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PLAIN & REINFORCED CONCRETE -I

LECTURE # 3A
FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 1


Home Work # 1
Practice it at Home

MOMENT OF INERTIA

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 2


BEAM

• A Beam is any structural member which resists load mainly by bending.


Therefore it is also called flexural member.
• Beam may be singly reinforced or doubly reinforced. When steel is
provided only in tensile zone (i.e. below neutral axis) is called singly
reinforced beam, but when steel is provided in tension zone as well as
compression zone is called doubly reinforced beam.

The aim of design is:


To decide the size (dimensions) of the member and the amount of
reinforcement required.
To check whether the adopted section will perform safely and
satisfactorily during the life time of the structure.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 3


OVER ALL DEPTH : THE NORMAL DISTANCE FROM THE TOP EDGE
OF THE BEAM TO THE BOTTOM EDGE OF THE BEAM IS CALLED
OVER ALL DEPTH. IT IS DENOTED BY ‘H’.

EFFECTIVE DEPTH: THE NORMAL DISTANCE FROM THE TOP EDGE


OF BEAM TO THE CENTRE OF TENSILE REINFORCEMENT IS CALLED
EFFECTIVE DEPTH. IT IS DENOTED BY ‘d’.

CLEAR COVER: THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE BOTTOM OF THE


BARS AND BOTTOM MOST THE EDGE OF THE BEAM IS CALLED
CLEAR COVER.
CLEAR COVER = 25mm OR DIA OF MAIN BAR, (WHICH EVER IS
GREATER).

EFFECTIVE COVER: THE DISTANCE BETWEEN CENTRE OF TENSILE


REINFORCEMENT AND THE BOTTOM EDGE OF THE BEAM IS
CALLED EFFECTIVE COVER. EFFECTIVE COVER = CLEAR COVER + ½
DIA OF BAR.
NEUTRAL AXIS: THE LAYER / LAMINA WHERE NO STRESS EXIST IS
KNOWN AS NEUTRAL AXIS. IT DIVIDES THE BEAM SECTION INTO
TWO ZONES, COMPRESION ZONE ABOVE THE NETURAL AXIS &
TENSION ZONE BELOW THE NEUTRAL AXIS.

DEPTH OF NETURAL AXIS: THE NORMAL DISTANCE BETWEEN THE


TOP EDGE OF THE BEAM & NEUTRAL AXIS IS CALLED DEPTH OF
NETURAL AXIS. IT IS DENOTED BY ‘c’.

LEVER ARM: THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE RESULTANT


COMPRESSIVE FORCE (C) AND TENSILE FORCE (T) IS KNOWN AS
LEVER ARM. THE TOTAL COMPRESSIVE FORCE (C) IN CONCRETE
ACT AT THE C.G. OF COMPRESSIVE STRESS DIAGRAM i.e. c/3 FROM
THE COMPRESSION EDGE. THE TOTAL TENSILE FORCE (T) ACTS AT
C.G. OF THE REINFORCEMENT.
TENSILE REINFORCEMENT: THE REINFORCEMENT PROVIDED
TENSILE ZONE IS CALLED TENSILE REINFORCEMENT. IT IS DENOTED
BY Ast.

COMPRESSION REINFORCEMENT : THE REINFORCEMENT


PROVIDED COMPRESSION ZONEIS CALLED COMPRESSION
REINFORCEMENT. IT IS DENOTED BY Asc

N.A h d
l

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 6


Flexural Behavior of Beams
Under Service Load
• When loads are applied on the beam stresses are produced in
concrete and steel reinforcement.

• If stress in steel bars is less than yield strength, steel is in elastic range.
• If stress in concrete is less than 0.5fc’ concrete is assumed to be with in
elastic range.
• Following are important points related to Elastic Range:

• Loads are un-factored


• Materials are in elastic range
• All analysis and design are close to allowable stress analysis and design.

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Flexural Behavior of Beams
Under Service Load
Different Types of Cracks
1. Pure Flexural Cracks
Flexural cracks start appearing at the section of maximum
bending moment. These vertical cracks initiate from the
tension face and move towards N.A.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 8


Flexural Behavior of Beams
Under Service Load
2. Pure Shear/Web Shear Cracks
These inclined cracks appear at the N.A due to shear stress
and propagate in both direction

45o
σ1 σ4
τ

σn= f 45o

σ1 and σ2 are Major Principle Stresses


σ3 σ2
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 9
Pure Shear/Web Shear Cracks
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Flexural Behavior of Beams
Under Service Load
3.
Flexural Shear Cracks
In the regions of high shear due to diagonal tension,
the inclined cracks develop as an extension of flexural
cracks and are termed as Flexural Shear Cracks.

Flexural Shear Cracks.

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Flexural Behavior of Beams
Under Service Load
 Failure modes and reinforcements

1. Concrete is assumed to resist compression only, tension shall be


resisted by reinforcements. Reinforcements shall be placed at the
side of the beam that has tension. For a simply supported beam,
tension is at the bottom of beam. For a cantilever end, tension is
at the top of the beam.
2. Shear is at its maximum at edge of supports. Diagonal shear
cracks is normally developed close to the support. Stirrup for
shear reinforcement is normally placed vertically to intercept the
crack. They are normally closer spaced near the support and
gradually spread out toward center of the beam.

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Moment and shear diagram of a beam under dead and live loads are shown below.

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Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 14
Tensile Strength of Concrete
There are considerable experimental difficulties in determining
the true tensile strength of concrete. In direct tension test
following are the difficulties:

1. When concrete is gripped by the machine it may be crushed due the


large stress concentration at the grip.
2. Concrete samples of different sizes and diameters show large
variation in results.
3. If there are some voids in sample the test may show very small
strength.
4. If there is some initial misalignment in fixing the sample the results
are not accurate.

Following are the few indirect methods through with tensile


strength of concrete is estimated.

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A. Split cylinder Test
This test is performed by loading a Line Load
standard 150mmФ x 300mm cylinder by
a line load perpendicular to its
longitudinal axis with cylinder placed
horizontally on the testing machine platen.

B. Double Punch Test


In this test a concrete cylinder is placed
vertically between the loading platens of
the machine and is compressed by two 2b
steel punches placed parallel to top and H
bottom end surfaces. The sample splits
across many vertical diametrical planes
radiating from central axis.
C. Modulus of Rupture Test
For many years, tensile strength has been measured in term of the
modulus of rupture fr,the computed flexural tensile stress at which a
test beam of plain beam fractures.
It is a measure of, but not identical with the real axial tensile strength.
Two point loading

ACI code give a formula for fr , fr  0.5 fc’    (fc’ and fr are in Mpa)
Tensile strength of concrete is generally 8 to 15% of compressive
strength.

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Flexural Behavior of Beams
Under Service Load
Transformed Section
Beam is a combination of concrete and steel so as a whole it is not a
homogeneous material. In transformed section the steel area is replaced by an
equivalent concrete area in order to calculate the section properties.

Width of the extended area is same as diameter of steel bar and its distance
from compression face remains same.

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Modular Ratio, n
“The ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete is
known as modular Ratio”.
n = Es / Ec
Normally the value of n is 8 to 10, It is unit-less quantity

Un-cracked Transformed Section


When both steel and concrete are in elastic range and tensile stress at the tension face
of concrete is less than tensile strength of concrete the section is un-cracked. Within
the elastic range, perfect bond (no slippage) exists between concrete and steel, so

εs = εc
fs/Es = fc / Ec
fs = (Es/ Ec) fc
fs = n fc
Using this relationship, stress in steel can be calculated if stress in concrete
and modular ratio are known.
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 19
Consider a beam having steel area As. In order to obtain a transformed section,
the area of steel (As) is replaced by an equivalent area of concrete so that equal
force is developed in both

Ps = Pc
fsAs = fcAceq
nfcAs = fcAc eq
nAs=Ac eq
The equivalent area nAs/2 is shown on either side but steel inside the
beam is removed which creates a space that is filled by area of concrete,
thus the equivalent area on either side becomes
nAs/2 – As/2
(n-1)As / 2
Once the transformed section has been formed the sectional
properties (A, Location of N.A., I, S etc) are calculated in
usual manner,

Total Area of transformed section = b x h + (n-1)As= Ag + (n-1)As


Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 20
BENDING OF HOMOGENEOUS BEAMS

The fundamental principles involved are. however, essentially the


same. Briefly. these principles are as follows. At any cross section
there exist internal forces that can he resolved into components
normal and tangential to the section.

• Those components that are normal to the section are the bending
stresses (tension on one side of the neutral axis and compression on
the other). Their function is to resist the bending moment at the
section.
• The tangential components are known as the shear stresses, and they
resist the transverse or shear forces.

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Fundamental Assumptions
For Study of flexure and flexural shear
Fundamental assumptions relating to flexure and flexural shear are as follows:
1. A cross section that was plane before loading remains plane under load. This
means that the unit strains in a beam above and below the neutral axis are
proportional to the distance from that axis.

• Plane sections of the beam remains plane after bending.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 22


2. The bending stress fat any point depends on the strain at that point in a
manner given by the stress-strain diagram of the material. If the beam is made
of a homogeneous material whose stress-strain diagram in tension and
compression is that of Fig shown.
• The material of the beam is homogeneous and obeys hooks law, Stress α Strain
• Perfect bond exists between steel & concrete so whatever strain is produced in concrete same is
produced in steel. All the applied loads up to to failure are in equilibrium with the internal
forces developed in the material. At the strain of 0.003 concrete is crushed.

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• If the maximum strain at the outer fibers is smaller than the strain 𝜖p up to
which stress and strain are proportional for the given material then the
compression and tension stresses on either side of the axis are proportional
to the distance from the axis, as shown in Fig. b.
• However, if the maximum strain al the outer fibers is larger than 𝜖p this is no
longer true, The situation that then occurs is shown in Fig. c in the outer
portions of the beam, where 𝜖 > 𝜖p, stresses and strains are no longer
proportional.
• In these regions, the magnitude of stress at any level such as f2 in Fig. C, at
that level in the manner given by the stress-strain diagram of the material. In
other words, for a given strain in the beam. the stress at a point is the same
as that given by the stress-strain diagram for the same strain.

3. The distribution of the shear stresses over the depth of the section
depends on the shape of the cross section and of the stress-strain
diagram. These shear Stresses are largest at the neutral axis and
equal to zero at the outer fibers.

4. Owing to the combined action of shear stresses and flexure stresses.


at any point in a beam there are inclined stresses of tension and
compression. (Torsion)

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5. Since the horizontal and vertical shearing stresses are equal and the flexural
stresses are zero at neutral plane, the inclined tensile and compressive stresses ac
any point in that plane form an angle of 45° with the horizontal. the intensity of
each being equal to the unit shear at that point.

6. When the stresses in the outer fibers are smaller than the proportional limit, the
beam behaves elastically; as shown in Fig. b. In this case the following pertains:

A. The neutral axis passes through the center of gravity of the cross
section.
B. The intensity of the bending stress normal to the section increases
directly with the distance from the neutral axis and is a maximum at
the extreme fibers. The stress at any given point in the cross section is
represented by the equation
My
f 
I
Where
• f= Bending Stress at a distance y from the Neutral Axis
• M= External Bending Moment at a section
• I= Moment of inertia of the cross section about the Neutral Axis

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REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM
BEHAVIOR
• Plain concrete beams are inefficient as flexural members because the
tensile strength in bending is a small fraction of the compressive
strength. As a consequence. such beams fail on the tension side of low
loads long before the strength of the concrete on the compression
side has been fully utilized.
• For this reason steel reinforcing bars are placed on the tension side
as close to the extreme tension fiber as is compatible with proper fire
and corrosion protection of the steel.
• In such a reinforced concrete beam, the tension caused by the
bending moments is chiefly resisted by the steel reinforcement while
the concrete alone is usually capable of resisting the corresponding
compression.

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• Such joint action of two materials is assured if relative slip is
prevented. This is achieved by using deformed bars with their high
bond strength at the steel-concrete interface and, if necessary, by
special anchorage of the ends of the bars.
• When the load on such a beam is gradually increased from zero to
the magnitude that will cause the beam to fail, several different
stages of behavior can be clearly distinguished.

1. At low loads, as long as the maximum tensile stress in the concrete is


smaller than the modulus of rupture, the entire concrete is effective in
resisting stress, in compression on one side and in tension on the other
side of the neutral axis. In addition, the reinforcement. deforming the same
amount as the adjacent concrete, is also subject to tensile stresses.

2. When the load is further increased, the tensile strength of the concrete is
soon reached, and at this stage tension cracks develop. These propagate
quickly upward to or close lo the level of the neutral plane, which in turn
shifts upward with progressive cracking.

3. Evidently, in a cracked section, i.e., in a cross section located at a crack, the


concrete does not transmit any tensile stresses. Hence, the steel is called
upon to resist the entire tension

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Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 28
4. When the load is still further increased, stresses and strains rise
correspondingly and are no longer proportional. The ensuing nonlinear
relation between stresses and strains is that given by the concrete stress-
strain curve.

5. Eventually. the carrying capacity of the beam is reached. Failure can be


caused in one of two ways. When relatively moderate amounts of
reinforcement are employed, at some value of the load the steel will reach
its yield point. At that stress. the reinforcement yields suddenly and
stretches a large amount, and the tension cracks in the concrete widen
visibly and propagate upward, with simultaneous significant deflection of
the beam.

6. When this happens, the strains in the remaining compression zone of the
concrete increase to such a degree that crushing of the concrete, the
secondary compression failure, ensues al a load only slightly larger than
that which caused the steel to yield.

• Effectively, therefore. attainment of the yield point in the steel determines


the carrying capacity of moderately reinforced beams.

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• On the other hand, if large amounts of reinforcement or normal amounts of
steel of very high strength are employed, the compressive strength of the
concrete may be exhausted before the steel starts yielding.
• Concrete fails by crushing when strains become so large that. they disrupt
the integrity of the concrete. Compression failure through crushing of the
concrete is sudden. of an almost explosive nature, and occurs without
warning.
• For this reason ii is good practice to dimension beams in such a manner that
should they be overloaded. failure would be initiated by yielding of the steel
rather than by crushing of the concrete.

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Study of flexure and flexural shear

General Procedure for the Derivation of Formula

Step # 1 Draw the cross section of beam with reinforcement.

Step # 2 Draw the strain diagram for the cross section.

Step # 3 Draw the stress diagram.


C
Step # 4 Show location of internal resultant forces. la
T
Step #5 Write down the equation for given configuration

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Elastic Uncracked Section

• As long as the tensile stress in the concrete is smaller than the


modulus of rupture, so that no tension cracks develop.
• As shown earlier in the elastic range for any given value of strain, the
stress in the steel is n. times that of the concrete. In the same section.
it was shown that one can take account of this fact in calculations by
replacing the actual steel-and-concrete cross section with a fictitious
section thought of as consisting of concrete only.
• In this "transformed section," the actual area of the reinforcement is
replaced with an equivalent concrete area equal, located at the level
of the steel.
• Once the transformed section has been obtained. the usual methods
of analysis of elastic homogeneous beams apply.

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Study of flexure and flexural shear

1. When Both Steel and Concrete are in Elastic Range

εc fc
C
N.A.
la
T
εs fs
Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Resultant Force
Diagram
Both steel and concrete are resisting to applied
action

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Study of flexure and flexural shear

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd…)


2. When Cracks are Appeared on tension Side

εc fc
C
N.A.
la
fs T
εs
Resultant Force
Strain Diagram Stress Diagram
Diagram

When the tension side is cracked the concrete becomes ineffective


but the strains goes on increasing. The steel comes in to action to
take the tension.

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Study of flexure and flexural shear

Flexural Behavior Beams (contd…)


3. When Compression Stresses
Stress
Cross Elastic Range fc’ 0.85fc

Strain

εc 0.85fc
C
N.A.
la
fs T
εs Resultant Force
Strain Diagram Stress Diagram
Diagram
It is clear that the stress diagram is infact obtained by rotating the stress
strain diagram of concrete.
Strains keeps on changing linearly in all three cases.
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 35
Elastic Cracked Section

• When the tensile stress exceeds the modulus of rupture. Cracks are formed.
If the concrete compressive stress is less than approximately 1/2fc and the
steel stress has not reached the yield point, both materials continue co
behave elastically. or very nearly so. This situation generally occurs in
structures under normal service conditions and loads.
• At this stage, it is assumed that tension cracks have progressed all the way to
the neutral axis and that sections plane before bending are plane in the
deformed member.
• To compute stresses. and strains if desired, the device of the transformed
section can be used. One need only take account of the fact that all of the
concrete that is stressed in tension is assumed cracked. and therefore
effectively absent.
• The transformed section then consists of the concrete in compression on
one side of the axis and n times the steel area on the other. The distance to
the neutral axis is conventionally expressed as a fraction kd of the effective
depth d.

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Study of flexure and flexural shear

Notation

fc = concrete stress at any load level at any distance form the N.A
fc’= 28 days cylinder strength

εc = Strain in concrete any load level


εcu = Ultimate concrete strain, 0.003

jd = Lever arm > j = la /d


kd = Depth of N.A. from compression face, j and k are always less than 1.
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 37
Study of flexure and flexural shear

Cracked Transformed Section


When tensile stress cross fr, crack appear on the tension
face of beam.
Tensile strength of concrete is neglected. All the concrete on the
tension side of N.A. is neglected.

Concrete
N.A

Steel
Only the Shaded area of cross-section is considered effective.

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Cracked Transformed Section (contd…)

b εc fc
kd Cc
N.A.
h d nAs la= jd
fs T = Asfs
Cracked εs Internal Force
Transformed Section Stress Diagram Diagram
Strain Diagram

When the tension side is cracked the concrete becomes ineffective


but the strains goes on increasing. The steel comes in to action to
take the tension.

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Calculations for“k”, taking top face as reference, The depth of N.A
from the top may be calculated by taking first moment of all the shaded
area of transformed section and dividing it by the total area.
kd
kd  [b  kd   nAsd ] / [b  kd  nAs ]
2
(kd ) 2
b  kd   (nAs  kd )  b  nAsd
2

2
(kd ) 2
b  nAsd  (nAs  kd )
2
(kd ) 2
b  nAs (d  kd )
2
The same result may be calculated by taking first moment of tension
and compression area about the neutral axis.
Steel area in above equation may be replaced with As = ρ x bd where
ρ may be defined as steel ratio.
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 40
(kd ) 2
b  nAs (d  kd )
2
(kd ) 2
b  1  k  nAsd
2
k 2bd 2
 1  k  n  bd 2
2
k 2  2 1  k  n 
k 2  2n  k  2n   0
k  ( n  ) 2  2n   n 
kd = Depth of N.A. from compression face
Where k = c/d
Taking only positive value as distance can’t be negative

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 41


Cracked Transformed Section (contd…)
Value of “j”
jd = d – kd/3
j = 1-k/3 fc

Cc = volume of stress diagram b Kd/3


Cc = ½ kd x fc x b Cc
kd
Cc = fc/2 x kdb d
N.A jd
T = Asfs = nfc As

Resisting Moment Capacity T = Asfs


For longitudinal equilibrium
T = Cc
Mr = T x jd = Cc x jd
Mr = Asfs x jd = fc/2 x kdb x jd
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 42
Cracked Transformed Section (contd…)

Determination of “k” value

k  ( n  ) 2  2n   n 
Value of k can not be determined as ρ is not know. There are
two different approaches to establish the value of k.

1. Simultaneous Occurring of Maximum Permissible Steel and


Concrete Stresses.
2. Assuming some suitable steel ratio

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 43


Determination of “k” value (contd…)
1- Simultaneous Occurring of Maximum Permissible Steel
and Concrete Stresses.

Consider Δ ABC & Δ ADE


B εc C
εs/(d-kd) = εc/(kd)
kd N.A
(fs / Es) / (d-kd) = (fc/Ec) / (kd) A
.
fs x kd = (Es/Ec) x fc x (d-kd) d d- kd
fs x k = n x fc x (1-k) D
E
fs x k + nfck = nfc
εs
Strain Diagram
nf c
k
fs  nf c
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 44
Determination of “k” value (contd…)

2- Assuming some suitable steel ratio


In this approach, some suitable value of steel ratio (less than ρ max)
is selected at the start of calculations and used for the
determination of “k”
3 fc’
 max  0.85  2

8 fy
k  ( n  ) 2  2n   n 
Calculate ρ max and select some value less than this.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 45


Maximum Allowable Stresses
(ASD)
FOR MAXIMUM VALUE RESISTING MOMENT
• SI
• Permissible extreme fiber stress in compression fc= 0.45 fc’
• Permissible max stress grade 300 steel fs = 0.5 fy
• Permissible max stress grade 420 steel fs = 0.4 fy

• FPS
• Permissible extreme fiber stress in compression fc= 0.45 fc’
• Permissible max stress grade 40 steel fs = 0.5 fy
• Permissible max stress grade 60 steel fs = 0.4 fy

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 46


Example # 1
A rectangular beam has the dimensions b= 10 in, h= 25 in., and d = 23
in, and is reinforced with three No. 8 (No. 25) bars. The concrete
cylinder strength fc is 4000 psi. and the tensile strength in bending
(modulus of rupture) is 475 psi. The yield point of the steel fy is 60.000
psi. Determine the stresses caused by a bending moment M = 45 ft-
kips.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 47


Solution.
29, 000, 000
• Modular Ratio n, n 8
3, 600, 000
• Additional Area of Steel (n  1) As  7  2.37  16.59in 2
10  25  (25 / 2)  16.59  23
• Distance from Neutral Axis y  13.2
(10  25)  16.59
Bh3
I  AC  dt 2  AS  d 2
• Moment of inertia 12
10  253 25
I [ ]  [10  25  (  13.2) 2 ]  [16.59  (23  13.2) 2 ]  14740in 4
12 2
• Moment M  45 ft  kip  540000in  lb
My
f 
• Bending Stress I
My 540000 13.2
fc    484 psi
• Compression Stress I 14740
My 540000 11.8
• Flexural Stress f ct    432 psi
I 14740

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 48


Example #2
A rectangular beam of size 12 x 24 in with effective depth of 21.5 in and is
reinforced with 3 # 8 US customary bars. Concrete has specified
compressive strength 4000 Psi. Yield strength of steel is 60,000 Psi.
Determine the stresses caused by the bending moment of 30k-ft. The
member is with in elastic range.
b = 12 in
Data
fc’ = 4000 Psi
fy = 60,000 Psi
M = 30k-ft h = 24 in d = 21.5 in

ftop = ? fbottom = ?

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 49


Example #3
A rectangular beam of size 250mm x 650mm with effective depth of 590
mm and is reinforced with 3 # 25 US customary bars. Concrete has
specified compressive strength 28MPa. Yield strength of steel is 420 MPa.
Determine the stresses caused by the bending moment of 50 kN-m. The
member is with in elastic range.

Data b = 250mm
fc’ = 28 MPa
fy = 420 MPa
fr = 3.25 MPa
M = 120 kN-m d = 590mm
h = 650mm

ftop = ? fbottom = ?

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 50


Strength Design of Beams

b εcu=0.003 0.85fc 0.85fc


a a/2 Cc
c
h d N.A.
la =d – a/2
fs fs T = Asfs
εs Internal Force
Actual Stress Equivalent Stress
Strain Diagram Diagram/ Diagram
Diagram Whitney’s Stress
Diagram

In ultimate strength design method the section is always taken as


cracked.
c = Depth of N.A from the extreme compression face at ultimate stage
a = Depth of equivalent rectangular stress diagram.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 51


Strength Design of Beams
(Strength Design of Beams)
Strength design method is based on the philosophy of dividing F.O.S.
in such a way that Bigger part is applied on loads and smaller part is
applied on material strength.

favg = Area under curve/0.003 fc’ Crushing


Strength
Stress
If fc’ ≤ 30 MPa
favg = 0.72 fc’ favg 0.85fc’
β1 = Average Strength/Crushing Strength

β1 = 0.72fc’ / 0.85 fc’ = 0.85 0.003


Strain
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 52
Strength Design of Beams

Equivalent Rectangular Stress Distribution

• It is seen that the actual stress distribution is replaced by an


equivalent one of simple rectangular outline.

• its depth a is easily calculated


from the two conditions that
the total compression force C
and its location, i.e., distance.
from the top fiber,

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 53


Strength Design of Beams
The resultant of concrete compressive force Cc, acts at the centriod of parabolic
stress diagram.

Equivalent stress diagram is made in such a way that it has the same area as that of
actual stress diagram. Thus the Cc, will remain unchanged.

f avg  b  c  0.85 fc ' b  a β1 = 0.85, for fc’ ≤ 30 Mpa

0.72 fc ' c  0.85 fc ' a Value of β1, decreases by 0.05 for every 7 MPa

0.72 fc ' increase in strength with a minimum of 0.65


a c
0.85 fc ' β1 1.05-0.00714fc fc’ > 30 Mpa
a  1  c
β1 1.05-0.00005fc fc’ > 4000 psi

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 54


NOMINAL & DESIGN MOMENT

Tension Steel is Yielding at Ultimate Condition

T  As  fs  As  f y a/2 Cc
la
Cc  0.85fc 'b  a T = Asfs
a Internal Force Diagram
la  d 
2

For longitudinal Equilibrium T = Cc


As  f y  0.85 f c 'b  a
As  f y a
a and
c
0.85 f c 'b
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I
β1 55
NOMINAL & DESIGN MOMENT

Nominal Moment Capacity, Mn depending on steel = T x la


 a
M n  As  f y   d  
 2
Design Moment Capacity
 a
 b M n  b As  f y   d  
 2 

Nominal Moment Capacity, Mn depending on concrete = Cc x la


 a
M n  0.85fc'  b  a   d  
 2
Design Moment Capacity
 a
 b M n  b 0.85fc'  b  a   d  
 2 
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 56
The END

ANY QUESTIONS ?
Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 57