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Apparecchi di sollevamento
SPECIFICA Criteri generali per il progetto UNI CEN/TS
TECNICA Parte 3-1: Stati limite e verifica della sicurezza delle strutture di 13001-3-1
acciaio

SETTEMBRE 2005

Cranes
General design
Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel structures

La specifica tecnica specifica, con le parti 1 e 2, le condizioni gene-


rali, i requisiti e i metodi per prevenire pericoli di natura meccanica
degli apparecchi di sollevamento attraverso il progetto e le verifiche
teoriche.

TESTO INGLESE

La presente specifica tecnica è la versione ufficiale in lingua


inglese della specifica tecnica europea CEN/TS 13001-3-1 (edi-
zione dicembre 2004).

ICS 53.020.20

UNI © UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano Riproduzione vietata. Tutti i diritti sono riservati. Nessuna parte del presente documento
di Unificazione può essere riprodotta o diffusa con un mezzo qualsiasi, fotocopie, microfilm o altro, senza
Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B il consenso scritto dell’UNI.
20133 Milano, Italia www.uni.com

UNI CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005 Pagina I


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PREMESSA
La presente specifica tecnica costituisce il recepimento, in lingua in-
glese, della specifica tecnica europea CEN/TS 13001-3-1 (edizione
dicembre 2004), che assume così lo status di specifica tecnica na-
zionale italiana.

La scadenza del periodo di validità del CEN/TS 13001-3-1 è stata


fissata inizialmente dal CEN per dicembre 2007. Eventuali osserva-
zioni sulla specifica tecnica devono pervenire all’UNI entro dicem-
bre 2006.

La presente specifica tecnica è stata elaborata sotto la competenza


della Commissione Tecnica UNI
Apparecchi di sollevamento e relativi accessori

La presente norma è stata ratificata dal Presidente dell’UNI ed è en-


trata a far parte del corpo normativo nazionale il 14 settembre 2005.

Le norme UNI sono elaborate cercando di tenere conto dei punti di vista di tutte le parti
interessate e di conciliare ogni aspetto conflittuale, per rappresentare il reale stato
dell’arte della materia ed il necessario grado di consenso.
Chiunque ritenesse, a seguito dell’applicazione di questa norma, di poter fornire sug-
gerimenti per un suo miglioramento o per un suo adeguamento ad uno stato dell’arte
in evoluzione è pregato di inviare i propri contributi all’UNI, Ente Nazionale Italiano di
Unificazione, che li terrà in considerazione per l’eventuale revisione della norma stessa.

Le norme UNI sono revisionate, quando necessario, con la pubblicazione di nuove edizioni o
di aggiornamenti.
È importante pertanto che gli utilizzatori delle stesse si accertino di essere in possesso
dell’ultima edizione e degli eventuali aggiornamenti.
Si invitano inoltre gli utilizzatori a verificare l’esistenza di norme UNI corrispondenti alle
norme EN o ISO ove citate nei riferimenti normativi.

UNI CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2005 © UNI Pagina II


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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION CEN/TS 13001-3-1


SPÉCIFICATION TECHNIQUE
TECHNISCHE SPEZIFIKATION December 2004

ICS 53.020.20

English version

Cranes - General design - Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of


competence of steel structures

Appareils de levage à charge suspendue - Conception Krane - Konstruktion allgemein - Teil 3-1: Grenzzustände
générale - Partie 3-1: Etats limites et vérification d'aptitude und Sicherheitsnachweis von Stahltragwerken
des structures métalliques

This Technical Specification (CEN/TS) was approved by CEN on 25 November 2003 for provisional application.

The period of validity of this CEN/TS is limited initially to three years. After two years the members of CEN will be requested to submit their
comments, particularly on the question whether the CEN/TS can be converted into a European Standard.

CEN members are required to announce the existence of this CEN/TS in the same way as for an EN and to make the CEN/TS available
promptly at national level in an appropriate form. It is permissible to keep conflicting national standards in force (in parallel to the CEN/TS)
until the final decision about the possible conversion of the CEN/TS into an EN is reached.

CEN members are the national standards bodies of Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France,
Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia,
Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and United Kingdom.

EUROPEAN COMMITTEE FOR STANDARDIZATION


COMITÉ EUROPÉEN DE NORMALISATION
EUROPÄISCHES KOMITEE FÜR NORMUNG

Management Centre: rue de Stassart, 36 B-1050 Brussels

© 2004 CEN All rights of exploitation in any form and by any means reserved Ref. No. CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004: E
worldwide for CEN national Members.
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Contents Page

Introduction .............................................................................................................................................5
1 Scope...........................................................................................................................................5
2 Normative references...................................................................................................................5
3 Terms and definitions ..................................................................................................................6
4 General ......................................................................................................................................10
4.1 Materials ....................................................................................................................................10
4.1.1 Structural members...................................................................................................................10
4.1.2 Connecting devices ...................................................................................................................13
4.2 Bolt connections........................................................................................................................13
4.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................13
4.2.2 Shear and bearing connections .................................................................................................13
4.2.3 Slip resistant connections .........................................................................................................13
4.2.4 Connections loaded in tension..................................................................................................14
4.3 Pin connections.........................................................................................................................14
4.4 Welded connections ..................................................................................................................14
4.5 Proofs of structural members and connections.........................................................................14
5 Proof of static strength..............................................................................................................14
5.1 General ......................................................................................................................................14
5.2 Limit design stresses and forces...............................................................................................15
5.2.1 General ......................................................................................................................................15
5.2.2 Limit design stress in structural members ................................................................................15
5.2.3 Limit design forces in bolt connections.....................................................................................16
5.2.4 Limit design forces in pins ........................................................................................................22
5.2.5 Limit design stresses in welded connections............................................................................24
5.3 Execution of the proof ...............................................................................................................25
5.3.1 Proof for structural members ....................................................................................................25
5.3.2 Proof for bolt connections .........................................................................................................26
5.3.3 Proof for pin connections..........................................................................................................26
5.3.4 Proof for welded connections....................................................................................................27
6 Proof of fatigue strength............................................................................................................27
6.1 General ......................................................................................................................................27
6.2 Limit design stresses.................................................................................................................28
6.2.1 Characteristic values of the stress range ..................................................................................28
6.2.2 Weld quality...............................................................................................................................30
6.2.3 Effect of test loads.....................................................................................................................30
6.2.4 Requirements for fatigue testing ...............................................................................................31
6.3 Classes S of stress history parameter s....................................................................................31
6.3.1 Simplified method based on service conditions ........................................................................31
6.3.2 Selection based on experience..................................................................................................35
6.4 Execution of the proof ...............................................................................................................35
6.5 Determination of the permissible stress range ..........................................................................36
6.5.1 Applicable methods...................................................................................................................36
6.5.2 Direct use of stress history parameter ......................................................................................36
6.5.3 Use of class S............................................................................................................................36
7 Proof of static strength of hollow section girder joints..............................................................38
8 Proof of elastic stability.............................................................................................................38
Annex A (normative) Values of inverse slope of σ /N-curve m and permissible stress range ∆σ c, ∆τ c ..39
Annex B (informative) Guidance for selection of classes S due to experience .....................................54

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Annex C (normative) Calculated values of permissible stress range ∆σ Rd ............................................55


Annex D (normative) Design weld stress σ W,Sd and τW,Sd .......................................................................57
D.1 Butt joint ....................................................................................................................................57
D.2 Fillet weld and groove weld with uniform distributed load.........................................................58
D.3 Relevant distribution length under punctiform load ..................................................................59
Annex E (informative) Hollow Sections .................................................................................................60
Annex F (informative) Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application ...............71
Annex ZA (informative) Relationship between this European Standard and the Essential Requirements
of EU Directive 98/37/EC ............................................................................................................72
Bibliography ..........................................................................................................................................73

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Foreword
This document (CEN/TS 13000-3.1:2004) has been prepared by Technical Committee CEN/TC 147 “Cranes —
Safety”, the secretariat of which is held by BSI.

This document has been prepared under a mandate given to CEN by the European Commission and the European
Free Trade Association, and supports essential requirements of EU Directive 98/37/EC, amended by 98/79/EC.

According to the CEN/CENELEC Internal Regulations, the national standards organisations of the following
countries are bound to announce this Technical Specification: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark,
Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latavia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta,
Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom.

This European Standard is one Part of EN 13001. The other parts are as follows:

Part 1: General principles and requirements

Part 2: Load actions

The annexes A, C and D are normative. The annexes B, E and F are informative.

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Introduction

This European Standard has been prepared to be a harmonised standard to provide one means for the mechanical
design and theoretical verification of cranes to conform with the essential health and safety requirements of the
Machinery Directive, as amended. This standard also establishes interfaces between the user (purchaser) and the
designer, as well as between the designer and the component manufacturer, in order to form a basis for selecting
cranes and components.

This European Standard is a type C standard as stated in EN 1070.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards, hazardous situations and events are covered are
indicated in the scope of this document.

When provisions of this type C standard are different from those which are stated in type A or B standards, the
provisions of this type C standard take precedence over the provisions of the other standards, for machines that
have been designed and built according to the provisions of this type C standard.

The machinery concerned and the extent to which hazards are covered are indicated in the scope of this standard.

1 Scope
This European Standard is to be used together with Part 1 and Part 2 and as such they specify general conditions,
requirements and methods to prevent mechanical hazards of cranes by design and theoretical verification.

NOTE Specific requirements for particular types of crane are given in the appropriate European Standard for the particular
crane type.

The following is a list of significant hazardous situations and hazardous events that could result in risks to persons
during normal use and foreseeable misuse. Clauses 4 to 8 of this standard are necessary to reduce or eliminate
the risks associated with the following hazards:

a) Exceeding the limits of strength (yield, ultimate, fatigue);

b) Exceeding temperature limits of material or components;

c) Elastic instability of the crane or its parts (buckling, bulging).

This European Standard is applicable to cranes which are manufactured after the date of approval by CEN of this
standard and serves as reference base for the European Standards for particular crane types.

NOTE prCEN/TS 13001-3-1 deals only with limit state method according to EN 13001-1.

As an alternative to the herein presented limit state method using partial safety factors, the allowable stress method
using a global safety factor according to Part 1 and Part 2 may also be applied for special crane systems with linear
behaviour.

As crane structures are basically dynamically loaded only the linear theory of elasticity is applicable and only limited
local plasticity is allowed. The use of the theory of plasticity for calculation of ultimate load bearing capacity is not
allowed.

2 Normative references
This European Standard incorporates by dated or undated reference, provisions from other publications. These

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

normative references are cited at the appropriate places in the text, and the publications are listed hereafter. For
dated references, subsequent amendments to or revisions of, any of these publications apply to this European
Standard only when incorporated in it by amendment or revision. For undated references the latest edition of the
publication referred to applies (including amendments).

EN 1070:1998, Safety of machinery — Terminology.

EN 1990-1:2002, Eurocode – Basic of structural design

EN 1993-1-1:1992: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings.

EN 10025:1990/A1:1993, Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels — Technical delivery conditions
(includes amendment A1:1993).

EN 10045-1:1989, Charpy impact test on metallic material — Part 1: Test method.

EN 10113-1:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels — Part 1: General delivery conditions.

EN 10113-2:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels — Part 2: Delivery conditions for
normalized/normalized rolled steels.

EN 10113-3:1993, Hot-rolled products in weldable fine grain structural steels — Part 3: Delivery conditions for
thermomechanical rolled steels.

EN 10137-2:1995, Plates and wide flats made of high yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered
or precipitation hardened conditions — Part 2: Delivery conditions for quenched and tempered steels.

EN 10149-1:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming — Part 1: General
delivery conditions.

EN 10149-2:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming — Part 2: Delivery
conditions for thermomechanically rolled steels.

EN 10149-3:1995, Hot-rolled flat products made of high yield strength steels for cold forming — Part 3: Delivery
conditions for normalized or normalized rolled steels.

EN 10164:1993, Steel products with improved deformation properties perpendicular to the surface of the product —
Technical delivery conditions.

EN 12345:1996, Welding — Multilingual terms for welding joints with illustrations (trilingual version).

EN 13001-1:2004, Cranes — General Design — Part 1:General principles and requirements.

EN 13001-2:2004, Cranes — General Design — Part 2: Load actions.

EN 22553:1994, Welded, brazed and soldered joints — Symbolic representation on drawings (ISO 2553:1992).

EN 25817:1992, Arc-welded joints in steel — Guidance on quality levels for imperfections (ISO 5817:1992).

EN ISO 898-1:1999, Mechanical properties of fasteners — Part 1: Bolts, screws and studs (ISO 898-1:1999).

EN ISO 9013:2002, Thermal cutting — Classification of thermal cuts — Geometrical specification and quality
tolerances (ISO 9013:2002).

EN ISO 12100-1:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 1: Basic
terminology, methodology (ISO 12100-1:2003).

EN ISO 12100-2:2003, Safety of machinery — Basic concepts, general principles for design — Part 2: Technical
principles and specifications (ISO 12100-2:2003).

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

ISO 286-2:1990, ISO system of limits and fits — Part 2: Tables of standard tolerance grades and limit deviations for
holes and shafts.

ISO 4306-1:1990, Cranes — Vocabulary — Part 1: General.

3 Terms and definitions


3.1
Terms and definitions
For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms and definitions given in EN 292-1, EN 292-2 and EN 1070
and the basic list of definitions as provided in EN 1990-1 apply. For the definitions of loads, clause 6 of
ISO 4306-1:1990 applies.

3.2
Symbols and abbreviations
The symbols and abbreviations used in this Part of the EN 13001 are given in Table 1.

Table 1 — Symbols and abbrevations

Symbols,
Description
abbreviations
A cross section
AS stress area of a bolt
ar relevant weld thickness
D o , Di outer, inner diameter of hollow pin
d diameter (shank of bolt, pin)
do diameter of hole
e1, e2 distances
Fb tensile force in bolt
Fd limit force
FK characteristic value (force)
Fp preloading force in bolt
FRd limit design force
Ft external force (on bolted connection)
Fb, Rd limit design bearing force
Fb, Sd ; Fbi, Sd design bearing force
Fp, d design preloading force
Fs, Rd limit design slip force per bolt and friction interface
Ft, Rd limit design tensile force in bolt
Fv, Rd limit design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
Fv, Sd design shear force per bolt/pin and shear plane
Fσ,τ acting normal/shear force
fd limit stress
fK characteristic value (stress)
fRd limit design stress

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Table 1 (continued)

Symbols,
Description
abbreviations
fu ultimate strength of material
fub ultimate strength of bolts
fw, Rd limit design weld stress
fy yield point of material
fyb yield point of bolts
fyk yield point (nominal value) of material or member
fyp yield point of pins
Gt mass of the moving crane parts during a representative working cycle
h distance between weld and contact area of acting load
Kb stiffness (slope) of bolt
Kc stiffness (slope) of flanges
k* specific spectrum ratio factor
k(m) stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration
k(m=3) stress spectrum factor based on m = 3
lr relevant weld length
lW weld length
MRd limit design bending moment
MSd design bending moment
m inverse slope of σ/N-curve
NC notch class
min σ, max σ extreme values of stresses
PS probability of survival
p1, p2 distances
Q mass of the maximum hoist load
q impact toughness parameter
Rd design resistance
r radius of wheel
Sd design strain
s(m) stress history parameter
T temperature
t thickness
W el elastic section modulus
α characteristic factor for bearing connection

αw characteristic factor for limit weld stress


γm general resistance coefficient

γMf fatigue strength specific resistance factor

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Table 1 (concluded)
Symbols,
Description
abbreviations
γp partial safety factor
γR resulting resistance coefficient

γS specific resistance factor

γRb resulting resistance coefficient of bolt


γsb specific resistance factor of bolt
γRm resulting resistance coefficient of members
γsm specific resistance factor of members
γRp resulting resistance coefficient of pins
γsp specific resistance factor of pins
γRs resulting resistance coefficient of slip-resistance connection
γss specific resistance factor of slip-resistance connection
γRw resulting resistance coefficient of welding connection
γsw specfic resistance factor of welding connection
φ2 dynamic factor
κ spread angle
λ width of contact area in weld direction
δp elongation from preloading
∆Fb additional force
∆δ additional elongation
µ slip factor
∆σc characteristic value of stress range (normal stress)
∆τc characteristic value of stress range (shear stress)
σSd design stress (normal)
τSd design stress (shear)
σw, Sd design weld stress (normal)
τw, Sd design weld stress (shear)
∆σRd permissible (limit) stress range (normal)
∆σRd,1 permissible stress range for k* = 1
∆τRd permissible (limit) stress range (shear)
∆σSd design stress range (normal)
∆τSd design stress range (shear)

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

4 General

4.1 Materials

4.1.1 Structural members

European Standards specify materials and specific values. This standard gives a preferred selection.

For structural members, steel according to following European Standards should be used:

⎯ Non-alloy structural steels EN 10025.

⎯ Weldable fine grain structural steels in conditions:

⎯ normalised (N) EN 10113-2;

⎯ thermomechanical (M) EN 10113-3.

⎯ High yield strength structural steels in the quenched and tempered condition EN 10137-2.

⎯ High yield strength steels for cold forming in conditions:

⎯ thermomechanical (M) EN 10149-2;

⎯ normalised (N) EN 10149-3.

Table 2 shows specific values for the nominal value of strength fu, fy and limit design stress fRd (see 5.2). For more
information see the specific European Standard.

Grades and qualities other than those mentioned in the above standards and in Table 2 can be used if the
mechanical properties and the chemical composition are guaranteed by the manufacturer and conform to the
relevant European Standard. If necessary, the weldability shall be demonstrated by the steel manufacturer.

When selecting grade and quality of the steel for tensile members, the sum of impact toughness parameters qi shall
be taken into account. Table 3 gives the impact toughness parameters qi for various influences. Table 4 gives the
required steel quality and impact energy/test temperature in dependence of Σqi. Grades and qualities of steel other
than mentioned in Table 4 may be used, if the steel manufacturer guarantees and certifies an impact energy/test
temperature, tested according to EN 10045-1.

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Table 2 — Specific values of steels for structural members

Limit design stress


Nominal strength
for γ Rm=1,1
Thickness t
Steel Standard fy fu
(mm) fRd, normal fRd, shear
yield ultimate 2 2
2 2 (N/mm ) (N/mm )
(N/mm ) (N/mm )
t≤16 235 214 123
16<t≤40 225 205 118
S235 340
40<t≤100 215 195 113
100<t≤150 195 177 102
t≤16 275 250 144
16<t≤40 265 241 139
40<t≤63 255 232 134
S275 430
63<t≤80 245 223 129
EN 10025 235 214 123
80<t≤100
100<t≤150 225 205 118

t≤16 355 323 186


16<t≤40 345 314 181
40<t≤63 335 305 176
S355 490
63<t≤80 325 296 171
80<t≤100 315 287 166
100<t≤150 295 268 155

t<16 355 323 186


16<t≤40 345 314 181
40<t≤63 335 305 176
S355 450
63<t≤80 (N) 325 295 171
80<t≤100 (N) 315 286 165
100<t≤150 (N) 295 268 155

t<16 420 382 220


EN 10113-2 16<t≤40 400 364 210
(N)
40<t≤63 390 355 205
S420 500
63<t≤80 (N) 370 336 194
EN 10113-3
80<t≤100 (N) 360 327 189
(M)
100<t≤150 (N) 340 309 178
t<16 460 418 241
16<t≤40 440 400 231
S460 40<t≤63 430 391 226
530
63<t≤80 (N) 410 373 215
80<t≤100 (N) 400 364 210
3<t≤50 460 418 241
S460 550
50<t≤100 440 400 231
3<t≤50 500 455 262
S500 590
50<t≤100 480 436 252
3<t≤50 550 500 289
S550 640
50<t≤100 530 482 278
EN 10137-2 3<t≤50 620 564 325
S620 700
50<t≤100 580 527 304
3<t≤50 690 770 627 362
S690
50<t≤100 650 760 591 341
3<t≤50 890 940 809 467
S890
50<t≤100 830 880 755 436
S960 3<t≤50 960 980 873 504

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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

Table 2 (concluded)

Limit design stress


Nominal strength
for γ Rm =1,1
Thickness
Steel Standard fy fu
t (mm) fRd, normal fRd, shear
yield ultimate
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)
(N/mm2) (N/mm2)
S315 315 390 286 165

S355 355 430 323 186

S420 420 480 382 220

S460 (M) 460 520 418 241


all t 500 455 262
S500 (M) EN 10149–2 550
(M)

550 500 289


S550 (M) 600
EN 10149-3
(N)
S600 (M) 600 650 545 315

t≤8 650 591 341


S650 (M) 700
t>8 630 573 331

t≤8 700 636 367


S700 (M) 750
t>8 680 618 357

Table 3 — Impact toughness parameters qi


i Influence qi
0
0≤T

1 Temperature T (°C) -20 ≤ T < 0 1


-40 ≤ T < -20 2
-50 ≤ T < -40 4
fy ≤ 300 0
300 < fy ≤ 460 1
2
2 Yield point fy (N/mm ) 460 < fy ≤ 700 2
700<fy ≤ 1 000 3
1 000<fy 4
Material thickness t (mm) t ≤ 10 0
Equivalent thickness t for solid bars: 10 < t ≤ 20 1
20 < t ≤ 50 2

3 50 < t ≤ 100 3

d b b
t= for < 1,8 : t = t > 100 4
1,8 h 1,8
∆σc > 125 0
Stress concentration and notch class ∆σc 80 < ∆σc ≤ 125 1
4 2
(N/mm ) (see annex A and annex E) 56< ∆σc ≤ 80 2
∆σc ≤ 56 3

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Table 4 — Impact toughness requirement and corresponding steel quality for ∑ qi

∑ qi ≤ 3 4 ≤ ∑ qi ≤ 6 7 ≤ ∑ qi ≤ 9 ∑ qi ≥ 10
Impact energy/ test
temperature 27 J / +20°C 27 J / 0°C 27 J / -20°C 27 J / -40°C
requirement

EN 10025 JR J0 J2 a)

EN 10113 N, M N, M N, M NL, ML

EN 10137-2 Q Q Q QL

EN 10149 NC, MC NC, MC NC, MC a)

a) May be used if the steel manufacturer guarantees and certifies an impact energy/test temperature of at least 27 J at
–40 °C, tested according to EN 10045-1.

4.1.2 Connecting devices

For bolt connections bolts of the property classes 4.6, 5.6, 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9 according to EN ISO 898-1 shall be
used. Nominal values of the strengths:

Table 5 — Property classes

Property class 4.6 5.6 8.8 10.9 12.9


2
fyb (N/mm ) 240 300 640 900 1 080
2
fub (N/mm ) 400 500 800 1 000 1 200

4.2 Bolt connections

4.2.1 General

For the purpose of this standard bolt connections are specified as connections, where

⎯ bolts are tightened and thus compress the joint surfaces together;

⎯ the joint surfaces are secured against rotation (e. g. by using multiple bolts).

4.2.2 Shear and bearing connections

Connections with fitted bolts, where

⎯ the loads act perpendicular to the bolt axis and cause shear and bearing stresses in the bolts;

⎯ clearance between bolt and hole shall be according to ISO 286-2 tolerances h13 and H11;

⎯ at maximum 10 % of the clamping length may be covered by the threaded part of the bolt;

⎯ special surface treatment of the contact surfaces is not required.

4.2.3 Slip resistant connections

Connections with high strength bolts of property classes 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9, where

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⎯ the loads are transmitted by friction between the joint surfaces;

⎯ bolts are tightened by a controlled method to the full preloading state;

⎯ the surface condition of the contact surfaces shall be specified and taken into account accordingly.

4.2.4 Connections loaded in tension

Connections with high strength bolts of property classes 8.8, 10.9 or 12.9, where

⎯ the loads act in the direction of the bolt axis and cause axial stresses in the bolts;

⎯ bolts are tightened by a controlled method to the full preloading state;

⎯ fatigue assessment of the bolts shall be done considering the structural features of the joint, e. g. stiffness of
the connected parts and the leverage action caused by the joint geometry;

⎯ an even contact over the whole intended contact area of the joint shall be ensured.

4.3 Pin connections

Pin connections are regarded as connections that allow turning of the connected parts.

4.4 Welded connections

Terms for welded joints shall be as given in EN 12345. Symbolic representation on drawings shall be according to
EN 22553.

4.5 Proofs of structural members and connections

It has to be proven that the strains S d do not exceed the resistances Rd :

S d ≤ Rd (1)

The strains Sd shall be determined by applying the loads, load combinations and partial safety factors according
Table 10 of EN 13001-2.

In the following clauses, the resistances Rd are presented as limit stresses f d or limit forces Fd .

For the ultimate limit state, the following proofs shall be delivered:

⎯ proof of strength of structural members and connections under quasi-static stress according to 5;

⎯ proof of fatigue strength according to 6;

⎯ proof of strength of hollow section girder joints under quasi-static stress according to 7;

⎯ proof of elastic stability of structural members and special elements according to 8.

5 Proof of static strength

5.1 General

The proof of strength under quasi-static stress protects against excessive deformations due to yielding of the
material or sliding of friction-grip connections as well as against static rupture of structural members or connections.
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CEN/TS 13001-3-1:2004 (E)

The proof shall be delivered for structural members and connections taking into account the most unfavourable
load effects from the load combinations A, B or C according to Table 10 of EN 13001-2: and applying the
resistances according to 5.2.

5.2 Limit design stresses and forces

5.2.1 General

The limit design stresses and forces shall be calculated by:

Limit design stresses f Rd = function ( f k , γ R ) or

(2)
Limit design forces FRd = function ( Fk , γ R )

where

f k or Fk are characteristic values (or nominal values)

γR is the resulting resistance coefficient γ R = γ m ⋅γ s

γm is the resistance coefficient γ m = 1,1 (see Table 10 of EN 13001-2)

γs is the general specific resistance coefficient for special parts of this standard

NOTE f Rd and FRd are equivalent to R/γ m in Figure 2 of EN 13001-1.

5.2.2 Limit design stress in structural members

The limit design stress f Rd , used for the design of structural members, shall be calculated by:

f yk
f Rd = for normal stresses (3)
γ Rm

f yk
f Rd = for shear stresses (4)
γ Rm 3

with γRm = γm⋅γsm

where

f yk is the nominal value of the yield point of the material (see Table 2)

γsm is the specific resistance coefficient for material as follows:

For non-rolled material

γ sm =1,0

For rolled materials (e. g. plates and profiles):

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γ sm = 1,0 for stresses in the plane of rolling

γ sm = 1,0 for compressive and shear stresses

For tensile stresses perpendicular to the plane of rolling (see Figure 1):

γ sm = 1,0 for material in quality classes Z25 or Z35 according to EN 10164

γ sm = 1,16 for material in quality class Z15 according to EN 10164

γ sm = 1,34 without quality classification

Figure 1 — Tensile load perpendicular to plane of rolling

Hence follow the limit design stresses, which are dependent on the material and the kind of stressing which are
given in Table 2.

5.2.3 Limit design forces in bolt connections

5.2.3.1 Shear and bearing connections

The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting devices.

The limit design shear force Fv,Rd per bolt and per shear plane shall be calculated by:

f yb ⋅ A
Fv , Rd = (5)
γ Rb ⋅ 3

with γ R b = γ m ⋅γ sb

where

f yb is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material

A is the cross-section of the bolt shank at the shear plane

γ sb is the specific resistance factor for bolt connections

γ sb = 1,0 for multiple shear plane connections

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γ sb = 1,3 for single shear plane connections

See Table 6 for limit design shear forces as an example.

Table 6 — Limit design shear force Fv,Rd per fitted bolt and per shear plane for multiple shear plane
connections

Fv,Rd (kN)
Shank resp.
Fitted bolt Hole diameter Fitted bolt material
hole section
for γ Rb = 1,1
2
(mm) (mm ) 4.6 5.6 8.8 10.9 12.9
M12 13 133 16,7 20,9 44,6 62,8 75,4
M16 17 227 28,6 35,7 76,2 107,2 128,6
M20 21 346 43,5 54,4 116,2 163,2 196,1
M22 23 415 52,2 65,3 139,4 196,0 235,2
M24 25 491 61,8 77,3 164,9 231,9 278,3
M27 28 616 77,6 97,0 206,9 291,0 349,2
M30 31 755 95,1 111,8 253,6 356,6 428,0

The limit design bearing force Fb,Rd per bolt may be calculated by:

α ⋅ fy ⋅ d ⋅t
Fb, Rd = (6)
γ Rb

with γ R b = γ m ⋅γ sb

where

e1
3⋅ d 0
e1 ≥ 2,0 do
p1 1
− e2 ≥ 1,5 do (7)
α = Min 3⋅ d 0 4
p1 ≥ 3,0 do

f ub p2 ≥ 3,0 do
fu

1.0

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Figure 2 — Illustration for formula (7)

f ub is the ultimate strength (nominal value) of the bolt (Table 5)

fu is the ultimate strength (nominal value) of the basic material (Table 2)

fy is the yield point (nominal value) of the basic material (Table 2)

d is the shank diameter of the bolt

t is the minimum of thicknesses of the basic material

γ sb is the specific resistance factor for bolt connections

γ sb = 0,7 for multiple shear plane connections

γ sb = 0,9 for single shear plane connections

5.2.3.2 Slip-resistant connections

The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting devices.

For slip-resistant connections the limit design slip force Fs,Rd per bolt and per friction interface shall be calculated
by:

µ ⋅ ( F p, d − Ft )
Fs , Rd = (8)
γ Rs

with γ Rs = γ m ⋅γ ss
where:
µ is the slip factor

µ = 0,50 for surfaces

⎯ blasted metallic bright with steel grit or sand, no unevennesses;

⎯ blasted with steel grit or sand and aluminised;

⎯ blasted with steel grit or sand and metallised with a product basing on zinc that
causes a friction coefficient of min. 0,5

µ = 0,40 for surfaces


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⎯ blasted with steel grit or sand and alkali-zinc-silicate coating of 50 µm to 80 µm


thickness

µ = 0,30 for surfaces

⎯ cleaned metallic bright with wire brush or scarfing

µ = 0,20 for surfaces

⎯ cleaned of loose rust, oil and dirt

F p ,d is the design preloading force.

Ft is an external tensile force in direction of the axis of the bolt (see Figure 3)

It shall be ensured that the used preloading force is greater than or equal to the design
preloading force.

γ ss is the specific resistance factor for slip-resistant connections;

γ ss =1,14

See Table 7 for limit design slip forces using for example a design preloading force of

F p, d = 0,7 ⋅ f yb ⋅ As ,

where

f yb is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material (Table 5)

As is the stress area of the bolt.

19
prCEN/TS 13001-3-1:2003 (E)

Table 7 — Limit design slip force FS,Rd per bolt and per friction interface using a design preloading force F p, d = 0.7 ⋅ f yb ⋅ As

Bolt stress Design preloading Limit design slip force F s,Rd (kN)
area force Fp,d (kN)
Bolt material
AS Bolt material
(mm2) 8.8 10.9 12.9
Slip factor : Slip factor : Slip factor :
8.8 10.9 12.9 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20
M12 84,3 37,8 53,1 63,7 15,1 12,1 9,1 6,0 21,2 17,0 12,7 8,5 25,5 20,4 15,3 10,2
M16 157,0 70,3 98,9 119,0 28,1 22,5 16,9 11,2 39,6 31,6 23,7 15,8 47,6 38,1 28,6 19,0
M20 245,0 110,0 154,0 185,0 44,0 35,2 26,4 17,6 61,6 49,3 37,0 24,6 74,0 59,2 44,4 29,6
M22 303,0 136,0 191,0 229,0 54,4 43,5 32,6 21,8 76,4 61,1 45,8 30,6 91,6 73,3 55,0 36,6
M24 353,0 158,0 222,0 267,0 63,2 50,6 37,9 25,3 88,8 71,0 53,3 35,5 107,0 85,4 64,1 42,7
M27 459,0 206,0 289,0 347,0 82,4 65,9 49,4 33,0 116,0 92,5 69,4 46,2 139,0 111,0 83,3 55,5
M30 561,0 251,0 353,0 424,0 100,0 80,3 60,2 40,2 141,0 113,0 84,7 56,5 170,0 136,0 102,0 67,8
M36 817,0 366,0 515,0 618,0 146,0 117,0 87,8 58,6 206,0 165,0 124,0 82,4 247,0 198,0 148,0 98,9
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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

5.2.3.3 Connections loaded in tension

The resistance of a connection shall be determined by applying the limit forces of the individual connecting
devices.

In principle the proof of competence has to take into account the stiffnesses of the bolt and the flanges to be
connected (see Figure 3).

Fp Preloading force in bolt

δp Bolt elongation from preloading

Ft External force

∆δ : Additional elongation

Fb Tensile force in bolt

∆Fb additional force in bolt

Slope Kb Stiffness of bolt

Slope Kc Stiffness of flanges

Figure 3 — Force-elongation-diagram

For simplification the limit design tensile force per bolt Ft,Rd may be calculated by:

F p ,d
Ft , Rd = (9)
γ Rb

with γRb = γm ⋅ γsb


where
F p ,d is the design preloading force. It shall be ensured that the used preloading force is
greater than or equal to the design preloading force

γ sb is the specific resistance factor for connections loaded in tension

γ sb = 1,0

See Table 8 for limit design tensile forces according to formula (9) using for example a design preloading
force of

F p, d = 0,7 ⋅ f yb ⋅ As
where

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f yb is the yield point (nominal value) of the bolt material (Table 5)

As is the stress area of the bolt.

Table 8 — Limit design tensile force Ft,Rd per bolt in direction of the bolt axis, using a design
preloading force F p, d = 0,7 ⋅ f yb ⋅ As

Limit design tensile force


Design preloading per bolt
stress
area force Fp,d (kN) Ft,Rd (kN)
Bolt
AS Bolt material for γ Rb = 1.1
2
(mm ) Bolt material
8.8 10.9 12.9 8.8 10.9 12.9
M12 84,3 37,8 53,1 63,7 34,3 48,2 57,9
M16 157,0 70,3 98,9 119,0 63,9 88,9 108,1
M20 245,0 110,0 154,0 185,0 100,0 140,0 168,1
M22 303,0 136,0 191,0 229,0 123,6 173,6 208,1
M24 353,0 158,0 222,0 267,0 143,9 201,8 242,7
M27 459,0 206,0 289,0 347,0 187,2 262,7 315,4
M30 561,0 251,0 353,0 424,0 228,1 320,9 385,4
M36 817,0 366,0 515,0 618,0 332,7 468,1 561,8

5.2.4 Limit design forces in pins

The pin of a pin connection shall be designed taking into account bending, shearing and bearing. Therefore
the following simplified system may be assumed:

For pins the following limit design loads shall be taken into account:

Wel ⋅ f yp
⎯ Limit design bending moment M Rd = (10)
γ Rp

with γ Rp = γ m ⋅ γ sp

where

Wel is the elastic section modulus of the pin

f yp is the yield point (nominal value) of the pin material

γ sp is the specific resistance factor for pin connections bending moment γsp = 1,0

1 A ⋅ f yp
⎯ Limit design shear force per shear plane for pins Fv ,Rd = ⋅ (11)
u 3 ⋅ γ Rp

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with γ Rp = γ m ⋅ γ sp

where

4
u u= for solid pins
3

4 1+ v + v 2
u= ⋅ for hollow pins
3 1 + v2

where

Di
ν = ,
DO

Di is the inner diameter of pin

DO is the outer diameter of pin

A is the cross-section of the pin

γ sp is the specific resistance factor for pin connections shear force

γ sp = 1,0 for multiple shear plane connections

γ sp = 1,3 for single shear plane connections

α ⋅ d ⋅t ⋅ fy
⎯ Limit design bearing force Fb, Rd = (12)
γ Rp

with γ Rp = γ m ⋅ γ sp
where

⎧ f yp
⎪ f
⎪⎪ y
α = Min⎨
⎪ 1,0

⎪⎩

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Figure 4 — Pin connections

fy is the yield point (nominal value) of basic material

d is the diameter of the pin

t is the minimum of thickness of the basic material

γ sp is the specific resistance factor for pin connections bearing force

γ sp = 0,7 for multiple shear plane connections

γ sp = 0,9 for single shear plane connections

In case of significant movement between pin and bearing the limit bearing force shall be reduced in order to
reduce wear.

5.2.5 Limit design stresses in welded connections

The limit design weld stress fw,Rd used for the design of a welded connection depends on:

⎯ the parent metal to be welded;

⎯ the type of the weld;

⎯ the type of stress;

⎯ the weld quality;

⎯ the kind of welding process.

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The limit design weld stress fw,Rd shall be calculated by:

α w ⋅ f yk
f w, Rd = (13)
γ Rw

with γ Rw = γ m ⋅γ sw

where

α w is a factor given in Table 9 in dependence on the type of weld, the type of stress and the material

f yk is the minimal nominal value of the yield points of the parent and weld consumable materials in the
weld joint

γ sw is the specific resistance factor for welded connections


γ sw = 1,0

Table 9 — Factor α w for limit weld stress

αw
Direction of
stress
Penetration Type of stress fyk < 690 690 ≤ fyk < 960 fyk ≥ 960
(N/mm²) (N/mm²) (N/mm²)
Weld with full Tension 1,0 1,0 0,93
penetration or
backwelded Compression 1,0 1,0 0,93

Stress across the Weld without Tension 0,7 0,7 0,65


weld direction full penetration Compression 0,8 0,8 0,74
Weld
with/without full Shear 1/√2 1/√3 0,54
penetration

Weld Tension/
Stress in weld 1,0 1,0 0,93
with/without full Compression
direction
penetration Shear 1/√3 1/√3 0,54

5.3 Execution of the proof

5.3.1 Proof for structural members

For the structural member to be designed it shall be proven that:


σ Sd ≤ f Rd and τ Sd ≤ f Rd (14)

where

τ Sd , σ Sd are the design stresses

f Rd is the corresponding limit design stress according to 5.2.2.

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In case of plane states of stresses it shall additionally be proven that:


2 2 2
⎛ σ Sd , x ⎞ ⎛ σ Sd , y ⎞ σ Sd , x ⋅ σ Sd , y ⎛ τ Sd ⎞
⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟⎟ ≤ 1
⎜ f Rd , x ⎟ + ⎜ f Rd , y ⎟ − f Rd , x ⋅ f Rd , y + ⎜ f Rd (15)
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠

where
x, y indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses

Spatial states of stresses may be reduced to the most unfavourable plane state of stress.

5.3.2 Proof for bolt connections

For the most unfavourably loaded element of a connection it shall be proven that:
FSd ≤ FRd (16)

where
FSd is the design force of the element

FRd is the limit design force according to 5.2.3, in dependence on the type of the connection
and its type of stress, i. e.

limit design shear force Fv,Rd

limit design bearing force Fb,Rd

limit design slip force Fs,Rd

limit design tensile force Ft,Rd

In particular for connections loaded in tension (see 5.2.3.3) the tensile force in the bolt Fb shall always satisfy:

f yb ⋅ AS
Fb ≤ (17)
γm

5.3.3 Proof for pin connections

For pins, it shall be proven that:


M Sd ≤ M Rd
Fv , Sd ≤ Fv , Rd (18)
Fbi ,Sd ≤ Fb ,Rd

where

M Sd is the design value of the bending moment in the pin

M Rd is the limit design bending moment according to 5.2.4

Fv , Sd is the design value of the shear force in the pin

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Fv , Rd is the limit design shear force according to 5.2.4

Fbi ,Sd is the decisive design value of the bearing force in the joining plate i of the pin connection

Fb, Rd is the limit design bearing force according to 5.2.4

5.3.4 Proof for welded connections

For the weld to be designed it shall be proven that:

σ w,sd and τ w, Sd ≤ f w, Rd (19)

where

τ w,Sd , σ w, Sd are the design weld stresses (see annex D)

f w, Rd is the corresponding limit design weld stress according to 5.2.5

In case of plane states of stresses in welded connections it shall additionally be proven that:

2 2 2
⎛ σ w, Sd , x ⎞ ⎛ σ w,Sd , y ⎞ σ w, Sd , x ⋅ σ w,Sd , y ⎛ τ w, Sd ⎞
⎜ ⎟ +⎜ ⎟ − +⎜ ⎟ ≤ 1,1 (20)
⎜ f w, Rd , x ⎟ ⎜ f w, Rd , y ⎟ f w, Rd , x ⋅ f w, Rd , y ⎜⎝ f w, Rd ⎟
⎝ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎠
where

x,y indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses.

Spatial states of stresses may be reduced to the most unfavourable plane state of stress.

6 Proof of fatigue strength

6.1 General

The proof of fatigue strength prevents failure or formation of critical cracks of structural members or
connections under cyclic loading.

In general, the proof shall be executed by applying the load combinations A according to Table 10 of
EN 13001-2, setting all partial safety factors γp = 1, and the resistances (i. e. limit design stresses) according
to 6.2.

The stresses are calculated as nominal stress concept. A nominal stress is a stress in the parent material
adjacent to a potential crack location, calculated in accordance with simple elastic strength of materials theory,
excluding local stress concentration effects. Annex A and annex E contain the influences of constructional
details and thus include the effects of:

⎯ local stress concentrations due to the shape of the joint and the weld geometry;

⎯ size and shape of acceptable discontinuities;

⎯ the stress direction;

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⎯ residual stresses;

⎯ metallurgical conditions;

⎯ in some cases, the welding process and post-weld improvement procedures.

The effect of additional geometric stress concentration (global stress concentration) shall be estimated with
appropriate methods. This standard does not use other methods like Hot Spot Stress Method. The
bibliography gives information on literature about Hot Spot Stress Method.

For the execution of the proof of fatigue strength the stress history parameters (see 4.3.4 of EN 13001-1) is
needed. Values for this parameter can be determined by simulation, testing or using classes S (see 6.3). Thus
the service conditions and their effect on the stressing of the structure are taken into account.

Mean-stress influence, as presented in EN 13001-1, in structures in as-welded condition (without stress


relieving) is negligible. Therefore the stress history parameter s is independent of the mean-stress and the
fatigue strength is based on the stress range only.

In non-welded details or stress relieved welded details, the effective stress range to be used in the fatigue
assessment may be determined by adding the tensile portion of the stress range and 60 % of the compressive
portion of the stress range or by special investigation (see 6.4).

Uncertainties in assuming the fatigue strength and possible consequences of a damage shall be taken into
consideration by a fatigue strength specific resistance factor γMf according to Table 10.

Table 10 — Fatigue strength specific resistance factor γMf

γMf
Non fail-safe components
Fail-safe
Inspection and access without hazards with hazards for
components
for persons persons
Periodic inspection and maintenance
1,0 1,15 1,25
Accessible joint detail
Periodic inspection and maintenance
1,15 1,25 1,35
Poor accessibility

⎯ „Fail-safe“ structural components are those with reduced consequences of failure, such that the local
failure of one component does not result in failure of the structure or falling of loads.

⎯ Non „fail-safe“ structural components are those where local failure of one component leads rapidly to
failure of the structure or falling of loads.

6.2 Limit design stresses

6.2.1 Characteristic values of the stress range

The limit design stress of a constructional detail stressed by fatigue is characterised by the characteristic
6
value of the stress range ∆σ c (notch condition). ∆σ c represents the fatigue strength under 2 ⋅10 constant
stress range cycles and a probability of survival of Ps = 97,7 % (mean value minus double standard deviation),
see Figure 5.

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

The several values ∆σ c are arranged in a sequence of notch classes (NC) with the constant ratio of 1,125
between the classes (see annex C, first column).

For shear stressing the above is also applicable and ∆τ c is used instead of ∆σ c .

The characteristic values of the stress range ∆σ c resp. ∆τ c and the related inverse slopes m of the σ/N-
curve are given in annex A (normative) and annex E (informative) as follows:

Table A.1: Basic material of structural members;

Table A.2: Bolted members, connecting devices;

Table A.3: Welded members;

Table E.1: Values of inverse slope of the σ/N-curve m and permissible stress range ∆σ c for
connections and joints of hollow section girders;

Table E.2: Values of inverse slope of the σ/N-curve m and permissible stress range ∆σ c for lattice type
connections of hollow section girders.

The given values apply for the defined basic conditions. For deviating conditions an appropriate notch class
(NC) shall be selected one or more notch classes above (+ 1 NC, + 2NC, ...) or below (- 1 NC, - 2 NC, ...) the
basic reference class. The effects of several deviating conditions shall be summed up.

Principle figure above

Simplification (see
EN 13001-1)

Key
1 Constant stress range fatigue limit
2 Cut-off limit

Figure 5 — Illustration of s/N-curve and ?s c

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

6.2.2 Weld quality

∆σ c -values in annex A and annex E depend on the quality level of the weld. Quality classes B, C, D shall be
according to EN 25817. In annex E class C is assumed. Usage of lower quality levels than D is not allowed.
For the purpose of this standard an additional quality level B* can be used. The requirements in addition to
those of level B given hereafter define quality level B*.

Additional requirements for quality level B*:

For the purpose of this standard 100 % NDT (non destructive testing) means inspection of the whole length of
the weld with an appropriate method to ensure that the specified quality requirements are met.

For butt welds:

⎯ full penetration without initial points;

⎯ both surfaces machined or flush ground down to plate surface; grinding in stress direction;

⎯ the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;

⎯ eccentricity of the joining plates less than 5 % of thickness of greater plate;

⎯ sum of lengths of concavities of weld less than 5 % of the total length of the weld;

⎯ 100 % NDT.

For parallel and lap joints:

⎯ transition angle of the weld to the plate surface shall not exceed 25°;

⎯ the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;

⎯ 100 % NDT.

All other joints:

⎯ full penetration;

⎯ transition angle of the weld to the web surface shall not exceed 25°;

⎯ the weld toe post-treated by grinding, remelting by TIG, plasma welding or by needle peening;

⎯ 100 % NDT;

⎯ eccentricity less than 10 % of thickness of greater plate.

If TIG dressing is used as a post treatment of the potential crack initialisation zone of a welded joint in order to
increase the fatigue strength, welds of quality class C for design purposes may be upgraded to quality class B
for any joint configuration.

6.2.3 Effect of test loads

The characteristic value of stress range ∆σ c respective ∆τ c of a welded detail that was subjected to a test
load (see EN 13001-2, 4.1.4.3) is higher than the value of that detail not subjected to a test load.

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

∆σ c values of annex A and annex E are related to details as test loaded. Therefore application of these
values requires test loads as given in EN 13001-2.

6.2.4 Requirements for fatigue testing

Details not given in annex A and annex E or consideration of mean stress influence require special
investigation into ∆σ c and m by tests.

Requirements for such tests are:

⎯ test specimen in real size (1:1);

⎯ test specimen produced under workshop conditions;

⎯ at least 7 tests per stress range level.

Requirements for determination of m and ∆σ c are:

⎯ ∆σ c shall be determined from numbers of cycles based on mean value minus double standard deviation
in a log/log presentation;

⎯ at least one stress range level that results in a number of stress cycles to failure of less than 2·104 cycles;

⎯ at least one stress range level that results in a number of stress cycles to failure between 1,5·106 and
2,5·106 cycles.

A simplified method for the determination of m and ∆σ c may be used:

⎯ m shall be set to m = 3;

⎯ only stress range levels that result in a number of stress cycles to failure of less than 1⋅105 cycles shall be
used.

6.3 Classes S of stress history parameter s

6.3.1 Simplified method based on service conditions

Determination of the class S (see EN 13001-1) decisively depends on:

⎯ the class U of working cycles;

⎯ the class Q of the load spectrum;

⎯ the factor φ 2 respective hoisting class HC.

The structure or parts of the structure can be related to a class S according to Table 11 and Table 12
dependent on the classes U, Q and a parameter Gt/( φ 2 ⋅ Q), under consideration of an average influence of
the class Dlin and/or class Dang and class P,

where

Gt is the mass of the moving crane parts during a representative working cycle, such as:

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

⎯ for a bridge crane: Gt is the mass of the trolley and load lifting attachments;

⎯ for slewing cranes:

⎯ when considering load supporting slewing parts: Gt is the mass of the jib
transformed to the load suspension point;

⎯ when considering non slewing parts: Gt is the mass of the entire slewing parts,
transformed to the load suspension point;

Q is the mass of the maximum hoist load influencing the part under consideration; (i. e. if
the hoist load is of no influence, Q is set to 0);

φ2 is the dynamic factor (see EN 13001-2).

The derivation of Table 11 and Table 12 is based on the damage theory of Corten-Dolan and on the
assumption that the average horizontal displacement of the load centre is about 2/3 of the span or 2/3 of the
maximum working radius.

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table 11 — Class S for trolley frames and main girders between two supports, as well as for
structures of wall and slewing cranes with constant working radius of the load centre

Class of load Gt Class of total number of working cycles


spectrum φ2 ⋅Q U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
≤ 0,25 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
≤ 0,5 S0
Q0 S0 S0
≤1
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
≤2
∞ S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
≤ 0,25
S0
≤ 0,5 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
Q1 S0 S0
≤1
≤2
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

0
≤ 0,25 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
≤ 0,5
Q2 S0 S0
≤1
≤2 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

0
≤ 0,25
≤ 0,5
Q3 S0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
≤1
≤2

0
≤ 0,25
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
≤ 0,5
Q4 S0
≤1
≤2
S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
≤ 0,25
≤ 0,5 S9
Q5
≤1 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
S0
≤2

∞ S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table 12 — Class S for stringers, supports and parts of main girders project over the supports, as well
as for structures of wall and slewing cranes with variable working radius of the load centre

Class of load Gt Class of total number of working cycles


spectrum φ2 ⋅Q U0 U1 U2 U3 U4 U5 U6 U7 U8 U9
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4
S0
≤ 0,25 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
≤ 0,5 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
Q0 S0 S0
≤1
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
≤2
∞ S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
≤ 0,25 S0
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
≤ 0,5 S0
Q1 S0 S0
≤1
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
≤2
∞ S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5
S0
≤ 0,25 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
≤ 0,5 S0
Q2 S0 S0
≤1 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
≤2
∞ S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6
≤ 0,25
S0
≤ 0,5 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
Q3 S0 S0
≤1
≤2
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8

0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7
≤ 0,25

≤ 0,5
Q4 S0 S0
≤1 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
≤2

0
≤ 0,25
≤ 0,5
Q5 S0 S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8
≤1
≤2

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

6.3.2 Selection based on experience

The members of crane structures may be related to classes S due to experience. If a single class S is used for
the whole structure the most severe class shall be used. Guidance is given in annex B.

6.4 Execution of the proof

For the detail under consideration it shall be proven that:

∆σ Sd ≤ ∆ σ Rd (21)

∆σ Sd = max σ − min σ (22)

where

∆σ Sd is the calculated maximum range of design stresses

maxσ, minσ are the extreme values of design stresses resulting from load combinations A according
to Table 10 of EN 13001-2, by applying γP = 1 (compression stresses with negative
sign). For design weld stress see annex D. For thermally stress relieved or non-welded
structural members the compressive portion of the stress range may be reduced to 60
%.

∆σ Rd is the permissible stress range

Shear stresses τ are treated similarly.

For each stress component σ x , σ y and τ the proof shall be executed separately.

where

x,y indicate the orthogonal directions of stresses.

In case of non welded details, if the normal and shear stresses induced by the same loading event vary
simultaneously, or if the plane of the maximum principal stress does not change significantly in the course of a
loading event, the maximum principal stress range shall be used.

In case of non welded details with independently varying ranges of normal and shear stresses it shall be
proven that:

mx my mτ
⎛ ∆σ Sd , x ⎞ ⎛ ∆σ Sd , y ⎞ ⎛ ∆τ ⎞ 1.0
m⎜
⎜ ∆σ ⎟
⎟ ⋅ s x ( mx ) + ⎜⎜ ⎟
⎟ ⋅ s y( m y ) + ⎜⎜ Sd ⎟⎟ ⋅ sτ ( mτ ) ≤ (23)
⎝ c, x ⎠ ⎝ ∆σ c , y ⎠ ⎝ ∆τ c ⎠ γ Mf

where

∆σ Sd , ∆τ Sd are the calculated maximum ranges of design stresses

∆σ c , ∆τ c are the characteristic values of stress range

s(m) is the stress history parameter

m inverse slope of σ/N-curve (the maximum value of mx, my, mτ shall be taken as radical

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

index)

x, y indicate the orthogonal direction of normal stresses

τ indicate the respective shear stress

6.5 Determination of the permissible stress range

6.5.1 Applicable methods

The permissible stress ranges ∆σ Rd for the detail under consideration shall be determined either by direct
use of stress history parameter s(m) or simplified by use of class S.

6.5.2 Direct use of stress history parameter

The permissible stress range shall be calculated by:

∆σ c
∆σ Rd = (24)
γ Mf ⋅ m s(m )

where

∆σ Rd is the permissible stress range

∆σ c , m are the characteristic values of stress range and the respective inverse slope of the log
σ/log N-curve (see annex A and annex E)

γ Mf is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10)

s (m) is the stress history parameter (calculated according to the formula of 4.3.4 of EN 13001-
1:1997)
*
NOTE When s(m) is obtained on the basis of m = 3, the permissible stress range may be calculated using k as
shown in formula (26).

6.5.3 Use of class S

6.5.3.1 Slope m

When the detail under consideration is related to a class S according to 6.3, the simplified determination of the
permissible stress range is dependent on the (negative inverse) slope m of the log σ/log N-curve.

6.5.3.2 Slope m = 3

In dependence on the S-classes the values of the classified stress history parameter s (m = 3) are as follows:

Table 13 — s (m = 3) of classes S

Class SO S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
s(m=3) 0.008 0.016 0.032 0.063 0.125 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

The permissible stress range shall be calculated by:

∆σ c
∆σ Rd = (25)
γ Mf ⋅ s(m = 3)
3

where

∆σ Rd is the permissible stress range;

∆σ c is the characteristic value of stress range of details with m = 3 (see annex A and annex E);

s(m=3) is the classified stress history parameter (see Table 13);

γ Mf is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10).

For γ Mf = 1,25 Annex C gives the values of ∆σ Rd in dependence on the class S and ∆σ c .

6.5.3.3 Slope m ≠ 3

If the negative inverse slope m of the log σ/log N-curve is not equal to 3, the permissible stress range is
dependent on the class S and the stress spectrum factor k(m) (see 4.3.4 of EN 13001-1).

The permissible stress range ∆σ Rd shall be calculated by:

∆σ Rd = ∆σ Rd ,1 ⋅ k * (26)

∆σ c
∆σ Rd ,1 = (27)
γ Mf ⋅ m s ( m=3)

k ( m = 3)
k*=m ≥ 1 (28)
k ( m)

where

∆σ Rd is the permissible stress range

σ Rd ,1 is the permissible stress range for k* = 1

k* is the specific spectrum ratio factor

∆σ c , m are the characteristic values of stress range and the respective inverse slope of the log
σ/log N-curve (see annex A and annex E)

s (m = 3) is the classified stress history parameter (see Table 13)

γ Mf is the fatigue strength specific resistance factor (see Table 10)

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

k ( m = 3) is the stress spectrum factor based on m = 3

k (m) is the stress spectrum factor based on m of the detail under consideration

k(m=3) and k(m) shall be based on the same stress spectrum that is derived either from calculation or
simulation

For γ Mf = 1,25 and m = 5. Annex C gives the values of ∆σ Rd in dependence on the class S and ∆σ c .

6.5.3.4 Simplified method for slope m ≠ 3

As k* = 1 covers the most unfavourable stress spectra, ∆σ Rd ,1 may be used as permissible stress range. The
value of k* may be calculated for k(m=3) and k(m) from the stress spectrum estimated by experience.

7 Proof of static strength of hollow section girder joints


The proof of design strength of hollow section girder joints guards against failure due to:

⎯ plasticising of the boom member flange;

⎯ plasticising or instability of the boom member web;

⎯ shearing of the boom member cross-section;

⎯ punching-through of the boom member flange;

⎯ tearing-off of the web member with effective cross-section;

⎯ local bulging.

The proof shall be executed according to the rules of Eurocode 3, ENV 1993-1-1:1993, annex K.

8 Proof of elastic stability


The proof of elastic stability prevents structural members from the loss of stability by lateral deformation
(e. g. buckling, bulging).

NOTE This clause is still under consideration and will be given in a later revision. It is intended to follow the principles
of DIN 18800 and applicable literature.

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex A
(normative)

Values of inverse slope of σ /N-curve m and


permissible stress range ∆σ c, ∆τ c

Table A.1 — Basic material of structural members


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

⎯ Rolled surfaces and


edges,
⎯ Surface condition
m=5
according to
EN 10163-A3/C3,
1
⎯ No thermal cutting,

Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under normal stresses ⎯ No notches or


geometrical notch
250 fy ≤ 275 effects (e. g.
280 275 < fy ≤ 355 cutouts)
315 355 < fy

⎯ Flame cut edges,


m=5 quality according to
2 EN ISO 9013-IA
⎯ No geometrical
notch effects (e. g.
Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under normal stresses cutouts)
200 fy ≤ 275
225 275 < fy

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.1 (concluded)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )
⎯ Nominal stress
calculated for the
net cross-section
⎯ Holes not flame cut,
⎯ Bolts may be
present, when these
are stressed
m=5
⎯ up to 20 % of
3 their strength
in shear/
bearing
connections
or
⎯ up to 100 %
Holes in a plate under normal stresses
of their
200 fy ≤ 275 strength in
slip-resistant
225 275 < fy connections

m=5

Plates, flat bars, rolled profiles under shear stress


140 fy ≤ 275
160 275 < fy ≤ 355
180 355 < fy

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.2 — Bolted members, connecting devices


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

Double shear

⎯ The proof of fatigue


Supported single-shear
strength is not
(example) required for bolts of
m=5
slip resistant bolt
1 connections
⎯ Nominal stress
Single-shear calculated for the net
cross-section

Perforated parts in slip-resistant bolt connections under normal


stresses
200 fy ≤ 275
225 275 < fy
Perforated parts in shear/bearing connections under normal stresses ⎯ Nominal stress
m=5
2 double-shear and supported single-shear calculated for the net
180 Normal stress cross-section
Perforated parts in shear/bearing connections under normal stresses ⎯ Nominal stress
m=5
3 single-shear joints, not supported calculated for the net
125 Normal stress cross-section
m=5 Fitted bolts in double-shear or supported single-shear joints

4 140 Shear stress ( ∆τ c ) ⎯ Uniform distribution of


stresses is assumed
355 Bearing stress ( ∆σ c )

m=5 Fitted bolts in single-shear joints, not supported

5 100 Shear stress ( ∆τ c ) ⎯ Uniform distribution of


stresses is assumed
250 Bearing stress ( ∆σ c )

m=3 Threaded bolts loaded in tension ⎯ ∆σ calculated for


32 Machined thread the stress-area of the
6
bolt, using ∆Fb (see
45 Rolled thread
5.2.3.3)

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 — Welded members


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )
Basic conditions:
⎯ symmetric plate arrangement
⎯ fully penetrated weld
⎯ Manual or partially mechanized
welding
⎯ Components with usual residual
stresses
⎯ Angular misalignment < 1°

1 m=3 t1 = t2

or

slope <1:3
Symmetric butt joint, normal stress across the weld Special conditions:
⎯ Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage) - 1 NC

180 Butt weld, quality level B*


- 2 NC

160 Butt weld, quality level B


- 4 NC

140 Butt weld, quality level C


4 NC

Basic conditions:
⎯ symmetric plate arrangement
⎯ fully penetrated weld
⎯ Manual or partially mechanised
welding
m=3 ⎯ Components with usual residual
2 stresses
⎯ Angular misalignment < 1°
Special conditions:
⎯ Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
Symmetric butt joint, normal stress across the weld components with restraint of
90 Butt weld on remaining backing, quality level C shrinkage) -1 NC

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )
Basic conditions:
⎯ fully penetrated weld
⎯ Supported parallel to butt weld:
⎯ e < 2⋅t2 + 10mm
⎯ Supported vertical to butt weld:
⎯ e < 12⋅t2
⎯ Manually or partially mechanized
welding
⎯ Components with usual residual
stresses

slope ≤ 1:3
m=3
⎯ t 2 − t1 ≤ 4 mm
3 ⎯ Special conditions:
⎯ Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
Unsymmetrical supported butt joint, normal stress components with restraint of
across the butt weld shrinkage) -1 NC
⎯ Influence of slope and thickness
t 2 − t1 :

thickness t 2 − t1
slope ≤4 ≤ 10 ≤ 50 > 50
≤1:3 – -1NC -1NC -2NC
140 Butt weld, quality level B* ≤1:2 -1NC -1NC -2NC -2NC
125 Butt weld, quality level B ≤1:1 -1NC -2NC -2NC -3NC

112 Butt weld, quality level C >1:1 - 2NC -2NC -3NC -3NC
Basic conditions:
⎯ fully penetrated weld
⎯ Supported parallel to butt weld:
⎯ e < 2 ⋅t2 + 10mm
⎯ Supported vertical to butt weld:
⎯ e < 12⋅t2
⎯ Manually or partially mechanised
welding
m=3
4 ⎯ Components with usual residual
stresses
⎯ t 2 − t1 ≤ 10 mm
Special conditions:
Unsymmetrical supported butt joint, normal stress ⎯ Components with considerable
across the butt weld residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
shrinkage) -1 NC
90 Butt weld on remaining backing, quality level C ⎯ t 2 − t1 > 10 mm -1 NC

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )
Basic conditions:
⎯ fully penetrated weld
⎯ Manually or partially mechanised
welding
⎯ Components with usual residual
stresses
slope ≤ 1:1
Slope in
weld or
parent
m=3 material
⎯ t1/t2 > 0,84
5 Special conditions:
⎯ Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
Unsymmetrical unsupported butt joint, stress across shrinkage) -1NC
the butt weld

-2 NC

112 Butt weld, quality level B* ⎯ t1/t2 > 0,74 -1 NC


100 Butt weld, quality level B ⎯ t1/t2 > 0,63 -2 NC
90 Butt weld quality level C ⎯ t1/t2 > 0,50 -3 NC

Basic conditions:
m=3 ⎯ Manually or partially mechanised
welding
6
⎯ Components with usual residual
stresses

Butt joint with crossing welds, stress across the butt


weld
125 Butt weld, quality level B*
100 Butt weld, quality level B
90 Butt weld, quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

Basic conditions:
⎯ Manual or partially mechanised
m=3
welding

7 Special conditions:
Normal stress in weld direction
⎯ Automatic welding,
180 Full penetration, continuous weld, quality level B
no initial points + 1 NC
160 Full penetration, continuous weld, quality level C ⎯ Welding with restraint
140 Partial penetration, continuous welds, quality level C of shrinkage - 1 NC

90 Intermittent weld, quality level C

Basic conditions:

m=3 ⎯ Continous weld


⎯ Manual or partially mechanised
welding

8
Cross or T-Joint, groove weld, normal stress across Special conditions:
the weld ⎯ Automatic welding,
* no initial points + 1 NC
125 K-weld, quality level B
⎯ Welding with
112 K-weld, quality level B restraint of shrinkage - 1 NC
100 K-weld, quality level C
80 Semi V-weld on remaining backing quality level B
71 Semi V-weld on remaining backing quality level C

Basic conditions:
⎯ Continous weld
⎯ Manual or partially mechanized
welding
m=3 ⎯ weld thickness a > 0,8 t
9
Special conditions:
⎯ Automatic welding,
Cross or T-Joint, symmetric double fillet weld, normal no initial points + 1 NC
stress across the weld ⎯ Welding with restraint
71 Quality level B of shrinkage - 1 NC
63 Quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

m=3
10

T-Joint, normal stresses in the plate from bending


90 Quality level B
80 Quality level C

m=3
11

Full penetration weld (double sided) with transverse


compressive load (e. g. wheel)
160 Quality level B
140 Quality level C

m=3
12

Full penetration weld (with backing) with


transverse compressive load (e. g. wheel)
125 Quality level B
112 Quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

m=3
13

Single fillet weld with transverse compressive


load (e. g. wheel)
63 Quality level C

m=3
14

Single fillet weld with transverse load (e. g.


underslung crab)
63 Quality level C

Basic conditions:
⎯ Quality level C
⎯ Continuous weld
⎯ distance c between the weld toe
m=3 and rim of continuous component
greater than 10 mm
15
Special conditions:
*
⎯ Quality level B +2 NC
⎯ Quality level B +1 NC
Continuous component with a welded cover plate
⎯ Quality level D - 1 NC
90 l ≤ 50 mm ⎯ c < 10 mm - 1 NC
80 50 mm < l ≤ 100 mm
71 l > 100 mm

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

m=3 Basic conditions:


16 ⎯ Continuous fillet or groove weld

Continuous component with load carrying flange


plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
Flange plate with end chamfer ≤ 1:3; edge weld and end
125
of flank weld in weld quality level B*

Basic conditions:
m=3
17 ⎯ Continuous fillet or groove weld
⎯ t0 ≤ 1,5 ⋅tu

Continuous component with load carrying flange


plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
100 Edge weld and end of flank weld in weld quality level B*

m=3
Basic conditions:
18
⎯ Continuous fillet or groove weld
Continuous component with load carrying flange
plate, stress in continuous component at end of
connection
80 Quality level B
71 Quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

Basic conditions:
m=3
⎯ Stressed area to be calculated by:
19 ⎯ As = t ⋅ l r
⎯ l r = min (bm ,b L + l )
Overlapped welded joint, main plate
*
80 Quality level B
71 Quality level B
63 Quality level C

Basic conditions:
m=3 ⎯ Stressed area to be calculated by:
20
As = bL ⋅ (t L1 + t L 2 )

Overlapped welded joint, lap plates


50

Basic conditions:
⎯ R ≥ 50 mm; α ≤ 60°
m=3
⎯ Groove weld or allround fillet weld
21 Special conditions:
⎯ R ≥ 100 mm; α ≤ 45° +1 NC
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted ⎯ End welds in a zone of
parts, Parts rounded or chamfered at least 5 t fully penetrated +2 NC
100 Quality level B*
90 Quality level B
80 Quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

Basis conditions:
⎯ Allround fillet weld
m=3 ⎯ Quality level B, C

22
Special conditions:
⎯ Single fillet weld -1 NC
⎯ Weld quality level B* +1 NC
Continuous component with parts ending ⎯ Weld quality level D -1 NC
perpendicularly
80 l ≤ 50 mm
71 50 mm < l ≤ 100 mm
63 l > 100 mm

Basic conditions:
⎯ R ≥ 50 mm or α ≤ 60°
⎯ t2 ≤ t1
m=3
⎯ Butt weld or all-round fillet weld

23
Special conditions:
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted ⎯ R ≥ 100 mm or α ≤ 45° +1 NC
parts, welded to edge ⎯ R < 50mm or α > 60° -2 NC
100 Quality level B, weld ends in weld quality level B* ⎯ End welds in a zone of at least 5 t2
90 Quality level B fully penetrated +1 NC
80 Quality level C
71 Quality level D

Basic conditions
⎯ c ≥ 10 mm
⎯ Quality level C
m=3

24 Special conditions:
*
⎯ Quality level B +2 NC
⎯ Quality level B +1 NC
Continuous component with overlapping parts ⎯ Quality level D -1 NC
80 b ≤ 50 mm ⎯ c < 10 mm -1 NC
71 50 mm < b ≤ 100 mm
63 b > 100 mm

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

Basic conditions:
⎯ Manual or partially mechanised
welding
⎯ Plate thickness t ≤ 12 mm
⎯ c ≥ 10 mm
m=3
⎯ Quality level D not allowed for K
weld
25
Special conditions:
⎯ Plate thickness t > 12 mm
Continuous component to which parts are welded
(Double fillet welds only) -1 NC
transversally
⎯ c < 10 mm -1 NC
125 Double fillet weld, quality level B*
⎯ K weld instead of double
112 Double fillet weld, quality level B fillet weld +1 NC
100 Double fillet weld, quality level C ⎯ Quality level D instead
90 Single fillet weld, quality level B, C of C -1 NC
80 Semi V-weld on remaining backing, quality level B, C

Basic conditions:
⎯ Manual or partially mechanised
welding
m=3 ⎯ Plate thickness t ≤ 12 mm
⎯ c ≥ 10 mm

26 Continuous component to which stiffeners are Special conditions:


welded transversally
⎯ Plate thickness t > 12 mm
125 Double fillet weld, quality level B* ⎯ (double fillets only) -1 NC
112 Double fillet weld, quality level B ⎯ c< 10 mm -1 NC
100 Double fillet weld, quality level C ⎯ K weld instead of
80 Single fillet weld, quality level B, C double fillet weld +1 NC
80 Semi V-weld on remaining backing, quality level B, C

m=3
27
Continuous component to which transverse parts or
stiffeners are welded intermittently
63 Quality level C
50 Quality level D

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (continued)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

For parts rounded or chamfered:


Basic conditions:
⎯ R ≥ 50 mm, α ≤ 60°
m=3
28 Special conditions:
⎯ R ≥ 100 mm, α ≤ 45° +1 NC
Continuous component with longitudinally mounted ⎯ End welds in the zone
parts, parts through hole of at least 5 t fully
90 Parts rounded or chamfered penetrated +2 NC
56 Parts ending perpendicularly

Basic conditions:
⎯ Manual or partially mechanised
welding
⎯ Quality level C
m=3 ⎯ Groove weld fully penetrated
⎯ Fillet weld thickness a > 0,7 tube
thickness
29
⎯ Flange thickness greater than two
Tubes, normal stress across the weld times tube thickness (for middle
90 Butt weld, cylindrical tube figure)
63 Groove weld, cylindrical tube
Special conditions:
56 Groove weld, rectangular tube
⎯ Quality B +1 NC
45 Double fillet weld, cylindrical tube *
⎯ Quality B +2 NC
40 Double fillet weld, rectangular tube
Basic conditions:
⎯ Quality level C
⎯ Manual or partially mechanised
welding
⎯ Components with usual residual
stresses
m=5
30 Special conditions:
⎯ Components with considerable
residual stresses (e. g. joint of
components with restraint of
Continuous weld under uniform shear flow shrinkage -1 NC
⎯ No initial points +1 NC
112 With full penetration
90 Partial penetration

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table A.3 (concluded)


∆σ c
No. ∆τc Constructional detail Requirements
2
(N/mm )

m=5 Basic conditions:


31 ⎯ Load is assumed to be transferred
by longitudinal welds only

Weld in lap joint, shear with stress concentration


71 Quality level B
63 Quality level C

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex B
(informative)

Guidance for selection of classes S due to experience

No. Type of crane Operation method S-class

1 Hand-operated cranes S0 – S2
2 Assembly cranes S0 – S2
3 Powerhouse cranes S1 – S3
4 Warehouse cranes intermittent operation S4 – S5
Warehouse cranes, lifting beam cranes,
5 continuous operation S6 – S8
scrapyard cranes
6 Workshop cranes S3 – S5
7 Bridge cranes, skull cracker cranes grabbing or magnet service S6 – S8
8 Ladle cranes S6 – S8
9 Pit cranes S7 – S9
10 Stripper cranes, charging cranes S8 – S9
11 Forging cranes S6 – S8
Unloaders, stocking and reclaiming bridges,
12 semi-portal cranes, portal cranes with trolley or hook service S4 – S6
slewing crane
Unloaders, stocking and reclaiming bridges,
13 semi-portal cranes, portal cranes with trolley or grabbing or magnet service S6 – S8
slewing crane
Travelling conveyor gantries with fixed or sliding
14 S3 – S5
conveyor(s)
Shipbuilding cranes, slipway cranes, fitting-out
15 hook service S3 – S5
cranes
16 Wharf cranes, slewing cranes, floating cranes, hook service S4 – S6
17 level-luffing slewing cranes grabbing or magnet service S6 – S8
High-capacity floating cranes, high capacity
18 S1 – S3
gantry cranes
19 Shipdeck cranes hook service S3 – S5
20 Shipdeck cranes grabbing or magnet service S4 – S6
21 Revolving tower cranes for construction service S1 – S3
22 Erection cranes, derricks hook service S1 – S3
23 Rail-mounted slewing cranes hook service S3 – S5
24 Rail-mounted slewing cranes grabbing or magnet service S4 – S6
25 Locomotive cranes, licensed for in-train haulage S4 – S5
26 Loader cranes, mobile cranes hook service S2 – S5
27 Loader cranes, mobile cranes grabbing or magnet service S4 – S6
28 High capacity loader and mobile cranes S1 – S3

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex C
(normative)

Calculated values of permissible stress range ∆σ Rd

Table C.1 — Details with m = 3 and γMF = 1,25


2
NC, ∆σc ∆σRd (Ν/mm )
2
(N/mm ) S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
355 1420,0 1127,1 894,5 713,7 568,0 450,8 357,8 284,0 225,4 178,9
315 1260,0 1000,1 793,8 633,3 504,0 400,0 317,5 252,0 200,0 158,8
280 1120,0 888,9 705,6 562,9 448,0 355,6 282,2 224,0 177,8 141,1
250 1000,0 793,7 630,0 502,6 400,0 317,5 252,0 200,0 158,7 126,0
225 900,0 714,3 567,0 452,4 360,0 285,7 226,8 180,0 142,9 113,4
200 800,0 635,0 504,0 402,1 320,0 254,0 201,6 160,0 127,0 100,8
180 720,0 571,5 453,6 361,9 288,0 228,6 181,4 144,0 114,3 90,7
160 640,0 508,0 403,2 321,7 256,0 203,2 161,3 128,0 101,6 80,6
140 560,0 444,5 352,8 281,5 224,0 177,8 141,1 112,0 88,9 70,6
125 500,0 396,9 315,0 251,3 200,0 158,7 126,0 100,0 79,4 63,0
112 448,0 355,6 282,2 225,2 179,2 142,2 112,9 89,6 71,1 56,4
100 400,0 317,5 252,0 201,1 160,0 127,0 100,8 80,0 63,5 50,4
90 360,0 285,7 226,8 180,9 144,0 114,3 90,7 72,0 57,1 45,4
80 320,0 254,0 201,6 160,8 128,0 101,6 80,6 64,0 50,8 40,3
71 284,0 225,4 178,9 142,7 113,6 90,2 71,6 56,8 45,1 35,8
63 252,0 200,0 158,8 126,7 100,8 80,0 63,5 50,4 40,0 31,8
56 224,0 177,8 141,1 112,6 89,6 71,1 56,4 44,8 35,6 28,2
50 200,0 158,7 126,0 100,5 80,0 63,5 50,4 40,0 31,7 25,2
45 180,0 142,9 113,4 90,5 72,0 57,1 45,4 36,0 28,6 22,7
40 160,0 127,0 100,8 80,4 64,0 50,8 40,3 32,0 25,4 20,2
36 144,0 114,3 90,7 72,4 57,6 45,7 36,3 28,8 22,9 18,1
32 128,0 101,6 80,6 64,3 51,2 40,6 32,3 25,6 20,3 16,1
28 112,0 88,9 70,6 56,3 44,8 35,6 28,2 22,4 17,8 14,1
25 100,0 79,4 63,0 50,3 40,0 31,7 25,2 20,0 15,9 12,6
22,5 90,0 71,4 56,7 45,2 36,0 28,6 22,7 18,0 14,3 11,3
20 80,0 63,5 50,4 40,2 32,0 25,4 20,2 16,0 12,7 10,1
18 72,0 57,1 45,4 36,2 28,8 22,9 18,1 14,4 11,4 9,1
16 64,0 50,8 40,3 32,2 25,6 20,3 16,1 12,8 10,2 8,1
14 56,0 44,4 35,3 28,1 22,4 17,8 14,1 11,2 8,9 7,1
12,5 50,0 39,7 31,5 25,1 20,0 15,9 12,6 10,0 7,9 6,3
11,5 46,0 36,5 29,0 23,1 18,4 14,6 11,6 9,2 7,3 5,8
10 40,0 31,7 25,2 20,1 16,0 12,7 10,1 8,0 6,3 5,0
9 36,0 28,6 22,7 18,1 14,4 11,4 9,1 7,2 5,7 4,5
8 32,0 25,4 20,2 16,1 12,8 10,2 8,1 6,4 5,1 4,0
7,1 28,4 22,5 17,9 14,3 11,4 9,0 7,2 5,7 4,5 3,6
6,3 25,2 20,0 15,9 12,7 10,1 8,0 6,4 5,0 4,0 3,2

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table C.2 — Details with m = 5 and γMF = 1,25

NC, ∆σ c ∆σRd, 1 (Ν/mm2)


2
(N/mm ) S0 S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9
355 745,9 649,4 565,3 493,7 430,5 374,7 326,2 284,0 247,2 215,2
315 661,9 576,2 501,6 438,1 382,0 332,5 289,5 252,0 219,4 191,0
280 588,3 512,2 445,9 389,4 339,5 295,6 257,3 224,0 195,0 169,8
250 525,3 457,3 398,1 347,7 303,1 263,9 229,7 200,0 174,1 151,6
225 472,8 411,6 358,3 312,9 272,8 237,5 206,8 180,0 156,7 136,4
200 420,2 365,8 318,5 278,1 242,5 211,1 183,8 160,0 139,3 121,3
180 378,2 329,3 286,6 250,3 218,3 190,0 165,4 144,0 125,4 109,1
160 336,2 292,7 254,8 222,5 194,0 168,9 147,0 128,0 111,4 97,0
140 294,2 256,1 222,9 194,7 169,8 147,8 128,7 112,0 97,5 84,9
125 262,7 228,7 199,1 173,8 151,6 132,0 114,9 100,0 87,1 75,8
112 235,3 204,9 178,4 155,8 135,8 118,2 102,9 89,6 78,0 67,9
100 210,1 182,9 159,2 139,1 121,3 105,6 91,9 80,0 69,6 60,6
90 189,1 164,6 143,3 125,2 109,1 95,0 82,7 72,0 62,7 54,6
80 168,1 146,3 127,4 111,3 97,0 84,4 73,5 64,0 55,7 48,5
71 149,2 129,9 113,1 98,7 86,1 74,9 65,2 56,8 49,4 43,0
63 132,4 115,2 100,3 87,6 76,4 66,5 57,9 50,4 43,9 38,2
56 117,7 102,4 89,2 77,9 67,9 59,1 51,5 44,8 39,0 34,0
50 105,1 91,5 79,6 69,5 60,6 52,8 45,9 40,0 34,8 30,3
45 94,6 82,3 71,7 62,6 54,6 47,5 41,4 36,0 31,3 27,3
40 84,0 73,2 63,7 55,6 48,5 42,2 36,8 32,0 27,9 24,3
36 75,6 65,9 57,3 50,1 43,7 38,0 33,1 28,8 25,1 21,8
32 67,2 58,5 51,0 44,5 38,8 33,8 29,4 25,6 22,3 19,4
28 58,8 51,2 44,6 38,9 34,0 29,6 25,7 22,4 19,5 17,0
25 52,5 45,7 39,8 34,8 30,3 26,4 23,0 20,0 17,4 15,2
22,5 47,3 41,2 35,8 31,3 27,3 23,8 20,7 18,0 15,7 13,6
20 42,0 36,6 31,8 27,8 24,3 21,1 18,4 16,0 13,9 12,1
18 37,8 32,9 28,7 25,0 21,8 19,0 16,5 14,4 12,5 10,9
16 33,6 29,3 25,5 22,3 19,4 16,9 14,7 12,8 11,1 9,7
14 29,4 25,6 22,3 19,5 17,0 14,8 12,9 11,2 9,8 8,5
12,5 26,3 22,9 19,9 17,4 15,2 13,2 11,5 10,0 8,7 7,6
11,5 24,2 21,0 18,3 16,0 13,9 12,1 10,6 9,2 8,0 7,0
10 21,0 18,3 15,9 13,9 12,1 10,6 9,2 8,0 7,0 6,1
9 18,9 16,5 14,3 12,5 10,9 9,5 8,3 7,2 6,3 5,5
8 16,8 14,6 12,7 11,1 9,7 8,4 7,4 6,4 5,6 4,9
7,1 14,9 13,0 11,3 9,9 8,6 7,5 6,5 5,7 4,9 4,3
6,3 13,2 11,5 10,0 8,8 7,6 6,7 5,8 5,0 4,4 3,8

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex D
(normative)

Design weld stress σ W,Sd and τ W,Sd

D.1 Butt joint

Normal weld design stress σ W ,Sd and shear weld design stress τ W , Sd are calculated by:


σ W ,Sd =
ar ⋅ l r


τ W , Sd = (D.1)
a r ⋅ lr

where

Fσ is the acting normal force (see Figure D.1);

Fτ is the acting shear force (see Figure D.1);

a r is the relevant weld thickness;

lr is the relevant weld length.

Figure D.1 — Butt weld

The relevant weld thickness a r is limited to:

a r ≤ min (t1 ,t 2 ) .

In general, the relevant weld length lr is given by:

l r = lW − 2 ⋅ a r (welded non intermittently)

l r = ∑ (lWi − 2 ⋅ a r ) (welded intermittently)


i

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

where

lW is the weld length (see Figure D.1);

lWi are the weld lengths when welded intermittently (see Figure D.1);

a r is the relevant weld thickness.

D.2 Fillet weld and groove weld with uniform distributed load

Normal weld design stress σW,Sd and shear weld design stress τW,Sd are calculated by:


σ W ,Sd =
a r1 ⋅ l r1 + a r 2 ⋅ l r 2


τ W ,Sd = (D.2)
a r1 ⋅ lr1 + a r 2 ⋅ lr 2

where

Fσ is the acting normal force (see Figure D.2);

Fτ is the acting shear force (see Figure D.2);

a ri are the relevant weld thicknesses (see Figure D.2);

a ri = a i for case 1;

a ri = a i + a hi for case 2;

l ri are the relevant weld lengths.

case 1

case 2

Figure D.2 — Joint dimensions

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

The relevant weld thickness ar is limited to:

a r ≤ 0,7 ⋅ min( t1 , t 2 ) .

For the relevant weld lengths see D.1.

Single sided welds may be used loaded with forces as shown in Figure D.2.

For single sided welds, σ W ,Sd and τ W ,Sd are calculated analogous using the relevant weld parameters.

D.3 Relevant distribution length under punctiform load

For simplification the normal weld design stress σw,Sd and shear weld design stress τw,Sd may be calculated
using the relevant distribution length under punctiform load:

l r = 2 ⋅ h ⋅ tan κ + λ (D.3)

where

lr is the relevant distribution length ;

h is the distance between weld and contact area of acting load;

λ is the width of contact area in weld direction. For wheels λ may be set to :

λ = 0, 2 ⋅ r with λmax = 50 mm

where

r is the radius of wheel;

2 k is the spread angle. k shall be set to κ ≤ 45° .

Figure D.3 — Punctiform load

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex E
(informative)

Hollow Sections

Table E.1 — Values of inverse slope of σ/N-curve m and permissible stress range ∆σ c for connections
and joints of hollow sections girders, m = 5
For site welding the given values of ∆σc should be multiplied by the factor 0,9.

∆σ c Dimensions
No. Constructional detail Requirements
(N/mm2) (mm)

Butt joint with I- or V-weld The admissible


a) with weld backing mismatch of the
90 2 < t0 ≤ 25 sections due to a
change of the plate
thickness is ≤ t0/3, but
not more than max.
2 mm. In case of a
higher mismatch,
1 90 8 < t0 ≤ 25
especially for a
transverse plate butt
of rectangle hollow
section girders of
different dimensions,
71 2 < t0 ≤ 8 ∆σc is reduced to
80 % of the given
b) without backing weld values.
Butt joint with I- or V-weld
a) with weld backing
80 2 < t0 ≤ 25

Requirements
2 80 8 < t0 ≤ 25
analogous to No. 1

63 2 < t0 ≤ 8

b) without weld backing

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)

∆σ c Dimensions
No. Constructional detail Requirements
(N/mm2) (mm)

Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp ≥ 2 to )


a) with weld backing
63 2 < t0 ≤ 25

Requirements
3 63 8 < t0 ≤ 25
analogous to No. 1

56 2 < t0 ≤ 8

b) without weld backing


Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp ≥ 2 to )
a) with weld backing
56 2 < t0 ≤ 25

Requirements
4 56 8 < t0 ≤ 25
analogous to No. 1

50 2 < t0 ≤ 8

b) without weld backing


Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp ≥ 2 to )

Requirements
5 45 2 < t0 ≤ 8
analogous to No. 1

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)

∆σ c Dimensions
No. Constructional detail Requirements
(N/mm2) (mm)

Transverse plate butt with semi V-welds (tp ≥ 2 to )

Fillet weld thickness


6 40 2 < t0 ≤ 8
a = t0

Longitudinally welded outer fin not bearing transverse


80 l ≤ 50 loading in y-direction (2 < t0 ≤ 25)
Fillet weld thickness
a:
for
7 71 50 < l ≤ 100
2 < t0 ≤ 3:a = 2
for
3 ≤ t0 ≤ 25:a = 0,7⋅t0
56 l > 100

Transversally welded outer fin with projection, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < to ≤ 25),
100 t≤6 (b > b0)
Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t0 ≤ 3:a = 2
8 90 6 < t ≤ 12
for
3 ≤ t0 ≤ 25:a ≤ 0,7⋅t0,
but not more than
a = 10
80 12 < t ≤ 25

Transversally welded outer fin with projection, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < t0 ≤ 25),
80 t≤6 (b > b0) Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t0 ≤ 3:a = 2
9 71 6 < t ≤ 12
for
3 ≤ t0 ≤ 25:a ≤ 0,7⋅t0,
but not more than
a = 10
63 12 < t ≤ 25

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)

∆σ c Dimensions
No. Constructional detail Requirements
(N/mm2) (mm)

Transversally welded outer fin without projection, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction
80 t≤6 (2 < t0 ≤ 25), (b ≤ 0,8 d0)
Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t0 ≤ 3:a = 2
10 71 6 < t ≤ 12
for
3 ≤ t0 ≤ 25:a ≤ 0,7⋅t0,
but not more than
a = 10
63 12 < t ≤ 25

Transversally welded outer fin without projections, not


bearing transverse loading in y-direction (2 < t0 ≤ 25),
100 t≤6 (b ≤ 0,8 b0) Fillet weld
thickness a:
for
2 < t0 ≤ 3:a = 2
11 90 6 < t ≤ 12
for
3 ≤ t0 ≤ 25:a ≤ 0,7⋅t0,
but not more than
a = 10
80 6 < t ≤ 12

Welded-on hollow section girder, not bearing


transverse loading in y-direction (b,d ≤ b0,d0)

Fillet weld thickness


12 63 2 < t0 ≤ 8
a = t0

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)

∆σ c Dimensions
No. Constructional detail Requirements
(N/mm2) (mm)

t0/t = 1 Welded-on hollow section girder, bearing transverse


10 loading F in y-direction (b,d ≤ d0), (2 < t0 ≤ 8)
(b,d)/d0 = 0,6
t0/t = 1
36
(b,d)/d0 = 1 Fillet weld thickness
13
t0/t ≥ 1 a = t0
16
(b,d)/d0 = 0,6
t0/t ≥ 1
50
(b,d)/d0 = 0,6
Welded-on hollow section girder, bearing transverse
t0/t = 1
6 loading F in y-direction (b,d ≤ b0), (2 < t0 ≤ 8)
(b,d)/b0 = 0,6

t0/t = 1
32
(b,d)/b0 = 1
Fillet weld thickness
14
a = t0
t0/t ≥ 1
12,5
(b,d)/b0 = 0,6

t0/t ≥ 1
40
(b,d)/b0 = 0,6

Single butt strap at chamfered end of tube (d0/t0 < 25)

Pinched end of tube


15 80 2 < t0 ≤ 8
a = 2 t0

Welded double butt strap ((b0,d0)/t0 < 25)

Hot-bended strap,
rounded slot milled at
16 80 2 < t0 ≤ 8 end of tube
Fillet weld thickness
a = t0

Inserted dovetail strap ((b0,d0)/t0 < 25)

Fillet weld thickness


17 71 2 < t0 ≤ 8
a = t0

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)

∆σ c Dimensions
No. Constructional detail Requirements
(N/mm2) (mm)

End face strap (d0/t0 < 25), (tP ≥ 2.5 t0) Fillet weld thickness
for the hollow section
girder:
18 56 2 < t0 ≤ 8 a = t0
for the strap:
a = 0,7 ⋅ tL
End face strap (b0/t0 < 25), (tP ≥ 2,5 t0) Fillet weld thickness
for the hollow section
girder:
19 45 2 < t0 ≤ 8 a = t0
for the strap:
a = 0,7 ⋅ tL
Inserted rectangular strap ((b0,d0)/t0 < 25)

Fillet weld thickness


20 45 2 < t0 ≤ 8
a = t0

Mitre joint with I- or V-weld without weld backing,


stressed by bending (d0/t0 < 25), (ϕ ≥ 90°)
56 8 < t0 ≤ 25

Requirements
21
analogous to No. 1

50 2 < t0 ≤ 8

Mitre joint with I- or V- weld without weld backing,


stressed by bending (b0/t0 < 25), (ϕ ≥ 90°)
50 8 < t0 ≤ 25

Requirements
22
analogous to No. 1

45 2 < t0 ≤ 8

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.1 (continued)

∆σ c Dimensions
No. Constructional detail Requirements
(N/mm2) (mm)

Mitre joint with transverse plate and fillet welds,


Weld stressed by bending (d0/t0 < 25), (ϕ ≥ 90°), (tP ≥ 2,5 t0)
50 thickness a:
2<a≤8
Requirements
23
analogous to No. 1

45 8 < a ≤ 14

Mitre joint with transverse plate and fillet welds,


Weld stressed by bending (b0/t0 < 25), (ϕ ≥ 90°), (tP ≥ 2,5 t0)
thickness a:
45
2<a≤8
Requirements
24
analogous to No. 1

40 8 < a ≤ 14

Joint of column and transverse girder with fillet welds,


stressed by bending (b0/t0 < 25), (b0 ≤ b + 3 r)

Weld
thickness a:
45
2<a≤8 Fillet weld thickness a
= t0

where t0 is the
25 existing

minimum plate
thickness

40 8 < a ≤ 14

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 — Values of inverse slope of σ/N-curve m and permissible stress range ∆σ c for lattice type
connections of hollow section girders, m = 5

Basic symbols for all items

with gap (e ≥ 0) with overlapping (e < 0)

Basic requirements for all items

⎯ Bending in individual members should be taken into account when calculating the nominal stress.

⎯ b0 , d 0 ≤ 120 mm. For b0 , d 0 > 120 mm, the given values of ∆σ c should be multiplied by the factor

f a = 4 120 /(bo , d o )

⎯ t 0 ≤ 12,5 mm

⎯ Weld thickness a = min t

⎯ Incline of the diagonal members: 35° ≤ Θ i ≤ 50°

⎯ (b0, d 0 ) / t0 < 25 ; t 0, / ti ≥ 1; 0,6 ≤ (bi , d i ) /(b0, d 0 ) ≤ 1

⎯ Eccentricity

⎯ in the plane of the lattice work: − 0,5 ≤ e /(h0 , d 0 ) ≤ 0,25

⎯ perpendicular to the plane of the lattice work: ≤ 0,02 (b0, d 0 )

⎯ Welding under shop conditions. For site welding the given values of ∆σ c should be multiplied by the
factor 0,9.

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 (continued)

No. ∆σ c (N/mm2) Requirements


Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!

K-gussett with direct strut joint


a) with gap:
t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2
g ≤ 0,3 d 0
d i / d 0 = 0,6 36 80
g ≤2 /3di
di / d0 =1 45 90
1

t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2
0,3 ≤ q / p ≤1
d i / d 0 = 0,6 50 80

di / d0 =1 56 90

b) with overlapping

K-T-gusset with direct strut joint

t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2
2 d i / d 0 = 0,6 36 71 0,3 ≤ q / p ≤1
di / d0 =1 35 80

N-gusset with direct strut joint


c) with gap:
t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2
g ≤ 0,3 d 0
d i / d 0 = 0,6 18 56
g ≤2 /3di
di / d0 =1 25 63
3

t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2
0,3 ≤ q / p ≤ 1
d i / d 0 = 0,6 45 80

di / d0 =1 50 90

d) with overlapping

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 (continued)

No. ∆σ c (N/mm2) Requirements


Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!

T- and X-gusset with direct strut joint

t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2 60° ≤ Θ ≤ 90°
d i / d 0 = 0,6 10 16
4
di / d0 =1 36 50

Bending of boom member should be


considered!
K-gusset with direct strut joint
e) with gap:

g ≤ 0,3 b0

g ≤ 2 / 3bi
t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2
5
bi / b0 = 0,6 32 63

bi / b0 = 1 36 71
0,3 ≤ q / p ≤ 1

f) with overlapping
K-T-gusset with direct strut joint
t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2
6 bi / b0 = 0,6 32 56 0,3 ≤ q / p ≤ 1
bi / b0 = 1 36 63

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Table E.2 (concluded)

No. ∆σ c (N/mm2) Requirements


Intermediate values by straight-line interpolation!

N-gusset with direct strut joint


a) with gap:

g ≤ 0,3 b0

t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2 g ≤ 2 / 3bi

7 b i / b 0 = 0,6 29 50

bi / b0 = 1 36 56
0,3 ≤ q / p ≤ 1

b) with overlapping
T- and X-gusset with direct strut joint

t 0 / ti = 1 t0 / ti ≥ 2 60° ≤ Θ ≤ 90°
bi / b0 = 0,6 6 12,5
8
bi / b0 = 1 32 40

Bending of boom member should be


considered!

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Annex F
(informative)

Selection of a suitable set of crane standards for a given application

Is there a product standard in the following list that suits the application?
EN 13000:2004 Cranes – Mobile cranes
prEN 14439:2002 Cranes – Tower cranes
prEN 14985:2004 Cranes – Slewing jib cranes
WI 00147 032 Cranes – Bridge and gantry cranes
EN 13852-1:2004 Cranes – Offshore cranes – Part 1: General purpose offshore cranes
EN 13852-2:2004 Cranes – Offshore cranes – Part 2: Floating cranes
prEN 14492-1:2004 Cranes – Power driven winches and hoists – Part 1: Power driven winches
prEN 14492-2:2002 Cranes – Power driven winches and hoists – Part 2: Power driven hoists
EN 12999:2002 Cranes – Loader cranes
EN 13157:2002 Cranes – Hand powered cranes
prEN 13155:1998 Cranes – Non-fixed load lifting attachments
EN 14238:2004 Cranes – Manually controlled load manipulating devices

YES NO

Use it directly, plus the standards


that are referred to

Use the following:


EN 13001-1:2004 Cranes — General design — Part 1: General principles and requirements
EN 13001-2:2004 Cranes — General design — Part 2: Load effects
prCEN/TS 13001-3-1:2003 Cranes — General design — Part 3-1: Limit states and proof of competence of steel
structures
prCEN/TS 13001-3-2:2003 Cranes — General design — Part 3.2: Limit states and proof of competence of wire
ropes
WI 00147 050 Cranes — General design — Part 3.3: Limit states and proof of competence of wheel
/ rail contacts
EN 13135-1:2003 Cranes — Equipment — Part 1: Electrotechnical equipment
prEN 13135-2:2000 Cranes — Equipment — Part 2: Non-electrotechnical equipment
EN 13557:2003 Cranes — Controls and control stations
EN 12077-2:1998 Cranes safety — Requirements for health and safety — Part 2: Limiting and
indicating devices
EN 13586:2003 Cranes — Access
prEN 14502-1:2002 Cranes — Equipment for the lifting of persons — Part 1: Suspended baskets
prEN 14502-2:2002 Cranes — Equipment for the lifting of persons — Part 2: Moveable cabins
EN 12644-1:2001 Cranes — Information for use and testing — Part 1: Instructions
EN 12644-2:2000 Cranes — Information for use and testing — Part 1: Marking

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CEN/TS 13001-3.1:2004 (E)

Bibliography

Selection of literature that contains information about Hot Spot Stress Method:

[1] prEN 1993-1-9: Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures — Part 1-9: Fatigue strength of steel structures.

[2] IIW International Institute of Welding. Subcommission XV-E-92-244: Recommended Fatigue Design
Procedure for Welded Hollow Section Joints, 2nd edition, June 1999.

[3] IIW – XV-E: Recommended Fatigue Design Procedure for Welded Hollow Section Joints.

⎯ Part 1: Recommendations. 1999; Document XIII-1804-99.

⎯ Part 2: Commentary, 1999, Document XV-1035-99.

[4] I. HUTHER, H-P. LIEURADE, L. VELLUET, Contraintes admissibles dans les assemblages soudés,
1A4085/1A4087, rapport CETIM, avril 2000.

[5] IIW – document XIII-WG3-06-99, Designer’s guide for hot spot fatigue analysis, 6. Draft, E. Niemi,
May 2000.

[6] American Petroleum Institute - API RP 2A-WSD: Recommended practice for planning, designing and
constructing fixed offshore platforms, july 1, 1993, and supplement 1, December 1996.

[7] Romeijn, A., Stress and strain concentration factors of welded multiplanar tubular joints, Delft
University Press, Delft, 1994, ISBN 90-407-1057-0.

Selection of literature that contains information about hollow sections:


[8] Zhao, X-L., Herion, S. Packer, J. A., Puthli, R. S., Sedlacek, G. Wardenier, J. Weymand, K., Wingerde,
A. M., van, and Yeomans, N. F.: Design Guide for circular and rectangular hollow section welded joints
under fatigue loading, CIDECT and Verlag TÜV Rheinland, Cologne, 2000, ISBN 3-8249-0565-5.

[9] Wardenier, J., Dutta, D., Yeomans, N., Packer, J. A., and Bucak, O.: Design Guide for structural
hollow sections in mechanical applications, CIDECT and Verlag TÜV Rheinland, Cologne, 1995,
ISBN 3-8249-0302-4.

[10] Zirn, R.: Schwingfestigkeitsverhalten geschweißter Rohrknotenpunkte und Rohrlaschenverbindungen,


Techni. Wiss. Bericht MPA Stuttgart, 1975, Heft 75-01.

[11] DIN 18800, Stahlbauten – Stabilitätsfälle.

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UNI
Ente Nazionale Italiano Riproduzione vietata - Legge 22 aprile 1941 Nº 633 e successivi aggiornamenti.
di Unificazione
Via Battistotti Sassi, 11B
20133 Milano, Italia