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A CLOSER LOOK AT K TO 12: AWARENESS, CHALLENGES,

DIFFICULTIES, AND LIVED EXPERIENCES

A Dissertation Presented to the


Faculty of the Graduate School
University of St. La Salle
Bacolod City

In Partial Fulfillment of the


Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Philosophy
Major in Educational Leadership

EIGGY D. YAP
June 2017
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APPROVAL SHEET

This dissertation entitled “A CLOSER LOOK AT K TO 12: AWARENESS,

CHALLENGES, DIFFICULTIES, AND LIVED EXPERIENCES” presented by

EIGGY D. YAP in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of

Philosophy in Educational Leadership of the University of St. La Salle Graduate

Program has been evaluated and approved by the panel of evaluators.

PANEL OF EVALUATORS

MAE FLOR G. POSADAS, PhD


Chair

SHEILLA M. TRAJERA, PhD BARRY JOHN O. BELEN, PhD


Member Member

ROGER B. MARAPO, MS TERESITA DIAZ, PhD


Member Member

MILAGROS AUREA A. SABIDALAS, EdD


Adviser
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ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The researcher expresses genuine gratitude and deepest appreciation to the

following connoisseurs for refining this study to the zenith of academic standard:

Hon. Alfredo G. Maranon, Jr., who has cheerfully shared his generosity for the

professional and intellectual development of teachers and administrators in the Province

of Negros Occidental through the Project Free-Paglaum Program;

The University of St. La Salle Bacolod for being the granting institution in

delivering excellent instruction;

The Department of Education of Negros Occidental for being an active partner

of the project;

Dr. Milagros Aurea A. Sabidalas, adviser, for sharing her expertise, intellectual

support, great enthusiasm, perseverance and valuable comments needed to have a

comprehensive and informative research and for her never-ending encouragement,

genuine interest, incomparable assistance and intellectual support throughout all the

stages of the preparation of this research work.

Dr. Feliciano O. Pedojan, Statistician, whose sincerity and knowledge sharpened

his brains to brilliance;

Cyril Duller, MAEd, Statistician, whose suggestions and expertise refined his

work;

Dr. Mae Flor Posadas, Chairman of Panel of Examiners, for her unconditional

support and whose positive thoughts, inspired him to continue reaching and achieving
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greater heights; Sheilla M. Trajera, PhD, Barry John O. Belen, PhD, Roger B.

Marapo, MS and Teresita Diaz, PhD, members of the Panel of Interrogators whose

suggestions lead to the enhancement to excellence;

Dr. Mae Llamas, his Quantitative Research professor and Dr. Noel Maraňon,

his Qualitative Research professor whose teachings and ideals inspired the researcher to

indulged with mixed methods.

Dr. Germa T. Borres, Grammarian, whose expertise in the field of language lead

to a quality craft of this study;

Sir Sabeniano L. Ulgasan, his principal, for the understanding and advice and to

all his co-teachers for the encouragement and support;

The Participants, for their cooperation and involvement;

For numerous individuals who gave buoyant assistance: Melody G. Vingno,

Teacher In-charge of Guiljungan NHS- Abaca Extension; Mary- V Tahum, Teacher In-

charge of Guiljungan NHS- Camindangan Extension; Julieta M. Sablaon, Teacher In-

charge of Guiljungan NHS- Talacdan Extension; Joevic Pagay, Head Teacher of

Molobolo NHS; and Sir Ricky Dela Cruz, Principal of Camalanda-an NHS.

To his classmates and friends namely Ma. Melanie P. Romero, Sheryl and

Wyndell Lozada, Madeline Omapas - Perez, Jane J. Jalandra, Julius Ongalon, May

C. Lipura, Katherine Pillora, Roger D. Raymundo and Mr. and Mrs. Ellen Grace

Decena-Geolingo who made him happy and relaxed in the class;


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To the Faculty and Staff of Guiljungan National High School most especially

Ma’am Brenda V. Tabujara, whose words of wisdom motivated the researcher to

pursue his Doctoral Degree;

To all his students who are the main and ultimate reason for pursuing higher level

of education;

The Lord Jesus Christ, His ultimate inspiration, who provided all the needed

wisdom and strength towards the accomplishment of this study.

EIGGY D. YAP
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DEDICATION

Challenges are what make life interesting and overcoming them is what makes life
meaningful.
- Joshua J. Marine

This simple works of art


is humbly dedicated by the researcher
to his mother, Amparo D. Yap, who continues to strive her best
to fight the strife of life and continue to inspire the researcher despite of her old age;
to his siblings, nieces and nephews;
to all the teachers who serve
as a light of the learners
in the mountain areas.
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ABSTRACT

This study aimed to determine the awareness, challenges and difficulties, and lived
experiences of the teachers teaching in upland or mountainous areas in the
implementation of K to 12 Enhanced Basic Education Curriculum in the District of
Cauayan I and II in the Division of Negros Occidental. The researcher employed
sequential-explanatory approach of mixed- methods research in investigating the key
concepts. Also, the researcher used Frequency Count, Percentage Distribution, Mode, and
Chi-square as the statistical tools of the study. The phase 1 investigated the awareness
and challenges and difficulties of the 54 participants in the six (6) areas of the K to 12
namely: Mission and Vision, Curriculum, Competencies, Assessment, Strategies and
Instructional Planning. The results showed that when taken as a whole, the level of
awareness was Moderate level. As such, the pressing challenges and difficulties
encountered by the participants in the implementation of the K to 12 Enhanced Basic
Education Program were poor knowledge of the competencies, lack of well-equipped
training, and lack of facilities and equipment. On phase 2 during the in-depth interview
with the three (3) participants, there were three (3) global themes identified namely the
True Meaning of Teaching, Challenges Encountered and Noteworthy Lessons Learned. It
revealed that most of the themes were geared on the 3C’S: Compassion, Commitment,
and Competence.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page

TITLE PAGE i
APPROVAL SHEET ii
ACKNOWLEDGMENT iii
DEDICATION vi
ABSTRACT vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS viii
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF FIGURES xii

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION
Background of the Study 1
Statement of the Problem 3
Hypothesis 4
Theoretical Framework 4
Conceptual Framework 6
Schematic Diagram of the Conceptual Framework 11
Scope and Limitations 12
Significance of the Study 12
Definition of Terms 14

Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE


K to 12 Related Concepts 18
Mission and Vision 32
Curriculum 36
Competencies 44
Assessment 54
Strategies 59
Instructional Planning 71
Synthesis 76

Chapter 3 METHODOLOGY
Research Design 77
Participants of the Study 78
Instrument of the Study 80
Validity and Reliability of Research the Instrument 81
Data Gathering Procedure 83
Data Analysis 84

Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION 89


OF DATA
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Chapter 5 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS


Summary of Findings 143
Conclusions 146
Recommendations 148

Chapter 6 PROPOSED TEACHER’S ENHANCEMENT PROGRAM 150

REFERENCES 161

APPENDICES
A. Letter for the Conduct of Study 172
B. Letter to the Validators 173
C. Survey Questionnaire 174
D. Validation of Survey Test 180
E. Significant Differences 183
F. Informed Consent 188
G. Interview Protocol 189
H. Transcriptions 190
I. Documentation 218

CURRICULUM VITAE 221


x

LIST OF TABLES
Table Page
1 Participants of the Study on Phase 1 79
2 Participants of the Study on Phase 2 79
3 Code and Interpretation of the Level of Awareness 80
4 Demographic Profile of the Participants 90
5 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Mission-Vision 91
When Taken as a Whole
6 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Curriculum 92
When Taken as a Whole
7 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Competencies 93
When Taken as a Whole
8 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Assessment 94
When Taken as a Whole
9 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Strategies 95
When Taken as a Whole
10 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Instructional Planning 96
When Taken as a Whole
11 K to 12 Awareness When Taken as a Whole and Grouped 98
According to Areas
12 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Mission-Vision 99
When Grouped According to Age
13 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Curriculum 101
When Grouped According to Age
14 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Competencies 103
When grouped according to age
15 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Assessment 105
When grouped According to Age
16 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Strategies 107
17 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Instructional Planning 109
When grouped according to Age
18 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Mission-Vision 111
When Grouped According to Sex
19 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Curriculum 112
When Grouped According to Sex.
20 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Competencies 113
When Grouped According to Sex
21 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Assessment 115
When Grouped According to Sex
22 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Strategies 117
When Grouped According to Sex
23 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Instructional Planning 118
When Grouped According to Sex
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24 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Mission-Vision 119


When Grouped According to Educational Attainment
25 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Curriculum 121
When Grouped According to Educational Attainment
26 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Competencies 123
When Grouped According to Educational Attainment
27 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Assessment 124
When Grouped According to Educational Attainment
28 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Strategies 126
When Grouped According to Educational Attainment
29 Level of K to 12 Awareness in Terms of Instructional Planning 128
When Grouped According to Educational Attainment
30 Challenges and Difficulties encountered in the implementation 130
of the K to 12 Basic Education Program
31 Lived Experiences on the True Meaning of Teaching 133
32 Lived Experiences on the Challenges Encountered 135
33 Lived Experiences on the Noteworthy Lessons Learned 138
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure Page
1 Schematic Diagram showing the Conceptual Framework 11
of the Study
2 The K to 12 Graduate 30
3 K to 12 Desired Outcomes 31
4 Schematic Diagram showing the Eidetic Insight of the Study` 142