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Inte rnational Journal of Trend in S cientific R esearch and Development (IJT SRD) International
Inte
rnational Journal of Trend in S
cientific
R
esearch and Development (IJT
SRD)
International Open Access Journ
al
ISSN No: 245
6 - 6470 | www.ijtsrd.com | Volum
e - 2 | Issue – 1
Studies on Phys icochemical Parameters to Asse ss the Water Quality o f Ground Water
Studies on Phys icochemical Parameters to Asse ss the
Water Quality o f Ground Water Sources of Dif ferent
Places in Dar yapur Tahsil, Maharashtra (Ind ia)
N. W. Bagalkar
Department of Microbiology, Sant G adge Baba
Amravati University, Amravati , India
P. M. G iri
Department of Geology, G overnment Institute of
Science Aurang abad, India
ABSTRACT
Groundwater is one of the most val uable natural
resources, which supports human hea lth, economic
development and ecological variety. Gro undwater is a
INTRODUCTION
valuable dynamic and replenishes able na atural resource
Water is one of the most
compounds of the ecosystem.
important and abundant
All living organisms on
in present day and limited in extent.
Groundwater
resource assessment of a region involv es a detailed
study of the sub-surface water, includin g geology and
hydrogeology, monitoring and productio n of well data.
the earth need water for their survival and growth. As
of now only earth is the p lanet having about 70%
The water quality guidelines provide a L imit Value for
each parameter for drinking water. It is
necessary that
surface of earth is covered by water, Majority of water
available on the earth is saline in the nature only 3 % of
exists as fresh water. Fresh w ater has become a scare
commodity due to over exploi tation and pollution [1-2].
the quality of drinking water should b e checked at
But due to increased
human population,
regular time interval, because due
to
use
of
contaminated drinking water, human pop ulation suffers
from varied of water borne diseases. The availability of
good quality water is an indispensabl e feature for
preventing diseases and improving qualit y of life. It is
necessary to know details about diffe rent physico-
chemical parameters such as color, tast e, odor, TDS,
pH, Hardness, Alkalinity, Chlorides, fluo ride, Sulphate,
Iron, turbidity and Nitrate used for tes ting of water
quality. In present study, Drinking Water Quality, were
analysis by various standards and analy tical methods
and TDS is found in 24 water sample out of 36.
industrialization, use of fertili zers in the agriculture and
man-made activity it is highl y polluted with different
harmful contaminants. Theref ore it is necessary that the
quality of drinking water sho uld be checked at regular
time interval, because due
to use of contaminated
drinking water, human popul ation suffers from varied
of water borne diseases. It is
difficult to understand the
biological phenomenon fully because the chemistry of
water revels much about
the metabolism of the
ecosystem and explain the g eneral hydro - biological
relationship [3].
Drinking water quality standa rds describes the quality
parameters set for drinking w
ter (Wiki). Ground water
Keywords: Drinking Water, Water Qualit y Parameters,
Ground Water
is the major sources of drinki ng water. 65% of human
body made by water, Out of the total water consumed
by human beings, more than 5 0 % of it is consumed for

industrial activity and only a for drinking purposes [4].

small proportion is used Industrial development

[4]. small proportion is used Industrial development @ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www .ijtsrd.com |
[4]. small proportion is used Industrial development @ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www .ijtsrd.com |

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

(Either new or existing industry expansion) results in the generation of industrial effluents, and if untreated results in water, sediment and soil pollution [5-6].There are several diseases have been identified among the human beings, which are caused by using contaminated water. Water born disease infections occur during washing, bathing and consumption of contaminated water during food preparations. Therefore it is necessary that the quality of water should be checked at regular time of interval because the financial losses due to water born diseases have negative impact on the nation. Nowadays this is the major problem of developing countries throughout the world. The main aim of the present study was to give an idea about the pollution level of ground water in terms of physico- chemical characteristics. There is no information is available in relation to physicochemical characteristics of ground water at Daryapur. Few researchers [7-8-9- 10] in different regions of India have been studied the physico-chemical parameters of the various water bodies. Good Quality of Drinking water is very necessary for improving the life of people and to prevent from diseases [11].

Having mainly excessive amounts of heavy metals such as Pb, Cr and Fe, as well as heavy metals from industrial processes are of special concern because they produce water or chronic poisoning in aquatic animals [12]. High levels of pollutants mainly organic matter in river water cause an increase in biological oxygen demand [13], chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, total suspended solids and fecal coli form. They make water unsuitable for drinking, irrigation or any other use [14]. There are trends in developing countries to use sewage effluent as fertilizer has gained much importance as it is considered a source of organic matter and plant nutrients and serves as good fertilizer [15]. Improper waste disposal and over exploitation of resources has affected the quality, not only of tap water, but also of ground water [16]. The recent research in Haryana (India) concluded that it is the high rate of exploration then its recharging, inappropriate dumping of solid and liquid wastes, lack of strict enforcement of law and loose governance are the cause of deterioration of ground water quality [17].

The quality of ground water depends on various chemical constituents and their concentration, which are mostly derived from the geological data of the particular region. Ground water occurs in weathered portion, along the joints and fractures of the rocks [18]. The adverse effects on ground water quality are the results of man’s activity at ground surface, unintentionally by agriculture, domestic and industrial effluents [19]. The quality of water may be described according to their physicochemical and micro- biological characteristics. Therefore, the quality of ground water varies from place to place, with the depth of water table, and from season to season and is primarily governed by the extent and composition of dissolved solids present in it. However it is very difficult and laborious task for regular monitoring of all the parameters even if adequate manpower and laboratory facilities are available [19-20-21]. Therefore, in recent years an alternative approach based on statistical correlation, has been used to develop mathematical relationship for comparison of physicochemical parameters. The present study deals with study of physico-chemical parameters of ground water in Daryapur City India.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

Study Area

The present study was carried out in Drayapur Taluk, Daryapur is a Taluka in Amravati District of Maharashtra State, India. Daryapur Taluka Head Quarters is Daryapur town. It belongs to Vidarbha region. It belongs to Amravati Division. It is located 52 KM towards west from District head quarters Amravati. 601 KM from State capital Mumbai towards west It is too Hot in summer. Daryapur summer highest day temperature is in between 34 °C to 46 °C. Average temperatures of January is 24 °C, February is 27 °C, March is 31 °C, April is 35 °C, May is 39 °C.( figure no 1)

is 31 °C, April is 35 °C, May is 39 °C.( figure no 1) @ IJTSRD
is 31 °C, April is 35 °C, May is 39 °C.( figure no 1) @ IJTSRD

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470 Figure 1: Study Area The Water Samples from ground

Figure 1: Study Area

The Water Samples from ground water sources were collected from different villages in the morning hours between 10 to 12 am in plastic bottle. The Water samples were immediately brought in to Laboratory for the opinion of various Physico -chemical parameters Such as, TDS, pH , Hardness, Alkalinity, Chlorides, fluoride, Sulphate, Iron , turbidity and Nitrate were estimated in the Laboratory by using Indian Standard Procedures (Titration method, Uv-Visible Spectrophotometer ) [22-23].

Physico-Chemical Properties of Ground Water, Daryapur Tahshil It is very essential and important to test the water before it is used for drinking, domestic, agricultural or industrial purpose. Water must be tested with different physico-chemical parameters. Selection of parameters for testing of water is solely depends upon for what purpose we going to use that water and what extent we need its quality and purity. Following different physic chemical parameters are required to for monitoring quality of water.

Odor, color and Test- Color should be transparent in sample. No organic or suspend particle should present. Sample should be odorless. After color and odor test of sample should be acceptable.

The pH of water. The higher pH values observed suggests that carbon dioxide, carbonate-bicarbonate equilibrium is affected more due to change in physico- chemical condition [24] pH value of water indicates the hydrogen ion concentration in water. The pH scale is extends from 0 (very acidic) to 14. As per IS: 10500- 2012 Desirable limit for pH is 6.5-8.5.

Alkalinity- It is primarily made of carbonate (CO32-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-), alkalinity acts as a stabilizer for pH. Alkalinity, pH and hardness affect the toxicity of many substances in the water. It is determined by simple dil HCl titration in presence of phenolphthalein and methyl orange indicators. Acceptable limit of alkalinity is 200 mg/l and in the absence of alternate water source, alkalinity up to 600 mg/l is acceptable for drinking.

Total Hardness (TH) - In groundwater hardness is mostly contributed by bicarbonates, carbonates, sulphates and chlorides of calcium and magnesium. So, the principal hardness causing ions are calcium and magnesium. It is measured by titration method by standardised EDTA sol. using Erichrome black T as indicator. [25] Have classified water as soft, moderate, hard and very hard. As per IS: 10500-2012 Desirable limit for TH is 200 and 600 mg/l in Permissible limit.

Ph- pH is most important in determining the corrosive nature of water. Lower the pH value higher is the corrosive nature of water. pH was positively correlated with electrical conductance and total alkalinity [17]. The reduced rate of photosynthetic action the assimilation of carbon dioxide and bicarbonates which are ultimately responsible for increase in pH, the low oxygen values coincided with high temperature during the summer month. Various factors bring about changes

Sulphate - Natural water contains sulphate ions and most of these ions are also soluble in water. Many sulphate ions are produce by oxidation process of their ores, they also present in industrial wastes. The way to measure quantity of sulphate is by UV Spectrophotometer. As per IS: 10500-2012 Desirable limit for Sulphate is 200 and 400 mg/l in Permissible limit

limit for Sulphate is 200 and 400 mg/l in Permissible limit @ IJTSRD | Available Online
limit for Sulphate is 200 and 400 mg/l in Permissible limit @ IJTSRD | Available Online

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Chloride -It is measured by titrating a identified volume of sample with standardized silver nitrate solution using potassium chromate solution in water or eosin/fluorescein solution in alcohol as indicator. The latter indicator is an adsorption indicator while the former makes a red colored compound with silver as soon as the chlorides are precipitated from solution. As per IS: 10500-2012 Desirable limit for fluoride is 250 and 1000 mg/l in Permissible limit.

Turbidity - Turbidity is a measure of the degree to which the water loses its transparency due to the being there of suspended particulates. It is essential to eliminate the turbidity of water in order to effectively disinfect it for drinking purposes. As per IS: 10500- 2012 Desirable limit for fluoride is 1 and 5 NTU in Permissible limit.

Fluoride - Fluoride occur as fluorspar (fluorite), rock phosphate, triphite, phosphorite crystals etc, in nature. Among factors which control the concentration of fluoride are the climate of the area and the presence of accessory minerals in the rock minerals assemblage through which the ground water is circulating. As per IS: 10500-2012 Desirable limit for fluoride is 1 and 1.5 mg/l in Permissible limit.

Nitrate - Nitrate is present in rare water and mainly it is a form of N2 compound (of its oxidizing state). Nitrate is produced from chemical and fertilizer factories, matters of animals, decline vegetables, domestic and industrial discharge. The method to measure quantity of nitrate is by UV Spectrophotometer. As per IS: 10500-2012 Desirable limit for nitrate is max.45 and no relaxation in permissible limit.

TDS - Water is a good solvent and picks up impurities easily. Pure water is tasteless, colorless, and odorless and is often called the universal solvent. Dissolved solids" refer to any minerals, salts, metals, cations or anions dissolved in water. Total dissolved solids (TDS) include inorganic salts (principally calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, bicarbonates, chlorides, and sulfates) and some small amounts of organic matter that are dissolved in water. As per IS:

10500-2012 Desirable limit for TDS is 500 and 2000 mg/l in Permissible limit.

Iron- Iron is brought in to the solution and reduced into ferrous state by boiling with HCl and hydroxylamine hydrochloride. It is then treated with 1-10 phenanthroline at pH 3.2 to 3.3 to form orange red chelate. The color solution obeys beers law. Alter the wavelength to 510 nm by pressing the nm arrow up or down. As per IS: 10500-2012 Desirable limit for Iron is 0.3 ppm.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The quality of water resources depends on the management of the water sources. This would include anthropogenic discharge as well as the natural physicochemical properties of the area.

The Water Samples from ground water sources were collected from different villages in the morning hours between 10 to 12 am in plastic bottle. Total 36 water sample collected from different villages and different ground water sources such as dug well, hand pump bore well from public sources in Daryapur tahshil. The Water samples were immediately brought in to Laboratory for the Estimation of various Physico - chemical parameters Such as, TDS, pH , Hardness, Alkalinity, Chlorides, fluoride, Sulphate, Iron , turbidity and Nitrate were estimated in the Laboratory by using Indian Standard Procedures (Titration method, Uv-Visible Spectrophotometer ) [22-23]. Out of these water sample all parameter near about is on limit except total dissolved solid (TDS), Most of daryapur tahshil containing soil is salinity affected that’s why hear present many solid such as mineral springs, carbonate deposits, salt deposits. Out of these 36 water sample 24 sample having TDS is more than 2000 that is (2078, 4035, 3062, 6042, 4074,7 002, 2066, 2037, 3001, 4007, 5002, 2079, 2053, 2064, 2048, 5027, 5002, 2077, 8098, 6009, 4072, 7074, 5005, 15051) and taste of these water sample was salty. Maximum TDS was found in Bhamod village from bower well that is

15051.

The observed values of physico-chemical parameters of experimental ground water samples are presented in Tables no. 1.

ground water samples are presented in Tables no. 1. @ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com
ground water samples are presented in Tables no. 1. @ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com

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International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (IJTSRD) ISSN: 2456-6470

Name

of

Type of

Tast

Odour

Colour

Fe

Nitra

Fl

CL

TDS

AK

SULP

pH

Turbid

TH

Habitation

Source

mg/

te

mg/L

mg/L

HAT

ity

L

mg/L

E

Yeoda

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.2

19.45

0.567

195

2078

169

54.87

8.2

0.84

264

Yeoda

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.16

19.88

0.853

295

4035

120

42.36

8.2

0.58

314

Yeoda

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.27

19.66

0.849

108

3062

228

62.36

8.3

0.88

264

Yeoda

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.25

20.27

0.87

247

6042

124

49.34

8.3

0.92

242

Yeoda

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.15

19.32

0.306

242

4074

188

74.25

8.4

0.34

208

Yeoda

D.W.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.28

7.187

0.529

234

1246

164

53.21

8.2

0.88

274

VARUD

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.38

20.29

0.84

222

7002

124

70.36

8.2

0.55

329

( KU)

Arala

D.W.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.19

3.29

0.975

198

950

157

47.48

8.5

0.87

322

Amla

H.P.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.23

5.1

0.819

169

1796

264

38.24

8.2

0.97

208

Amla

H.P.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.44

6.13

0.75

242

1950

192

34.25

8.2

0.83

212

Amla

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.22

18.16

0.38

279

2066

298

32.21

8.3

0.97

362

Amla

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.24

28.34

0.34

216

2037

186

21.75

8.3

0.76

256

Dongargaon

B.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.38

29.13

0.89

236

3001

175

28.33

8.4

0.69

245

Markanda

D.W.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.22

16.96

0.81

177

1912

118

22.64

7.2

0.48

174

Nanded

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.38

21.33

0.63

249

4007

138

42.33

8.2

0.55

173

Nanded

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.41

14.23

0.78

302

5002

150

23.17

8.2

0.38

241

Nanded

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.29

12.08

0.63

198

2079

132

46.33

8.3

0.25

262

Nanded

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.22

28.46

0.52

128

2053

167

12.64

8.4

0.91

179

Nanded

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.38

16.23

0.47

158

2064

124

18.19

8.2

0.56

232

Shinganpur

H.P.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.37

18.36

0.48

137

1336

184

29.38

7.9

0.69

178

Gaiwadi

D.W.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.32

19.34

0.62

120

1724

156

43.65

7.3

0.98

190

Khairi

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.41

31.22

0.73

158

2048

172

88.14

7.1

0.74

188

Khairi

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.29

18.32

0.698

160

5027

234

79

7.2

0.59

173

Wander Ga.

Tap

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.38

16.32

0.346

125

734

193

36.98

8.5

0.46

199

Wander Ga.

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.23

19.32

0.235

340

5002

138

54.98

7.4

0.5

196

Wander Ga.

D.W.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.38

21.33

0.145

326

1253

196

79.5

8.2

0.74

164

0.145 326 1253 196 79.5 8.2 0.74 164 @ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com |
0.145 326 1253 196 79.5 8.2 0.74 164 @ IJTSRD | Available Online @ www.ijtsrd.com |

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Wander Ga.

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.42

23.12

0.214

230

2077

178

47.36

7.2

0.98

186

Sanglud

Tap

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.35

18.34

0.365

237

608

135

48.76

8.3

0.83

182

Sanglud

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.37

21.34

0.248

251

8098

141

74.36

7

0.73

144

Sanglud

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.23

23.45

0.654

249

6009

190

98.14

7.9

0.87

262

Pimplod

B.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.31

28.36

0.486

242

4072

136

89.47

8.2

0.84

188

Pimplod

D.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.37

18.34

0.348

213

7044

127

80.36

8.1

1.2

154

Jainpur

D.W.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.22

18.23

0.259

278

756

168

20.69

8.2

0.36

212

Mahuli

H.P.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.29

12.34

0.586

198

5005

164

28.64

8

1.25

178

Bhamod

B.W.

Salty

Odourless

Colourless

0.21

22.79

0.937

124

15051

146

78.45

7.4

0.15

178

Ramtirth

H.P.

Tastless

Odourless

Colourless

0.42

7.947

0.887

137

404

154

42.36

8.1

0.33

230

Table no. 1 (TDS: Total Dissolved Solids TH: Total Hardness; AK: Akalinity, Cl: Chloride, Fl: Fluoride)

TDS is positively correlated to K concentrations of groundwater indicating the influence of agricultural activities and wastewater leakage, where it is known that potassium ion originates from agricultural fertilizer and wastewater [26]. On the other hand, the relationship between NO 3 and TDS show similar trend which suggested the leaching of nitrate fertilizers applied in the agricultural areas. NO 3 concentration may be further affected by complex hydro chemical processes such as nitrification or denitrification [27-28- 29-30]. In the given sample fluoride is found in limited quantity but TDS is more than 2000 in most of sample (Table no.1)

CONCLUSION

In this study, Water quality is dependent on the type of the pollutant added and the nature of mineral found at particular zone of bore well. Monitoring of the water quality of ground water is done by collecting representative water samples and analysis of physicochemical characteristics of water samples at different locations of Daryapur tahshil. In present study was observed Out of 36 water sample 24 sample having TDS is more than 2000. And Daryapur contain salinity affected area hence hear concluded that salinity containing soil having more TDS and these ground water affected sample is not fit for drinking purposes , unfit water are not only devastating to people, but also to animals, fish, and birds also destroy aquatic life. Safe drinking water is vital to sustain life and a satisfactory

(adequate, safe and accessible) supply must be available to all.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author are sincerely thankful to Dr. S. S. Deshmukh for guided me, the authors are also thankful to all my friends (Roshan Parise , Puran Dhande, Ashish Shende,Nikhilesh Bajaj, Sonali Gawande , Subodh Futane ) for his moral support and suggestions in the preparation of the paper. The author is grateful to the Editor-in-Chief for their encouragement and support.

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