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Lasers for Electron

Generation:
Photoinjector

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Electron Beam requirements
 High Peak current
 Low emittance
 High brightness
 High average current
 Reproducible
 Reliable

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,


Durham
Options: Field emitter
Arrays of emitters in high electric field
 High current density/emitter
 Low emittance (for single emitter)
 Short pulse possible
 Short life time
 Not very reliable or reproducible
 Not easily controllable

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,


Durham
Thermionic emitter
Cathode kept at high temperature
 ~ 1 A average current
 Mature technology
 Reliable and reproducible
 DC-short pulse not possible w/o beam loss
 Large energy spread-large longitudinal
emittance
 Not easily controllable

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,


Durham
Photoemitter
Irradiate cathode to produce photoelectrons
 Short pulse
 Current controlled by # of photons and photon
pulse duration
 E beam cross section controlled by photon spot
size
 Longitudinal emittance dictated by photon energy
 Large range of reliability, reproducibility and life
time
 Complex system
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,
Durham
Past Performance of Electron Guns
Improvement in emittance in past 50 years

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,


Durham
Topics to be covered
 Theoretical underpinning
 Metal cathode and corresponding laser
system
 PEA cathode and corresponding laser
system
 NEA Cathode and corresponding laser
system
 NEA polarized electron cathode+laser
system
 General considerations
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,
Durham
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,
Durham
 Determine electron beam parameters
 Select Cathode
 Charge, pulse duration, peak current, average
current, life time, vacuum requirement
 Select laser
 Wavelength, energy, average power, pulse duration
 Determine cathode preparation
 Fabrication, transport, in-situ preparation
 Determine Laser system configuration
 Gain medium, amplifier, frequency conversion, pulse
selection, pulse shaping
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013,
Durham
PhotoemissionPrinciple
Three Step Model of Photoemission in metal
1) Excitation of e- in metal
Reflection
Absorption of light
Energy distribution of excited e-
Vacuum level 2) Transit to the Surface
e--e- scattering
Φ
Φ’ Direction of travel

Empty States

3) Escape surface
Φ Overcome Workfunction
Reduction of Φ due to applied
Energy

field (Schottky Effect)


Filled States

Integrate product of probabilities over


Lase all electron energies capable of
r
escape to obtain Quantum Efficiency

M. Cardona and L. Ley: Photoemission in Solids 1,


Medium Vacuum (Springer-Verlag, 1978)
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Step 1 – Absorption and Excitation

Fraction of light absorbed:

Iab/I = (1-R)

Probability of absorption and electron excitation:


N ( E ) N ( E − hν )
P( E , hν ) = E f + hν
∫ N ( E ' ) N ( E '−hν )dE '
Ef

•Medium thick enough to absorb all transmitted light


•Only energy conservation invoked, conservation of k
vector is not an important selection rule
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Step 2 – Probability of reaching the surface w/o e--e- scattering

λe ( E ) λ ph (ν )
T ( E ,ν ) =
1 + λe ( E ) λ ph (ν )

•Energy loss dominated by e-e scattering


•Only unscattered electrons can escape

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Step 3 - Escape Probability

¾ Criteria for escape: h 2 k ⊥2


> ET = E f + φ
2m θ
¾ Requires electron trajectory to fall
within a cone defined by angle:
k ⊥ min ET 12
cos θ = v = ( )
k E
¾ Fraction of electrons of energy E
falling with the cone is given by:
1 θ 2π
1 1 ET 12
D( E ) = ∫ sin θ ' dθ ' ∫ dϕ = (1 − cosθ ) = (1 − ( ) )
4π 0 0 2 2 E
¾ For small values of E-ET, this is
hν + E f
the dominant factor in determining ( hν −φ ) + ET

the emission. For these cases: QE (ν ) ∝


φ
∫ D( E )dE =
+E f
∫ D( E )dE
ET
¾ This gives:
QE (ν ) ∝ (hν − φ ) 2

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Schottky Effect

Φ’

Φ’ (eV) = Φ- 3.7947*10-5√E

= Φ- 3.7947*10-5√βE If field is enhanced

QE = (1 − R)(hν − φ0 + α βE ) near photoemission threshold


Slope and intercept at two wavelengths determine Φ and β uniquely
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
EDC and QE

At this point, we have N(E,hν) - the Energy Distribution


Curve of the emitted electrons

Yield:
hν + E f
Y (ν ) = I (ν )(1 − R(ν )) ∫ P( E )T ( E ,ν ) D( E )dE
φ +E f

Quantum efficiency:
hν + E f
QE (ν ) = (1 − R(ν )) ∫ P( E )T ( E ,ν ) D( E )dE
φ +E f

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Typical metals:
Copper, Magnesium—Tested successfully in RT RF
injectors
Niobium, lead– Tested successfully in SC RF guns

BNL Gun SRF gun w Nb cathode

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Cathode preparation

¾Procure High purity metal from commercial vendor


¾Polish using commercial diamond slurry
¾Avoid exposure to oxygen containing cleaners
¾Rinse in hexane
¾Clean in ultrasonicator in hexane bath
¾ Transport to vacuum chamber in hexane bath
¾Bake and pump
¾Laser/ion clean in 10-9 Torr vacuum

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Niobium cathode – QE vs. laser cleaning
1000
Quantum efficiency [Arb. Unit]

100

10

laser: 266nm,15ps

1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8
Laser energy density [mJ/mm2]
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
H Ion Beam Cleaning

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Advantages Disadvantages
9 Prompt emission o Low QE
o UV wavelength
9 Easy preparation
o Complicated laser
9 Long lifetime system
Low average current
Tolerant to
o
9
contaminants
9 In situ rejuvenation
9 Wide choice

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


LCLS Laser System Overview
Ti:Sapphire Choice: -high bandwidth available
-high average power output
-stable, industrial standard for broadband

TiS mode-locked oscillator 5 nJ


-lock to 79.33 MHz ext source Pulse Pulse
~ 15 nJ pulse energy Shaper Stretcher

Vacuum spatial 18 mJ 2nd Stage Bowtie Amplifier 1st Stage Bowtie Amplifier
-100 mJ pump level @ 532 nm 12 μJ
filtering -100 mJ pump level @ 532 nm
& profile average single pass gain = 6.3 average single pass gain = 7
flattening

UV Pulse Delivery
Pulse 7 mJ UV Conversion 1 mJ to Photocathode
Compression (two crystals) -relay imaged
(uv) - grazing incidence

Courtesy: http://www-ssrl.slac.stanford.edu/lcls/doe_reviews/2002-
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
04/april_2002_talk_finals/bolton_laser_15-apr-2002.ppt#529,4,Slide 4
http://www.bnl.gov/atf/core_capabilities/yaglayout.asp

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Courtesy: http://www.bnl.gov/atf/core_capabilities/yaglayout.asp
Semiconductor photocathodes
Vacuum
Level
Three step model still valid
Conduction Band Ev Eg+Ev< 2 eV
Low e population in CB
e-n Vacuum
E Eg Level Band Bending
Electronegative surface
Valence Band layer

Medium Vacuum

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Three Step Model of Photoemission - Semiconductors
1) Excitation of e-
Reflection, Transmission,
Empty States

Interference
Energy distribution of excited e-
Vacuum level 2) Transit to the Surface
e--phonon scattering
Φ e--e- scattering

Random Walk
No States

3) Escape surface
Overcome Workfunction
Energy
Filled States

Need to account for Random Walk in


Lase cathode suggests Monte Carlo
r
modeling

Medium Vacuum
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Typical materials :
¾Multi alkali
•K2CsSb, Cs2Te used in RT RF injectors
¾GaAs:Cs used in DC guns

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Laser System for Cs2Te Cathode

Courtesy: http://www.desy.de/xfel-beam/data/talks/talks/schreiber_-
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
_laser_pulse_issues_20060227.pdf
TTF Laser System: Oscillator

• Mode-locked pulsed oscillator:


diode pumped (32 W)

• Synchronized to 1.3 GHz from the master oscillator,


stabilized with quartz rods
1.3 GHz EO modulator with two AOM
phase stability 0.2 ps rms
pulse length 12 ps fwhm

• 27 MHz pulse train


length 2.5 ms, pulsed power 7 W
pulse picker up to 3 MHz

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Amplifiers

Laser diodes: Flashlamps:


→ cheap, powerful (pulsed, 50 kW
→ 32 W pulsed, 805 nm electrical/head)
→ end pumped through fibers → current control with IGPT switches
→ energy from 0.3 μJ to 6 → allows flat pulse trains
→ energy up to 300 μJ (1 MHz), 140 μJ (3
μJ/pulse Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
MHz)
After amplification (1MHz)
800 μs Electron beam pulse train (30
bunches, 1 MHz)
Amplitude

1.2 nC

Output of the laser


oscillator (27 MHz)

Time

Courtesy: Siegfried Schreiber, DESY * XFEL Beam Dynamics 27-Feb-2006, DESY


Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
1 ps

Longitudinal shape is Gaussian


Average over 50 gives
σL= 4.4 ± 0.1 ps (at 262 nm)
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Advantages: Disadvantages:
9 Relatively high QE o Sensitive to vacuum
9 Relatively easy contamination
preparation o Preparation
9 Relatively long Life o Life time
time o UV wavelength
9 Workable Load-lock

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Laser System for K2CsSb Cathode and GaAs:Cs
Cathode for unpolarized electrons

Courtesy:
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
http://www.jlab.org/intralab/calendar/archive04/erl/talks/WG1/WG1_Shinn_Tue_0830.pdf
Parameter Specification For upgrade

IR output wavelength: 1064 nm


IR output Power ~ 70 W
SHG output wavelength 532 nm
SHG output power ≥ 25 W
SHG amplitude stability ≤ +/- 0.5 %
Timing stability ≤ 1 ps
Beam quality Better than 3x
diffraction-ltd
Pointing stability < 20 μrad
Beam profile Circular (up to
25%
ellipticity OK
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Laser system for K2CsSb Cathode At Boeing

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
K2CsSb cathode

Advantages: Disadvantages:
9 High QE o Sensitive to vacuum
9 Visible wavelength contamination
9 Laser system is o Complicated
feasible for high preparation
current
o Load Lock needed
9 Tested in RT RF
injector

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


GaAs: Cs unpolarized e-
Advantages: Disadvantages:
9 High QE o Delayed emission
9 Visible wavelength o Extremely sensitive to
9 Laser system is vacuum
feasible for high contamination
current
o Sensitive to Ion
9 Tested in RT DC bombardment
injector
o Charge limited life
9 Low thermal time
emittance: NEA
surface

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Fiber Laser System for GaAs:Cs Polarized Electrons

Schematic of the fiber-based laser system. DFB, distributed feedback Bragg reflector
diode laser; ISO, fiber isolator; SRD, step recovery diode; L, lens; PPLN,
periodicallypoled lithium niobate frequency-doubling crystal; DM, dichroic mirror.
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Courtesy:http://www.jlab.org/accel/inj_group/laser2001/e063501.pdf
Output power of the fiber-based laser system at 780 nm versus input power from the
seeded ErYb-doped fiber amplifier at 1560 nm. Three different seed conditions were
tested; DC and rf-pulsed input at 499 and 1497 MHz
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Maintaining Spatial Profile

Courtesy:
http://www.bnl.gov/atf/core_capabilities/gun_hutch.asp
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Timing Synchronization critical for all Laser applications:
¾Electron generation
ƒReduce emittance
ƒReduce energy spread
ƒReduce loss in e Beam transport

¾Electron-Laser Interaction
ƒMaintain Phase relationship between e & laser
ƒOptimize interaction-overlap time

¾Electron diagnostics
ƒImprove resolution
ƒIncrease signal/noise

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


TimingTriveni
diagram of the laser system
Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Courtesy: EUROFEL-Report-2006-DS3-027: SPARC photo-injector synchronization
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
system and time jitter measurements, M. Bellaveglia, A. Gallo, C. Vicario
Measurement setup and results for the home-designed electronic frequency
divider card (PLL BW = 5kHz)
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Histograms relative to (a) 79MHz IR and (b) 10Hz UV phase noise measurements

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Typical Synchronization Scheme: Phase lock loop

Courtesy:
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Phase noise of a Laser with stable cavity length and
AOM to control the phase
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
Phase noise of laser w/ Semiconductor saturable absorber mirror
(SESAM) for mode locking and active cavity length control for
phase locking Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
The sensitivity of our system was measured
to be 6.5mV/ps. Using this technique, we
have measured the rms timing jitter between
the laser and RF system is 0.5±0.25 ps.

Courtesy: X.J. Wang, I. Ben-Zvi, Proceeding of BIW’96, AIP Conference Proceeding 390
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham
(1996) 232-239
Synchronizing Self Excited Cavity

Driver Reflection
(Pulser) Monitor

Multiplier SC
VCXO A2 A3 CAVITY
A1 ×16
(81.25MHz)

MIXER
IF
LP

10 mW Laser
A4
CLX-100

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Synchronizing two lasers and RF cavity

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Maintaining Control of phase in transport

¾ Control laser path length


z Temperature and temperature gradient
z Air current
z Humidity
Vacuum transport
¾ Adjustable delay line

Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham


Amplitude Stability:
9Commercial oscillator stability acceptable
oAmplifier stability
•Compromise between gain and stability
•Gain-higher energy, lower stages but
higher fluctuation
•Stability-saturation-higher stability but
lower gain, more stages, beam shape
oHarmonic conversion
•High conversion efficiency Vs stability
• Impact on beam profile-spatial and
temporal
Triveni Rao, USPAS 2013, Durham