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LECTURE # 3A

FLEXURAL BEHAVIOUR OF BEAMS

Home Work # 1

Practice it at Home

MOMENT OF INERTIA

BEAM

Therefore it is also called flexural member.

• Beam may be singly reinforced or doubly reinforced. When steel is

provided only in tensile zone (i.e. below neutral axis) is called singly

reinforced beam, but when steel is provided in tension zone as well as

compression zone is called doubly reinforced beam.

To decide the size (dimensions) of the member and the amount of

reinforcement required.

To check whether the adopted section will perform safely and

satisfactorily during the life time of the structure.

OVER ALL DEPTH : THE NORMAL DISTANCE FROM THE TOP EDGE

OF THE BEAM TO THE BOTTOM EDGE OF THE BEAM IS CALLED

OVER ALL DEPTH. IT IS DENOTED BY ‘H’.

OF BEAM TO THE CENTRE OF TENSILE REINFORCEMENT IS CALLED

EFFECTIVE DEPTH. IT IS DENOTED BY ‘d’.

BARS AND BOTTOM MOST THE EDGE OF THE BEAM IS CALLED

CLEAR COVER.

CLEAR COVER = 25mm OR DIA OF MAIN BAR, (WHICH EVER IS

GREATER).

REINFORCEMENT AND THE BOTTOM EDGE OF THE BEAM IS

CALLED EFFECTIVE COVER. EFFECTIVE COVER = CLEAR COVER + ½

DIA OF BAR.

NEUTRAL AXIS: THE LAYER / LAMINA WHERE NO STRESS EXIST IS

KNOWN AS NEUTRAL AXIS. IT DIVIDES THE BEAM SECTION INTO

TWO ZONES, COMPRESION ZONE ABOVE THE NETURAL AXIS &

TENSION ZONE BELOW THE NEUTRAL AXIS.

TOP EDGE OF THE BEAM & NEUTRAL AXIS IS CALLED DEPTH OF

NETURAL AXIS. IT IS DENOTED BY ‘c’.

COMPRESSIVE FORCE (C) AND TENSILE FORCE (T) IS KNOWN AS

LEVER ARM. THE TOTAL COMPRESSIVE FORCE (C) IN CONCRETE

ACT AT THE C.G. OF COMPRESSIVE STRESS DIAGRAM i.e. c/3 FROM

THE COMPRESSION EDGE. THE TOTAL TENSILE FORCE (T) ACTS AT

C.G. OF THE REINFORCEMENT.

TENSILE REINFORCEMENT: THE REINFORCEMENT PROVIDED

TENSILE ZONE IS CALLED TENSILE REINFORCEMENT. IT IS DENOTED

BY Ast.

PROVIDED COMPRESSION ZONEIS CALLED COMPRESSION

REINFORCEMENT. IT IS DENOTED BY Asc

N.A h d

l

Flexural Behavior of Beams

Under Service Load

• When loads are applied on the beam stresses are produced in

concrete and steel reinforcement.

• If stress in steel bars is less than yield strength, steel is in elastic range.

• If stress in concrete is less than 0.5fc’ concrete is assumed to be with in

elastic range.

• Following are important points related to Elastic Range:

• Materials are in elastic range

• All analysis and design are close to allowable stress analysis and design.

Flexural Behavior of Beams

Under Service Load

Different Types of Cracks

1. Pure Flexural Cracks

Flexural cracks start appearing at the section of maximum

bending moment. These vertical cracks initiate from the

tension face and move towards N.A.

Flexural Behavior of Beams

Under Service Load

2. Pure Shear/Web Shear Cracks

These inclined cracks appear at the N.A due to shear stress

and propagate in both direction

45o

σ1 σ4

τ

σn= f 45o

σ3 σ2

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 9

Pure Shear/Web Shear Cracks

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 10

Flexural Behavior of Beams

Under Service Load

3.

Flexural Shear Cracks

In the regions of high shear due to diagonal tension,

the inclined cracks develop as an extension of flexural

cracks and are termed as Flexural Shear Cracks.

Flexural Behavior of Beams

Under Service Load

Failure modes and reinforcements

resisted by reinforcements. Reinforcements shall be placed at the

side of the beam that has tension. For a simply supported beam,

tension is at the bottom of beam. For a cantilever end, tension is

at the top of the beam.

2. Shear is at its maximum at edge of supports. Diagonal shear

cracks is normally developed close to the support. Stirrup for

shear reinforcement is normally placed vertically to intercept the

crack. They are normally closer spaced near the support and

gradually spread out toward center of the beam.

Moment and shear diagram of a beam under dead and live loads are shown below.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 14

Tensile Strength of Concrete

There are considerable experimental difficulties in determining

the true tensile strength of concrete. In direct tension test

following are the difficulties:

large stress concentration at the grip.

2. Concrete samples of different sizes and diameters show large

variation in results.

3. If there are some voids in sample the test may show very small

strength.

4. If there is some initial misalignment in fixing the sample the results

are not accurate.

strength of concrete is estimated.

A. Split cylinder Test

This test is performed by loading a Line Load

standard 150mmФ x 300mm cylinder by

a line load perpendicular to its

longitudinal axis with cylinder placed

horizontally on the testing machine platen.

In this test a concrete cylinder is placed

vertically between the loading platens of

the machine and is compressed by two 2b

steel punches placed parallel to top and H

bottom end surfaces. The sample splits

across many vertical diametrical planes

radiating from central axis.

C. Modulus of Rupture Test

For many years, tensile strength has been measured in term of the

modulus of rupture fr,the computed flexural tensile stress at which a

test beam of plain beam fractures.

It is a measure of, but not identical with the real axial tensile strength.

Two point loading

ACI code give a formula for fr , fr 0.5 fc’ (fc’ and fr are in Mpa)

Tensile strength of concrete is generally 8 to 15% of compressive

strength.

Flexural Behavior of Beams

Under Service Load

Transformed Section

Beam is a combination of concrete and steel so as a whole it is not a

homogeneous material. In transformed section the steel area is replaced by an

equivalent concrete area in order to calculate the section properties.

Width of the extended area is same as diameter of steel bar and its distance

from compression face remains same.

Modular Ratio, n

“The ratio of modulus of elasticity of steel to modulus of elasticity of concrete is

known as modular Ratio”.

n = Es / Ec

Normally the value of n is 8 to 10, It is unit-less quantity

When both steel and concrete are in elastic range and tensile stress at the tension face

of concrete is less than tensile strength of concrete the section is un-cracked. Within

the elastic range, perfect bond (no slippage) exists between concrete and steel, so

εs = εc

fs/Es = fc / Ec

fs = (Es/ Ec) fc

fs = n fc

Using this relationship, stress in steel can be calculated if stress in concrete

and modular ratio are known.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 19

Consider a beam having steel area As. In order to obtain a transformed section,

the area of steel (As) is replaced by an equivalent area of concrete so that equal

force is developed in both

Ps = Pc

fsAs = fcAceq

nfcAs = fcAc eq

nAs=Ac eq

The equivalent area nAs/2 is shown on either side but steel inside the

beam is removed which creates a space that is filled by area of concrete,

thus the equivalent area on either side becomes

nAs/2 – As/2

(n-1)As / 2

Once the transformed section has been formed the sectional

properties (A, Location of N.A., I, S etc) are calculated in

usual manner,

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 20

BENDING OF HOMOGENEOUS BEAMS

same. Briefly. these principles are as follows. At any cross section

there exist internal forces that can he resolved into components

normal and tangential to the section.

• Those components that are normal to the section are the bending

stresses (tension on one side of the neutral axis and compression on

the other). Their function is to resist the bending moment at the

section.

• The tangential components are known as the shear stresses, and they

resist the transverse or shear forces.

Fundamental Assumptions

For Study of flexure and flexural shear

Fundamental assumptions relating to flexure and flexural shear are as follows:

1. A cross section that was plane before loading remains plane under load. This

means that the unit strains in a beam above and below the neutral axis are

proportional to the distance from that axis.

2. The bending stress fat any point depends on the strain at that point in a

manner given by the stress-strain diagram of the material. If the beam is made

of a homogeneous material whose stress-strain diagram in tension and

compression is that of Fig shown.

• The material of the beam is homogeneous and obeys hooks law, Stress α Strain

• Perfect bond exists between steel & concrete so whatever strain is produced in concrete same is

produced in steel. All the applied loads up to to failure are in equilibrium with the internal

forces developed in the material. At the strain of 0.003 concrete is crushed.

• If the maximum strain at the outer fibers is smaller than the strain 𝜖p up to

which stress and strain are proportional for the given material then the

compression and tension stresses on either side of the axis are proportional

to the distance from the axis, as shown in Fig. b.

• However, if the maximum strain al the outer fibers is larger than 𝜖p this is no

longer true, The situation that then occurs is shown in Fig. c in the outer

portions of the beam, where 𝜖 > 𝜖p, stresses and strains are no longer

proportional.

• In these regions, the magnitude of stress at any level such as f2 in Fig. C, at

that level in the manner given by the stress-strain diagram of the material. In

other words, for a given strain in the beam. the stress at a point is the same

as that given by the stress-strain diagram for the same strain.

3. The distribution of the shear stresses over the depth of the section

depends on the shape of the cross section and of the stress-strain

diagram. These shear Stresses are largest at the neutral axis and

equal to zero at the outer fibers.

at any point in a beam there are inclined stresses of tension and

compression. (Torsion)

5. Since the horizontal and vertical shearing stresses are equal and the flexural

stresses are zero at neutral plane, the inclined tensile and compressive stresses ac

any point in that plane form an angle of 45° with the horizontal. the intensity of

each being equal to the unit shear at that point.

6. When the stresses in the outer fibers are smaller than the proportional limit, the

beam behaves elastically; as shown in Fig. b. In this case the following pertains:

A. The neutral axis passes through the center of gravity of the cross

section.

B. The intensity of the bending stress normal to the section increases

directly with the distance from the neutral axis and is a maximum at

the extreme fibers. The stress at any given point in the cross section is

represented by the equation

My

f

I

Where

• f= Bending Stress at a distance y from the Neutral Axis

• M= External Bending Moment at a section

• I= Moment of inertia of the cross section about the Neutral Axis

REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM

BEHAVIOR

• Plain concrete beams are inefficient as flexural members because the

tensile strength in bending is a small fraction of the compressive

strength. As a consequence. such beams fail on the tension side of low

loads long before the strength of the concrete on the compression

side has been fully utilized.

• For this reason steel reinforcing bars are placed on the tension side

as close to the extreme tension fiber as is compatible with proper fire

and corrosion protection of the steel.

• In such a reinforced concrete beam, the tension caused by the

bending moments is chiefly resisted by the steel reinforcement while

the concrete alone is usually capable of resisting the corresponding

compression.

• Such joint action of two materials is assured if relative slip is

prevented. This is achieved by using deformed bars with their high

bond strength at the steel-concrete interface and, if necessary, by

special anchorage of the ends of the bars.

• When the load on such a beam is gradually increased from zero to

the magnitude that will cause the beam to fail, several different

stages of behavior can be clearly distinguished.

smaller than the modulus of rupture, the entire concrete is effective in

resisting stress, in compression on one side and in tension on the other

side of the neutral axis. In addition, the reinforcement. deforming the same

amount as the adjacent concrete, is also subject to tensile stresses.

2. When the load is further increased, the tensile strength of the concrete is

soon reached, and at this stage tension cracks develop. These propagate

quickly upward to or close lo the level of the neutral plane, which in turn

shifts upward with progressive cracking.

concrete does not transmit any tensile stresses. Hence, the steel is called

upon to resist the entire tension

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 28

4. When the load is still further increased, stresses and strains rise

correspondingly and are no longer proportional. The ensuing nonlinear

relation between stresses and strains is that given by the concrete stress-

strain curve.

caused in one of two ways. When relatively moderate amounts of

reinforcement are employed, at some value of the load the steel will reach

its yield point. At that stress. the reinforcement yields suddenly and

stretches a large amount, and the tension cracks in the concrete widen

visibly and propagate upward, with simultaneous significant deflection of

the beam.

6. When this happens, the strains in the remaining compression zone of the

concrete increase to such a degree that crushing of the concrete, the

secondary compression failure, ensues al a load only slightly larger than

that which caused the steel to yield.

the carrying capacity of moderately reinforced beams.

• On the other hand, if large amounts of reinforcement or normal amounts of

steel of very high strength are employed, the compressive strength of the

concrete may be exhausted before the steel starts yielding.

• Concrete fails by crushing when strains become so large that. they disrupt

the integrity of the concrete. Compression failure through crushing of the

concrete is sudden. of an almost explosive nature, and occurs without

warning.

• For this reason ii is good practice to dimension beams in such a manner that

should they be overloaded. failure would be initiated by yielding of the steel

rather than by crushing of the concrete.

Study of flexure and flexural shear

C

Step # 4 Show location of internal resultant forces. la

T

Step #5 Write down the equation for given configuration

Elastic Uncracked Section

modulus of rupture, so that no tension cracks develop.

• As shown earlier in the elastic range for any given value of strain, the

stress in the steel is n. times that of the concrete. In the same section.

it was shown that one can take account of this fact in calculations by

replacing the actual steel-and-concrete cross section with a fictitious

section thought of as consisting of concrete only.

• In this "transformed section," the actual area of the reinforcement is

replaced with an equivalent concrete area equal, located at the level

of the steel.

• Once the transformed section has been obtained. the usual methods

of analysis of elastic homogeneous beams apply.

Study of flexure and flexural shear

εc fc

C

N.A.

la

T

εs fs

Strain Diagram Stress Diagram Resultant Force

Diagram

Both steel and concrete are resisting to applied

action

Study of flexure and flexural shear

2. When Cracks are Appeared on tension Side

εc fc

C

N.A.

la

fs T

εs

Resultant Force

Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

Diagram

but the strains goes on increasing. The steel comes in to action to

take the tension.

Study of flexure and flexural shear

3. When Compression Stresses

Stress

Cross Elastic Range fc’ 0.85fc

’

Strain

εc 0.85fc

C

N.A.

la

fs T

εs Resultant Force

Strain Diagram Stress Diagram

Diagram

It is clear that the stress diagram is infact obtained by rotating the stress

strain diagram of concrete.

Strains keeps on changing linearly in all three cases.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 35

Elastic Cracked Section

• When the tensile stress exceeds the modulus of rupture. Cracks are formed.

If the concrete compressive stress is less than approximately 1/2fc and the

steel stress has not reached the yield point, both materials continue co

behave elastically. or very nearly so. This situation generally occurs in

structures under normal service conditions and loads.

• At this stage, it is assumed that tension cracks have progressed all the way to

the neutral axis and that sections plane before bending are plane in the

deformed member.

• To compute stresses. and strains if desired, the device of the transformed

section can be used. One need only take account of the fact that all of the

concrete that is stressed in tension is assumed cracked. and therefore

effectively absent.

• The transformed section then consists of the concrete in compression on

one side of the axis and n times the steel area on the other. The distance to

the neutral axis is conventionally expressed as a fraction kd of the effective

depth d.

Study of flexure and flexural shear

Notation

fc = concrete stress at any load level at any distance form the N.A

fc’= 28 days cylinder strength

εcu = Ultimate concrete strain, 0.003

kd = Depth of N.A. from compression face, j and k are always less than 1.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 37

Study of flexure and flexural shear

When tensile stress cross fr, crack appear on the tension

face of beam.

Tensile strength of concrete is neglected. All the concrete on the

tension side of N.A. is neglected.

Concrete

N.A

Steel

Only the Shaded area of cross-section is considered effective.

Cracked Transformed Section (contd…)

b εc fc

kd Cc

N.A.

h d nAs la= jd

fs T = Asfs

Cracked εs Internal Force

Transformed Section Stress Diagram Diagram

Strain Diagram

but the strains goes on increasing. The steel comes in to action to

take the tension.

Calculations for“k”, taking top face as reference, The depth of N.A

from the top may be calculated by taking first moment of all the shaded

area of transformed section and dividing it by the total area.

kd

kd [b kd nAsd ] / [b kd nAs ]

2

(kd ) 2

b kd (nAs kd ) b nAsd

2

2

(kd ) 2

b nAsd (nAs kd )

2

(kd ) 2

b nAs (d kd )

2

The same result may be calculated by taking first moment of tension

and compression area about the neutral axis.

Steel area in above equation may be replaced with As = ρ x bd where

ρ may be defined as steel ratio.

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 40

(kd ) 2

b nAs (d kd )

2

(kd ) 2

b 1 k nAsd

2

k 2bd 2

1 k n bd 2

2

k 2 2 1 k n

k 2 2n k 2n 0

k ( n ) 2 2n n

kd = Depth of N.A. from compression face

Where k = c/d

Taking only positive value as distance can’t be negative

Cracked Transformed Section (contd…)

Value of “j”

jd = d – kd/3

j = 1-k/3 fc

Cc = ½ kd x fc x b Cc

kd

Cc = fc/2 x kdb d

N.A jd

T = Asfs = nfc As

For longitudinal equilibrium

T = Cc

Mr = T x jd = Cc x jd

Mr = Asfs x jd = fc/2 x kdb x jd

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 42

Cracked Transformed Section (contd…)

k ( n ) 2 2n n

Value of k can not be determined as ρ is not know. There are

two different approaches to establish the value of k.

Concrete Stresses.

2. Assuming some suitable steel ratio

Determination of “k” value (contd…)

1- Simultaneous Occurring of Maximum Permissible Steel

and Concrete Stresses.

B εc C

εs/(d-kd) = εc/(kd)

kd N.A

(fs / Es) / (d-kd) = (fc/Ec) / (kd) A

.

fs x kd = (Es/Ec) x fc x (d-kd) d d- kd

fs x k = n x fc x (1-k) D

E

fs x k + nfck = nfc

εs

Strain Diagram

nf c

k

fs nf c

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 44

Determination of “k” value (contd…)

In this approach, some suitable value of steel ratio (less than ρ max)

is selected at the start of calculations and used for the

determination of “k”

3 fc’

max 0.85 2

8 fy

k ( n ) 2 2n n

Calculate ρ max and select some value less than this.

Maximum Allowable Stresses

(ASD)

FOR MAXIMUM VALUE RESISTING MOMENT

• SI

• Permissible extreme fiber stress in compression fc= 0.45 fc’

• Permissible max stress grade 300 steel fs = 0.5 fy

• Permissible max stress grade 420 steel fs = 0.4 fy

• FPS

• Permissible extreme fiber stress in compression fc= 0.45 fc’

• Permissible max stress grade 40 steel fs = 0.5 fy

• Permissible max stress grade 60 steel fs = 0.4 fy

Example # 1

A rectangular beam has the dimensions b= 10 in, h= 25 in., and d = 23

in, and is reinforced with three No. 8 (No. 25) bars. The concrete

cylinder strength fc is 4000 psi. and the tensile strength in bending

(modulus of rupture) is 475 psi. The yield point of the steel fy is 60.000

psi. Determine the stresses caused by a bending moment M = 45 ft-

kips.

Solution.

29, 000, 000

• Modular Ratio n, n 8

3, 600, 000

• Additional Area of Steel (n 1) As 7 2.37 16.59in 2

10 25 (25 / 2) 16.59 23

• Distance from Neutral Axis y 13.2

(10 25) 16.59

Bh3

I AC dt 2 AS d 2

• Moment of inertia 12

10 253 25

I [ ] [10 25 ( 13.2) 2 ] [16.59 (23 13.2) 2 ] 14740in 4

12 2

• Moment M 45 ft kip 540000in lb

My

f

• Bending Stress I

My 540000 13.2

fc 484 psi

• Compression Stress I 14740

My 540000 11.8

• Flexural Stress f ct 432 psi

I 14740

Example #2

A rectangular beam of size 12 x 24 in with effective depth of 21.5 in and is

reinforced with 3 # 8 US customary bars. Concrete has specified

compressive strength 4000 Psi. Yield strength of steel is 60,000 Psi.

Determine the stresses caused by the bending moment of 30k-ft. The

member is with in elastic range.

b = 12 in

Data

fc’ = 4000 Psi

fy = 60,000 Psi

M = 30k-ft h = 24 in d = 21.5 in

ftop = ? fbottom = ?

Example #3

A rectangular beam of size 250mm x 650mm with effective depth of 590

mm and is reinforced with 3 # 25 US customary bars. Concrete has

specified compressive strength 28MPa. Yield strength of steel is 420 MPa.

Determine the stresses caused by the bending moment of 50 kN-m. The

member is with in elastic range.

Data b = 250mm

fc’ = 28 MPa

fy = 420 MPa

fr = 3.25 MPa

M = 120 kN-m d = 590mm

h = 650mm

ftop = ? fbottom = ?

Strength Design of Beams

a a/2 Cc

c

h d N.A.

la =d – a/2

fs fs T = Asfs

εs Internal Force

Actual Stress Equivalent Stress

Strain Diagram Diagram/ Diagram

Diagram Whitney’s Stress

Diagram

cracked.

c = Depth of N.A from the extreme compression face at ultimate stage

a = Depth of equivalent rectangular stress diagram.

Strength Design of Beams

(Strength Design of Beams)

Strength design method is based on the philosophy of dividing F.O.S.

in such a way that Bigger part is applied on loads and smaller part is

applied on material strength.

Strength

Stress

If fc’ ≤ 30 MPa

favg = 0.72 fc’ favg 0.85fc’

β1 = Average Strength/Crushing Strength

Strain

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 52

Strength Design of Beams

equivalent one of simple rectangular outline.

from the two conditions that

the total compression force C

and its location, i.e., distance.

from the top fiber,

Strength Design of Beams

The resultant of concrete compressive force Cc, acts at the centriod of parabolic

stress diagram.

Equivalent stress diagram is made in such a way that it has the same area as that of

actual stress diagram. Thus the Cc, will remain unchanged.

0.72 fc ' c 0.85 fc ' a Value of β1, decreases by 0.05 for every 7 MPa

a c

0.85 fc ' β1 1.05-0.00714fc fc’ > 30 Mpa

a 1 c

β1 1.05-0.00005fc fc’ > 4000 psi

NOMINAL & DESIGN MOMENT

T As fs As f y a/2 Cc

la

Cc 0.85fc 'b a T = Asfs

a Internal Force Diagram

la d

2

As f y 0.85 f c 'b a

As f y a

a and

c

0.85 f c 'b

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I

β1 55

NOMINAL & DESIGN MOMENT

a

M n As f y d

2

Design Moment Capacity

a

b M n b As f y d

2

a

M n 0.85fc' b a d

2

Design Moment Capacity

a

b M n b 0.85fc' b a d

2

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 56

The END

ANY QUESTIONS ?

Plain & Reinforced Concrete Design - I 57

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