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LEARNING OUTCOMES.

2,1 Understanding carbon compound

 State What Carbon Compounds Is


 State That Carbon Compounds Can Be Classified Into Two Groups i.e. Organic
and Inorganic
 State What Organic Compound Is
 Gives Examples Of Organic And Inorganic Compounds
 State What A Hydrocarbon Is
 List The Sources Of Hydrocarbon
 Identify The Combustion Products Of Organic Carbon Compounds

A) WHAT A CARBON COMPOUND IS


 Carbon compounds are compounds that contain ____________ as one of their
constituent elements.
 These compounds usually contain
- C & ____ atoms only or
- C & H atoms in combination with other elements such as O, S, N, P and halogen.

CARBON COMPOUNDS
 Carbon compounds can be classified into two groups, _____________ compounds
and ______________ compounds.
 Organic compounds – carbon-containing compounds
 - All carbon-containing compounds qualify as organic compounds except oxides of
carbon, _____________, cyanides and metallic carbides.
 Oxides of carbon, carbonates, cyanides and metallic carbides – can be obtained
from non-living things.
 Inorganic compounds – all non-carbon-containing compounds and few
carbon- containing compounds.

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Classify into organic and inorganic compounds

Organic Inorganic

Potassium cyanide

Copper (II) carbonate

Cellulose

Starch

Natural rubber

Calcium carbide

Carbon dioxide

Protein

Ethanol

Urea

Glucose

Carbon monoxide

HYDROCARBON (HC)

 Hydrocarbon are the simplest of all organic compounds, containing only 2


Carbon compound
elements – Carbon and Hydrogen
 Natural sources hydrocarbon – petroleum, coal, natural gas and certain trees
such as the rubber tree.
 Non-hydrocarbonHydrocarbon
– organic compounds in which some or allNon-hydrocarbon
the hydrogen atom
have been replaced by other atoms.
 Non-hydrocarbon Ccontain
& H C & H together with a few other elements such as O,
C, H and
N, P or halogens. Eg: sugar (Containing C, H & O) O, N, P, S, F, Cl, Br, I

Unsaturated HC
Saturated HC
C=C -C=C-
-C-C-
2
Double bond Triple bond
Single bond
2 atoms sharing:
 ____ pair of electrons - single covalent bond
 ____ pairs of electrons - double covalent bond
 3 pairs of electrons - ________ covalent bond

Combustion products of organic compounds


- organic compounds are _______________ substances, burnt in excess
oxygen to form carbon dioxide and water.
Examples :
1.C6H12O6(s) + 6O2(g) 6CO2(g) + 6H2O(l)
2.C2H4 + O2 __________ + _____________

3.C3H8 + ____ __________ + _____________

4.C2H5OH + _____ __________ + _____________

LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.2 Analysing alkanes
 State what alkane is

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 State what structural formula is
 Deduce the molecular formulae of the first ten alkanes
 Draw the structural formulae for the first ten straight-chain alkanes
 Deduce the general formula of alkanes
 Name the first ten alkanes
 Relate changes in physical properties with increase in the number of carbon
atoms in alkane molecules
 Explain the effect of the increase in number of carbon atoms in alkane molecules
on the molecules boiling points
 Describe complete and incomplete combustion of alkanes
 Describe the substitution reaction of alkanes
 Write chemical equations for combustion and substitution reactions of methane
 Describe how methane affects everyday life.
B) ALKANES
1: Classification of Hydrocarbons
Alkanes are saturated hydrocarbons:
· _______________ (only single C-C bonds)
· hydrocarbon (only C and H)
H H H H

H C H H C C C H

H H H H

2: Bondings in hydrocarbon
Carbon atoms has _________ valence electrons
- need 4 electrons to reach octet ________________ arrangement.
- 4 bonds to each carbon atom
Hydrogen atoms has _______ valence electron
- need 1 electron to reach _______________ electron arrangement.
- 1 bond to each hydrogen atom

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Carbon and hydrogen atoms can bond to each other to form very extensive and
molecular systems.
3: Formulae for organic molecules:
Molecular Formula :
Shows the actual numbers and types of atom present in a molecule.
Structural Formula :
Shows how the atoms in a molecule are bonded together and by what types of bonds.
Write the molecular formula for each of the alkanes below.
Molecular Formula Structural Formula

H H

H C C H

H H

H H H H
H C C C C H

H H H H

What is the general molecular formula for alkanes?


Alkanes have the general formula :- ____________
n = no. of carbon atoms in the molecule
4 : Nomenclature of Alkanes
1. The name of alkanes consist of 2 parts : the root & ending.
2. Root - tells the number of carbon atoms in the longest continuous carbon chain.

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3. Ending - tells the family of the compound.

No. 1 4 6 8 9
of
carbo
Root Eth Prop Pent Hept Oct Dec
n
name
atoms The root names for the first ten straight-chain alkanes
Naming Alkanes
Example : Butane

Root Ending
Name of alkane
Butane But (no. of carbon -ane (the family is
atoms = 4) alkane)

No. of C atoms Nomenclature / Molecular formula Structural Formula

1 C Methane
H
CH4 H C H

2 C
Ethane C2H6

3 C
Propane C3H8

4 C
Butane C4H10

6
5 C
Pentane C5H12

6 C
Hexane C6H14

5: Physical Properties
Alkanes- _______________ compounds
a) Melting and Boiling Point
Low melting and boiling points because these molecules are held together by
___________________________ forces.

• The boiling point ____________ between 20-30 °C per -CH2 group.


• Boiling points and melting points increase as ______________per molecule increases.
• Then, __________ of molecules increases (molecular mass increases)
• Forces between molecules (van der Waals forces) are ___________
• More heat energy is needed to overcome the forces
b) Physical State at Room Temperature

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CH4 - C4H10 : ___________ C5H12 - C17H38: ___________ C18H38 : ___________
c) Solubility
• ____________ in non polar solvents (organic solvents),
• Insoluble in water.
d) Density
* The density of the alkanes increases with increasing number of carbon atoms,
BUT is ________________ than that of water.
Hence, alkanes form the upper layer in an alkane - water mixture.
e) Electrical Conductivity
• ____________ conduct electricity
• because : alkanes are covalent compounds, do not have free ions but are made up of
_________________.
6.Chemical Properties of alkanes
• _________________ compounds
• Saturated compounds.
• The strong C-C and C-H bonds must be broken for the alkanes to react.
• Although alkanes do not react with most chemicals, they do react with oxygen and
halogens.
a) Combustion
• The reaction with oxygen
• ______________ combustion of methane / in the presence of sufficient oxygen :
CH4(g) + 2O2(g) CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
• _______________ combustion / insufficient oxygen available :
2CH4(g) + 3O2(g) CO(g) + 4H2O(l)
CH4(g) + O2(g) C(s) + 2H2O(l)
b)
Halogenation
• Reaction with _______________
• Takes place readily in sunlight.
• C-H bonds-broken, formed C-halogens bonds

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• Halogenation - example of a _______________ reaction
• Substitution reaction – when one atom or a group of atoms in a molecule is replaced
by another atom or group of atoms.
• Example - Mixture of methane and chlorine is exposed to _____________-varying
amounts of four different products are formed.

UV
• CH4 + Cl2 CH3Cl ______chloromethane

CH2Cl2 ______chloromethane
CHCl3 ______chloromethane

CCl4 ______chloromethane
CH4(g) + Cl2(g) CH3Cl(g) + HCl(g)

WORKSHEET 1
Figure 1 shows the electron arrangement of carbon atom.
x
x
x x
Cx
x
Figure 1

a) Write the electron arrangement of carbon atom


_____________________________________________________________

b) Carbon atom forms a chemical bond with a hydrogen atoms


i) What type of bond is formed in the compound
_____________________________________________________________
ii) Draw the electron arrangement of the molecule formed

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WORKSHEET 2
Answer all the questions.
1. What is the general formula for an alkanes?
_____________________________________________________________
2. Give the molecular formula for alkanes with
i) one C’s : _____________________
ii) four C’s : _____________________
iii) eight C’s : _____________________
3. Give the name for the alkanes having
i) two carbon atoms : _____________________
ii) five carbon atoms : _____________________
iii) seven carbon atoms : _____________________
4. Draw structural formulas for
i) Propane (ii) Heptane

5. State 3 physical properties of alkane


i) ___________________________________________________________
ii) ___________________________________________________________
iii) ________________________________________________________________

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LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.3 Analysing Alkenes
 State what alkene is
 Deduce the molecular formulae of the first nine alkenes
 Deduce the general formula of alkenes
 Name the first nine alkenes
 Draw the structural formulae for the first nine straight-chain alkenes
 Relate changes in physical properties with increase in the number of carbon
atoms in alkene molecules
 Explain the effects on boiling points of alkenes due to increase in the number of
carbon atoms in alkene molecules
 Describe chemical properties of alkenes
 Compare and contrast alkanes with alkenes
 Relate the reactivities of alkanes and alkenes to their chemical bonds
 Generalise the characteristics of homologous series based on alkanes and
alkenes

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C) ALKENES
 Are members of a family of hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon-carbon
_______________/ C=C
 ______________ hydrocarbons

GENERAL FORMULA OF ALKENES


CnH2n n = 2, 3, 4,….
 n=1 as CH2 does not exist. Why?….

NAMING ALKENES
 Example :-

1. Identify the longest


5. Number the carbon carbon chain containing the double bond.
atoms
from the end
nearest to the
double bond. Give
2. Count the number of
the H H H H H H carbon atoms
double bond the
in the longest chain.
smaller number.
[Position of double H-C= C- C- C- C- C- H [6 carbon atoms]
bond is 1 2 3 4 5 6
1-ene] H H H H
3. Give the root name.
4. Identify the molecule’s family
[Alkene family : ending [Root name is hex-]
is –ene]

Structural Formula Naming


H H ethene
H-C=C-H
H HH
propene
H-C=C-C-H
H
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALKENES

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 Similar to those of alkanes.
 ___________ melting and boiling points.
 Soluble in organic solvents, insoluble in water.
 Less dense than water
 ______________ conduct electricity in any state.
The physical properties of the first nine straight-chain alkenes

Name Numbers Melting Boiling Density /


of carbon point / 0C point /0C gcm-3
atoms
Ethene -169 -103 0.0011
Propene -185 -48 0.0018
But-1-ene -185 -6 0.0023
Pent-1-ene -165 30 0.6430

6 -140 64 0.6750
Hept-1ene 7 -119 93 0.6980

8 -104 122 0.7160

9 -94 146 0.7310


Dec-1-ene 10 -87 171 0.7430

CHEMICAL REACTIONS OF ALKENES


 _________ reactive than alkanes due to the presence of the C=C
a) Combustion reaction
b) Addition reactions
o Addition of hydrogen
o Addition of halogens
o Addition of _________________
o Addition of water

o Addition of hydroxyl groups

 _______________ reaction.
COMBUSTION REACTION

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 C2H4(g) + 3O2 (g) 2CO2(g) + 2H2O(l)
 Alkenes burn with sootier flames as compared to alkenes.
 Because alkenes have a higher percentage of _____________ in their molecules
than alkanes.
ADDITION REACTIONS
Almost all reaction of alkenes occur at the _________________

 C=C + A-B -C - C-
A B
I ) Addition of hydrogen
H H HH
Ni
 H-C=C-H(g) + H-H(g) H-C-C-H(g)
1800C
HH

- At 1800C , catalyst – ____________


- Called ________________________
- Hydrogenation is used in the manufacture of margarine from natural vegetable
oils which contain many double bonds in their molecules.

II) Addition of Halogens


 Addition with ______ such as chlorine and bromine- no catalyst or UV is needed
 Also known as ____________________
H H H H
 H-C=C-H(g) + Br-Br(aq) H-C- C-H(l)
Br Br

III) Addition of hydrogen halides


 Takes place rapidly at room temperature and requires _______ catalyst.
 Hydrogen halides- HCl, HBr, HI

 CH2=CH2(g) + HCl(g) CH2-CH2(l)

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H Cl

IV) Addition of water


 Is called hydration
 CH2=CH2(g) + H-OH(g) CH2-CH2(l)
H OH

v) Addition of hydroxyl groups


 Alkene + dilute acidified solution of ________________________, KMnO4
__________

[O]
 CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(l) CH2 – CH2 (l)
OH OH

Polimerization reaction
 Hundred/thousands of the alkene molecules link together to form long chains
called polymers.
 To form a polymer from alkene monomers – addition polymerization.
 Polimerization of ethane - Heating ethene to about __________ and a
pressure of 1200 atm in the presence of trace of oxygen.
- Polymerization of ethene
H H H H H H H H
C=C + C=C + C=C or n C=C
H H H H H H H H

HHHHHH HH
-C-C-C-C-C-C- or C-C
n
HHHHHH HH

Comparing properties of alkanes and alkenes.

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 C=C more ______________than C-C
 The soot test –alkenes burn to produce a more ____________ flame.
 Alkenes have higher C content than alkanes.
 Soot - unburned carbon

ALKANE ALKENE
General CnH2n+2 CnH2n
Formula n=1,2,3,…. n=2,3,4,..
Functional C-C C=C
Group Single bond Double bond
Physical -Low melting and boiling points -Low melting and boiling points
Properties -Less dense than water -Less dense than water
-Cannot conduct electricity -Cannot conduct electricity
-Insoluble in water -Insoluble in water
-Soluble in organic solvent -Soluble in organic solvent
Chemical -Combustion -Combustion
Properties -Halogenation -Addition of hydrogen
-Addition of halogens
-Addition of hydrogen halides
-Addition of water
-Addition of hydroxyl group
-Polymerization
Homologue Series
 Is a group or family of organic compounds that has the following:-
o Members of the series can be represented by a general formula.

o Successive members differ from each other by -CH2

o Members can be prepared by similar methods.

o Physical properties change regularly with increasing number of carbon atoms.

o Members have similar chemical properties because they have the same functional
group.

Functional group
 Is a special group of atoms attached to an organic molecule.
 This group-determine the chemical properties of the molecule.
 Alkanes - do not have any specific functional group.

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 Alkenes - ___________ is the functional group

LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.4 Synthesising ideas on isomerism

 Construct various structural formulae of a particular alkane and alkene


 Explain what isomerism is
 Use IUPAC nomenclature to name isomers

D) ISOMERISME H Side chain :


1 C atom
H-C-H

H-C-H
straight chain alkane
H-C-H Side chain :
molecule
H 2 C atom

Branched-chain alkane molecule (2 branches)

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ISOMERISME
 Isomerisme – The ability of carbon atoms to form branched chains forming
molecules (isomers) with the same molecular formula but different structural formulae.

ISOMERS

 Isomers – are molecules with the same _____________ formula but with
different _______________ formulae.

ISOMERS OF ALKANES

H
HHHH
H-C-H
H H
H-C-C-C-C-H

H-C-C-C-H
HHHH
HHH

Straight-chain molecule Branched-chain molecule


C4H10 has 2 isomers

ISOMERS OF ALKENES

H
HHHH HHHH H-C-H
H H
H-C=C-C-C-H H-C-C=C-C-H
H-C=C-C-H
HH H H
H
Straight-chain molecule – Different positioning Branched-chain
of double bond molecule

C4H8 has 3 isomers

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HOW TO NAME ISOMERS
 1.Find the ______________ continuous carbon chain in the molecule.
 2.Give the name for this longest chain.
 3.Identify the ______________ (alkyl group) in the molecule.
 4.Locate and name the attached alkyl group.
 5.Combine the name for the longest C chain with the name of branch chain.

ALKYL GROUP
 Branch / alkyl group – is an alkane from which one hydrogen atom has been
removed.
 Alkyl group are named by dropping –ane from the name of the corresponding
alkane and replacing it with –yl.
H H
-H
H-C-H H-C-H
H
Methane ______________

NAMING ALKYL GROUP

Alkane Alkyl group


Name Molecular Name Molecular
formula formula
Methane CH4 CH3
Ethane C2H6 C2H5
Propane C3H8 C3H7
Butane C4H10 C4H9
Step 1 :
PentaneH C5H12 C5H11

Find the longest


H-C-H
NAMING ISOMERS OF ALKANEcontinuous
H H H carbon chain
in the molecule
H- C- C- C- C- H
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H H H H
Step 2 :
H
Give the name
H-C-H
for this
H H H longest chain.

H- C- C- C- C- H _____________

H H H H

Step 3 :

H Number the C atoms in this longest chain


beginning at the
H-C-H
end nearest to the
H H H first branch
(alkyl group)
H-4 C-3 C-
2 1
C- C- H Step 4 :

H H H
H H
Locate and name the
H-C-H attached alkyl groups.
Alkyl group The position of each
H H H alkyl group is given
the number of the
H- C- C- C- C- H C atom to which it is
20 attached on the chain.
H H H H
_____________
_______________
4 3 2 1

methyl

Step 5 :

H
Complete the name for the molecule by
H-C-H combining the 3 component parts together. Write the
name as a single word.
H H H Use hyphens to separate numbers and
4 3 2 1 words & commas to separate numbers.
H- C- C- C- C- H
_________________________
H H H H

NAMING ISOMERS OF ALKENE

Step 1 :
H
Find the longest
H-C-H
continuous
H H H carbon chain
in the molecule including double bond.
H- C- C= C- C- H Step 2 :

H H H Number the C atoms in this longest chain


beginning at the
H-C-H
end nearest to the
H H H double bond.
(not nearest to the
H- 4C- 3C= 2C- 1C- H first branch/
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alkyl group)
H H
H
Step 3 :
H-C-H
Give the name
H H H
for this
H- 4C- 3C=2 C-1 C- H longest chain.

H H ____________

Step 4 :

H Locate and name the attached alkyl groups. The


position of each
H-C-H
alkyl group is given
H H H the number of the
C atom to which it is
H- 4C- 3C= 2C- 1C- H attached on the chain.

H H _________________

Step 5 :

H Complete the name


for the molecule by
H-C-H
combining the name
H H H longest chain
and the name
H- 4C- 3C= 2C- 1C- H branch chain.
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H H _____________________
WORKSHEET 3

1 Write the names of the following hydrocarbons.

HH H H H H H
H
H- C- C= C- C- H H- C= C- C- C- H H-C-H
H H-C-H H H H H H
H-C-H H- C- C= C- C- H
H H H H

a) …………………………. b)………………………… c)………………………….


2. Draw the structural formula of the following isomers.

a) 2-methylbutane

b) 3-metilbut-1-ene

c) 2,3-dimethylhept-3-ene

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d) 1,2-dibromobutane

3. An alkane molecule, X has the molecular formula C5H12. A student suggested its
name as 2,2-dimethylpropane.

a) Draw the structure of this molecule.

b) How many isomers have the same molecular formula C5H12?

LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.5 Analysing alcohols

 State the general formula of alcohols


 Identify the functional group of alcohols
 List the names and the molecular formulae of the first four alcohols
 Draw structural formulae for isomers of propanol and butanol
 Name isomers of propanol and butanol using IUPAC nomenclature
 Describe the industrial production of ethanol
 Describe the preparation of ethanol in the laboratory
 State the physical properties of ethanol
 Describe the chemical properties of ethanol
 Predict the chemical properties of other members of alcohols
 Explain with examples the uses of alcohols in everyday life

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 Explain the effects of the misuse and abuse of alcohols.

E) ALCOHOLS

 Example : wine is made from grape juice and rice wine is from fermented rice
 Familiar alcohol : ethanol, C2H5OH

THE ALCOHOL FAMILY


 Contain C, H and _____
 Organic compounds
 Contain hydroxyl group, ________ as the functional group
– This group is covalently bonded to a carbon atom as shown below

– -C-O-H

 No _________ in an alcohol molecule. Alcohols do not show alkaline properties.


 Neutral compounds
 One H atom in an alkane is replaced by the hydroxyl group, an alcohol is formed
 R-H R-OH
 CnH2n+1H CnH2n+1OH
 General formula = CnH2n+1OH
n = 1, 2, 3, …….

NAMING ALCOHOLS
 The names of straight chain alcohols can be derived from those of the alkanes.
 Replacing the ending -e from the name of the alkane with –ol.
 A number in front of the –ol to indicate which carbon atom the hydroxyl group is
attached to.

HHH

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H- C-C-C-H
OHH H
 Name of alkane : propane
 Name of alcohol : propanol
 Position of hydroxyl group : carbon 1
 Full name of alcohol : __________________

ISOMERS OF ALCOHOLS
Example: C4H9OH
H HHH H H H H
 H-C- C-C-C-H H-C -C- C- C-H
OHH H H H OH H H
____________ _______________
H CH3H H CH3 H
H-C-C - C-H H-C-C - C-H
H OH H HH OH

_____________ _____________
INDUSTRIAL PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL
 Ethanol – most important alcohols
 Its manufactured on a large scale by 2 main processes
– From sugars and starch by __________________

– From petroleum fractions by __________________

MAKING EHANOL BY FERMENTATION


 ________ is added to sugar or starch.
 Left in a warm place for several days in the absence of air.
 The fermentation process in ______________ which means it takes place in the
absence of oxygen.
 Yeast releases biological ______________.
 These enzymes break down the sugars and starches into glucose, C 6H12O6.

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 In the fermentation process, the enzyme (____________) slowly decomposes
the glucose to form ethanol and carbon dioxide.
 C6H12O6(aq) 2CH3CH2OH(aq) + 2CO2(g)
 Temperature : 18-200C
 Catalyst : yeast (zymase)
 Other condition : absence of oxygen
 When the concentration of ethanol formed reaches about 15%, the yeast
__________ and the fermentation stops.
 It is impossible to produce pure ethanol by natural fermentation.
 The ethanol is then purified by fractional distillation.

MAKING ETHANOL BY HYDRATION


 An addition reaction combines ethene with water to produce ethanol in the
presence of phosphoric acid as catalyst.
 Ethene is obtained from the cracking of petroleum fractions.
 CH2=CH2(g) + H2O(g) CH3CH2OH(g)
 Temperature : 3000C
 Pressure : 60 atm
 Catalyst : phosphoric acid, H3PO4
 The ethanol produced is condensed to form a _________ and the unreacted
ethene is recycled.
Name Structural formula Boiling Solubility (g per 100cm3
point (0C) water)
LABORATORY PREPARATION OF ETHANOL
 All you need is some ripen fruits or starchy foods and yeast.
Methanol
 The yeast will convert the glucose to ethanol.65 Miscible in all proportions

 Laboratory work 2.3 page 38.


Ethanol 78 Miscible in all proportions

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ALCOHOLS


Propanol 97 Miscible in all proportions

Butanol 118 8.0

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Pentanol 138 2.7
 Notice that none of the alcohols exists as a __________ at room temperature
and pressure.
 Unlike alkanes or alkenes, simple alcohols are __________________ in water.
 They have infinite solubility in water.

Physical state at
room conditions
LIQUID Smell
Boiling point SHARP
LOW BOILING POINT
(780C)

ETHANOL Colour
Volatility
VOLATILE COLOURLESS

Solubility in water
VERY SOLUBLE IN WATER.
MISCIBLE WITH WATER IN
ALL PROPORTIONS

CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF ETHANOL


 Combustion

 Oxidation

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 Dehydration
I) COMBUSTION
 Alcohols- very ________________ substances
 Readily undergo combustion
 Ethanol burns with ______________ blue flame
 Complete combustion of ethanol produces ______________ and water.
 C2H5OH(l) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(l)
 Also releases lots of ___________ – suitable for use as a fuel. Clean fuel because
it does not release pollutants into the atmosphere.
II) OXIDATION
 When a substance combines with oxygen
 Oxidizing agents are needed.
– Example :
• acidified potassium dichromate (VI), ____________ solution and

• acidified potassium manganate (VII), _____________ solution


 Form _____________________ – COOH group.
 When K2Cr2O7 solution is added to ethanol and the mixture is warmed, it turns
form _____________ to green.
 CH3CH2OH(l) + 2[O] CH3COOH(l) + H2O(l)
 If KMnO4 solution is used instead, it changes colour from _______ to colourless.

III) DEHYDRATION
 The removal of water from a compound.
 In the dehydration of alcohols, a molecule of water is eliminated from each
alcohol molecule.
 The alcohol molecule becomes an ______________ molecule.
 The dehydration of ethanol produces ethene.
HH H H
 H-C-C-H H-C=C-H + H-OH
H OH

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 The ethene produced can be detected by the following tests:
– Decolourizes reddish-brown ___________ water
– Decolourizes purple acidified KMnO4 solution
 2 methods to carry out the dehydration of ethanol in school laboratory.
– Ethanol ____________ is passed over a heated catalyst such as unglazed
porcelain chips, porous pot, pumice stone or aluminium oxide.
– Ethanol is heated under reflux at 1700C with excess concentrated ___________.

Chemical properties of alcohols

Name Product
Combustion Oxidation Dehydration
Ethanol Carbon dioxide and water Ethanoic acid and water Ethene and water
Methanol
Propanol
Butanol

Chemical reactions of alcohols

Reactions Name Formula Chemical equation


Combustion Ethanol C2H5OH C2H5OH(ce) + 3O2(g) 2CO2(g) + 3H2O(ce)
Methanol
Propanol
Butanol
Oxidation Ethanol
Methanol
Propanol
Butanol
Dehydration Ethanol
Propanol
Butanol

USES OF ALCOHOLS
 As a __________ in perfumes, cosmetics and toiletries.
 As a ___________ in lacquer, varnish, shellac and ink.
 As a ___________ for a compac disc and video cassette recorder head.
 As a __________ – clean fuel, biofuel, gasohol

30
 As a raw material in the _____________ of vinegar, fibre, explosive and plastic.
 As a raw material to make _______________ products- tincture, antiseptic,
cough syrup, rubbing alcohol.
ALCOHOL-MISUSE AND ABUSE
 Ethanol – toxic
– Found in alcoholic drinks
– Act as depressant on the central nervous system. It slows down both physical
and mental activity.Causes the person to feel high and to lose all shyness.
 _______________.
 Cause chronic liver disease and brain damage.

WORKSHEET 4
The flow chart in the figure shows the reactions of alcohol P with a few substances.

HH Acidified
Reaction W
Alcohol P Dehydration KMnO4 H H H
H-C-C-C-OH Substance X Substance Y Q H-C –C –C -H
C3H8O
HHO H OHOH

a. Name and write the structural formula for alcohol P.

b. Name substance X, substance Y, substance Q and reaction W.

C) Write the chemical equations for all the reactions involved.

31
LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.6 Analysing carboxylic acids
 State the general formula of carboxylic acids
 Identify the functional group of carboxylic acids
 List the names and molecular formulae of the first four members of carboxylic
acid
 Draw the structural formulae of the first four members of carboxylic acid and
name them using the IUPAC nomenclature.
 Describe the preparation of ethanoic acid in the laboratory
 State the physical properties of carboxylic acids
 State the chemical reactions of ethanoic acid with other chemicals
 Predict the chemical properties for other members of carboxylic acid
 Explain with the examples the uses of carboxylic acids in everyday life.

F) CARBOXYLIC ACID
 EXAMPLES ORGANIC ACIDS:

– Acetic acid - Sour taste in vinegar

– Lactic acid – in sour milk

– Citric acid – present in citrus fruits

– Ascorbic acid – vitamin C

– Salicylic acid – make aspirin

The carboxylic acid family


 Organic compound
 Containing C, H, O

32
 The general formula –
– CnH2n+1 COOH

– n= 0, 1, 2, 3,…,
 The functional group ___________ (carboxyl group)
 Structure functional group :
O
 -C
O-H

Naming carboxylic acids


 Straight chain carboxylic acids are named by dropping the –e from the name of
the corresponding alkane and replacing it with –oic acid
 The root name such as methane, ethane and propane indicates the number of C
atoms in the longest chain including the ________ in the carboxyl group

O
Carboxyl group
 -C-C- C
O-H
Carbon no. 1

 In carboxylic acids, the carboxyl C atom is always the start of the longest C
chain.
 Carboxyl C is the number 1 C and ____________ is needed to locate the
carboxyl group.
 Example :
CH3-CH-COOH
CH3
2-methylpropanoic acid

Making ethanoic acid

33
 Oxidation of _______________
 By refluxing ethanol with ________________ such as K2Cr2O7 solution or KMnO4
solution.
HH K2Cr2O7 H O
 H-C-C-OH + 2[O] H-C-C + H2O
reflux
HH H OH
Ethanol ethanoic acid

Laboratory preparation of ethanoic acid

Water out The reaction is


carried out using the
apparatus as shown.
Liebig The flask is fitted
condenser Water in with an upright condenser
to prevent the loss of a
volatile liquid by
Absolute vaporization.This method of
ethanol retaining a volatile liquid
+ K2Cr2O7 during heating is
called refluxing.

heat

Physical Properties
 Carboxylic acid with

34
– low molecular mass

» colourless liquids at room temperature and have sharp or unpleasant odours.

– high molecular mass / larger molecule (ten or more C atoms)

» wax-like solids and have little odour

 Boiling points are ___________ than that of alkanes with the same number of
carbon atoms.
 More energy is required to overcome the stronger force of attraction between
the larger carboxylic acid molecules.
 Within the carboxylic acid family, the boiling points increase with increasing
number of ________________________________.

Physical properties

Name Condensed Structural formula Boiling point (0C)

Methanoic acid 101

Ethanoic acid CH3COOH 118

Propanoic acid 141

Butanoic acid 164

Physical Properties

35
 Like simple alcohol, the smaller carboxylic acid molecules with 4 C atoms or
fewer are _________________ in water.
 The high solubility is due to water molecules being strongly attracted to the
carboxyl group.
 The solubility _______________ with increasing number of C atoms per
molecule.
 The longer carboxylic acid molecules tends to be alkane-like and becomes
insoluble in water.
Chemical properties
Acid properties
 Ethanoic acid – __________monoprotic acid
 Only __________ atom in the –COOH can ionize in water to produce H +.
 CH3COOH(aq) CH3COO-(aq) + H+(aq)
Ethanoic acid ____________ hydrogen ion
 Partial dissociation occurs.
 The presence of H+ causes ethanoic acid to turn moist blue litmus paper red and
react just like any typical acid.
 Reacts slowly with _______________________________________.

Reactions with metal


 Reacts with _____________ metals to produce salt and hydrogen.
 2CH3COOH(aq) + Zn Zn(CH3COO)2(aq) + H2(g)
_______________

Reactions with bases


 Neutralizes alkalis to give an organic salt and water.
CH3COOH(aq) + NaOH(aq) CH3COONa(aq) + H2O(l)
______________
 Copper(II) oxide powder dissolves in dilute ethanoic acid to form Copper(II)
ethanoate and water.
 2CH3COOH(aq) + CuO(s) Cu(CH3COO)2(aq) + H2O
___________________

36
Reactions with carbonates
 React with metal carbonate to produce a salt, carbon dioxide and water.
 2CH3COOH(aq) + CaCO3(s) Ca(CH3COO)2(aq) +CO2(g) +H2O(l)
________________
Reactions with alcohols
 Reacts with alcohol to form _____________ and water – Esterification
 Carboxylic acid + alcohol ester + water.
O O
 CH3-C-O-H + H-O-C4H9 CH3-C-O-C4H9 + H-O-H
Ethanoic Butan-1-ol _______________
acid
 CH3COOH + C4H9OH CH3COOC4H9 + H2O
 Concentrated __________________ - catalyst
 Butyl ethanoate is a colourless sweet smelling liquid.

 It forms an oily layer which floats on water.

Chemical reactions of carboxylic acid


 Carboxylic acid + reactive metal carboxylate salt + hydrogen
 Carboxylic acid + base carboxylate salt + water
 Carboxylic acid + metal carbonate carboxylate salt + carbon dioxide + water
 Carboxylic acid + alcohol ester + water.

Uses of carboxylic acids


 Ethanoic acid
 Major industrial chemical
 Large quantities of it – manufactured for its use in food as flavouring and as
preservative.

37
 Vinegar – solution containing 5% ethanoic acid
 Used with other chemicals to make drugs, dyes, paints, insectisides and
plastics.
 It can be converted into esters for use as solvents.
 Methanoic acid (formic acid) is used to coagulate latex.
 Fatty acids are long chain carboxylic acids used in making soaps.
 Carboxylic acids are used in the manufacture of polyesters and polyamides which
are fibres used in the textile industry.
 _________________ is a preservative in foods.

WORKSHEET 5
1.a) Name the elements found in carboxylic acids. ______________________________
b) What is the general formula for the carboxylic acid family?____________________
c) Name the functional group of this homologous series.________________________

2. One mole of carboxylic acid X has a mass of 74g.


a) Name a compound X. ____________________
b) Draw a structure of X.

3. Figure shows a reaction scheme involving compound P. Compound P and Q have the
same number of carbon atoms. Compound P is neutral, whereas compound Q is
acidic.
Compound P Compound Q

Ethyl
ethanoate

a) Compound P is converted into compound Q by process I. Name process I.


________________________________________________________________________
b) What type of compound is ethyl ethanoate?
________________________________________________________________________

38
c) Compound P reacts with compound Q to form ethyl ethanoate. Name process II.
________________________________________________________________________

LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.7 Analysing esters
 State the general formula of esters
 Identify the functional group of esters
 List the names and molecular formulae of simple esters
 Draw structural formulae of simple esters and name them using the IUPAC
nomenclature.
 Describe the preparation of ester in the laboratory
 State the physical properties ethyl ethanoate
 Predict the ester produced from the esterification reaction
 Write the equations for the esterification reactions

39
 State the natural sources of ester
 State the uses of ester in everyday life.

G) ESTERS

• ______________ compound

• Most esters are found in fruits and are responsible for the distinctive and
pleasant fruity aromas.

• Example : ester isoamyl acetate is the main chemical that produces the smell of
bananas.
THE ESTER FAMILY

• Containing ______________

• Esterification – ______________ reacts with an _____________to form an ester.


A molecule of _____________ is elliminated.

• General formula : CnH2n+1COOCmH2n+1

• m and n indicate the numbers of carbon atoms in the ester molecule.

• n= 0, 1,2,3, ... And m = 1, 2, 3,..

• The general formula contains the group _____________. This is known as the
_______________ group (functional group).

NAMING ESTERS

• The structure of an ester may be regarded as consisting of two parts, one


deriving from an ____________and the other from a _____________________.
O

• CnH2n+1-C

40
O-CmH2m+1

Derived from Derived from


carboxylic acid alcohol

• The name of an ester consists of 2 parts.

• The name of the alcohol part of the ester is given first and is followed by a
separate word giving the name of the acid part of the ester.

• The name of alcohol part of the ester is the name of the __________ group

(-CmH2m+1) in the alcohol.

• The name of the acid part of the ester is the name of the carboxylate anion
derived from the acid; the _______ acid in the name of the parent acid is replaced by
_____.
Eg :

Derived from alcohol.


Alkyl group contains 3 C atoms.
Name of alcohol part : propyl

Derived from acid.


Acid has 2C atoms –ethanoic acid. Name of ester :
Change –oic acid to –oate _____________
Name of acid part : ethanoate
FORMATION OF ESTERS

• Esterification

• Carboxylic acid + alcohol (in the presence of a strong acid catalyst –


concentrated H2SO4) ester + water.
O O
H2SO4
• R-C-O-H + H-O-R’ R-C-O-R’ + H2O

Carboxylic Alcohol Ester

41
acid

Example :

• Methanoic acid + ______________ methyl methanoate and water.

• HCOOH(l) + CH3OH(l) HCOOCH3(l) + H2O(l)

Try This !!!

• Predict the ester produce from an esterification between propanoic acid and
ethanol and write an equation for the esterification reaction.
PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ESTERS

• Simple esters are neutral compounds – sweet pleasant smell.

• ________________liquids

• boiling points much ____________ than those of carboxylic acids of similar


molecular masses.

• _______________ compounds.

• Slightly soluble in water but readily dissolve in organic solvents.

NATURAL SOURCES OF ESTERS


Simple esters

• Most are found in fruits and flowers.

• Are responsible for the fruity smells and pleasant fragrances associated with
most fruits and flowers.

• Jasmine owes – benzyl ethanoate

• Pineapple – ethyl butanoate.

The higher and more complex esters

• have higher boiling points and thus are less volatile.

• Not produce the familiar pleasant smells of the simple esters.

42
• Animal fats such as milk fat –___________ esters

• Vegetable oils eg: palm oil – _____________ esters

USES OF ESTERS IN EVERYDAY LIFE


Esters with low molecular mass

• Volatile liquid

• Have ___________ smells

• Pleasant aromas- cosmetics and perfumes

• Food additives to enhance the _____________ and smell of processed foods.

• Listed as artificial flavours on labels of processed foods, snacks and


confectionery.
USES OF ESTERS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

Ester Formula Flavour

n-penthyl ethanoate CH3COOC5H11 Bananas

Ethyl butanoate Pineapples

Octyl ethanoate Oranges

Isoamyl isovalerate C4H9COOC5H11 Apples

Methyl salicylate C6H4(OH)(COOCH3) Oil of


wintergreen

USES OF ESTERS IN EVERYDAY LIFE

• Simple esters - ethyl ethanoate are excellent solvents for organic compound.

43
• Sunburn lotions, nail polish removers and glues use esters as solvents. Example,

polystyrene cement is a mixture of polystyrene dissolved in ethyl ethanoate.When the


ester evaporates, a solid plastic is left behind to bind together the surfaces.

• Large esters are used in the production of ____________ and detergents.

• Fats and oils are hydrolyzed to produce soaps.

• Esters are also used in the production of polyester.

• The long chain polyester molecules are ____________and have great tensile
strength. Hence they are used to make polyester threads in the production of synthetic
fabrics.

LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.8 Evaluating Fats
 State what oils are
 State what fats are
 State the importance of oils and fats for body processes
 State the sources of oils and fats
 List the uses of oils and fats
 State the differences between oils and fats
 Identify structural formulae for fat molecules of certain fatty acids
 State what saturated fats are
 State what unsaturated fats
 Compare and contrast between saturated and unsaturated fats
 Describe the process of changing unsaturated fats to saturated fats
 Describe the effects of eating food high in fats on health
 Describe the industrial extraction of palm oil
 Justify the use of palm oil in food production

H) FATS

44
WHAT ARE OILS AND FATS?
 Chemically very similar, but differ in their physical states.
 Fats found in - _________ at room temperature
 Fats from – liquid -called ________

• Oils and fats are natural esters formed through ________________ reaction
between ______ glycerol molecule and __________fatty acid molecules.

• _________________ – propane-1, 2, 3-triol

• Fatty acids –

– __________________ carboxylic acids


– Contain _______________ atoms per molecule
THE SIMILARITY

• Both are ______________

• Both are formed through a same _______________

• Both have the same __________________

• Both play many importance roles in our body

• Esterification

General formula of oils and fats

R1, R2, R3 – three alkyl groups


which may be the
same or different

THE DIFFERENCE

45
PROPERTIES OILS FATS

Physical state at
Room temperature

Most are from


Source
_______________

Examples Corn oil, Butter (milk fat),


Olive oil, Tallow
Palm oil, Suet (beef fat),
Sunflower oil, Lard (pork fat)
Coconut oil

THE IMPORTANCE OF OILS AND FATS FOR BODY PROCESS

• Provide us with energy, nutrients, thermal insulation and protection to internal


organs.
• PROTECTION AND STRUCTURAL ROLE
– Fats surround and protect vital internal organs in our body.
– Fat molecules form the protective membrane of each cell.
• SOURCE OF ENERGY
– Fats and oils store energy as body fat
– Fats release energy during cell respiration.
• THERMAL INSULATION
– Fats under the skin act as a thermal insulator which helps to keep our body
warm.

• SOURCE OF NUTRIENTS
– Fats help to carry fat-soluble vitamins like vitamins A, D, E and K which are
essential for good health.

46
TWO TYPES OF FATS

SATURATED UNSATURATED

SIMILARITY

Consists of 1 glycerol molecule + 3 fatty acid molecules

DIFFERENCES
Source
Animals Source Plants
Melting point
Melting point Lower

Solid Physical properties at Liquid


room temperature
Single covalent Type of bonding exist
bond only _________________
Type of bonding exist
Type of fatty acid
__________
Type of fatty acid Unsaturated
fatty acid
fatty acid

Examples of Fatty Acid

Fatty acid Name Molecular formula Exists in

Palmitic CH3(CH2)14COOH Palm oil


acid
Saturated Stearic CH3(CH2)16COOH Animal fat
acid
CH3(CH2)7CH=CH(CH2)7COOH Peas oil
(monounsaturated)
________
Unsaturated CH3(CH2)4CH=CHCH2CH=CH
Linoleic
acid (CH2)7COOH
(Polyunsaturated)

47
Saturated fat Unsaturated fat
– glycerol + _____________ fatty – glycerol + ________________ fatty
acids acids
– Eg : Tristearin and tripalmitin – Eg : triolein
– Eg : butter and animal fats – Eg : groundnut oil, olive oil and palm
oil

CONVERTING UNSATURATED FATS TO SATURATED FATS

• By process called ________________________

• Each carbon-carbon double bond adsorbs one molecule of ______________

• ________________ is made by hydrogenating some of the carbon-carbon


double bonds in polyunsaturated vegetable oil such as sunflower oil.

EFFECT OF FATS ON HEALTH


• Fatty food – very high in calories – obesity.
• Diet high in animal fats is considered unhealthy.
– Saturated fats will raise the level of cholesterol in the bloodstream –causes fatty
deposits or plaque on the walls of veins or arteries.
– Blood circulation is restricted and this will raise the blood pressure.
– Hardening of the arteries or arteriosclerosis can take place – heart attack
• Vegetable oils – __________________
– Not mean we can consume unsaturated fats in large quantities.
• Consuming too much fat, whether saturated or unsaturated will make us
overweight and suffer from many heart-related diseases.

INDUSTRIAL EXTRACTION OF PALM OIL


• Palm oil is extracted from fresh oil palm fruits

• The fruit produces __________ types of oil.

• Palm oil-extracted from the ___________ of the fruit

48
• Palm kernel oil –extracted from the _________________________.

• The extraction of oil has to be carried out within 24 hours from the time the
fruits are harvested – because the fruits quickly deteriorate and spoilt.
Extraction process of palm oil

Oil palm
fruits Sterilizer Stripper
bunches
Sterilising Stripping the Breaking down
the fruits fruits from oil-bearing cells
bunches
Hydraulic
Filter Press Nut
cracker
Removing Separating the Pressing
coarse fibre oil from water Extracting
out the oil
oil
Purifier Vacuum

Purifying Drying
the oil the oil

JUSTIFY THE USE OF PALM OIL IN FOOD PRODUCTION


Palm oil - many advantages compared to other vegetables oil
– Has numerous health benefits
– Versatile and less expensive. [Page 90-91(text book)]
LEARNING OUTCOMES
2.9 Analysing natural rubber
 List examples of natural polymers and their monomers
 Draw the structural formula of natural rubber
 State the properties of natural rubber
 State the uses of natural rubber
 Describe the coagulation process of latex
 Describe the method used to prevent latex from coagulating
 Describe the vulcanisation of rubber

49
 Describe how the presence of sulphur atoms changes the properties of
vulcanized rubber
 Compare and contrast the properties of vulcanized and unvulcanised natural
rubber
I) NATURAL RUBBER

• Is a ____________________ that obtain from the latex of the rubber tree.

NATURAL POLYMERS

• Are polymer that exist in nature.

• They are not man-made.

• They are _____________ compounds.

• Eg: Starch,protein,cellulose & natural rubber.

NATURAL RUBBER

Rubber tree leaves


Rubber tapper

Rubber tree

50

Production of latex
MONOMER OF NATURAL RUBBER

• The monomer in natural rubber is isoprene molecule.

• Its IUPAC name is _____________________________

• Its structural formula is

Natural rubber molecule

• When isoprene molecules join together, they form a polymer called


_____________.

• Polyisoprene is the molecule found in natural rubber molecule.

The structural formula of polyisoprene or natural rubber

or

Task! Find out the monomer for protein, cellulose and starch …

51
NATURAL POLYMERS

Natural polymer Monomer

Natural rubber

Starch

Cellulose

Protein
Properties of natural rubber

Property Description
 Elasticity  Natural rubber is _________. It will return to
(decreases over time) its original shape after you stretch it.

 Resistance to oxidation  Natural rubber is easily __________ by


oxygen, in the atmosphere. Oxygen “adds” to
double bond between carbon atoms.

 Effect of heat  Natural rubber sensitive to heat. When


________, it becomes soft and sticky. When
cooled, it becomes ___________________.

 Effect of solvents  __________and alkaline solvents can attack


and destroy natural rubber.

• Do you know that natural rubber is used to make household product, medicine,
engineering as well as in the construction and automobile industries ?

USES OF NATURAL RUBBER

52
LATEX
• Latex is a __________________ that flows out after the bark of the rubber tree
is cut.
• Latex is a _____________.

• It consists of ________________ dispersed in water.

• The rubber particles are so __________ that they remain suspended in water.
Do you know that latex is a waste product of rubber tree?

RUBBER PARTICLE

• A rubber particle is made up of many long chain ___________________

enclosed by a protein-like ______________ which is negatively charged.

Rubber particle

Coagulation process of latex

53
1. The repulsion between the _________________ particles prevents the rubber
particles from coming close to each other. Hence, latex could not coagulate.

2. When an ___________ is added, the ________________, H+ neutralize the


negative charges on the protein membrane.

3. The rubber particles can now come close together. This enables them to
_____________ with one another resulting in the ____________ of the protein
membranes.

4. The ___________________ combine with one another and entangle and thus
causing the latex to coagulate.

• The coagulation of latex will also occur when it is exposed to ____________.

• This is because the __________________ from the air enter the latex.

• The growth and spread of bacteria produce ______________ that causes the
coagulation of latex.

• Due to the slow bacterial action, the coagulation of latex takes a


____________time to occur.

54
• If latex can coagulate by using acid such as ethanoic acid,CH 3COOH,

how to prevent latex from coagulating? __________________

• Latex can be preserved in the liquid state if ammonia, NH3 solution is added.

• Ammonia solution contains ____________________, OH- that neutralize the acid


produced by the bacteria.

• Hence, the rubber particles remain _________________ and the coagulation is


prevented.

Vulcanization of rubber

• The properties of natural rubber limit its uses.

• Its properties can be improved through _____________________.

• Vulcanization- is a process whereby rubber is reacted with _______________.

• In industrial vulcanization, latex is heated with sulphur or rubber products are


exposed to _________________________, S2Cl2.

Stretching natural rubber


Before stretching

55
Properties of vulcanized and unvulcanized rubber

Unvulcanized
Vulcanized
rubber
rubber
Similarities

Differences

Elasticity Less elastic

Harder Hardness

Tensile strength Weaker

Can withstand higher Resistance to heat


temperature

Resistance to oxidation Easily oxidized

56
Does not become soft Effect of organic solvent
and sticky easily
Vulcanisation of rubber

• These improved properties are due to the presence of _____________________


of sulphur atoms between the ______________________.

Vulcanized rubber

• When vulcanized rubber is stretched and released, the cross linkages pull the
chain back to their original arrangement.

• This improves the elasticity and strength of the rubber.

• The presence of sulphur cross-linkage also increases the ___________ of rubber


molecules – more resistant to ___________ and ___________________.

• Vulcanized rubber has much lesser C=C as compared to unvulcanized rubber-


higher resistance of vulcanized rubber to __________________.

STRETCHING VULCANISED RUBBER

57
WORKSHEET 6
1. The flow chart in Figure 2 shows the conversion of latex to vulcanized rubber
through Step P and Q.

Latex Unvulcanised rubber Vulcanised rubber

a) Step P involves the coagulation of latex to form the unvulcanised rubber.


i) Name a suitable reagent for step P. (1 M)
________________________________________________________________

ii) Explain the changes that occur in step P. (3 M)


________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

b) Draw the structural formula of the polymeric chain of unvulcanised rubber. Give
its IUPAC name. (2 M)

c) i) Name process Q. (1 M)
________________________________________________________________

ii) Describe briefly how unvulcanised rubber is converted into vulcanized


rubber in Step Q. (1 M)
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

d) List down three differences in the properties between unvulcanised rubber and
vulcanised rubber. (3 M)

58
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

e) Describe the structural changes that occur when unvulcanised rubber is


converted to vulcanised rubber in step Q. (2 M)

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

WORKSHEET 7

Figure shows a flow chart for a series of changes on an alcohol R with the molecular
formula C3H8O.

X V Propyl
Alcohol P
propanoate
Carbon dioxide VI
III II Acidified
+ water K2Cr2O7 Sodium
Alcohol R propanoate
C3H8O
I
Propene

IV Acidified KmnO4

a) Draw the set-up of apparatus to carry out step I in the laboratory.

[2 marks]

59
b) A mixture of alcohol R and acidified potassium dichromate (VI) solution is heated
in step II.

i) What can be observed in step II?

________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

ii) Write the chemical equation for the reaction in step II.

________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

c) Describe briefly how you can carry out step III in the laboratory.
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
d) Draw the structural formula of compound Y.

[1 mark]
e) i) Name a catalyst that is used in step V.
________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]
ii) Describe briefly how you can carry out step V in the laboratory.
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]

iii) Give two differences in the physical properties between propyl propanoate
and alcohol R.
________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________

60
________________________________________________________________
[2 marks]
f) Name the reagents used in step VI.

________________________________________________________________
[1 mark]

61