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For the Teacher
C hemistry C lues

Acids and Bases


Genre
Expository

Text Features
Contents Chapter Headings Index Sidebars
Chapter Titles Glossary Experiments Diagrams
Photographs Illustrations Charts Captions

Organizational Patterns
Concept/Definition Description

Vocabulary
acid base compound corrosive
indicator ion molecule neutral
neutralization pH pigment reactive
salt scaling solution

Overview
A “tour” introduces many of the acids and bases found in most homes. Background information on
atoms and ions is provided for a better understanding of how acids and bases are defined. An ion is an
atom with a positive or negative charge.
Acids are compounds that release hydrogen ions. They are proton donors. Acids taste sour, turn blue
litmus paper red, conduct electricity in solution, form gases during certain reactions, and react with bases
to form a salt and water. Hydrochloric, sulfuric, carbonic, ascorbic, and citric acids are common acids.
Bases are compounds that release hydroxide ions or accept hydrogen ions. They are proton
acceptors. Bases taste bitter, feel slippery, turn red litmus paper blue, conduct electricity in solution,
and react with acids to form a salt and water. Sodium bicarbonate, sodium hydroxide, and ammonia are
common bases.
Indicators are materials that determine whether a substance is an acid, a base, or neither (neutral).
Litmus paper, bromothymol blue, phenolphthalein, and many plant pigments are indicators.
The measure of the strength of an acid or base is called pH. The pH scale is a range of pH values
from 0 to 14. Neutral substances are a 7. Substances with pH levels below 7 are acids. Substances with
pH levels above 7 are bases.
Acids and bases are at work in the ground, in the air, and in the water. They perform important jobs
in the human body. Many foods and products wouldn’t exist without acids and bases. Examples of these
everyday acids and bases are featured.
Editorial Director: Susan C. Thies
Editor: Mary L. Bush
Design Director: Randy Messer
Book Design: Emily J. Greazel
Cover Design: Michael A. Aspengren

A special thanks to the following for his scientific review of the book:
Kristin Mandsager, Instructor of Physics and Astronomy,
North Iowa Area Community College

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©CDC/PHIL/CORBIS: p. 22; ©Stockfood America: p. 27 (bottom)

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©Tom McNemar: p. 18 (bottom); ©Kenny Chi: p. 23; ©Jack Schiffer: p. 24 (top);
©Greg Nicholas: front cover (bottom center), p. 25 (top); ©Micheal Osterrieder:
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Learning: back cover, front cover (bottom left and right), pp. 3, 7, 8, 9, 11 (bottom),
14, 17, 18 (top), 19, 21, 32; Photos.com: front cover (background), pp. 1, 4
A special thanks to the following for her contribution of photoshoot supplies:
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Printed in the United States of America


1. A tour of acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . 4

2. Background information for


acids and bases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

3. Answers About Acids. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

4. Back to the bases. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

5. Acid or Base? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

6. Strong or weak?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

7. Acids and Bases at Work. . . . . . . . . . . 23

Internet Connections and


Related Reading for Acids and Bases . . . . . . 29

Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Index. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32
T he tour bus is now departing. Please climb aboard
for a home tour. We will peek inside cabinets.
We will read labels. What are we looking for? We’re
searching for acids and bases.
Acids and bases are very useful around the house.
You’ll find them in baking products, medicines, cleaning
agents, and more.
But be careful. These substances can be very
dangerous. Strong acids and bases can burn your skin.
Many of them are not edible and can make you sick. But
if you’re willing to risk the danger, hop on the bus for an
acid and base tour of your home.

First Stop: The Kitchen


The first stop is the kitchen. Open
some of the cabinets and you’ll find a
variety of acids and bases. Baking powder
and baking soda contain chemical bases.
Vinegar is made from acetic acid. The
loaf of whole grain wheat bread is a good
source of folic acid.
Check the refrigerator. Vinegar-and-
oil salad dressings are acidic. Soda tastes
tart because it has carbonic acid. Lactic
acid gives yogurt and buttermilk its sour
taste. Reach in the back for that jar of
pickles. The pickle juice contains acetic
4
acid. Open up the fruit and vegetable drawer.
Many fruits, such as apples and oranges,
contain citric acid. Look at the labels of real
fruit juices. You’ll notice that citric acid is a
common ingredient. It gives the juices their
tangy flavor.
Now search around and under the
kitchen sink. Bases in dish soap and
dishwasher detergent give them their
cleaning power. Window and floor cleaners
often contain bases. The oven cleaner you
use to get the burned food off the bottom
of your oven does too.

Next Stop: The Bathroom


Climb back on the bus. The next stop
is the bathroom. Look at all the tubes and
bottles sitting around the sink and in the shower. Toothpaste, shampoo,
and hand and body soaps all contain bases.
Open the cabinets under the sink.
Toilet bowl cleaner contains a weak
acid. The drain cleaner that breaks up
all the hair that clogs your drains has a
strong base.
The medicine
cabinet is another
storage area for
acids and bases.
Aspirin is an acid.
Antacids are bases
used to calm an
upset stomach.

5
Final Stops: The laundry room and The Garage
The final stop on the tour is the garage. On the way to the garage,
we pass by the laundry room. The laundry detergent sitting next to the
washing machine is a base. The spot removers in the cabinet may be too.

We reach the garage. A very strong acid is stored in the battery under
the hood of the family car. Two bags of lawn fertilizers sit on a garage
shelf. These strong bases help the grass grow thick and green.

The End of the Tour


The tour bus is now unloading. Thank you for traveling with us and
being safe during the tour. Watch your step as you continue to learn more
about acids and bases.

6
S o what are all these acids and bases that you found on
your tour? They both begin with atoms and ions.
Atoms are the tiny pieces of matter that make up
all things. Normally atoms are neutral. This means that
they have an equal number of positively e
electrons (-9)
charged protons and negatively
e e
charged electrons. The positive e
and negative charges balance
protons (+9)
one another, so the atom has a
neutral charge. e
When an atom gains or
e
loses electrons, it becomes
an ion. Ions are atoms with a e
positive or negative charge. An e
atom that gains electrons becomes
e Flourine atom (F)
a negatively charged ion. An atom that
loses electrons becomes a positively e
charged ion. e
e
When atoms combine e
with one another to form
protons (+9)
compounds, they exchange or e
share electrons. When they do
this, the atoms become ions. e

electrons (-10) e e

e e
Flouride ion (F-) 7
For example, when sodium and chlorine join together, the sodium
atom gives one of its electrons to the chlorine atom. This makes the
sodium and chlorine ions because now the sodium has one less electron
than protons and theFluorine
chlorine has one more electron than protons. The
sodium now has a charge of +1, while the chlorine has a charge of –1.
Argon

Na+

Cl-

Acids and bases are compounds that either gain Cl-


or lose a specific type
Na+
of ion when they react with other substances.

Notes on Writing Ions


Every element can be abbreviated. Sodium, for example, is Na
and chlorine is Cl. When an element becomes an ion, a positive
or negative charge is added to its abbreviation—for example, Na+
and Cl-.
If only one electron is gained or lost, just the – or + symbol is
used. If more than one electron is gained or lost, then the number
of electrons exchanged goes before the symbol. For example, when
an atom of oxygen gains 2 electrons, it is written like this: O2­–.

8
A n acid is a compound that releases hydrogen ions when
dissolved in water. Hydrogen ions (H+) are hydrogen
atoms that have given away their only electron so they are
no longer neutral. The hydrogen ion now has a positive
charge. Acids are, therefore, also known as proton donors.

Properties of Acids
Acids have certain chemical properties that classify
them as acids. Acids taste sour. In fact, the word acid
comes from the Latin word acere, which means “sour.” If
you’ve ever tasted lemon juice, vinegar, or aspirin (before
you swallow it), you’ve experienced the sour taste of an
acid. You should never, however, try to taste nonedible
or unknown acids because they may burn or poison you
before you have a chance to notice their sour taste.
Another property of acids is their effect on litmus
paper. Litmus paper
is paper that has
been soaked in a
blue pigment called
litmus. Litmus turns
red when it comes in
contact with an acid,
so acids turn blue
litmus paper red.

9
Acids have the ability to conduct electricity when in solution
(dissolved in water). The ions that are released from the acid allow an
electrical current to be passed along.
Acids react with certain materials to form a gas. Acids react with a
charged group of atoms called carbonate ions. When they do, carbon
dioxide (CO2) gas is produced. Geologists use this property of acids to test
rocks to see if they contain carbonates. When a few drops of an acid are
squeezed onto a rock such as limestone or marble, the resulting CO2 gas
will bubble and fizz.

Inquire and Investigate: Acid Reactions


Question: Does an acid produce carbon dioxide gas when it reacts with a
carbonate?
Answer the question: I think that an acid _________________ produce
carbon dioxide gas when it reacts with a carbonate.
Form a hypothesis: An acid (does/does not) produce carbon dioxide gas
when it reacts with a carbonate.
Test the hypothesis:
Materials
• vinegar (acetic acid)
• eyedropper

• piece of chalk (calcium carbonate)


Procedure
R S
 queeze a few drops of vinegar onto the piece of chalk. Observe what
happens.
Observations: Bubbling and fizzing occurs where the vinegar touches the
chalk.
Conclusions: An acid produces carbon dioxide gas when it reacts with a
carbonate. The fizzing and bubbling you see is the formation of CO2 gas
when the acid (vinegar) and the carbonate (chalk) react. Sodium acetate and
water are also formed from the reaction.

10
When acids react with reactive metals, they produce hydrogen
gas (H2). The reaction corrodes, or eats away, the metal. Acids in water
that runs through metal pipes, for example, can corrode the pipes. This is
why acids are considered corrosive.

Acids react with bases to form a salt and water. This process is called
neutralization because the remaining saltwater solution is neutral
(neither an acid nor a base). Acids and bases neutralize each other because
the H+ ions from the acid combine with the OH- ions from the base to
form H+OH- molecules, also known as H2O, or water. An example of this
is the reaction between hydrochloric acid and the base sodium hydroxide.
The result of the reaction is sodium chloride (table salt) and water. The
reaction is written like this: HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H2O.

Salt
Hydrochloric Sodium Water
Acid Hydroxide

11
Common Acids
Chemical Strong or
Acid Name Facts
Formula Weak?
•  reaks down food in the
b
hydrochloric acid
stomach
(also known as HCl strong
• used to clean metal and brick
muriatic acid)
surfaces

sulfuric acid H2SO4 strong • found in car batteries

• found in salad dressings and


acetic acid
HC2H3O2 weak other foods
(vinegar)
• used for household cleaning

•  rovides the sharp taste in


p
pop and wine
carbonic acid H2CO3 weak
• eats away at limestone,
forming caves

• found in citrus fruits


• used to give foods and sodas
a sour taste
citric acid H3C6H5O7 weak
• used in soaps and detergents
to help them foam up in hard
water

• found in fruits and vegetables


ascorbic acid • is very important to good
H2C6H6O6 weak
(vitamin C) health; plays a role in many
bodily functions

acetylsalicylic •  sed to reduce pain and


u
HC9H7O4 weak
acid (aspirin) swelling
•  sed to make fertilizers,
u
nitric acid HNO3 strong
explosives, and nylon

• found in foods, particularly


vegetables, fruits, nuts, and
grains
folic acid C19H19N7O6 weak • helps prevent brain and spinal
defects in growing babies
• helps maintain good health in
men and women

12
A base is a compound that releases hydroxide ions (OH-)
or accepts free hydrogen ions (H+) in solution. Bases
are proton acceptors.

A Base by Another Name


Alkali is another name for a base.

Properties of Bases
Bases also have chemical properties that define them.
Bases taste bitter. Try tasting baking soda or baking
powder and you’ll get
the picture. Cough
syrups also contain
bases, which is why
they need lots of
flavoring to taste good.
Like acids, many bases
should never be tasted.
If you drank ammonia
or the lye used to
make drain cleaners,
the bitter taste would
be the least of your
problems!

13
Bases feel slippery or “soapy” to the touch. Detergents and soaps are
bases, which is why they have that slippery feel. Bases dissolve grease and
oil on your skin and react with other ingredients to clean your hands and
your laundry.
Bases turn red litmus paper blue. Red litmus paper has already been
exposed to an acid. When it comes in contact with a base, the paper turns
blue again.

Remembering the “Basics”


Having trouble remembering which color an acid or a base turns
litmus paper? Just remember that b stands for base and blue. A base
turns litmus paper blue.

Bases share their last two properties with acids. A base can conduct
electricity in solution just like an acid can. And, of course, if an acid reacts
with a base to form a salt and water, then it can also be said that a base
reacts with an acid to form a salt and water.

14
Common Bases
Chemical Strong or
Base Name Facts
Formula Weak?

•  sed to make baked


u
goods rise
• found in toothpastes
sodium bicarbonate to help remove stains
NaHCO3 weak
(baking soda) from teeth
• absorbs odors
• main ingredient in
some antacids

•  ain ingredient in
m
magnesium hydroxide
Mg(OH)2 weak milk of magnesia, an
antacid and laxative

• found in powerful
drain cleaners
sodium hydroxide
NaOH strong • an ingredient in soaps
(lye)
and detergents
• used to make paper

• found in mortar
and plaster used for
construction
calcium hydroxide
Ca(OH)2 • used to neutralize
and calcium oxide strong
CaO acidic soil
(lime)
• used in water and
sewage treatment to
reduce acidity

•  sed as a household
u
ammonia NH4 weak
cleaner

15
U nderstanding acids and bases did not happen
overnight. It took hundreds of years for scientists to
piece together what is now known about these substances.

Tracing the Path of Science


Robert Boyle, an English chemist in the 1600s, was the first
person to classify substances as either acids or alkalis (bases).
He listed their opposite chemical properties and noticed their
ability to counteract each other.
But it wasn’t until the late 1800s that Svante Arrhenius, a
Swedish scientist, proposed a reason why acids and bases
had such opposite characteristics. Arrhenius hypothesized that
acids dissolve in water and release hydrogen ions. He also
defined a base as a substance that dissolves in water and
releases hydroxide ions. Unfortunately, this didn’t work in every
case since not every base releases hydroxide ions and not all
reactions of acids and bases involve water.
In 1923, Danish scientist Johannes Bronsted and
Englishman Thomas Lowry made some insightful changes to
Arrhenius’s proposals. The Bronsted-Lowry idea expanded
the definition of bases to include any substance that accepts
hydrogen ions. In other words, bases are proton acceptors and
acids are proton donors.
Later in 1923, Gilbert Lewis, an American chemist, created
a more general definition in which an acid is any compound
that can accept a pair of electrons, while a base is any
compound that can donate a pair of electrons.

16
Even after acids and bases were classified, it was often difficult to
determine if a substance was an acid or a base. Many of the properties
of acids and bases are hard to detect just by looking at or touching a
material. So how do you tell if something is an acid or a base—or neither?
You use an indicator. Indicators are materials that change color to show
whether a compound is an acid, a base, or a neutral substance.
Litmus paper is a common indicator. Blue litmus paper turns red
when dipped in acids. Red litmus paper turns blue when exposed to a
base.
Bromothymol blue is a liquid indicator that changes from blue in
bases to yellow in acids. To see bromothymol blue in action, put some
water in a clear glass or test tube. Ask an adult to add some bromothymol
blue. Gently blow through a straw into the solution. What happens? The
color of the water will change to yellow. Why? The carbon dioxide in your
breath reacts with the water to form carbonic acid. The bromothymol
detects the acid and turns yellow.

17
Phenolphthalein (fee
nuhl THAY leen) is another
indicator. This liquid is
colorless in acids but turns
bright pink when mixed with a
base. When placed in a neutral
solution, phenolphthalein
changes to a very faint pink
color.
You can make your own
indicators using materials from
a grocery store or garden.
Many plants and flowers have
pigments in them that act
as indicators. These natural
chemicals will change color
when combined with an acid
or base. Red (or purple)
cabbage is one example. The cabbage juice mixed with water turns red
to purple with acids, yellowish green with bases, and bluish purple with
neutral materials.

18
W hy is it that some acids and bases are strong enough
to corrode metal while others are weak enough to
consume in foods and medicines? The answer lies in the
strength of the acid or base.
Some acids and bases release or accept ions freely.
Others don’t separate as easily. More of their molecules
stay together, even in solution.
In strong acids, most or all of the hydrogen ions break
free and “float” around in the solution. The more free
hydrogen ions, the stronger the acid. In a weak acid, only a
small portion of the molecules form ions when in solution.
Strong bases take up almost all of the hydrogen ions
in a solution or have molecules that let go of hydroxide
ions easily. A weak base accepts only a small portion of
hydrogen ions or splits up only some of its molecules into
ions.

H+ H+ H+
H+
H+
H+ H+
H+ H+
H+
H+
H+ H+

Strong acid Weak acid


19
pH
The measure of the strength of an acid or base is called pH.
Substances with low pH are acids. Substances with high pH are bases.

Scientist of Significance
Soren Sorensen was a Danish biochemist who developed the idea of pH.
Sorensen was a chemistry student and later a professor at the University of
Copenhagen. In 1901, he became the head of the Chemical Department at
Carlsberg Laboratory. The laboratory specialized in researching the chemistry
of the human body.
While at Carlsberg, Sorensen performed numerous studies on how acids
and bases affected the body. His work led him to suggest that the concentration
of hydrogen ions found in a substance should be measured in a standard
way. He established the pH scale in 1909, and it was used immediately at the
laboratory. Gradually the scale was accepted by other chemists. By the 1930s,
the use of Sorensen’s pH scale was worldwide.

The pH scale is a range of pH values from 0 to 14. All compounds fall


somewhere on the scale.
Neutral substances are a 7 on the pH scale. The farther a pH number
is from neutral (7), the stronger the acid or base is. Numbers below 7 on
the pH scale are acids. A 6 is a weak acid, while a 0 is an extremely strong
acid. Numbers above 7 on the scale are bases. An 8 is a weak base, while a
14 is a very strong one.
Each number on the pH scale is actually 10 times stronger or weaker
than the number next to it. For example, when comparing two acids
whose pH levels are 2 and 4, those acids are two spots away from each
other on the scale. The acid with the pH of 2 is therefore 102 times (or
100 times) stronger than the acid with the pH of 4. So lemon juice is
100 times more acidic than a can of soda.

20
The pH Scale
pH Example

0 strong hydrochloric (stomach) acid

1 sulfuric (battery) acid

2 lemon juice

Acid 3 vinegar

4 soda

5 rainwater

6 weak milk

Neutral 7 pure (distilled) water

8 weak egg whites

9 baking soda

10 antacids

Base 11 ammonia

12 calcium hydroxide (lime)

13
sodium hydroxide (lye)
14 strong

Lemon juice Vinegar


21
Technology Link
There are several tools used to measure the pH of substances. The simplest
is pH paper. This is a special paper that changes color depending on the
concentration of an acid or base. While pH paper gives a general idea of how
strong an acid or base is, it does not provide an exact pH measurement.
The first electronic devices used to determine exact pH levels were invented
in the 1920s. These machines
became known as pH meters. A
pH meter has a glass bulb on one
end and an electrical wire on the
other. When the bulb is dipped
into a solution, the meter can sense
differences in the electrical charges
inside and outside the probe. This
determines the concentration of
hydrogen ions in the solution.
Today, pH pens make measuring
pH even more convenient. These
“pens” are small, compact meters
that resemble digital thermometers.
They are lightweight and easy to
carry.

22
A cids and bases are at work in the ground, in the air,
and in water. They perform important jobs in your
body. Many of the foods and other products you rely on
every day wouldn’t exist without acids and bases.

With Water
Water is constantly interacting with acids and bases.
When carbon dioxide reacts with water in the air, it forms
carbonic acid. This makes rainwater a weak acid. Normal
rainwater has a pH level of about 5.5. The acid in rain eats
away at rocks containing lime. Statues and buildings above
ground are gradually worn down. When rainwater trickles
underground, it carves through limestone, creating caves.

23
When rain becomes too acidic, it’s called acid rain. Acid rain has a pH
below 4.5. Human activities, such as power production, manufacturing,
and driving, increase air pollution. Sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen
oxide (NO) are common pollutants. When these chemicals react with
water in the atmosphere, they create sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and nitric
acid (HNO3). These strong acids can kill plants, fish, and other living
things in lakes and ponds. They can also speed up the erosion of statues
and buildings made of rock such as limestone and marble.
When normal
rainwater or acid
rain is absorbed
into the soil, it
makes the soil
more acidic. Too
much acidity is
bad for plant
growth. Farmers
or gardeners with
too much acid in
their soil can add
lime (a base) to
help return it to
healthy pH levels.

Fish tanks and swimming


pools also have pH issues.
Fish need a pH level of 5.5
to 8.4 to be healthy. Test
kits can help fish owners
determine the pH of their
tanks. If the water is too
acidic or basic, then acids or
bases can be added to the
water to adjust the pH level.

24
If you spend a lot of
your summer swimming in
the city pool, you might be
concerned with the water’s
pH. The water in a pool
should have a pH of 7.2 to
7.6. This level doesn’t cause
skin irritation, prevents
corrosion or scaling of
the pool, and kills harmful
organisms at a safe rate.
A base such as sodium
carbonate or an acid such as
muriatic acid can raise or lower the pH of pool water.

In the Body
Several acids play important roles in your body. Every cell in your
body contains deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). This is the genetic material
that controls all of the chemical reactions in your body. Amino acids are
the building blocks of proteins. Each of the million different proteins
in your body has a job such as growing new cells or building muscles.
Ascorbic acid helps keep your bones, skin, and teeth healthy.

DNA simulation

25
Your digestive system makes use of both acids and bases. The
hydrochloric acid in your stomach helps break down the food you eat
into simpler products that your body can use. As the food moves into the
intestines, the pH level rises to slightly basic levels. This allows “good”
bacteria to process and absorb nutrients from the food.
Too much of some acids can cause problems in the body. When lactic
acid builds up in muscles, it can cause aching and cramping. Oxygen
changes the lactic acid to other materials that don’t harm the muscle. This
is why sometimes you need to stop and take deep breaths when you’re
running.
Excess acid in
body organs can have
serious consequences.
When a body has
too much acid, it
tries to get rid of it.
This takes important
minerals away from
their “regular” jobs
such as preventing
illnesses or digesting
food efficiently. One
easy thing you can
do to prevent acid
overload in your body
is to eat more “basic”
foods, such as the
majority of fruits and
vegetables.

pH-Balanced Blood
Healthy blood in the human body has a pH of 7.4.

26
In Foods
Acids and bases are found in many foods you enjoy. Citric acid is just
one of many acids found in a variety of fresh and processed food. Lemons,
limes, and other “sour” fruits are great
sources of citric acid. Cheeses, jams,
desserts, and other sharp or
fruity-flavored foods also
contain citric acid. Juices and
sodas get their tart taste from
this acid as well.
Bases are essential for baking.
A reaction between baking soda or baking
powder and other ingredients in cakes, cookies, or breads
produces carbon dioxide gas. This gas makes the product rise and causes
it to be light and airy. Baking soda is usually used when there is already
an acidic ingredient in the recipe (fruit juice, vinegar, buttermilk, sour
cream) to counteract the bitter flavor of the base. Baking powder is just
baking soda
with an acidic
compound
(such as cream
of tartar) and
cornstarch
already mixed in.
The added acid
helps neutralize
the base. The
cornstarch
keeps the
mixture smooth
and prevents
clumping.

27
In Products
Acids and bases are found in many useful products.
Acids are found in fertilizers, plastics, petroleum
products, and batteries. Bases are found in fertilizers,
construction materials, paper, and soaps. Both
acids and bases are found in a variety of cleaning
products.
Acids and bases can make you feel better.
Acetylsalicylic acid is better known as aspirin. Cough
syrups often contain bases. Antacids such as Tums,
Rolaids, Milk of Magnesia, and Pepto-Bismol are
bases that counteract excess stomach
acid.

pH-Balanced Products
Many products you use on your skin and hair may keep you
clean and make you smell good, but excessive hygiene is not as
healthy as you might think. Oils and other chemicals on your skin
normally protect it from infection. Soaps and shampoos contain a
base called lye. Bases dissolve oils and greases on the skin, which
is why they clean well. However, they also remove the good oils
that your skin needs. Dry skin can itch or hurt. It can also crack and
increase the risk of germs entering the body.
To solve this problem, many shampoos and soaps are “pH
balanced.” This means that they have added chemicals to bring their
pH level closer to skin’s natural pH of 5.

_________________
Acids and bases are at work all around (and inside) you. If you
continued your acid and base tour around your school or community,
you’d be amazed at all the places you’d find these important substances.
You really do depend on them every day!

28
http://www.chem4kids.com/files/react_acidbase.html
Chem4Kids introduces you to acids and bases.

http://www.chemtutor.com/acid.htm
This online tutoring site gives you the basics on acids and bases.

http://www.visionlearning.com/library/module_viewer.php?mid=58
Get a clearer vision of acids and bases with this information.

http://www.miamisci.org/ph/
Explore the “pH Factor” with the facts, charts, and activities at this hands-
on site.

http://www.ec.gc.ca/acidrain/kids.html
Find out more about pH and acid rain with these questions and answers,
graphics, and experiments.
_________________

Acids and Bases by J. M. Patten. A book about acids and bases, what they
do, and how they are useful in everyday life. Rourke Book Company,
Inc., 1995. ISBN 1-5591-6128-0. [RL 5 IL 2–6] (0216706 HB)

•RL = Reading Level


•IL = Interest Level
Perfection Learning’s catalog numbers are included for your ordering convenience.
HB indicates hardback.

29
acid (AS id) substance that releases hydrogen ions (see
separate entry for ion)

base (bays) substance that accepts hydrogen ions or releases


hydroxide ions (see separate entry for ion)

compound (KAHM pownd) substance made up of more than


one type of element or atom

corrosive (kuh ROH siv) able to wear away something by


chemical action

indicator (IN duh kay ter) substance that changes color to


indicate whether a substance is an acid, a base, or neither

ion (EYE on) atom that is positively or negatively charged


because it has lost or gained electrons

molecule (MAHL uh kyoul) one or more atoms held


together by chemical forces

neutral (NOO truhl) neither an acid nor a base

neutralization (noo truh luh ZAY shuhn) reaction between


an acid and a base that results in a salt and water (see separate
entry for salt)

pH (pee aych) measure of the strength of an acid or base

30
pigment (PIG ment) natural substance in a plant or animal that
gives it its color

reactive (ree AK tiv) referring to elements that react quickly


and easily with other elements

salt (sawlt) compound formed as a result of the reaction between


an acid and a base (see separate entry for compound)

scaling (SKAY ling) coming off in pieces or flakes (scales)

solution (suh LOO shuhn) mixture in which one or more


substances are dissolved evenly in another substance

31
acid and base indicators, 17–18 Lewis, Gilbert, 16
acids Lowry, Thomas, 16
definition, 9, 16 neutralization, 11, 14
examples, 4, 5, 6, 12, pH, 19–22, 24–25, 28
23–24, 25, 26, 27, 28 pH indicators, 22
properties, 9–11 pH scale, 20, 21–22
Arrhenius, Svante, 16 Sorensen, Soren, 20
bases
definition, 13, 16
examples, 4, 5, 6, 15, 26,
27, 28
properties, 13–14
Boyle, Robert, 16
Bronsted, Johannes, 16
ions, 7–8

pH meter

32
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