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EXPERIMENT 2

TORSION TEST

MECHANICS AND MATERIALS


LABORATORY

MEMB221

NAME : ASYRAF NURUDDIN BIN AZRAN

STUDENT ID: ME078004

SECTION : 05

GROUP NUMBER : 1

LAB INSTRUCTOR : ZAINUDDIN BIN YAHYA

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TABLE OF CONTENT

Summary/Abstract………………………………………………………………… 3

Statement of Purpose/Introduction/Objective………………………………….. 4

Theory……………………………………………………………………………… 4

Equipment/Description of Experimental Apparatus…………………………… 5

Procedure………………………………………………………………………….. 6

Data and Observations…………………………………………………………… 8

Analysis and Results……………………………………………………………… 10

Discussions………………………………………………………………………… 13

Conclusions………………………………………………………………………… 13

References………………………………………………………………………… 13

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SUMMARY/ABSTRACT

This experiment tested the torsion for two different kinds of materials, brass and
aluminum. As the main objectives of this experiment are to understand the concept of
torsion test and to find the modulus of shear, G, torsion test is a measurement to
evaluate how much the force acting on an object that causes the object to deform as
well. By doing the experiment, the modulus of rigidity of material can be obtained
experimentally. The modulus was determined as the ratio of shear stress to engineering
shear strain on the loading plane.

In short, during this experiment, two specimen bars are twisted to fracture. However,
for this experiment, the fractures only happen between 100 and 200 rotations. The test
moment and the angle of twist will be recorded during this process. It will be used for
analyzing the data. The specimen bars made of different materials with varying lengths
are included. The torque is applied manually using a hand wheel and a worm drive.
Measurement is performed with a strain gauge torsion shaft, the deformation of which is
compensated. The measurement can be read off directly in Nm on a digital display on
the measuring amplifier. At first, calibration unit will be used to get a defined torque. The
angle of twist is determined using a graduated scale and a revolutions counter. Then,
from the readings, graph of the torque against the gear input revolution plotted for each
material based on the value that was collected during the test. The shear modulus of
the materials can be obtained by putting the value and plug it into the equation given.

At the end, the experiment was done successfully and achieves the objectives
even though there is little bit an error. Eventually, it can be said that at the end of the
experiment, we have obtained a number of results to show the relationship between
angle, torque, and torsion. From this experiment, it can be concluded that G aluminum is
higher than GBrass and also, from this experiment, the unknown modulus of rigidity can
be obtained.

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STATEMENT OF PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION/OBJECTIVE

The objectives of doing this experiment are:

 To understand the principle of torsion test.


 To determine the modulus of shear, G through measurement of the applied
torque and angle of twist.

THEORY

Torsion is a variation of pure shear wherein structural member is twisted,


torsional forces produce a rotating motion about the longitudinal axis of one end of the
member relative to the other end. Torsion tests are normally performed on cylindrical
solids shaft or tube. Most of these tests are performed according to ASTM Standard E
143, “Standard Test for Shear Modulus”.

T= Torque

T = Gφ ; J = ( r4) = ( d4) J = Polar moment of inertia

J L 2 32 G=shear modulus

Ø= angle after application of torque

L=length

d=diameter

r=radius

Specimen made of various materials, with differing diameters and lengths may
be investigated. The effective torque is recorded with the aid of a reference rod
equipped with strain gauges. The torque is directly displayed on a digital of a strain
gauge measurement amplifier. This also incorporates important principles of electronic
measurement of mechanical values into the experimental program. The unit is primarily
intended for practical laboratory experiments.

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EQUIPMENT/DESCRIPTION OF EXPERIMENTAL APPARATUS

The apparatus mainly consists of:-

Note: The specimens are brass and aluminum material

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PROCEDURE

a. Calibration Test

1. This step is involving torque measurement unit, digital torque meter, dial gauge
and loader (0-60 N) as a main components.
2. The length of the lever and weight of loader is stated down. It will be used as
theoretically calculation value and to make a comparison between measured
values.
3. To start calibrate, the torque measurement unit is connected to the measurement
amplifier. Switch it on and set the amplifier display to zero. To set it to zero, press
V button, hold it for a second, and press P.
4. Loader is connected at the end of the lever with 5N each. Start from 0 up to 60 N.
5. Read and state down the value at the display on the digital torque meter. For
each loader, the value supposed would be increased.
6. Based on the graph given in experiment instruction, plot the value on the graph

b. Performing the test

Mounting the specimen

1. The size of the socket holder must be checked first. Make it same with the size of
the specimen.
2. The specimen is mounted between the loading device and the torque measuring
unit tightly. Make sure the shifting holder of the load device is in the center
position.
3. Make sure here is no preload on the specimen. To ensure it, use hand wheel at
loading device and turn it until the reading of amplifier display is zero.
4. Set the dial gauge to zero. Reset revolution counter.

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Loading the specimen

1. To load the specimen, turn the hand wheel at the input of the gear to the
clockwise direction. Turn it based on a defined angle increment.
2. Firstly, for the first rotation, the increment is 90°, so twist the hand wheel per
quarter, which is 90°. Do it four times to complete a first rotation. See the display
on amplifier and state the result.
3. Before start to implement the next step, set the dial gauge to zero. Set it by using
the adjuster and let the value on the display as it was.
4. Secondly, for the second rotation the increment is 180°. So, turn the hand wheel
at the half quarter in two times to complete 360°.
5. For the third rotation, set the dial gauge to zero and do the same thing like the
second rotation.
6. For the 4th to 10th rotation, the rotation of the twist is 360°. Take a value from the
amplifier for each rotation.
7. To calculate the twist angle at the specimen, the rotations at the input divided by
the ratio of 62.
8. The torque value from the display of the amplifier was read and notes it together
with the twist angle.
9. The result is tabled and the experiment is continued with other specimen.

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DATA AND OBSERVATIONS

Part A

Weight disk (N) Applied load torque (Nm) Read out amplifier (Nm)
0 0 0
5 2.5 2.40
10 5.0 4.80
15 7.5 7.20
20 10.0 9.60
25 12.5 12.00
30 15.0 14.35
35 17.5 16.75
40 20.0 19.15
45 22.5 21.55
50 25.0 24.00
55 27.5 26.40
60 30.0 29.70
Table 1: Torque measurement calibration

Brass Aluminum
Diameter (cm) 0.62 0.65
Length (cm) 10.80 12.00
Gauge Length (cm) 7.00 7.50

Part B

Rotation Input BRASS ALUMINUM


Twist Angle Read out Twist Angle Read out
(Degree) Rotation
(Degree) Amplifier (Degree) Amplifier
(rev)
(Nm) (Nm)

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90 0.25 1.452 0.36 1.452 0.15
180 0.50 2.903 0.36 2.903 0.20
270 0.75 4.355 0.40 4.355 0.38
360 1.00 5.806 0.54 5.806 0.85
540 1.50 8.710 1.21 8.710 2.75
720 2.00 11.613 3.40 11.613 4.80
900 2.50 14.516 5.90 14.516 7.20
1080 3.00 17.419 8.40 17.419 9.20
1440 4.00 23.226 10.10 23.226 11.30
1800 5.00 29.032 10.60 29.032 11.45
2160 6.00 34.839 11.05 34.839 11.50
2520 7.00 40.645 11.30 40.645 11.55
2880 8.00 46.452 11.45 46.452 11.60
3240 9.00 52.258 11.50 52.258 11.65
3600 10.00 58.065 11.65 58.065 11.70
Table 2: Torsion test over Brass and Aluminum specimen

ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

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For Brass

Length of the test specimen, L = 0.007 m

Polar moment of inertia, J =

= 1.451 x m

= slope of the graph 2 [ T vs ]

= = 4.889

Modulus of rigidity of Brass, G


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G =( )( ) = 4.889 ( )

= 2.358 x N/

= 2.458 GPa

For Aluminum

Length of the test specimen, L = 0.075 m

Polar moment of inertia, J =

= 1.752 x m

= = 4.833

G =( )( ) = 4.833 ( )

= 2.069 x N/

= 2.069 GPa

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Percentage error ( )= x 100

For Brass = x 100

= 93.95%

For aluminum = x 100

= 92.04%

Comparison between theoretical modulus of rigidity and experimental modulus of rigidity

Material Theoretical Value Experimental Value Percentage Error ( )


Brass 39 GPa 2.358 GPa 93.45
Aluminum 26 GPa 2.069 GPa 92.04

DISCUSSIONS

From the graph that we have plotted, it seems that the lines of the graph are not so
linear compared to the theoretical graph given in the text book. It may be because we
have collected the inaccurate set of readings.

The percentage error that we have calculated is very high. The results are due to some
errors in doing this experiment, such as:

a. The loading and the mounting of the experiment t the machine. We do not know
what exactly the way to do this experiment. We just follow the lab manual.

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b. Calibration of the amplifier. We maybe have wrong timing about when too
calibrate the meter or the amplifier.

CONCLUSIONS

From this experiment, we know how the shear stress affected different types of material
by doing the torsion test.

Ductile material is generally failed in shear while brittle material is weaker in tensions
that shear.

Brass has higher shear modulus of rigidity compared to Aluminum.

REFERENCES

 Semester 2 2007/2008. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Mechanics of


materials lab manual. Page 9-14.
 Beer, Johnson, DeWolf. Mechanics of Materials Fourth Edition. Mc Graw Hill.
Page number 132-189.

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