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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Millimeter-wave to THz radiometer systems for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere from small satellite constellations

Steven C. Reising

Colorado State University

Steven.Reising@ColoState.edu

Steven C. Reising Colorado State University Steven.Reising@ColoState.edu European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 11
Steven C. Reising Colorado State University Steven.Reising@ColoState.edu European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 11
Steven C. Reising Colorado State University Steven.Reising@ColoState.edu European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 11

European Microwave Week 2017

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

CubeSat Deployment from International Space Station (ISS)

CubeSat Deployment from International Space Station (ISS) Deployment of two 3U CubeSats by NanoRacks from the
CubeSat Deployment from International Space Station (ISS) Deployment of two 3U CubeSats by NanoRacks from the

Deployment of two 3U CubeSats by NanoRacks from the the Kibo (JAXA) laboratory robotic arm in the Japanese Experiment Module. Photos by Expedition 38 crew on the ISS. Image credit: NASA

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

CubeSat Standard for Nanosatellites to Small Satellites

• CubeSats are a class of nanosatellites to small satellites. CubeSats are built to standard dimensions (Units or “U”) of 11.35 x 10 x 10 cm. They can be 1U, 2U, 3U, 6U or larger in size, typically weighing up to 1.3 kg (2.9 lbs.) per U.

• NASA's CubeSats are deployed from a “P-POD” (Poly-Picosatellite Orbital Deployer), developed by Cal Poly as a standard interface between CubeSats and their launch vehicle and deployment system.

• Science and technology demonstration payloads have typically used the 3U CubeSat form factor of 34 x 10 x 10 cm and up to 4 kg.

• Additional science capability is enabled by the 6U CubeSat dimensions of 34 x 20 x 10 cm and mass up to 12 kg. Science payloads benefit from greater resources, including solar panel area for battery charging, potential for increased capacity and redundancy of satellite-to-ground communications, mass and volume.

of satellite-to-ground communications, mass and volume. Image from http://www.nasa.
of satellite-to-ground communications, mass and volume. Image from http://www.nasa.

Image from http://www.nasa.gov/content/set-of-nanoracks-cubesats-deployed-from-space-station

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

NASA’s CubeSat Launch Initiative

NASA’s CubeSat Launch initiative (CSLI) provides opportunities for small satellite payloads to fly on rockets planned for upcoming launches. These CubeSats are flown as auxiliary payloads on previously planned missions.

CubeSats a re flown as auxiliary payloads on previously planned missions. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC
CubeSats a re flown as auxiliary payloads on previously planned missions. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

European Microwave Week 2017

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Slide 4

CubeSats a re flown as auxiliary payloads on previously planned missions. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Science Measurements with CubeSats

Wave to THz Applications Science Measurements with CubeSats Adapted from http://www.nap.edu/23503 European Microwave

Adapted from http://www.nap.edu/23503

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Science Measurements with CubeSats Adapted from http://www.nap.edu/23503 European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 55

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Temporal Experiment for Storms and Tropical Systems (TEMPEST)

• TEMPEST was proposed to NASA Earth Venture Instrument-2 in Nov. 2013

• Low-risk, high-margin approach to use 6U-Class satellites (6U CubeSats) for repeat-pass millimeter-wave radiometry

• First global temporally-resolved observations of cloud and precipitation processes to improve weather and climate models

• Selected by Earth Venture for in-space technology demonstration managed by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO).

managed by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO). • TEMPEST-D project started in Aug. 2015, with

• TEMPEST-D project started in Aug. 2015, with an approx. 2-year development cycle.

• Deliver one complete flight system with integrated payload to NanoRacks for launch integration by Feb. 1, 2018.

• Manifested by NASA CSLI for launch on ELaNa-23 to ISS, planned for Mar. 14, 2018.

• Commercial resupply service to ISS for deployment by NanoRacks several months after launch.

service to ISS for deployment by NanoRacks several months after launch. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Observations of Transition from Clouds to Precipitation

Temporal evolution of convective system

Infrared

Brightness

Temperature

Millimeter-wave Brightness Temperature, both from model

Millimeter-wave Brightness Temperature, both from model • Infrared brightness temperatures (middle row, available
Millimeter-wave Brightness Temperature, both from model • Infrared brightness temperatures (middle row, available

• Infrared brightness temperatures (middle row, available from GEO) show cloud top temperatures, locations and morphology.

• Onset of precipitation clearly detected at millimeter-wave frequencies on TEMPEST constellation, including 165 GHz (bottom row).

TEMPEST minimum spatial resolution of 25 km is shown (circles).

•

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Temporal Development of Ice in Cloud-Scale Models

91 GHz 165 GHz 176 GHz 180 GHz 183 GHz
91 GHz
165
GHz
176
GHz
180
GHz
183
GHz

• Modeled brightness temperatures at the five TEMPEST frequencies with 25-km spatial resolution

• Simulations compare different rates of supercooled water droplets collecting on ice crystals (riming efficiency).

• Rate varies from baseline (black) to twice (red) and half (blue).

• Measurable difference between curves is 4 K or greater in 5 minutes at onset of ice formation. Instrument precision requirement is 1 K in 5 minutes.

• Ice remaining in clouds after precipitation has substantial effects on climate. Residual ice can be compared to W-band radar observations from CloudSat or ESA’s EarthCARE.

be compared to W-band radar observations from CloudSat or ESA’s EarthCARE. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Global Time-Resolved Observations of Clouds and Precipitation

Time-Resolved Observations of Clouds and Precipitation • During a future one-year mission, TEMPEST constellation
Time-Resolved Observations of Clouds and Precipitation • During a future one-year mission, TEMPEST constellation

• During a future one-year mission, TEMPEST constellation could make more than 3,000,000 time- resolved observations of precipitation (> 1 mm/hr), including 100,000+ deep-convection events

• Could perform more than 50,000 precipitation observations coincident (within 30 minutes) with NASA’s Global Precipitation Mission (GPM)

• Assumes nominal TEMPEST orbit for deployment from ISS at 400-km altitude and 51.6° inclination.

• Precipitation estimates from AMSR-E satellite radiometer data with oceanic observations only.

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TEMPEST-D Demonstration:

Motivation and Objectives

• Demonstrate capability of 6U-Class satellites to contribute to NASA Earth Science measurements in a 90-day technology demonstration mission

• Reduce risk, cost and development time for small satellite constellations for Earth Science measurements

• Raise the technology readiness level (TRL) of the TEMPEST mm-wave radiometer instrument from 6 to 9 (scanning reflector to 7)

• Provides the first in-space demonstration of a millimeter-wave radiometer based on an InP HEMT low-noise amplifier front-end (LNA) for Earth Science measurements.

Success Criteria:

• Demonstrate feasibility of differential drag maneuvers to achieve required time separation of 6U-Class satellites in same orbital plane

• Demonstrate cross-calibration between TEMPEST mm-wave radiometers and NASA/JAXA Global Precipitation Mission Microwave Imager and MHS on two NOAA satellites and two ESA/EUMETSAT satellites with 2 K precision and 4 K accuracy.

and two ESA/EUMETSAT satellites with 2 K precision and 4 K accuracy. European Microwave Week 2017

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TEMPEST-D 6U-Class Spacecraft Bus from Blue Canyon Technologies (BCT)

Machined 45° Canted Solar Arrays Aluminum Housing Horizontal Solar Arrays Machined Globalstar Aluminum Antenna
Machined
45° Canted Solar Arrays
Aluminum
Housing
Horizontal Solar Arrays
Machined
Globalstar
Aluminum
Antenna
Side Wall
Instrument
Coarse Sun Sensor
GPS Antenna
Interconnects

UHF Antenna Hold Down Release Mechanism

Avionics Module

PSC Tabs or NLAS Corners

Hold Down Release Mechanism Avionics Module PSC Tabs or NLAS Corners European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TEMPEST-D Millimeter-Wave Radiometer for 6U-Class Satellite

Parameter Specification System Ambient noise < 800 K at 89 GHz < 1300 K at
Parameter
Specification
System
Ambient
noise
< 800 K at 89 GHz
< 1300 K at 165-182 GHz
blackbody
temperature
calibration
Number of
5
target
channels
Bandwidth
Cold
RF filter
~4 GHz at 89 and 165 GHz
~2 GHz at 176, 180 & 182 GHz
Spacecraft motion
Space
bank
Minimum
Scanning reflector
spatial
13 km at
182 GHz
25 km at
89 GHz
Earth Scene
InP HEMT low-
noise front-end
resolution
Minimum
beam
> 90%
> 90%
efficiency
front-end resolution Minimum beam > 90% > 90% efficiency European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 1212

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TEMPEST-D Radiometer Calibration

TEMPEST-D Instrument

Ambient blackbody calibration load
Ambient
blackbody
calibration
load
TEMPEST-D Instrument Ambient blackbody calibration load t=0 s RF filter bank InP HEMT low‐noise front‐end

t=0 s

Instrument Ambient blackbody calibration load t=0 s RF filter bank InP HEMT low‐noise front‐end Scanning

RF filter bank InP HEMT low‐noise front‐end Scanning reflector

Observing Profile

40° Calibration Target Cold Space Earth View 90°
40°
Calibration
Target
Cold Space
Earth View
90°

Nadir

Time Series of Output Data

24°
24°

Five-frequency millimeter-wave radiometer measures Earth scene over ±45° nadir angles, providing an 825-km swath width from a nominal orbit altitude of 400 km. Each pixel is sampled for 5 ms.

Space view observes cosmic microwave background at 2.73 K (“cold sky”). Ambient Blackbody calibration target is measured each revolution to perform two-point external calibration every 2 sec. (scanning at 30 RPM).

two-point external calibration every 2 sec. (scanning at 30 RPM ). European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Frequency Response of Flight Model Millimeter-wave Bandpass Filters

S 21 of amp.+ bandpass filter (dB)
S 21 of amp.+ bandpass filter (dB)

Frequency (GHz)

Radiometer Front-end

Power Divider Bandpass Filters
Power
Divider
Bandpass Filters

Power Detectors

Center Frequency Requirement (GHz)

Center Frequency Measurement (GHz)

Noise Bandwidth Requirement (GHz)

Noise Bandwidth Measurement (GHz)

165

± 2

163.9

 

3 ± 1

4.071

176

± 2

175.2

2

± 0.5

1.901

180

± 2

178.3

2

± 0.5

1.986

182

± 2

181.1

2

± 0.5

1.908

2 ± 0.5 1.986 182 ± 2 181.1 2 ± 0.5 1.908 European Microwave Week 2017

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Flight Model Radiometer Instrument Integration at JPL

Scanning

Reflector

Dual-

Frequency

Feed horn

165-182

GHz

Radiometer

Front-end

165-182

GHz Power

Divider

165-182 GHz Radiometer Front-end 165-182 GHz Power Divider 165-182 GHz Filter Bank 165-182 GHz Detectors Command

165-182 GHz Filter Bank

165-182 GHz Detectors

Command

& Data

Handling

and Power

Distribution

Subsystem

Ambient Calibration Target

and Power Distribution Subsystem Ambient Calibration Target Scanning Motor Scanning Reflector Dual- Frequency Feed horn

Scanning

Motor

Scanning

Reflector

Dual-

Frequency

Feed horn

Scanning Motor Scanning Reflector Dual- Frequency Feed horn 89 GHz 89 GHz Radiometer Detector Front-end
Scanning Motor Scanning Reflector Dual- Frequency Feed horn 89 GHz 89 GHz Radiometer Detector Front-end

89 GHz

89 GHz Radiometer

Detector

Front-end

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Radiometer Instrument Status

Flight spare successfully completed EMI self-compatibility testing with spacecraft bus on Apr. 21-30, 2017.

Flight instrument end-to-end receiver bandpass and linearity measurements completed on Jun. 1-3, 2017.

Flight instrument successfully integrated, PWA conformal coated and completed vibration testing on Jun. 8, 2017

Flight instrument successfully completed thermal vacuum testing on Jul. 5-8, 2017.

Flight unit and spare unit antenna pattern validation measurements to be performed on Jul. 12-15, 2017.

measureme nts to be performed on Jul. 12-15, 2017. Instrument assembly Vibration testing T V A
measureme nts to be performed on Jul. 12-15, 2017. Instrument assembly Vibration testing T V A
measureme nts to be performed on Jul. 12-15, 2017. Instrument assembly Vibration testing T V A
measureme nts to be performed on Jul. 12-15, 2017. Instrument assembly Vibration testing T V A

Instrument assembly

Vibration testing

TVAC testing

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Results of EMI Self-Compatibility Testing

180 GHz Radiometer Data

of EMI Self-Compatibility Testing 180 GHz Radiometer Data Scan number Scan index (400 per rev.) 89
Scan number
Scan number

Scan index (400 per rev.)

89 GHz Radiometer Data

Scan number Scan index (400 per rev.) 89 GHz Radiometer Data Scan number Scan index (400
Scan number
Scan number

Scan index (400 per rev.)

89 GHz Radiometer Data Scan number Scan index (400 per rev.) Tant – Tref (K) 182
89 GHz Radiometer Data Scan number Scan index (400 per rev.) Tant – Tref (K) 182
Tant – Tref (K) 182 GHz 180 GHz 176 GHz 165 GHz 89 GHz Scan
Tant – Tref (K)
182
GHz
180
GHz
176
GHz
165
GHz
89 GHz
Scan index (400 per rev.)
Tant – Tref (K)

Tant – Tref (K)

89 GHz Scan index (400 per rev.) Tant – Tref (K) Tant – Tref (K) European
89 GHz Scan index (400 per rev.) Tant – Tref (K) Tant – Tref (K) European

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Post-EMI Self-Compatibility Testing:

End-to-end Receiver Characterization

Scan index (400 per rev.) NEDT (K)
Scan index (400 per rev.)
NEDT (K)

Frequency

NEDT (K)

Total Noise Requirement

(GHz)

(K)

89

0.3

1.4

164

0.5

1.4

175

0.6

1.4

178

0.7

1.4

181

0.9

1.4

Measured NEDT values meet total noise requirements for all five millimeter-wave radiometer channels with margin.

for all five millimeter-wave radiometer channels with margin. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 1818

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TVAC Results for Flight Model:

Gain vs. Temperature

THz Applications TVAC Results for Flight Model: Gain vs. Temperature European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide
THz Applications TVAC Results for Flight Model: Gain vs. Temperature European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide
THz Applications TVAC Results for Flight Model: Gain vs. Temperature European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TVAC Results for Flight Model:

NEDT vs. Temperature

Date (MM/DD)
Date (MM/DD)
Results for Flight Model: NEDT vs. Temperature Date (MM/DD) NEDT Measured on cold target, which varies

NEDT Measured on cold target, which varies with temperature

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TEMPEST-D Summary

• TEMPEST-D mission to demonstrate capability of 6U-Class satellites to perform global observations of clouds and precipitation processes

• Reduces risk, cost and development time for repeat-pass radiometry to measure temporal signatures of precipitation using small satellite constellations

• Provides first in-space technology demonstration of a millimeter-wave radiometer based on an InP HEMT low-noise amplifier front-end for Earth Science measurements

• Raises the TRL of the TEMPEST mm-wave radiometer instrument from 6 to 9 (scanning reflector to 7)

• Demonstrates cross-calibration of TEMPEST radiometers with NASA/JAXA GPM Microwave Imager and MHS with 2 K precision and 4 K accuracy

• TEMPEST-D millimeter-wave radiometer instrument measurements met requirements, has passed vibration/TVAC tests and been delivered to BCT.

• Features rapid development cycle of two years from project start to delivery for NanoRacks for integration on Feb. 1, 2018. Launch is planned on Cygnus Antares II from NASA Wallops to ISS on Mar. 14, 2018.

d on Cygnus Antares II from NASA Wa llops to ISS on Mar. 14, 2018. European

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Tropospheric Water and Cloud ICE (TWICE) Scientific Objectives

NASA & ESA Earth Science Focus Areas:

– Climate Variability and Change

– Water & Energy Cycle

Addressing Scientific Needs:

– Measure water vapor and cloud ice at a variety of local times

• Addresses limitations of current microwave sensors in sun-synchronous orbits

– Enable global measurements throughout the diurnal cycle of:

• water vapor profiles in the upper troposphere / lower stratosphere (UTLS)

• cloud ice particle size distribution and ice water content in both clean and polluted environments.

– Current understanding of UTLS processes in general circulation models (GCMs) is limited. Such measurements can improve both climate predictions and knowledge of their uncertainties.

improve both climate predictions and knowledge of their uncertainties. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 2222

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Scientific Motivation

Aerosols and Clouds

Clouds represent the largest uncertainty in climate model predictions.

Clouds in polluted environments tend to have smaller water droplets and ice crystals than those in cleaner environments (“first indirect effect”).

− Polluted clouds are less likely to generate rainfall, increasing the cloud water content (“second indirect effect”) and are brighter (have higher albedo) than clean clouds

TWICE Radiometer Instrument

In tandem with other instruments providing aerosol information, the TWICE instrument:

– Can

provide

cloud

ice particle size

information

in

both

polluted and clean

size information in both polluted and clean environments – Can determine the influence of aerosol

environments

– Can determine the influence of aerosol pollution on cloud particle size spectrum

the influence of aerosol pollution on cloud particle size spectrum European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide

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TWICE Cloud Ice Particle Sizing

NASA’s A-Train provides limited cloud particle size information.

CloudSat: 94-GHz radar (Size estimate for particles > ~600 µm)

Aqua’s MODIS: 10-µm infrared radiometer (< ~50 µm)

Sub-millimeter wave radiometry can fill the gap by providing cloud particle size information between ~50 µm and ~1000 µm.

– High atmospheric opacity at sub- millimeter wavelengths allows the measurement of ice in clouds above the freezing level through scattering.

– Measured brightness temperatures decrease due to ice particle scattering at sub-mm-wave frequencies.

– Modeled brightness temperature decrease due to scattering shown at right; adapted from S. Buehler et al., QJRMS, 2007.

670 310 240 GHz
670 310 240 GHz
right; adapted from S. Buehler et al., QJRMS , 2007. 670 310 240 GHz European Microwave

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Water Vapor Profiling

• Measurements near water

vapor

provide vertical profile

information through pressure broadening.

lines

Ch5 20 20 Ch6 Ch7 15 15 183 GHz Water Vapor 10 10 5 5
Ch5
20 20
Ch6
Ch7
15 15
183 GHz
Water Vapor
10 10
5 5
0 0
0.0 0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3

Channel

Ch10 20 20 Ch11 Ch12 Ch13 15 15 10 10 5 5 380 GHz Water
Ch10
20 20
Ch11
Ch12
Ch13
15 15
10 10
5 5
380 GHz
Water Vapor
0 0
0.0
0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3

Weighting functions (K/m)

Center frequency

Ch1 20 20 Ch2 Ch3 15 15 Ch4 10 10 118 GHz Temperature 5 5
Ch1
20 20
Ch2
Ch3
15 15
Ch4
10 10
118 GHz
Temperature
5 5
0 0
0.0 0.0
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.3
0.3

Bandwidth

absorption

• GHz

183

and

380

GHz

were

chosen

to

retrieve

water

vapor

in

the

troposphere

and

upper

troposphere

/

lower

stratosphere (UTLS).

• To constrain the water vapor retrievals, 118 GHz channels measure information about the temperature profile using the O 2 absorption line.

the temperature profile using the O 2 absorption line. ± Offset frequency 1 118.75 1.1 0.4

±Offset frequency

1

118.75

1.1

0.4

2

118.75

1.5

0.4

3

118.75

2.1

0.8

4

118.75

5.0

2.0

5

183.31

1.0

0.5

6

183.31

3.0

1.0

7

183.31

6.6

1.5

8

243.20

2.5

3.0

9

310.00

2.5

3.0

10

380.20

0.75

0.7

11

380.20

1.80

1.0

12

380.20

3.35

1.7

13

380.20

6.20

3.6

14

664.00

4.20

4.0

[J. Jiang et al., Earth and Space Science, in review, 2017].

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Tropospheric Water and Cloud Ice Instrument Block Diagram

Applications Tropospheric Water and Cloud Ice Instrument Block Diagram European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 2626
Applications Tropospheric Water and Cloud Ice Instrument Block Diagram European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 2626

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TWICE Instrument Measurement Frequencies and Specifications

Quasi-Window Frequencies (3) for Cloud Ice Particle Sizing Temperature and Humidity Sounding Frequencies Parameter 118
Quasi-Window Frequencies (3) for Cloud Ice Particle Sizing
Temperature and Humidity Sounding Frequencies
Parameter
118 GHz
183 GHz
380 GHz
Channel Center Frequency
240 GHz
310 GHz
670 GHz
sounder
sounder
sounder
Channel Bandwidth
Offset
frequencies
from
+10 MHz to
+8.5 GHz
Offset
frequencies
from
-10 MHz to
-8.5 GHz
10 GHz
10 GHz
Offset
frequencies
from
-10 MHz to
-8.5 GHz
20 GHz
Passband Ripple (max)
± 2 dB
± 2 dB
± 2 dB
± 2 dB
± 2 dB
± 5 dB
System Noise Figure
(goal: minimize)
≤ 7 dB
≤ 7 dB
≤ 7 dB
≤ 7 dB
≤ 7 dB
≤ 13 dB
NEDT ( = 1s) (K)
< 0.1
< 0.1
< 0.1
< 0.1
< 0.1
< 0.1
Proposed Spec.
8
0.6
4
0.6
DC Power (W)
CBE
4.53
0.35
2.31
0.54
Proposed Spec.
0.6
0.5
0.3
0.5
Mass (kg)
CBE
0.55
0.1
0.3
0.09
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Mass and Power Consumption for each TWICE Subsystem

Mass and Power Consumption for each TWICE Subsystem Subsystem Mass (kg) Power (W) 118-183 GHz Sounder

Subsystem

Mass (kg)

Power (W)

118-183 GHz Sounder

0.55

4.53

240

GHz & 310 GHz

0.1

0.35

Radiometers

380

GHz Sounder

0.3

2.31

670

GHz Radiometers (H&V)

0.09

0.54

Back-end Board

0.13

0.73

Power Regulation Board

0.13

3.00

Optics

0.40

-

Calibration Target/Reflector

0.71

-

Scanning Motor

0.33

1.00

Totals

2.74

12.46

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Motivation for 25-nm InP HEMT

Scaling enables significantly enhanced performance

25 nm gate length

f max : 1.5 THz

f T : 0.61 THz

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

h 21 MSG/MAG f MAX =1.5THz f T =610GHz 10 100 1000
h
21
MSG/MAG
f
MAX =1.5THz
f
T =610GHz
10
100
1000

Frequency (GHz)

Transistor gain (dB)
Transistor gain (dB)
f T =610GHz 10 100 1000 Frequency (GHz) Transistor gain (dB) European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

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Submillimeter LNAs

Mixer DSB Noise Performance InP HEMT LNA Noise Temperature
Mixer DSB Noise Performance
InP HEMT LNA Noise Temperature

Q: How Do InP HEMT LNA-based Front Ends Compare to Mixer-based Front Ends?

InP HEMT LNA sensitivity approaches that of DSB mixers.

InP HEMT LNA is superior to that of mixers operated in SSB mode.

This extends to cryogenic operation.

in SSB mode. • This extends to cryogenic operation. 670 GHz Comparison Ambient Noise Noise Temperature
670 GHz Comparison Ambient Noise Noise Temperature Figure Temperature [K] [dB] [K] HEMT 270 9.6
670
GHz Comparison
Ambient
Noise
Noise
Temperature
Figure
Temperature
[K]
[dB]
[K]
HEMT
270
9.6
2355
25
3.8
400
GaAs
270
9.4 DSB
2236 DSB
Schottky
(12.4 SSB*)
(4750 SSB*)
HEB
Cryo
2.7 DSB
250
DSB
(5.7 SSB*)
(788 SSB*)
SIS
4
1.3 DSB
100
DSB
(4.3 SSB*)
(491 SSB*)
850 GHz Comparison
850
GHz Comparison
 

Ambient

Noise

Noise

Temperature

Figure

Temperature

[K]

[dB]

[K]

HEMT

270

12

3361

GaAs

270

9.8 DSB

DSB 2500

Schottky

(12.8 SSB*)

(5236 SSB*)

*Performance estimated from plot. SSB is calculated from DSB by adding 3 dB

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE 670 GHz Direct-Detection Receiver

BPF: Video Amplifier Circuit: ~30 GHz measured Designed by JPL Validated Design 670 GHz Feedhorn:
BPF:
Video Amplifier Circuit:
~30 GHz measured
Designed by JPL
Validated Design
670 GHz Feedhorn:
Designed by JPL
Validated Design
WR1.5
Horn
BPF
LNA1
LNA2
BPF
Zero Bias Diode
Detector
Detector Output
MSSS Micro Coax
VDI Detector
Video Amplifier MIC
Gain=10
Gain=10
660-680
Gain=10
660-680
GHz
GHz
Gain = ~1000
Fc = ~7 kHz
VDI Detector:
Validated Design
660-680 GHz LNA:
Validated In Package
VDI Detector: Validated Design 660-680 GHz LNA: Validated In Package European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

SlideSlide 3131

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

670-GHz Integrated Receiver

Module includes:

• Feed horn machined inside the housing to minimize waveguide losses before the first LNA

• LNA MMICs with on-chip transitions

• Bandpass filters

• Detector diode from Virginia Diodes mounted on quartz substrate

• Video amplifier and bias electronics on the back side

View of module internals VDI LNA3 Detector LNA2 LNA1 BPF2 BPF1 NT 2500 K BW
View of module internals
VDI
LNA3
Detector
LNA2
LNA1
BPF2
BPF1
NT 2500 K
BW 20 GHz
DC power 270 mW

JPL Horn

W 13 mm x

L 50 mm x H 8 mm

Detector Video Amp LNA LNA BPF LNA BPF European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 3232
Detector
Video Amp
LNA
LNA
BPF
LNA
BPF
European Microwave Week 2017
EuMC
SlideSlide 3232

Normalized Receiver Frequency Response [dB]

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Initial 670-GHz Integrated Receiver Measurements

670 GHz Detector (Internal View)

Receiver Measurements 670 GHz Detector (Internal View) BPF1 LNA2 T h r u LNA1 Horn BPF2
Receiver Measurements 670 GHz Detector (Internal View) BPF1 LNA2 T h r u LNA1 Horn BPF2
BPF1 LNA2
BPF1
LNA2

Thru

670 GHz Detector (Internal View) BPF1 LNA2 T h r u LNA1 Horn BPF2 Diode Detector
LNA1 Horn
LNA1
Horn
BPF2 Diode Detector
BPF2
Diode
Detector

0

‐5

‐10

‐15

‐20

24 GHz BW 620 640 660 680 700
24 GHz BW
620
640
660
680
700

Frequency [GHz]

Integrated Video Amplifier Circuit
Integrated
Video
Amplifier
Circuit

670 GHz Detector (Back View)

Integrated Video Amplifier Circuit 670 GHz Detector (Back View) European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 3333
Integrated Video Amplifier Circuit 670 GHz Detector (Back View) European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 3333

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

SlideSlide 3333

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

230-390 GHz Integrated Receiver

380 GHz Sounder IF output 0-9 GHz 230-390 GHz Receiver Module 95 GHz X4 Multiplier
380 GHz Sounder
IF output 0-9 GHz
230-390 GHz
Receiver Module
95 GHz X4
Multiplier
Module includes:
• Feed horn machined inside the
housing to minimize waveguide
losses before the first LNA
• LNA MMICs with on-chip
transitions
• Bandpass filters
• Detector diodes from Virginia
Diodes mounted on quartz
substrates
• Video amplifier and bias
electronics on the back side
• IF output for 380 GHz sounder
DRO: LO Source
at 23.75 GHz
Modeled beam
from feed horn
European Microwave Week 2017
EuMC
SlideSlide 3434

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

Millimeter-wave Radiometers for Temperature & Water Vapor Sounding

I X LO Q
I
X LO
Q

Technology developed and demonstrated for NASA IIP GeoSTAR and HAMMR airborne instruments

118 GHz Receiver Module

and HAMMR airborne instruments 118 GHz Receiver Module LO WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver
and HAMMR airborne instruments 118 GHz Receiver Module LO WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver
and HAMMR airborne instruments 118 GHz Receiver Module LO WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver

LO

WR-10

HAMMR airborne instruments 118 GHz Receiver Module LO WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver Module

RF WR-8

RF

instruments 118 GHz Receiver Module LO WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver Module LNA Mixer

183 GHz Receiver Module

Receiver Module LO WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver Module LNA Mixer RF WR-5 LO

LNA

Mixer

Module LO WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver Module LNA Mixer RF WR-5 LO WR-15

RF

WR-5

WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver Module LNA Mixer RF WR-5 LO WR-15 ASIC IF
WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver Module LNA Mixer RF WR-5 LO WR-15 ASIC IF
WR-10 RF WR-8 RF 183 GHz Receiver Module LNA Mixer RF WR-5 LO WR-15 ASIC IF

LO WR-15

ASIC IF processor designed by B. Razavi (UCLA)

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

Slide 35

LNA Mixer RF WR-5 LO WR-15 ASIC IF processor designed by B. Razavi (UCLA) European Microwave

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

High-frequency Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-wave Radiometer

Airborne Microwave and Millimeter-wave Radiometer Temperature and humidity sounders near 118 and 183 GHz,

Temperature and humidity sounders near 118 and 183 GHz, respectively, have been successfully demonstrated as part of the NASA IIP-13 HAMMR instrument for 68 flight hours aboard Twin Otter aircraft. Flights were conducted over inland water bodies as well as nearly the entire U.S. west coast.

over inland water bodies as well as nearly the entire U.S. west coast. European Microwave Week
over inland water bodies as well as nearly the entire U.S. west coast. European Microwave Week
over inland water bodies as well as nearly the entire U.S. west coast. European Microwave Week
over inland water bodies as well as nearly the entire U.S. west coast. European Microwave Week

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

Slide 36

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

118 and 183 GHz Integrated Receiver

Modeled beam from feed horn

(670 GHz receiver)

Receiver Modeled beam from feed horn (670 GHz receiver) 91.66 GHz X4 multiplier • Feed horn

91.66 GHz

X4 multiplier

• Feed horn machined inside the split block with diplexer for 118/183 GHz

• 118 GHz and 183 GHz receiver modules

• LO multipliers for receiver modules

• DROs provide LO signals for multipliers

183 GHz

Receiver

Module

118 GHz

Receiver

Module

59.38 GHz

X2 multiplier

DRO: LO Source at 29.69 GHz

DRO: LO Source at 22.914 GHz

multiplier DRO: LO Source at 29.69 GHz DRO: LO Source at 22.914 GHz European Microwave Week
multiplier DRO: LO Source at 29.69 GHz DRO: LO Source at 22.914 GHz European Microwave Week

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

SlideSlide 3737

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Instrument for 6U-Class Satellites

- Three frequency bands in one Gregorian quasi-optical subsystem

- Conical scanning with 9.5-cm primary reflector

- Cold sky and ambient target calibration each scan (60 rpm)

Earth scene Earth scene
Earth scene
Earth scene
calibration each scan (60 rpm) Earth scene Earth scene 6U-Class spacecraft chassis 34 X 20 X

6U-Class

spacecraft chassis 34 X 20 X 10 cm

Scanning

mechanism

Radiometer

receivers

Receiver

electronics

Primary

reflector

Radiometer receivers Receiver electronics Primary reflector Secondary reflector Ambient calibration target Cold Sky
Radiometer receivers Receiver electronics Primary reflector Secondary reflector Ambient calibration target Cold Sky
Radiometer receivers Receiver electronics Primary reflector Secondary reflector Ambient calibration target Cold Sky

Secondary

reflector

Ambient

calibration

target

Cold Sky calibration (2.73 K)

Ambient calibration target Cold Sky calibration (2.73 K) radiation radiation European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

radiation

radiation

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

SlideSlide 3838

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Instrument Quasi-Optical Subsystem Design

TWICE Instrument Quasi-Optical Subsystem Design Primary and Secondary Reflectors: mounting side Primary and

Primary and Secondary Reflectors:

mounting side

Design Primary and Secondary Reflectors: mounting side Primary and Secondary Reflectors: reflecting side Primary

Primary and Secondary Reflectors:

reflecting side

Primary

Reflector

670 GHz Receiver (V-pol) 670 GHz Receiver (H-pol) 220-390 GHz Receiver Secondary Reflector Sounder
670 GHz
Receiver (V-pol)
670 GHz
Receiver (H-pol)
220-390 GHz
Receiver
Secondary
Reflector
Sounder

118/183 GHz

220-390 GHz Receiver Secondary Reflector Sounder 118/183 GHz European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC SlideSlide 3939

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

SlideSlide 3939

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Feed Horn Patterns Simulated in Optical Subsystem

• All frequencies simulated, achieving main beam efficiencies > 90 %

• Half-power bandwidths from 1.5° to 0.6° across frequency range

• Corresponds to 16 km to 6 km footprint size (cross-track) from 400-km altitude

to 16 km to 6 km footprint size (cross-track) from 400-km altitude European Microwave Week 2017
to 16 km to 6 km footprint size (cross-track) from 400-km altitude European Microwave Week 2017

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Ambient Calibration Target Design

1 1 – Cold Sky Reflector.
1
1 – Cold Sky Reflector.

2 – Calibration Target: Original Design.

3 - Calibration Target: Modified Design. Advantages of modified design:

3

2

Target: Modified Design. Advantages of modified design: 3 2 • Reduces size of antenna footprint, •

• Reduces size of antenna footprint,

• Partially shades target from solar intrusion,

• Reduces thermal inhomogeneity.

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

Slide 41

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Near Field Antenna Pattern Simulation Results at 118 GHz

Cold Sky Reflector in Horizontal Plane

Calibration Plane (11.8 x 21.4 cm)

Ambient Calibration Target In 45°-Tilted Plane

x 21.4 cm) Ambient Calibration Target In 45°-Tilted Plane P s p i l l o
x 21.4 cm) Ambient Calibration Target In 45°-Tilted Plane P s p i l l o
x 21.4 cm) Ambient Calibration Target In 45°-Tilted Plane P s p i l l o
x 21.4 cm) Ambient Calibration Target In 45°-Tilted Plane P s p i l l o
x 21.4 cm) Ambient Calibration Target In 45°-Tilted Plane P s p i l l o

P spillover ≈ 0.7% of total power

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

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WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Conical Scanning and Calibration Strategy

Dynamic Characteristics of Scanning System

0.5 W of mechanical power required • Zero angular speed at each end of scan
0.5 W of mechanical
power required
• Zero angular speed at each end of scan
• Total Time to scan 192˚ = T acceleration + T scene +
T deceleration =
= 1 s
• Contiguous footprint sampling is desired
36 rpm and
35 rad/s 2
required
0.62 s of Earth
Observation Time
2
2
rpm and 35 rad/s 2 required 0.62 s of Earth Observation Time 2 2 European Microwave

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

SlideSlide 4343

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Instrument Electronics:

System Integration Diagram

Spacecraft Bus Supply

Power Regulation Board
Power
Regulation
Board
Thermistors Analog Signal Conditioning (ADCs) Radiometer Front-ends Analog Digital Scanning FPGA Motor C&DH
Thermistors
Analog Signal
Conditioning
(ADCs)
Radiometer
Front-ends
Analog
Digital
Scanning
FPGA
Motor
C&DH Board
Analog Digital Scanning FPGA Motor C&DH Board GPS/IMU On-Board Computer UHF Communication (CubeSat
GPS/IMU
GPS/IMU
On-Board Computer
On-Board
Computer

UHF Communication (CubeSat Transceiver)

Ground Station Ground Station
Ground
Station
Ground Station
(CubeSat Transceiver) Ground Station Ground Station Analog Signals Digital Signals Power Supplies European

Analog Signals

Digital Signals

Power Supplies

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

Slide 44

WM-08 | Novel Fabrication Technologies for Sub-Millimeter Wave to THz Applications

TWICE Summary

• The Tropospheric Water and Cloud ICE (TWICE) is a 6U-Class satellite instrument under development to enable global measurements of upper- tropospheric/lower stratospheric (ULTS) cloud ice and water vapor at a variety of local times.

• These global measurements are expected to improve currently limited understanding of general circulation model (GCM) cloud processes, improving both climate predictions and knowledge of their uncertainty.

• Cloud ice particle sizing is needed in both clean and polluted clouds to study the indirect effects of aerosols throughout the diurnal cycle.

• TWICE will perform measurements at 15 frequencies from 118 GHz to 670 GHz to yield ice cloud particle size information and total ice water content as well as atmospheric profiling of temperature and water vapor.

• Conical scanning will preserve the polarization basis and enable external calibration at all 15 frequencies using cold sky and an ambient target.

• The TWICE instrument will meet the size, weight and power (SWaP) requirements for deployment in a 6U-Class satellite.

and power (SWa P) requirements for deployment in a 6U-Class satellite. European Microwave Week 2017 EuMC

European Microwave Week 2017

EuMC

SlideSlide 4545