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4 Most Important Elements of Promotion Mix | Business Marketing

Some of the most important elements used in promotion are as follows :advertising, sales promotion, personal
selling and public relation!
The promotion element of marketing mix is concerned with activities that are undertaken to communicate with
customers and distribution channels to enhance the sales of the firm.

The promotional communication aims at informing and persuading the customer to buy the product and informing
him about the merits of the products.

Promotion mix:
It refers to all the decisions related to promotion of sales of products and services. The important decisions of
promotion mix are selecting advertising media, selecting promotional techniques, using publicity measures and
public relations etc.

There are various tools and elements available for promotion. These are adopted by firms to carry on its promotional
activities. The marketer generally chooses a combination of these promotional tools.

Following are the tools or elements of promotion. They are also called elements of promotion mix:
1. Advertising

2. Sales promotion

3. Personal selling

4. Public relation

1. Advertising:
Advertisement can be defined as the “paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of idea, goods or
services by an identified sponsor”.

It is an impersonal presentation where a standard or common message regarding the merits, price and availability of
product or service is given by the producer or marketer. The advertisement builds pull effect as advertising tries to
pull the product by directly appealing to customer to buy it.

From the above definition we can find that the three distinct features of advertising are:
1. Paid Form:
The sponsor has to pay for advertising he has to bear a cost to communicate with customers.

2. Impersonality:
There is no face to face contact between customers and advertiser. It creates a monologue and not a dialogue.

3. Identified Sponsor:
Advertisement is given by an identified company or firm or individual.

Features of Advertising and Advantages/Merits of Advertisement:

(i) Reach:
Advertising can reach a large market. As through various media of advertising there is benefit of mass reach for
example, any message given on All India Radio or TV can reach in different corners of the country wherever TV and
Radio network is available.

(ii) Choice:
There is wide variety of media available for advertising for video, audio, visual audio, print media etc. Under each
category large variety is available for example, in print media we can select from magazines, newspaper, banner etc.
This variety or choice helps the marketer to select the media, keeping in mind the target customer.

(iii) Legitimacy:
In advertisement the messages regarding the product or service are given publicly to customers so there is always a
proof for it and customers believe that publicly the company will not give false information of the product. The
customer feels comfortable to buy a product which is widely advertised.

(iv) Expressiveness:
Advertising provides enough opportunities to marketers to dramatize the message with the help of drawings,
colours, pictures, music, dance
etc. They can easily express the use of product through various techniques, and can add multimedia effect also.

(v) Economy:
It is always felt that advertising increases the cost of product or service but advertising is considered economical as
compared to other promotional techniques because it reaches masses and if we calculate cost per customer it is very
low or nominal.

(vi) Enhancing Customer Satisfaction and Confidence:

Customer feel more assured about quality and feel more comfortable if sponsors claim these benefits in advertising.

Disadvantages of Advertising:
(i) It is an Impersonal Communication/Less Forceful:
In advertising there is no direct communication between the customer and marketer. The marketer assumes that the
message is communicated but the audience or customers do not pay any attention to impersonal messages conveyed
through advertising. The response of customer cannot be known in advertising.

(ii) Advertising is less effective:

In advertising there is only one way communication i. e., communication from seller only, but two way
communication is always more effective as in two way communication the customer gets chance to clarify his or her
queries. Sometimes customers have many doubts regarding the use of product, these doubts can be clarified only
when there is two way communication.

(iii) Difficulty in Media Choice:

In advertising various media are available. Each media have its own advantages and disadvantages. So the
effectiveness of advertisement depends to a great extent on the right choice of media. When choice of media is
faulty or wrong no matter how good the advertisement is it will not reach the target customer.

(iv) Inflexibility:
It is very difficult to change advertisement as companies use standardised messages which cannot be changed
according to the need of customers.

(v) Lack of Feedback:

The evaluation of effectiveness of advertisement is very difficult as there is no immediate and accurate feedback
given by the customers.

Objections to Advertising or Criticism of Advertising:

Advertising has been subject to lot of criticisms. The following are main objections raised on advertisements by a
group of people. Along with objections the answers to these objections are also mentioned below:

(i) Effect of Advertising on Values, Materialism and Life Styles:

The major objection on advertisement is that it promotes materialism. The advertisements inform people about more
and more products, the use of existing products and the new products are shown dramatically to attract the

This knowledge about more and more products induces the customers to buy more and more products. They start
demanding the products which they don’t even require. If there was no advertising we would be less aware of
material things and we can be more contented.

We do not agree with this objection as it is wrong to say that a person who is least informed is most contented or
satisfied. The advertisement increases the knowledge of customers by informing them about various products along
with their utilities.

The advertisement only informs the customers, the final choice of buying or not, lies with the customers only.

(ii) Advertising Encourages Sale of Inferior and Dubious Products:

The advertisements show all types of products irrespective of their quality. With the help of advertising anything can
be sold in the market.

The objection to sale of inferior goods is not correct because what is inferior and what is superior depends upon the
economic status and preference. Every one cannot afford to buy superior quality expensive products but it does not
mean they should not use the product.

The lower income group people satisfy their needs with low cost inferior goods for example; those who cannot
afford to buy shoes of Nike or Reebok have to satisfy with local brand only. So it is not advertisements which
encourage sale of inferior goods; it is one’s pocket or financial capacity which decides this.

The real criticism of advertisement is that it encourages sale of duplicate products. Some producers exaggerate the
use of products and innocent consumers get trapped in and buy duplicate products.

(iii) Advertising Confuses Rather than Helps:

The number of advertisements shown in TV and Radio are increasing day by day for example, if we take TV, there
are so many advertisements of different companies shown such as LG, Onida, Sony, BPL, Samsung, Videocon etc.
each brand claiming they are the best. These claims by different companies confuse the customer and it becomes
very difficult for him to make choice.

We do not agree with this objection because advertisements give wide choice to customers and today’s customer is
smart enough to know and select the most suitable brand for him.

(iv) Some Advertisements are in Bad Taste:

Another objection to advertisements is that advertisements use bad language, the way they are speaking may not
appeal everyone, sometimes women are shown in the advertisements where they are not required for example, a
woman in after shave lotion and in advertisements of suiting etc. Some advertisements distort relationship between
employer-employee, mother-in-law and daughter-in-law etc. for example, in advertisement of Band Aid, Detergent
Bar, Fevistick, etc.

Although those types of advertisements should be avoided but it can’t be an objection because good or bad taste
differs from person to person. It is a matter of personal opinion as to what was not accepted by yesterday’s
generation is accepted by today’s generation and they may not find it of bad taste.

(v) Advertisement Costs are passed on to the Customers in the Form of Higher Price:
The most serious objection to advertisement is that it increases the price of product because the firms spend a huge
amount on advertisement and these expenses are added to cost and consumer has to pay a higher price for the
product or service.
This objection is also not correct because with advertisements the demand for product increases which brings
increase in sale and this leads to increase in production. With increase in production the companies can get the
economies of scale which reduces the cost of production and thus the increase in cost due to expenses on
advertisements gets compensated. So if advertisement is used properly it brings reduction in cost the in long run.

2. Sales Promotion:
Sales promotion refers to short term use of incentives or other promotional activities that stimulate the customer to
buy the product. Sales promotion techniques are very useful because they bring:

(a) Short and immediate effect on sale.

(b) Stock clearance is possible with sales promotion.

(c) Sales promotion techniques induce customers as well as distribution channels.

(d) Sales promotion techniques help to win over the competitor.

Sales Promotion Techniques for Customers:

Some of the sales promotion activities commonly used by the marketer to increase the sale are:

(i) Rebate:
It refers to selling product at a special price which is less than the original price for a limited period of time. This
offer is given to clear off the stock or excessive inventory for example; coke announced 2 liter bottles at Rs 35 only.

(ii) Discounts:
This refers to reduction of certain percentage of price from list price for a limited period of time. The discounts
induce the customers to buy and to buy more. Generally at the end of season big companies offer their products at
discounted price to clear off the stock e.g., season’s sale at Snow-White Jain Sons, Paul Garments, Bhuvan
Garments, etc.

(iii) Refunds:
This refers to refund or part of price paid by customer on presenting the proof of purchase for example, Rs 2 off on
presentation of empty pack of Ruffle Lays.

(iv) Premiums or Gifts/or Product Combination:

These are most popular and commonly used promotion tool. It refers to giving a free gift on purchase of the product.
Generally the free gift is related to product but it is not necessary for example, Mug free with Bourn vita, Shaker
free with Coffee, Toothbrush free with Toothpaste, etc.

(v) Quantity Deals:

It refers to offer of extra quantity in a special package at less price or on extra purchase some quantity free for
example, buy three get one free e.g., this scheme of buy three get one free scheme is available on soaps.

(vi) Samples:
It refers to distribution of free samples of product to the customers. These are distributed when the seller wants the
customer must try the product. Generally when a new product is launched for example, when Hindustan Level
launched Surf Excel it distributed the samples as it wanted the customers to try it.

(vii) Contests:
It refers to participation of consumers in competitive events organised by the firm and winners are given some
reward for example, Camlin Company organizes painting competition, Bourn vita quiz contest and some companies
organise contest of writing slogans and best slogan is awarded prize.
(viii) Instant Draws and Assigned Gifts:
It includes the offers like ‘scratch a card’ and win instantly a refrigerator, car, T-shirt, computer etc.

(ix) Lucky Draw:

In this draws are taken out by including the bill number or names of customers who have purchased the goods and
lucky winner gets free car, computer, A.C., T.V., etc. Draw can be taken out daily, weekly, monthly, etc.

(x) Usable Benefits:

This includes offers like ‘Purchase goods worth Rs 5000 and get a holiday package’ or get a discount voucher, etc.

(xi) Full Finance @ 0%:

Many marketers offer 0% interest on financing of consumer durable goods like washing machine, T.V. etc. e.g., 24
easy installments 6 paid as front payment and remaining 18 with post-dated cheques. In these types of scheme
customers should be careful about the file charges etc.

(xii) Packaged Premium:

In this type of sales promotion the free gift is kept inside the pack. The gift is kept in limited products but the
excitement of getting the gift induces the customer to buy the product for example, gold pendant in soap, gold coin
in Tata tea etc.

(xiii) Container Premium:

This refers to use of special container or boxes to pack the products which could be reused by the customer for
example, Pet Bottles for Cold Drinks. This bottles can be used for Steering Water, Plastic Jars for Bourn vita,
Maltova, etc. which can be reused by the housewives in kitchen.

Merits of Sales Promotion:

1. Attention Value:
The incentives offered in sales promotion attract attention of the people.

2. Useful in New Product Launch:

The sales promotion techniques are very helpful in introducing the new product as it induces people to try new
products as they are available at low price or sometimes as free sample.

3. Synergy in Total Promotion Efforts:

Sales promotion activities supplement advertising and personal selling efforts of the company. Sales promotion adds
to the effectiveness of advertisement efforts.

4. Aid to other Promotion Tools:

Sales promotion technique makes other promotion techniques more effective. Salesmen find it easy to sell products
on which incentives are available.

Demerits of Sales Promotion:

1. Reflect Crisis:
If firm is offering sales promotion techniques again and again it indicates that there is no demand of product which
can create crisis situation.

2. Spoil Product Image:

Use of sales promotion tool may affect the image of product as buyer feel that product is of low quality that is why
firm is offering incentives.

3. Personal Selling:
Personal selling means selling personally. This involves face to face interaction between seller and buyer for the
purpose of sale.

The personal selling does not mean getting the prospects to desire what seller wants but the concept of personal
selling is also based on customer satisfaction.

Features of Personal Selling:

(i) Personal Interaction:
In personal selling the buyers and sellers have face to face interaction. This closeness allows both the parties to
observe each other’s action closely.

(ii) Two Way Communication:

In personal selling the sellers give information about the product, at the same time the buyer get a chance to clarify
his doubts. It is suitable for sale of complex products where buyer wants to interact with the manufacturer.

(iii) Better Response:

When seller is personally explaining the utilities of product to the customers then customer do pay some attention
and listen to the information.

(iv) Relationship:
When the seller and buyer come together this may improve relation between the customer and seller. Salespersons
normally make friendly relations with the customers.

(v) Better Convincing:

Personal selling is most effective form of promotion because with this the sales person can convince the buyer by
demonstrating the use of product and making changes in the product according to the need of customer.

Qualities of a Good Salesman:

The qualities which are commonly found among effective salesman are described below:

1. Physical Qualities:
A salesman must have good health and pleasing personality. He must be well built and free from physical defects. A
pleasing and charming personality boosts self-confidence. Good grooming, appropriate dress, clean and tidy
appearance and a good posture will go a long way in creating a first impression. More importantly, a salesman must
always have a cheerful smile on his face.
2. Social Qualities:
A salesman must have good manners, courtesy in dealing with customers. The practice of greeting and thanking
customers, using polite expression are necessary for success in personal selling. He should not be shy or reserved
but an extrovert and a good listener. He must have the ability to say the proper things and do the right thing without
offending others.

3. Mental Qualities:
A good salesman must have a high degree of intelligence, initiative and foresight. He must be intelligent and
imaginative enough to understand the customer quickly and read his mind accurately.

Salesman must have two basic qualities i.e., empathy and ego drive. Empathy means he must have ability to
understand the problem from customer’s point of view. Ego drive means salesman must pursue sale not just for
money but for recognition and personal success. A good salesman must have presence of mind and good common

4. Technical Quality:
The salesman must have full technical knowledge about the product.

5. Other Qualities:
Other qualities, a salesman must possess, are:

(i) A salesman must have a good power of memory and observation.

(ii) A salesman must be honest and should not try to win the customer through false and misleading representation.

(iii) A salesman must be a man of sound character, loyal and dependable. He must perform his duties sincerely.

(iv) The salesman must have wide knowledge about the product he is selling and company he is representing.

(v) He must have capacity to inspire trust.

Role of Personal Selling:

Personal selling plays a very important role in marketing of goods and services. It is important tool for businessmen,
customers and society.

1. Importance to Businessmen:
Personal selling is an important tool to increase the sale. It is important for businessman due to following reasons:

(i) Effective Promotion Tool:

Personal selling is an effective tool to increase the sale of product. Salesmen explain the merits of products to

(ii) Flexible Tool:

Personal selling efforts can be changed according to the type of customer salesmen are attending. They may change
the offer in varying purchase situations.

(iii) Minimum Wastage of Efforts:

As compared to other methods of promotion in personal selling the wastage of efforts is minimum.

(iv) Consumer Attention:

Through personal selling it is easy to get the attention of customer as there is face to face interaction between
salesman and customers.
(v) Relationship:
Personal selling helps to create lasting relationship between customers and sales-persons which help in increasing

(vi) Personal Support:

Through personal selling salesmen can create personal support with the customers. This can improve competitive
strength of organisation.

(vii) Very Effective to Introduce New Product:

Personal selling is very effective to introduce a new product as salesman can explain the merits, show the
demonstration and clarify the doubts of customers.

(iv) Importance to Customers:

Personal selling is very important from customer’s point of view, as customers can get required information about
the product from customers. Customers are benefits by personal selling in the following ways:

1. Helps in Identifying Needs:

Salesmen help the customers to discover their needs and wants and they also help customers to know how these
needs and wants can be satisfied.

2. Latest Market Information:

In personal selling salesmen provide information regarding the new products available in market, uses of those
products etc.

3. Expert Advice:
Customers can get expert advice and guidance in purchasing various goods and services.

4. Induces Customers:
Personal selling induces customers to buy products for satisfying their needs.

(v) Importance to Society:

Personal selling brings following positive effects for society

1. Converts Latest Demand into Effective Demand:

Personal selling creates effective demand which results in increasing sale and more income. With more income there
will be more products and services which in turn bring economic growth.

2. Employment Opportunities:
Unemployed youth can work as salesman and earn their livelihood.

3. Career Opportunities:
Personal selling offers attractive career with job satisfaction and security.

4. Mobility of Sales Persons:

Sales people move from one place to other, this promotes travel and tourism industry.

5. Product Standardisation:
With the help of personal selling there can be uniformity of consumption by supplying standardised products.

4. Public Relations:
Apart from four major elements of marketing mix, another important tool of marketing is maintaining Public
Relations. In simple words, a public relations means maintaining public relations with public. By maintaining public
relations, companies create goodwill.

Public relations evaluate public attitudes; identify the policies and procedures of an organisation with the public
interest to earn public understanding and acceptance.

Public does not mean only customers, but it includes shareholders, suppliers, intermediaries, customers etc. The
firm’s success and achievement depends upon the support of these parties for example, firm needs active support of
middle men to survive in market, it must have good relations with existing shareholders who provide capital. The
consumers’ group is the most important part of public as success of business depends upon the support and demand
of customers only.

Role, Significance, advantages of public relations:

Public relations are significant in the following ways:

1. Help to convey the policies and programmes of the organisation.

2. Help to collect information about public opinion about the organisation, management activities etc.

3. To overcome the complaints and dislikes of public.

4. To mould people’s attitude in favour of organisation.

5. To maintain goodwill and understanding between organisation and public.

6. To build an image of the organisation.

Ways/Methods and Tools of Public Relations:

The companies can use the following tools to improve their relations with public:

1. News:
Sometimes companies get involved in such kind of activities or make such policies so that they get some positive
coverage in news. For example, a company’s name may be covered in news for reservation of jobs for women or for
introducing new technology etc.

2. Speeches:
The speeches given by the leaders of corporate sectors influence various members of public specially banks,
shareholders etc. Public relations department creates occasion when the speeches are delivered by the leader of

3. Events:
Events refer to organizing press conferences, multimedia presentation, matches, stage shows etc.

4. Written Materials:
Sometimes written materials such as Balance Sheet, Annual Reports, Special documents, Brochures etc. are
circulated to various parties to improve and maintain public image of the company.

5. Public Service Activities:

Big business houses often associate themselves with various social service projects such as women welfare
programmes, charity shows, up-keeping of parks, planting trees on road side, training schools, running schools,
colleges, hospitals etc
Emerging Tools of Integrated Marketing Communications (IMC)

Sponsorships (Event Marketing)

Sponsorships, or event marketing, combine advertising and sales promotions with public relations. Sponsorships
increase awareness of a company or product, build loyalty with a specific target audience, help differentiate a
product from its competitors, provide merchandising opportunities, demonstrate commitment to a community or
ethnic group, or impact the bottom line. Like advertising, sponsorships are initiated to build long-term associations.
Organizations sometimes compare sponsorships with advertising by using gross impressions or cost-per-thousand
measurements. However, the value of sponsorships can be very difficult to measure. Companies considering
sponsorships should consider the short-term public relations value of sponsorships and the long-term goals of the
organization. Sports sponsorships make up about two-thirds of all sponsorships.
Social Media Marketing
The concept of social media marketing basically refers to the process of promoting business or websites through
social media channels. It is a powerful marketing medium that is defining the way people are communicating. It is
one of the significantly low-cost promotional methods that provide businesses large numbers of links and huge
amount of traffic. Companies manage to get massive attention and that really works in favour of the business. Social
media marketing is a potent method applied by progressive companies for selling their products/services or for just
publishing content for advertisement revenue.
Social media is an extremely useful tool using which companies can get their information, product descriptions,
promotions all ingrained in the chain of networking world. Considering the newness of this marketing method,
organizations are coming up with innovative ways to develop their marketing plans. New platforms are being
created to approach potential clients. A large number of business organizations are allocating budget for
online business development using social media marketing. It is a booming sector which is going to redefine the way
marketing strategies are being formed and promoted.
Internet Marketing
Internet marketing also referred to as i-marketing, web-marketing, online-marketing or e-Marketing, is the
marketing of products or services over the Internet. The Internet has brought media to a global audience. The
interactive nature of Internet marketing in terms of providing instant responses and eliciting responses are the unique
qualities of the medium. Internet marketing is sometimes considered to be broad in scope because it not only refers
to marketing on the Internet, but also includes marketing done via e-mail and wireless media. Management of digital
customer data and electronic customer relationship management (ECRM) systems are also often grouped together
under internet marketing.

Internet marketing ties together creative and technical aspects of the Internet, including: design, development,
advertising, and sales.

Internet marketing also refers to the placement of media along many different stages of the customer engagement
cycle through search engine marketing (SEM), search engine optimization (SEO), banner ads on specific websites,
e-mail marketing, and Web 2.0 strategies.

Mobile Marketing
Mobile Marketing involves communicating with the consumer via cellular (or mobile) device, either to send a
simple marketing message, to introduce them to a new audience participation-based campaign or to allow them to
visit a mobile website.

Mobile connectivity not only enables people to connect to the Internet via a cellular telephone, PDA or other gadget,
but also consolidates the different communication channels in a simple, yet effective medium.

Cheaper than traditional means for both the consumer and the marketer – and easy enough for almost any age group
to understand and engage with – Mobile Marketing really is a streamlined version of traditional eMarketing.

Affinity Marketing - Also known as Partnership Marketing, this technique links complementary brands, thereby
creating strategic partnerships that benefit both companies. While one adds value to existing customers by
generating more income, the other builds new customer relationships.
Alliance Marketing - Here two or more entities come together to pool in their resources to promote and sell a
product or service, which will not only benefit their stakeholders, but also have a greater impact on the market.
Ambush Marketing - This strategy is used by advertisers to capitalize on and associated themselves with a specific
event without the payment of any sponsorship fee, thereby bringing down the value of sponsorship. It has sub-
categories like direct or predatory ambushing or indirect ambushing by association, to name a few.
Call to Action (CTA) Marketing - CTA is a part of inbound marketing used on websites in the form of a banner,
text or graphic, where it is meant to prompt a person to click it and move into the conversion funnel, that is, from
searching to navigating an online store to converting to a sale.
Close Range Marketing (CRM) - Also known as Proximity Marketing, CRM uses bluetooth technology or Wifi to
promote their products and services to their customers at close proximity.
Cloud Marketing - This refers to the type of marketing that takes place on the internet, where all the marketing
resources and assets are transferred online so that the respective parties can develop, modify, utilise and share them.
Community Marketing - This technique caters to the needs and requirements of the existing customers, as opposed
to using resources to gather new consumers. This promotes loyalty and product satisfaction and also gives rise to
word of mouth marketing among the community.
Content Marketing - In this case, content is created and published on various platforms to give information about a
certain product or service to potential customers and to influence them, without making a direct sales pitch.
Cross-media Marketing - As the name suggests, multiple channels like emails, letters, web pages etc are used to
give information about products and services to customers in the form of cross promotion.
Database Marketing - This utilizes and information from database of customers or potential consumers to create
customised communication strategies through any media in order to promote products and services.
Digital Marketing - This strategy uses various digital devices like smartphones, computers, tablets or digital
billboards to inform customers and business partners about its products. Internet Marketing is a key element in
Digital Marketing.
Direct Marketing - This is a wide term which refers to the technique where organizations communicate directly
with the consumer through mail, email, texts, fliers and various promotional materials.
Diversity Marketing - The aim of this strategy is to take into account the different diversities in a culture in terms
of beliefs, expectations, tastes and needs and then create a customized marketing plan to target those consumers
Evangelism Marketing - It is similar to word-of-mouth marketing, where a company develops customers who
become voluntary advocates of a product and who promote its features and benefits on behalf of the company.
Freebie Marketing - Here a particular item is sold at low rates, or is given away free, to boost the sales of another
complimentary item or service.
Free Sample Marketing - Unlike Freebie Marketing, this is not dependent on complimentary marketing, but rather
consists of giving away a free sample of the product to influence the consumer to make the purchase.
Guerrilla Marketing - Unconventional and inexpensive techniques with imagination, big crowds and a surprise
element are used for marketing something, a popular example being flash mobs.
By keeping in mind the distinctive features of the product, the demographics of the target consumer and their
spending power, and the current strategies of existing companies, an effective marketing strategy may be
successfully created.

The types of marketing keep evolving with new developments in technology and changes in the socio-economic
structure of a market. I try to keep up, and update the list as things develop. Please let me know if I’ve forgotten
anything from the list by leaving a comment.

52 Types of Marketing Strategies

As a student of sleight-of-hand magic, I value the number 52. Here we bring you 52 types of marketing strategies
and tactics you can use to bring new customers to your business and grow your brand.
In order for businesses to win market share and stay relevant they need to consider many types of marketing
strategies. Each marketing strategy can communicate to a target market the benefits and features of a product.
Marketing strategies can also communicate an overall value to their customers. In many cases, this is the core of
building equity or good will in your target markets.Apple, for example, has invested in creating commercials for
television, billboards, and magazines that showcase their products in such a way that their customers feel an affinity
towards Apple’s products.
52 Types of Marketing Strategies In Use Today:


Finding a causes both your customers and your company cares about can create magic for your business. This
requires internal knowledge about what your organisation cares about and who they want to help in the world. A
good example of this is Toms Shoes. Instead of doing the traditional “buy one get one free” promotion, Toms built a
strong customer following and reputation for giving back by giving away a free pair of shoes to someone in need for
every shoe purchase made by their customers.

Use Wifi or bluetooth to send promotional messages of their products and services to their customers' smartphones
and tablets at close proximity. Close Range Marketing is also known as Proximity Marketing.


Many companies focus on building relationships with their customers instead of always exclusive trying to sell them
something (transactional marketing). Customers who love your brand more will also spend more money with your
brand. Many traditional retailers have found this to be true. Walgreens has seen that customers who buy from all of
their purchasing channels (store, web, mobile, etc) buy up to six times more than the average customer that only
buys in their store.

Driving sales can be challenging, especially for retailers that have to consistently sell products in high volume to
consumers. In order to stay with the demands of investors, retailers have to encourage consumers to buy using
coupons, discounts, liquidations, and sales events. High volume big-box retailers like Target are constantly running
promotional events in order to get interested consumers into their stores.

In some markets it’s important to control how much product is available at one time. In many cases this is done
because of the difficulty of acquiring raw materials or higher quality of the product. A company may choose to make
their products accessible to only a few customers. Rolls-Royce’s release of theirChinese edition car called Phantom
sold quickly. While the cost of the car was higher than most cars the scarcity drove the desire and the price.


Word-of-mouth Marketing is the passing of information from person to person by oral communication. Customers
are very excited to share with the world the brands they love. Many consumers find meaning in sharing stories of
their favorite products and services. Word of Mouth is one of the ancient ways people learned about what to
purchase. Modern marketers have learned how to create authentic word of mouth for their companies and the
products they represent.

CTA Marketing refers to methods of converting web traffic into leads or sales on websites using text, graphics, or
other elements of web design. Conversion strategies help improve the percentage of online visitors who become
customers or who join the mailing list.

Cult Brand marketers are constantly creating new business ideas that keep their products in the heart and minds of
the global consumer. Each time a new product is created, customers have to be given a reason to dream about their
future purchase. Sometimes marketers of Cult Brands hit on something so great that people can’t help but share with
others. Getting your customers talking about your products and services is very important to growing awareness for
your business.

Develop a customized marketing plan by analyzing different customer segments based on cultural differences
including tastes, expectations, beliefs, world views, and specific needs.

Sometimes not telling everyone everything can become a great source of buzz. Think of a movie trailer that got you
very excited to go see the movie. While not showing all the aspects of the movie, the advertiser can create enough
intrigue to drive viewers to want to see more.

Major corporations need to drive large numbers of purchasing of their products in order to survive and grow. While
mass marketing may seem like a shotgun approach to marketing this is far from the truth. Big businesses spend big
money in understanding big data--thats a lot of bigs!) This gives them an insight to where to place media for their
potential national customers who buy their products and services. Walmart is an example of an effective mass
market retailer. As the number one retailer in the world, they are very smart about their mass marketing efforts, often
giving their customers a feeling of locality and warmth.


Seasonal events offers a great way to meet new consumers. Sometimes these events can be actual changes of
weather or national holidays. For a retailer likeHallmark, Valentine's Day represents a large portion of their business.
By tuning into the various seasons that are important to your customers you can become more relevant in their lives.
PR Marketing

One of the most important marketing strategies is public relations. Many effective marketers work with the media to
bring awareness to their products and the benefits their products offer. Also, in many cases where things go wrong, a
good PR marketing strategy is vital. When Apple’s founder Steve Jobs was alive, Apple held a major press
conference to announce every new product. This tradition is now continued by their new Apple CEO and CMO.

As commerce has propagated to the Internet, a new form of marketing has emerged. From online banners to those
annoying pop ups, online marketers have attempted to get their customers attention any way they can. Most online
strategic marketing efforts today are a mix of growth hacking strategies ( A/B testing taken to the max) and a variety
of awareness tactics that drive attention. A very effective online marketer is the insurance company Geico who
simply asks their users to enter their zip code for an instant quote on a better savings.

As soon as customers migrated into the online world, Internet marketers have attempted to collect and organize
emails for potential prospects. Many business-to-business marketers depend on email marketing as a primary way to
connect with customers. At industry tradeshows, IBM consultants can often be seen exchanging email information
with their prospects.

Develop raving fan customers (what we call Brand Lovers) who become advocates of your brand or product, and
who represent the brand as if it was part of their own identity.


Creating events is a great way to drive sales. Customers often need a reason to shop and events can often offer the
perfect reason. Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade has become part of American culture by connecting two events
together that consumers love: Thanksgiving and shopping.

With mass adoption of the Internet, many companies are finding new ways of integrating offline marketing with new
technologies to create more engaging customer experiences. The Coca-Cola company has create vending
machinesthat invite customers to hug them. This continues to tie the Coca-Cola brand to the core emotion of
happiness, but also invite customers to experience the real product offline.

Sometimes it’s important for companies to let their potential customers know they exist. By developing a list of
prospects a company can begin to reach out to their individual target groups in order to find new customers.
When Microsoft was selling their accounting software they often used outbound marketing to identify potential
targets before trying to call the companies for an in-person meeting.


Communicate directly with customers and prospects through mail, email, texts, fliers and other promotional


Companies often have customers calling them for various reasons. This can present a great opportunity to sell
customers additional products and services they currently don’t have. When business customers call to check their
balances, the business bank Chase often takes the opportunity to ask if they are interest in a credit line, a 401 k plan,
or a variety of other services the bank offers.

Promote free give aways or sell your products and services sold at low rates to boost the sales of other related
products or services.


A fun way to promote a business is to write a newsletter that highlights some of the newsworthy things that have
happened for the organization. The Motley Foolhave been sharing their investment insights with their community
for many years. These newsletters create a sense of inclusion and participation with their members and has provided
a key driver for their incredible growth.

In industries where expertise is highly valued, articles can offer a powerful tool to showcase your knowledge and
expertise. Some innovations are shared in the form of articles or white papers where technical information needs to
be convey to specialized buyers. has dedicated part of their site for white papers on technical know-
how on cloud computing. This is a very sophisticated form of marketing for specialized buyers.

Write and publish content to educate potential customers about your products and services. For the appropriate
businesses, this can be an effective means of influencing them without using direct selling methods.


Many products have to be experienced to be bought. There are very few customers that will buy a new automobile
without doing a great deal of research and test-driving the car first. Tradeshows are industry gatherings where
customers are invited to come sample all that the industry has to offer. To introduce their new lines of products, Ford
Motor Company spends a great deal of time setting up and operating their booth at the international consumer auto
shows each year. These auto trade shows give reporters and consumers a chance to experience cars first hand.

These days, when consumers have questions they often don’t ask their friends; they go straight for Google. In fact,
Google is so good at answering our questions that millions of people daily search for their answers on this leading
Internet search site. One does not have to look far to see the power of search marketing. Google has shaped the
industry for many years now and has helped hundred of retailers grow their businesses. While many businesses used
to advertise in their local yellow pages, as less and less consumer consult their local physical directory, this channel
becomes increasingly less effective each year.


Advertise and promote your products and services to customers using a range of digital devices including
computers, smartphones, and tablets. Internet Marketing is an essential practice in Digital Marketing. Once a target
market has been clearly identified, it is possible to work in conjunction with the USPS or a professional mail carrier
that knows where your customers live. Direct marketing can be an effective way to reach consumers right where
they live at home. While there is often a negative side to this approach (consumers don’t want to be bothered with a
flurry of mail), many smart companies execute direct marketing well. Catalog retailer L.L. Bean, for example,
created direct marketing programs that their customers looks forward to receiving.

Finding a niche and filling it could be described as the secret recipe for growth in over-crowded marketplaces. Take
the shoe business, for example. There is a great demand for shoes in the world and so many top companies have
evolved to satisfy most of the immediate shoe needs in the marketplace. The shoe space might seem crowded, but
shoe manufacturing company Vans noticed an underserved customer: the skater. By focusing on this niche
market Vans has developed a thriving business.


Drip marketing is a communication strategy that sends, or "drips," a pre-written set of messages to customers or
prospects over time. These messages often take the form of email marketing, although other media outlets can also
be used as well.

Engage an audience of existing customers in an active dialogue, speaking to the needs and wants of this particular
customer group. Instead of focusing on generating the next transaction, community marketing promotes greater
loyalty and higher levels of engagement within an existing brand community. Learn how to build brand
communities here. Community marketing can also lead to word of mouth marketing.


Social media sites like Facebook and Twitter offer a unique opportunity for savvy businesses willing to invest in
customer engagement. Social media marketing is still in its infancy but is growing up rather quickly. Companies
like Southwest Airlines have departments of over 30 people whose primary responsibility is to actively engage with
customers on social media.

Provide customers information through multiple channels like email, physical mail, websites, and print and online
advertisements to cross promote your products and services.

Business-to-business marketing is a marketing practice of individuals or organizations (including commercial

businesses, governments, and other institutions). It allows businesses to sell products or services to other companies
or organizations that in turn resell the same products or services, use them to augment their own products or
services, or use them to support their internal operations. International Business Machines is a well known B2B
marketer. IBM’s business has grown because taking a very intelligent approach at marketing their products to other
business and governments around the world.


Promotional marketing is a business marketing strategy designed to stimulate a customer to take action towards a
buying decision. Promotional marketing is a technique that includes various incentives to buy, such as:
 Contests: We all enjoy winning something for free. Contests offer an attractive marketing vehicle for small
business to acquire new clients and create awareness.
 Coupons: According to CMS, a leading coupon processing agent, marketers issued 302 billion coupons in
2007, a 6% increase over the previous year. Over 76% of the population use coupons, according to the
Promotion Marketing Association (PMA) Coupon Council. Coupons still work and provide an affordable
marketing strategy for small business.
 Sampling: Try before you buy. Giving away product might appear profit-limiting, but consider how giving
your customers a small taste can lead to a big purchase. Retail genius Publix supermarkets share samples of
their award-winning key lime pie not because people question the goodness of the pie but to get their customers
to buy more.

Advertiser use this marketing strategy to associate with specific events and brands without paying sponsorship fees.
This allows the business to capitalize on these events or leverage the brand equity of the other business, which has
the potential effect of loweringthe value of the original event.

The ultimate goal of B2C marketing (business-to-consumer marketing) is to convert shoppers into buyers as
aggressively and consistently as possible. B2C marketers employ merchandising activities like coupons, displays,
store fronts (both real and online) and special offers to entice the target market to buy. B2C marketing campaigns are
focused on a transaction, are shorter in duration, and need to capture the customer’s interest immediately. These
campaigns often offer special deals, discounts, or vouchers that can be used both online and in the store.

In this new form of marketing, all marketing resources and assets are brought online so customers (or affiliates) can
develop, modify, use, and share them. Consider how gets customers to buy digital books, movies, and
televisions shows in a digital library that is accessible in the customer’s online account or on their digital device like
their Kindle Fire.


Marketing on or with a mobile device, such as a smart phone. Mobile marketing can provide customers with time
and location sensitive, personalized information that promotes goods, services, and ideas. Here is a recent example
of mobile marketing in action.

A joint venture is formed between two or more businesses to pool resources in an effort to promote and sell products
and services.

In reverse marketing, the idea is to get the customer to seek out the business rather than marketers seeking the
customer. Usually, this is done through traditional means of advertising, such as television advertisements, print
magazine advertisements, and online media. While traditional marketing mainly deals with the seller finding the
right set of customers and targeting them, reverse marketing focuses on the customer approaching potential sellers
who may be able to offer the desired product.
In 2004, Dove launched the Dove Campaign for Real Beauty focusing on the natural beauty of women rather than
advertising their product. This campaign caused their sales to soar above $1 Billion and caused Dove to re-create
their brand around this strategy. Although successful, this campaign caused a lot of controversy and discussion due
to what people saw as an advertisement with a contradictory message.

I know what you are thinking, you hate telemarketers. You are not alone in your feelings. However, telemarketing
can play an important part of selling your products to consumers and it must not be overlooked as many companies
rely on it to connect with customers. Telemarketing (sometimes known as inside sales, or telesales in the UK and
Ireland) is a method of direct marketing in which a salesperson solicits prospective customers to buy products or
services, either over the phone or through a subsequent face to face or Web conferencing appointment scheduled
during the call. Telemarketing can also include recorded sales pitches programmed to be played over the phone via
automatic dialing. Telemarketing has come under fire in recent years, being viewed as an annoyance by many.


Unlike Freebie Marketing, this is not dependent on complementary marketing, but rather consists of giving away a
free sample of the product to influence the consumer to make the purchase.

A channel-agnostic form of advertising that allows businesses and nonprofits organizations to communicate directly
with the customer, with advertising techniques that can include text messaging, email, interactive consumer
websites, online display ads, fliers, catalog distribution, promotional letters, and outdoor advertising. Direct
marketing messages emphasize a focus on the customer, data, and accountability. Characteristics that distinguish
direct marketing are:
 Marketing messages are addressed directly to the customer(s). Direct marketing relies on being able to
address the members of a target market. Addressability comes in a variety of forms including email addresses,
mobile phone numbers, Web browser cookies, fax numbers, and postal addresses.
 Direct marketing seeks to drive a specific "call to action." For example, an advertisement may ask the
prospect to call a free phone number or click on a link to a website.
 Direct marketing emphasizes trackable, measurable responses from customers regardless of medium.
 Direct marketing is practiced by businesses of all sizes—from the smallest start-up to the leaders in
the Fortune 500. A well-executed direct advertising campaign can prove a positive return on investment by
showing how many potential customers responded to a clear call-to-action. General advertising eschews calls-
for-action in favor of messages that try to build prospects’ emotional awareness or engagement with a brand.
Even well-designed general advertisements rarely can prove their impact on the organization’s bottom line.

Database Marketing is a form of direct marketing using databases of customers or potential customers to generate
personalized messages in order to promote a product or service for marketing purposes. The method of
communication can be any addressable medium, as in direct marketing.The distinction between direct marketing and
database marketing stems primarily from the attention paid to the analysis of data. Database marketing emphasizes
the use of statistical techniques to develop models of customer behavior, which are then used to select customers for
communications. As a consequence, database marketers also tend to be heavy users of data warehouses, because
having a greater amount of data about customers increase the likelihood that a more accurate model can be built.
There are two main types of marketing databases: (1) consumer databases and (2) business databases. Consumer
databases are primarily geared towards companies that sell to consumers, often abbreviated as [business-to-
consumer] (B2C) or BtoC. Business marketing databases are often much more advanced in the information that they
can provide. This is mainly because business databases aren't restricted by the same privacy laws as consumer


Personalized marketing (also called personalization, and sometimes called one-to-one marketing) is an extreme form
of product differentiation. Whereas product differentiation tries to differentiate a product from competing ones,
personalization tries to make a unique product offering for each customer. Nike ID is a popular brand that has
developed a strong business around this personalization marketing concept.

Create strategic partnerships that are mutually beneficial by forming alliances with complementary brands. Also
known as partnership marketing, with this strategy, one brands generates sales while the other creates new customers
and builds brand awareness.

The proposition of cult marketing holds reign upon the notion that a way to convert—ahem, excite ... OK, convert—
consumers is by using timeless human behavioral drives found in religious cults. Heck, fellow acolytes, nothing is
more permission-, buzz- and one-to-one-based than "a central ideology with a parallel social universe rich with
customs." Cult marketing is a bright spot in the list of newfangled marketing templates, one that applies timeless
social-science principles in a powerful way. To the list of newfangled marketing buzzwords, let's add the term cult.

Human needs are “a state of felt deprivation.” They distinguish between physical needs (food, shelter, safety,
clothing), social needs (belonging and affection), and individual needs (knowledge, self-expression). Needs are a
relatively narrow set of non-cultural states of felt deprivation.

Grass root, untraditional, and low-budget methods that found involve creativity, big crowds of people, and the
element of surprise to market or promote a product, service, brand, event, or new launch.

Brand Lover Marketing is a marketing concept that is intended to replace the idea of traditional brand marketing.
Brands are running out of juice and Brand Loversare what is needed to rescue brands. But what builds loyalty that
goes beyond reason? What makes a truly great brand stand out? Brand Lovers bring brands to life. For a brand to
elevate itself into the "Cult Brand" category, it has to give customers a feeling of belonging while generating strong
feelings of love for its customers. Creating loyalty beyond reason requires emotional connections that generate the
highest levels of love and a sense of belonging for your brand.