuts finger tightened. Then three men take turns tightening each stud by hammering on a stud wrench with a 5 kg (10 lb.) hammer as hard as they can. Since the flange is fairly large and it is a very hot day, the men are tightening the studs in sequence around the flange to avoid moving from one side of the pipe to the other, and wasting time and energy.

Is this procedure acceptable?

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Solution

This crew started out doing the job right, but did not finish the job correctly. The following items are incorrect:

• Tape installed in the manner described will likely lead to leakage during operation. If tape is needed, it must be attached only to the edge of the gasket and not its face. However, if the gasket is a spiral- wound-type, there should be a centering ring to keep the gasket in place. If the gasket is a sheet- type, it should be cut so that its outside diameter just contacts the bolts to help center it.

• For the service described, it would be preferable if a torque wrench or stud tensioner was used for boltup to help achieve more uniform bolt stress. If a hammer and wrench is used, the highest force should not be immediately applied to each stud. It should be applied in increments.

• The studs should be tightened in a "criss-cross" bolting sequence.

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DETERMINING WHETHER ABOVEGROUND AND BURIED PIPING MEET INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

The piping fabrication requirements that were discussed earlier apply primarily to all carbon steel piping systems, but may be used for alloy piping as well, with some

modifications. For transportation piping, there are additional piping fabrication and installation requirements that the engineer must be able to identify when auditing a contractor's work. These requirements are located in SAES-L-051, which supplements ASME/ANSI B31.4 and B31.8. This section discusses some of the requirements that are established in ASME/ANSI B31.4 and SAES-L-

051. This information should not be used to replace the

standard for on-the-job applications. Work Aid 3

summarizes these requirements.

Vertical Profile

• A route drawing, detailed plan drawings, a piping and instrument diagram, a hydrostatic test diagram, and other drawings required per SAES-L-020 shall be issued by the Prime Engineering Office (PEO) and shall be the basis for installing the pipeline. The end of the pipeline, Station 0 + 00, shall be stated in the Scope of Work, and is normally the upstream end. A metric tape shall be used for the horizontal survey. Profile surveying shall be in meters and decimal fractions of a meter.

• The contractor shall determine the vertical profile of the pipeline, the amount of cover, the location and degree of elastic and preformed bends, and the locations of vents and drains in accordance with SAES-L-051 and the construction drawings. The change in slope of the pipeline at normal spacing of 30 m (100 ft.), and at intermediate stations as required, shall be calculated. The Saudi Aramco Construction Engineer shall approve the contractor's design.

• Saudi Aramco will typically do without predesigned vertical profile drawings, except at locations where there are steep slopes, or above- to belowground transitions that require special considerations. In all

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other cases, the required profile and required bends are determined during construction.

• The right-of-way shall be graded to a flat or smoothly rolling surface. Irregularities shall not obstruct access of construction equipment. Fills and cuts shall be made to reduce the number and/or magnitude of overbends and sagbends in the pipeline. Fill shall be provided to support construction equipment in Sabkha areas as required. The width of such fills and cuts shall not be less than the area to be stabilized, and the adjacent slopes shall not be steeper than one in four.

• If the pipeline construction will change the natural drainage pattern, either by the grading of the right- of-way or by a bermed-over cover, provisions shall be made to prevent washout of the pipeline cover by rain storms.

Elastic Bends

The maximum change in slope for elastic bends (bends that are made during installation that do not cause pipe yielding), shall be in accordance with the Project Specification or the Scope of Work. Larger changes of slope shall be made with preformed bends.

The pipeline design and stress analysis specifies the maximum permitted elastic-bend stress. If this is exceeded, yielding might occur at points of maximum combined stress during either the hydrotest or operations at higher temperatures. If the pipe must be yielded in order to conform to the required profile, it should be done in a pipe bending machine during construction to achieve adequate control and prevent possible ovaling, wrinkling or buckling.

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Preformed Bends

Preformed bends are made by a pipe-bending machine which has mandrels and/or dies for each pipe size. The machine causes a short length of the pipe to yield and conform to the radius of the die. The result is a local "bite" in the pipe. The required preformed bend is made by making a series of bites at regular spacings.

• Preformed bends shall be made by welding into the correct location of the string a length of pipe which has been bent with a smooth stretch-bending machine. No wrinkle bends or hot bends shall be used. At any point along a preformed bend, the pipe diameter shall not be reduced by more than 2- 1/2% of the nominal pipe diameter.

• Bends shall not be made closer than 600 mm (2 ft.) from a circumferential weld unless the weld is backwelded. The weld shall be radiographed after the bend is made. Making a bend closer to a nonbackwelded weld would introduce a high local stress at the weld. Radiographing the weld after bending will identify any weld defects caused by the bending.

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Preformed Bends for Aboveground Pipelines

The maximum permissible localized bend or "bite" at one place on the pipe and the minimum spacing of such bites are shown below:

Nominal Pipe Size mm (in.)

Minimum Bite Spacing mm (in.)

Maximum Bend per Bite, degrees

150

(6)

300 (12)

4.5

200

(8)

300 (12)

3.8

250

(10)

300 (12)

2.8

300

(12)

300 (12)

2.3

350

(14)

300 (12)

1.7

400

(16)

300 (12)

1.5

450

(18)

300 (12)

1.2

500

(20)

450 (18)

0.9

600

(24)

450 (18)

0.75

750

(30)

450 (18)

0.6

900 and larger (36 and larger)

450 (18)

0.5

• Vertical preformed bends shall be used when changes of slope are required which are larger than permissible using elastic bends. The preformed bend shall be welded into the string so that its center will be centered on the support at which the change in slope occurs. Movements of the string due to temperature changes after the location has been first established may be neglected. The maximum allowable angle of preformed bend per support in a 900 to 1,200 m (3,000 to 4,000 ft.) string shall decrease as the distance between the bend and either free end of the string increases, as shown below.

Distance From End of String, m (Ft.)

Degrees Per

Support

Change in Slope

0 to 60 (0 to 200)

10

0.1745

60 to 120 (200 to 400)

8

0.1396

120

to 180 (400 to 600)

6

0.1047

180

to 275 (600 to 900)

4

0.0698

• For aboveground restrained pipelines, the support design shall limit the angle of vertical bend per support to a maximum as indicated in the Project

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Drawings or Specifications. A deflection anchor force acts at bends in restrained pipelines. The bend angle affects the force that is transmitted to the support, and the support is designed for a maximum permitted force.

• For aboveground restrained pipelines, all horizontal deflections shall be made at deflection anchors or consist of a series of very large radius field bends held in special supports designed for horizontal thrust, as shown on the Project Drawings.

Preformed Bends for Buried Pipelines

• Unless there are space limitations, the bends for buried pipelines shall be long radius with maximum bend or "bite" at one place on the pipe of 0.50° and minimum spacing of such bites of 0.9 m (3 ft.) In order to use a more severe angle for a preformed bend, calculations, which consider expected temperature rise, weight of pipe, and fluid and cover, shall show that such a bend will be adequately restrained.

• Preformed horizontal bends shall normally consist of pipe joints with a maximum of 3° bend per joint corresponding to an overall bend radius of approximately 210 m (690 ft.) for a 12 m (40 ft.) long joint. In order to use a smaller radius, calculations must show that the bend will be adequately restrained.

• Vents shall be installed at the major high points of the vertical profile when required by the design per SAES-L-020. If temporary vents are used, nipples and valves shall be removed and bosses shall be plugged and seal welded after the hydrostatic test.

• Drains at the top of the line shall be installed at the major low points of the vertical profile when required by the design per SAES-L-020.

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Storage and Handling

• Slings for lifting pipe shall be nylon or similar material. Wire rope slings shall not be used without suitable protection. This is done to prevent high localized loads and possible pipe deformation, or damage to an external coating.

• Pipe shall not be rolled or dropped off trucks. The pipe handling procedure and equipment shall be approved by the Construction Engineer.

• Storage, handling, and installation of pipe that is externally coated with fusion-bonded epoxy or polyethylene shall be in accordance with SAES-H-

200.

• Internally coated pipe shall be handled from the outside (OD) only. This is to prevent damage to the internal coating caused by handling devices.

Installation of Aboveground Pipelines

• Each length of pipe shall be examined to make sure it is free from internal obstructions. Any obstructions shall be removed before the pipe is welded into a string. Pipelines typically require the use of scraper devices, and internal obstructions could prevent their free passage.

• Pipe joints shall be welded in accordance with SAES-W-001 and SAES-W-012 to form strings of 900 to 1,200 m (3,000 to 4,000 ft.). Pipe strings or portions thereof shall not be moved until all welds therein have been fully completed.

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• When open ends of pipeline strings are not attended, they shall be capped to prevent entry of foreign matter. Each string of the pipeline shall be cleaned to remove all debris. Except for internally coated pipe, each string shall be gaged by passing an internal gaging plate of not less than 90% of the inside diameter for pipe sizes smaller than 750 mm (30 in.), and 93% for pipe sizes larger than 750 mm (30 in.). Cleaning shall be done before pipeline valves are installed, or the soft seats of valves shall be protected against damage from debris.

• Support spacing and type shall be in accordance with the plan and the profile drawings in the Project Specification or the Scope of Work. Support elevations shall be maintained within ±6 mm (±1/4 in.). If support elevations are established during construction, the slope shall be calculated from the actual support elevations and distances.

• Ring girders shall be installed within ±6 mm (±1/4 in.) horizontal and vertical tolerances.

• Driven piles shall be coated to prevent corrosion and shall be driven in accordance with the Project Specification.

• Concrete supports shall use concrete in accordance with SAES-Q-001. The concrete shall have a minimum compressive strength of 20.7 MPa (3,000 psi) after 28 days. When supports are installed on fill, the fill shall be well compacted, shall be at least 1.8 m (6 ft.) in diameter, and shall be stabilized using marl or crude oil.

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Installation of Buried Pipelines

The first three points previously noted for the installation of aboveground pipelines apply to buried pipelines as well. The items that follow are in addition to these.

If

the pipeline crosses other buried lines or comes

within 30 m (100 ft.) of other buried steel installations, a Cathodic Protection Engineer shall determine if bonding stations are needed. All bonding stations shall be completed within seven days from the date the pipeline is covered with backfill. The as-built drawings shall indicate the other buried installations and any bonding stations. This is required to ensure that galvanic corrosion of the pipeline does not occur.

Buried installations that cross the pipeline route shall be located in advance of grading and digging ditches. The ditch bottom shall be surveyed to establish the elastic bends and preformed bends that are required in rolling terrain or when passing through dunes. When the pipe is lowered into the ditch, the pipe shall conform to the ditch bottom and must be substantially supported at all points. The maximum allowable unsupported length before backfilling is 3 m (10 ft.). Any larger voids shall be carefully backfilled. The minimum clearance between pipelines or between a pipeline and an obstruction shall be as specified in SAES-L-020, unless additional clearance is specified on the pipeline drawings.

Spot backfilling shall be used to restrain the pipe in the ditch after it has been lowered in. Spot backfill shall provide the full specified cover and shall cover all preformed bends for a distance of 6 m (20 ft.) to each side of the centers of the bends. The maximum clear distance between spot backfills shall be as specified by the project design. Spot backfills shall cover the pipe for at least 4.5 m (15 ft.) along the pipe.

LPG lines, gas lines, and oilwell flowlines shall have

a minimum cover of 900 mm (3 ft.). Other lines

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shall have a minimum cover of 600 mm (2 ft.). The cover is measured from the top of the pipe to the surface of the berm over the pipe centerline. Original grade shall be restored to adequate cover over the pipeline unless otherwise specified. Additional cover required at road or rail crossings shall be as noted on the drawings.

The specified minimum cover depth applies to uncultivated areas and designated pipeline corridors. The project design may specify a larger minimum cover in developed areas and/or specific locations.

• The project design shall specify where extra cover is required at vertical, horizontal, and composite- preformed bends based on bend radius and tie-in temperature to adequately restrain the buried pipeline. Such extra cover shall extend a minimum of 6 m (20 ft.) beyond a bent portion of pipe.

SAES-L-051 also specifies requirements for installation in sand areas, rock areas, and Sabkha areas.

Tie-in Temperature

The tie-in temperature must be measured because all thermal expansion or contraction takes place from the installation temperature. The pipeline design assumed a specific tie-in temperature range in making all stress and load calculations. Therefore, the piping installation must be made to conform to the assumptions that were made.

• A tie-in weld is each weld which connects a pipeline string to another string, to the pipeline under

construction, or to an anchor. The segment of the pipeline between tie-in points remains fully restrained at the tie-in temperature if shrinkage of the segment is prevented by adequate anchorage at

both ends.

variations during construction, one of the following will provide adequate anchorage:

For normal diurnal temperature

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- Full-thrust anchor.

- Intermediate anchor with a full string of pipe welded to each side of the anchor.

- Friction forces along the "tail": at least 450 m (1,500 ft.) of buried pipeline, a 900 to 1,200 m (3,000 - 4,000 ft.) string on wooden skids or sand, or 1,800-2,400 m (6,000 - 8,000 ft.) of pipe, a double string, resting on steel supports.

The Construction Engineer shall determine the highest practical tie-in temperature for each tie-in weld of a buried pipeline, and for each aboveground pipeline segment from one anchorage point to another. The tie-in temperature must be above the minimum or within the range stated in the Project Specification.

• The actual tie-in temperature shall be the average of two readings, one at the top and one at the bottom of the pipe. The temperature measuring device shall contact the pipe and shall be shielded from direct sunlight.

• The Contractor shall record all tie-in temperatures and the pipeline stations of the tie-ins.

• Specific methods of tie-in for buried pipelines, aboveground restrained pipelines, and aboveground nonrestrained pipelines are specified in

SAES-L-051.

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Cleanup and Records

Specific instructions for cleanup and record keeping are in SAES-L-051.

• Construction waste material shall be removed from the right-of-way as construction progresses.

• Records of tie-in temperature and all repairs shall be sent to the Prime Engineering Office.

• All survey data and as-built drawings shall be sent to the Prime Engineering Office. This includes:

- Bottom-of-line elevations and ground elevations at all 30 m (100 ft.) stations and at all preformed bends.

- The location and degree of all horizontal bends.

- The location and degree of all preformed sagbends and overbends.

- The location of all vents and drains.

- The identification, station, elevation, and size of all pipes which cross the pipeline and of any other buried steel within 30 m (100 ft.).

- The stations of all markers and cathodic protection facilities.

- All other data which should be included on a maintenance record profile, including the stations of block values, anchors, road crossings, and changes in the grade of the pipe, wall thickness and diameter.

- Safety Instruction Sheets per SAES-A-005.

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SUMMARY

This module discussed the requirements of piping fabrication as governed by Saudi Aramco Standards SAES-L-050, SAES-L-051, and 01-SAMSS-010, and the applicable ASME/ANSI B31 Codes. These requirements provide the engineer with quality control criteria to use for the fabrication and construction of piping systems for plants and cross-country pipelines.

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WORK AID 1:

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING WHETHER PIPING MEETS FABRICATION REQUIREMENTS

1. Review purchase order to determine if any special requirements were specified. Especially note any that are exceptions or additions to Saudi Aramco SAES or SAMSS requirements.

2. Confirm that Saudi Aramco Material System Specification 01-SAMSS-010, and ASME/ANSI B31.3, B31.4 or B31.8 are referenced, as appropriate. This will establish that the intent is to adhere to the requirements contained in these documents for items not specifically identified on the drawings. These references may appear in the general pipe fabrication and erection specification prepared for the project, rather than on each fabrication drawing.

3. Pipe Material Note: The following checklist items assume that there are no acceptable deviations from 01-SAMSS-010, and that the material is carbon steel.

• API 5L, Grade B through X60.

• ASTM A53, Seamless Grade B, black.

• ASTM A106, Grade B.

4. Nipples

• Material same as pipe.

• Schedule 80 minimum thickness.

• Threading per ASME/ANSI B1.20.1 taper pipe thread.

5. Flanges

• Weld-neck- or blind-type, unless otherwise specified in Purchase Order.

• ASME/ANSI B16.5, ASTM A350, LF2 material, unless otherwise specified in Purchase Order, based on SAES-L-009 or 02-SAMSS-011

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requirements.

• MSS-SP-44 if not specified by ASME/ANSI B16.5 or Standard Drawing.

WORK AID 1:

Fabrication Requirements, Cont’d

Procedure for Determining Whether Piping Meets

6. Pipe Fittings

• Butt-welding fittings shall be used for nominal pipe sizes 50 mm (2 in.) and larger, conforming to 02-SAMSS-005. Material grade and nominal

wall thickness shall be the same or equal to

adjoining pipe. The following applies for carbon

steel pipe:

Pipe Material

Fitting Material

A106, Gr. B; A53, Gr. B; or API 5L, Gr. B

ASTM A234/A234M, Gr. WPB, plus additional requirements of

02-SAMSS-005

API 5L, Gr. X42 through X65

MSS SP75, plus additional requirements of 02-SAMSS-005

• Forged steel threaded or socket-welding fittings shall conform to ANSI B16.11, pressure class 3000, and unions shall conform to MSS-SP-83. These may be used for pipe sizes less than 50

mm (2 in.). ASTM A105 shall be used for carbon

steel piping systems.

7. Steel Plate for Reinforcements and Structural Attachments

• Must be listed in the applicable code and have an SMYS of at least 207 MPa (30,000 psi).

8. Mitered Joints

• Maximum angular offset of 3° unless otherwise specified and approved.

9. Ends for Field Welding

• Same alignment tolerance as above. Note if extra length added to permit cut back for field

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adjustment.

• Weld-end bevel 35° ± 5°.

• 1.5 mm (1/16 in.) root face.

• End-plane normal to pipe axis within 0.25°.

WORK AID 1:

Fabrication Requirements, Cont’d

Procedure for Determining Whether Piping Meets

10. General Dimensional Tolerances

• Maximum lateral translation of branch

connections from centerline of run to be ± 1.5

mm

(± 1/16 in.).

• tolerance for axial dimensions, face-to-face,

The

center-to-face, and location of attachments shall

be ± 3 mm (± 1/8 in.).

• Flange rotation measured as the offset between bolt-hole elevations on opposite sides of a flange centerline shall not exceed ± 1.5 mm (± 1/16 in.).

• Flange tilt measured at the periphery across any diameter shall not exceed 1 mm (1/32 in.) from the square position.

11. Piping Over 75 mm (3 in.) Size Connected to Machinery.

Flange alignment to be within following limits:

a. Vertical bolt-hole offset:

± 0.5 mm (± 1/64 in.).

b. Horizontal bolt-hole offset:

± 0.5 mm (± 1/64 in.).

c. Rotational offset:

± 0.5 mm (± 1/64 in.).

d. Flange-face tilt across diameter:

in.).

± 0.5 mm (± 1/64

e. Flange-face separation, gasket thickness:

± 0.5 mm (± 1/64 in.).

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WORK AID 1:

Fabrication Requirements, Cont’d

Procedure for Determining Whether Piping Meets

12.

Bends

• Maximum dimension of flat spot, d:

d =

2tD
2tD

t

=

Nominal wall thickness

d

=

Nominal pipe diameter

• Maximum difference between largest and smallest diameter to be 5% of nominal pipe diameter at any point in the bend, and 3% of the nominal pipe diameter at the ends.

• Minimum thickness after bending not less than specified in purchase order.

• Minimum centerline radius to be five times nominal diameter.

• Bend no closer than the smaller of 1 1/2 times the nominal pipe diameter or 600 mm (2 ft.) from circumferential weld.

• Bend tolerances as follows, unless otherwise

specified:

- ±0.5° on bend angle

- ±1% on bend radius

• For pipeline:

- Maximum localized bend at one place for

aboveground, preformed bend per SAES-L-

051.

- Maximum vertical angle per support for

aboveground, preformed bend per SAES-L-

051.

• For buried preformed bends:

- Maximum localized bend at one place to be 0.5° at a minimum spacing of 0.9 m (3 ft.).

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- Maximum horizontal angle of 3° bend per pipe joint resulting in approximate bend radius of 210 m (690 ft.) for a 12 m (40 ft.) long joint.

WORK AID 1:

Fabrication Requirements, Cont’d

Procedure for Determining Whether Piping Meets

13. For Pipelines:

• Support elevations: ±6 mm(±1/4 in.) from specified value.

• Ring Girders: installed within ±6 mm (±1/4 in.) of horizontal and vertical positions specified.

14. Weld-type vs. Usage

• Butt-Weld — Circumferential welds between pipe ends, between pipe ends and butt-welded fittings or welded-neck flanges, plate edges formed to form pipe.

• Fillet Weld — Socket-welded connections, slip- on flanges, branch connection reinforcing pads, and nonpressure containing attachments to pipe.

15. Welding Steps Review

• General conformance to appropriate ASME/ANSI B31 and Saudi Aramco requirements

• Meet requirements of SAES-W-001, and SAES- W-011 or SAES-W-012, as required

• Welding procedure qualification

• Welder and welding equipment qualification

• Cleaning

• End preparation

• Preheat

• Postweld heat treatment

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WORK AID 2:

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING WHETHER METALLIC PLANT PIPING MEETS INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

1. Confirm that all pipe storage and handling requirements are being followed.

2. Review specified pipe fitup requirements and installation tolerances, and confirm that they meet ASME/ANSI B31.3 and SAES-L-050 requirements.

3. Confirm that the more stringent installation tolerances for piping connected to load-sensitive equipment are being met.

4. Review flange installation procedures and confirm that they meet accepted practices. This includes the following:

a.

Inspect gasket seating surfaces and resurface as required.

b.

Clean gasket seating surfaces.

c

Align flanges to within required tolerances.

d.

Lubricate threads and nuts.

e.

Place gasket properly.

f.

Use proper boltup procedure.

• Criss-cross bolt-tightening sequence

• Gradually increase bolt load applied

• Use torque wrench or stud tensioner for critical, high-temperature, or high-pressure services.

5. Confirm that pipe spool pieces and assemblies have been properly cleaned.

6. Buried installations to meet corrosion protection and cover requirements specified in SAES-L-050.

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WORK AID 3:

PROCEDURE FOR DETERMINING WHETHER ABOVEGROUND AND BURIED PIPELINES MEET INSTALLATION REQUIREMENTS

1. Confirm that all required drawings have been issued, and that they meet project requirements.

2. Right-of-way to be graded to a flat or smoothly rolling surface.

3. Check width and slope of fills and cuts.

4. Confirm that the resulting drainage patterns are acceptable.

5. Check that specification and location of elastic and preformed bends are in accordance with SAES-L-

051.

6. Confirm that pipe storage and handling provisions are acceptable.

7. Confirm that installation details of aboveground and buried pipelines meet requirements of SAES-L-051.

8. Measure and record tie-in temperature. Confirm that it meets project requirements.

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GLOSSARY

arc cutting

Use of an electric arc generated at the tip of a welding electrode to cut metal.

backing ring

A relatively narrow, circular section placed in back of a butt-welded joint prior to making the root pass of the weld. This is done to achieve a full-penetration weld when the back side of the weld joint cannot be accessed.

bolt tensioner

A mechanical device used to tighten bolts by applying a uniform, calibrated load. It attaches to the end of the bolt, stretches it by applying a load, and then permits easy turning down of the nut to hold the load in the bolt.

pipe joint

This word has two meanings depending on the context. (a) The interface between two components, such as at a weld, flange, or threads. (b) In pipeline applications, a single section of straight pipe before being welded into a longer section.

radiography

The use of radiant energy in the form of neutrons, x-rays or gamma rays for the nondestructive examination of opaque objects. It produces graphical records on sensitized films which indicate the comparative soundness of the object being tested.

root pass

The first weld bead made.

slag

A nonmetallic blanket that forms on the top of the molten weld metal. It helps to control the temperature, the cooling rate, and assists in preventing and removing impurities from the weld metal.

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union

A pipe connector that is made of two mating pieces, one for each end of the two pipes being joined. The two halves of the union are held together by a threaded ring.

water quenching

Rapid reduction of metal temperature after a hot forming process by using water.

weld

A localized union of metal achieved in plastic and molten states, with or without the addition of filler metal or application of pressure.

wrinkle

A deviation of the pipewall from the ideal contour of more than 15% of the nominal wall thickness perpendicular to the surface.