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DepEd Order

No.8, s.2015
Theoretical BAses
Classroom Assessment
 Is a joint process that involves both
teachers and learners.
 Is an integral part of teaching &
 Recognizes the diversity of learners.
 Facilitates the development of higher-
order thinking and 21st-century skills.
Appropriate assessment is committed
to ensure learners’ success in moving from
guided to independent display of
21 st Century Skills
Three types:
1. Learning skills
a. critical thinking
b. creative thinking
c. collaborating
d. communicating
2. Literacy Skills
a. Information Literacy
b. Media Literacy
c. Technology Literacy
3. Life Skills
a. Flexibility
b. Initiative
c. Social Skills
d. Productivity
e. Leadership
Classroom assessment
It is a process that is used to:
1. Keep track of learner’s progress in
relation to learning standards & in the
development of 21st-century skills.
2. Promote self-reflection and personal
accountability among students about
their own learning
3. Provide bases for the profiling of
students’ performance on the learning
competencies and standards of the
Classroom assessment
Is an on-going process of
identifying, gathering,
organizing, and interpreting
quantitative and qualitative
information about what learners
know and can do.
Teachers should use classroom
assessment methods that are
consistent with curriculum
standards and provide feedback
Two types of classroom
 Formative assessment
May be seen as assessment for learning (teachers can
make adjustments in their instruction) and assessment as
learning (students reflect on their own progress).
 Summative assessment
May be seen as assessment of learning (measures
whether learners have met the content and performance
What is assessed?
Assessment in the
classroom is aimed at helping
students perform well in
relation to the learning
standards. Learning standards
comprise content standards,
performance standards, and
learning competencies that
are outlined in the curriculum.
Content Standards
Identify and set the essential knowledge and understanding
that should be learned. They cover a specified scope of sequential
topics within each learning strand, domain, theme or component.
Content standards answer the question, “What should the learners


The learner demonstrates understanding that

living things breathe, eat, grow, move, reproduce
and react to light, touch and temperature.
Performance Standards

Describe the abilities and skills that

learners are expected to demonstrate
in relation to the content standards
and integration of 21st century
skills. The integration of knowledge,
understanding and skills is expressed
through creation, innovation, and
adding value to products/performance
during independent work or in
collaboration with others.

Example: The learner tells whether a thing is living or

non-living, given different samples.
Performance Standards

Performance standards answer the following questions:

1. What can learners do with what they know?
2. How well must learners do their work?
3. How well do learners use their learning or
understanding in different situations?
4. How do learners apply their learning or understanding
in real-life context?
5. What tools and measures should learners use to
demonstrate what they know?
Learning Competencies

Refer to knowledge, understanding,

skills and attitudes that students need
to demonstrate in every lesson and/or
learning activity.

The learner compares characteristics of
a living and a non-living thing.
Adapted cognitive process dimensions

CPD Descriptors
Remembering The learner can recall information &
retrieve relevant knowledge from long-
term memory: identify, retrieve,
recognize, duplicate, list, memorize,
repeat, reproduce
Understanding The learner can construct meaning from
oral, written, and graphic messages:
interpret, exemplify, classify, summarize,
infer, compare, explain, paraphrase,
Applying The learner can use information to
undertake a procedure in familiar
situations or in a new way: execute,
implement, demonstrate, dramatize,
interpret, solve, use, illustrate, convert,
Adapted cognitive process dimension

CPD Descriptors
Analyzing The learner can distinguish between parts
and determine how they relate to one
another, and to overall structure and
purpose: differentiate, distinguish,
compare, contrast, or organize, outline,
attribute, deconstruct.
Evaluating The learner can make judgments and justify
decisions: coordinate, measure, detect,
defend, judge, argue, debate, critique,
appraise, evaluate.
Creating The learner can put elements together to
form a functional whole, create a new
product or point of view: generate,
hypothesize, plan, design, develop, produce,
construct, formulate, assemble, design,
How are learners assessed?

Individual Formative Assessment

This enables the learner to demonstrate
independently what has been learned or
mastered through a range of activities such
as quizzes, performances, models and even
electronic presentations.

Collaborative Formative Assessment

Allows students to support each other’s
learning. Discussions, role plays, games and
other group activities may be used.
Formative Assessment in the
Different Parts of the Lesson
Before the lesson
 Informs the teacher about students’
understanding of a lesson/topic
 Helps teacher understand where the
students stand in terms of
conceptual understanding &
 Provides bases for making
instructional decisions
During the lesson proper
 Informs the teacher of the progress of the students in relation to the
development of the learning competencies.
 Helps the teacher determine whether instructional strategies are
 Results can be compared to the results before the lesson to establish if
conceptual understanding and application have improved.
 Teacher can decide whether to review, re-teach, remediate or enrich
lessons, and/or move on to the next lesson
After the lesson

 Assesses whether learning

objectives were achieved.
 Allows the teacher to evaluate
the effectiveness of instruction.
 Students who require
remediation and/or enrichment
should be helped by the teacher
using appropriate teaching
Purposes of Formative Assessment
Parts of the For the Learner For the Teacher Examples of
Lesson Assessment
1. Know what s/he 1. Get info about 1. Agree-disagree
knows about the what the learner activities
topic/lesson. already knows 2. Games
2. Understand the and can do about 3. Interviews
purpose of the lesson the new lesson. 4. Inventories/che
and how to do well in 2. Share learning cklists of skills
the lesson intentions and (relevant to the
3. Identify ideas or success criteria topic in a
Before Lesson concepts s/he to the leaners learning area)
misunderstands 3. Determine 5. KWL activities
4. Identify barriers to misconceptions (what I know,
learning 4. Identify what what I want to
hinders learning know, what I
6. Open-ended
7. Practice
Purposes of Formative Assessment

Parts of For the Learner For the Teacher Examples of

the Lesson Assessment
1. Identify one’s 1. Provide immediate 1. Multimedia
strengths and feedback to learners presentations
weaknesses. 2. Identify what 2. Observations
2. Identify barriers hinders learning 3. Other formative
to learning 3. Identify what performance tasks
3. Identify factors facilitates learning (simple activities
that help him/her 4. Identify learning that can be drawn
learn gaps from a specific topic
4. Know what s/he 5. Track learners’ or lesson)
Lesson knows and does progress in comparison 4. Quizzes
not know to formative assessment (recorded but not
proper 5. Monitor his/her results prior to the graded)
own progress lesson proper 5. Recitations
6. Decide on whether to 6. Simulation
proceed with the next activities
lesson, reteach, or
provide for corrective
measures or
Purposes of formative ASSESSMENT
Parts of the For the Learner For the Teacher Examples of
Lesson Assessment
1. Tell and 1. Assess whether 1. Checklists
recognize learning 2. Discussion
whether s/he objectives have 3. Games
met learning been met for a 4. Performance
objectives and specified tasks that
success criteria. duration. emanate from
After Lesson 2. Seek support 2. Remediate the lesson
through and/or enrich with objectives
remediation, appropriate 5. Practice
enrichment or strategies as exercises
other strategies needed. 6. Short
3. Evaluate quizzes
whether learning 7. Written
intentions and work
success criteria
have been met
The information or feedback
gathered from formative
assessment will help teachers
ensure that all learners are
supported while they are
developing understanding and
competencies related to
curriculum standards. These also
prepare them for summative
Teachers should keep a record
of formative assessment results
Summative Assessment
 This measures the different ways learners use
and apply all relevant knowledge, understanding
and skills.
 It is usually conducted after a unit of work
and/or at the end of an entire quarter to
determine how well learners can demonstrate
content knowledge and competencies
articulated in the learning standards.
 Learners synthesize their knowledge,
understanding, and skills during summative
 The results of these assessments are used as
bases for computing grades.
Individual or collaborative summative assessment

Learners may be assessed individually

through unit tests and quarterly
assessments. Collaboratively, learners may
participate in group activities in which they
cooperate to produce evidence of their
learning. The process of creating a learning
project is given more weight of importance
than the product itself.
Components of Summative Assessment

 Written Work component (WW)

 Performance Tasks (PT)

 Quarterly Assessment (QA)

Written Work Component

 Ensures that students are able to express skills and

concepts in written form.
 May include quizzes, unit or long tests, essays,
written reports and other written outputs
 Helps strengthen test-taking skills among the
 Items in long quizzes should be distributed across
the Cognitive Process Dimensions so that all are
adequately covered.
 Through these, learners are able to practice and
prepare for quarterly assessments and other
standardized assessments.
Performance tasks

 Allows the learners to show what they know and are

able to do in diverse ways.
 Learners may create or innovate products or do
performance-based tasks.
 Performance-based tasks may include skills,
demonstrations, group presentations, oral work,
multimedia presentations, and research projects
 Written outputs may also be considered as performance
Quarterly Assessment

Measures student learning

at the end of the quarter.
These may be in the form of
objective tests,
assessment or a combination
Components of Summative Assessment
Components Purpose When given
Written Work 1. Assess learner’s understanding of At end of the
(WW) concepts & applications of skills topic or unit
in written form.
2. Prepare learners for quarterly
1. Involve students in the learning At end of a
process individually or in lesson, focusing
collaboration with teammates on a topic/skill
over a period of time
2. Give students opportunities to
Performance demonstrate & integrate their
Task (PT) knowledge, understanding, & Several times
skills about topics or lessons during the
learned in specific real-life quarter
situation by performing &/or
producing evidence of their
Components of Summative Assessment
Components Purpose When Given
3. Give students the
freedom to express
their learning in
appropriate & diverse
4. Encourage student
inquiry, integration of
understanding, & skills
in various contexts
beyond the assessment
Quarterly Synthesize all the learning Once, at end of
Assessment skills, concepts, and quarter
(QA) values learned in an entire
There must be sufficient & appropriate instructional
interventions to ensure that learners are ready before
summative assessments are given. The evidence produced
through summative assessment enables teachers to
describe how well the students have learned the
standards/competencies for a given quarter. These are
then reflected in the class record. The grades of learners
are presented in a report card to show the progress of
learners to parents & other stakeholders.
What is the Grading System?
 The K to 12 BEC uses a standards- and
competency-based grading system (see curriculum
 Grades will be based on the weighted raw score of
the learner’s summative assessments.
 The minimum grade needed to pass a learning
area is 60, which is transmuted to 75 in the report
 The lowest grade that can appear on the report
card is 60 for Quarterly Grades and final Grades.
 Learners from Grades 1 to 12 are graded on
Written Work, Performance Tasks, and Quarterly
Assessment every quarter. These three are given
specific percentage weights that vary according to
How is learner progress recorded & computed?
For Kindergarten (Guidelines will be issued in a different
Checklists and anecdotal records are used instead of numerical
Through checklists, the teacher are able to indicate whether or
not the child can demonstrate knowledge &/or perform the tasks
expected of K learners.
Through anecdotal records or narrative reports, teachers are
able describe learners’ behaviour, attitude, & effort in school work.
Teachers keep a portfolio for each learner which contains
learners’ output such as writing samples, activity sheets & artwork.
How is learner progress recorded
and computed?
For Grades 1 to 12
In a grading period, there is one
Quarterly Assessment but there should be
instances for students to produce Written
Work and to demonstrate what they know &
can do through Performance Tasks. There is
no required number of Written Work &
Performance Tasks, but these must be
spread out over the quarter & used to
assess learners’ skills after each unit has
been taught.