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# STQP2033/34 Kaedah Berangka

## STQP2033/34: Kaedah Berangka/Numerical Methods

TUTORIAL 2
Semester 1, 2010-11

## 1. Given the system of equations

0.77 x1 + x2 = 14.25
1.2 x1 + 1.7 x2 = 20
(a) Solve graphically and check your results by substituting them back into
the equations.
(b) On the basis of the graphical solution, what do you expect regarding the
condition of the system?
(c) Compute the determinant.
(d) Solve by the elimination of unknowns.

## 2. For the set of equations

2 x2 + 5 x3 = 1
2 x1 + x2 + x3 = 1
3 x1 + x2 = 2
(a) Compute the determinant.
(b) Use Cramer’s rule to solve for the x’s.
(c) Substitute your results back into the original equation to check your
results.

## 3. Given the equations

10 x1 + 2 x2 − x3 = 27
−3 x1 − 6 x2 + 2 x3 = −61.5
x1 + x2 + 5 x3 = −21.5

## 4. Use Gauss elimination to solve:

4 x1 + x2 − x3 = −2
5 x1 + x2 + 2 x3 = 4
6 x1 + x2 + x3 = 6
Employ partial pivoting in your computation.

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## 5. Given the equations

2 x1 − 6 x2 − x3 = −38
−3 x1 − x2 + 7 x3 = −34
−8 x1 + x2 − 2 x3 = −20
Solve by Gauss elimination with partial pivoting. Show all steps of the
computation.

## 6. Given the system of equations

−3 x2 + 7 x3 = 2
x1 + 2 x2 − x3 = 3
5 x1 − 2 x2 = 2
(a) Compute the determinant.
(b) Use Cramer’s rule to solve for the x’s.
(c) Use Gauss elimination with partial pivoting to solve for the x’s.

## 7. (a) Solve the following system of equations by LU decomposition without

pivoting
x1 + 7 x2 − 4 x3 = −51
4 x1 − 4 x2 + 9 x3 = 62
12 x1 − x2 + 3 x3 = 8
(b) Determine the matrix inverse. Check your results by verifying that
[ A][ A]−1 = [ I ].
(Note: For finding inverse using LU decomposition, you can refer to Chapra
and Canale (2010) page 283 to 285).

## 8. Solve the following system of equations using LU decomposition with partial

pivoting:
2 x1 − 6 x2 − x3 = −38
−3 x1 − x2 + 7 x3 = −34
−8 x1 + x2 − 2 x3 = −20

## 9. Determine the LU decomposition without pivoting by hand for the following

matrix.
8 2 1
3 7 2  .

 2 3 9 
Employ the result to compute the determinant. (Hint: Use the determinant’s
properties).

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## 10. Use the following LU decomposition

 1  3 −2 1 
   
[ A] = [ L][U ] =  0.6667 1   7.3333 −4.6667 
 −0.3333 −0.3636 1   3.6364 
to
(a) compute the determinant,
(b) solve [ A]{x} = {b} with {b}T = [−10 44 − 26].

11. Solve the following tridiagonal systems with the Thomas algorithm.

 0.8 −0.4   x1   41 
   
(a) −0.4 0.8 −0.4   x2  =  25 

 
 −0.4 0.8   x3  105

##  2.01475 −0.020875  T1   4.175 

 −0.020875 2.01475 −0.020875  T   0 
   2  
(b)  =  
 −0.020875 2.01475 −0.020875 T3   0 
  T4  2.0875
 −0.020875 2.01475 

12. Use the Gauss-Seidel method to solve the tridiagonal system from Problem 12 (a),
where ε s = 5% . Use overrelaxation with λ = 1.2.

## 13. Use the Gauss-seidel method

a. without relaxation,
b. with relaxation, λ = 0.95
to solve the following system to a tolerance of ε s = 5%. If necessary, rearrange
the equations to achieve convergence.

−3 x1 + x2 + 12 x3 = 50
6 x1 − x2 − x3 = 3
6 x1 + 9 x2 + x3 = 40

## 14. Use the Gauss-Seidel method

a. without relaxation,
b. with relaxation, λ = 1.2
to solve the following system to a tolerance of ε s = 5%. If necessary, rearrange
the equations to achieve convergence.
2 x1 − 6 x2 − x3 = −38
−3 x1 − x2 + 7 x3 = −34
−8 x1 + x2 − 2 x3 = −20

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## 15. The following system of equations is designed to determine concentrations (the

c’s in g/m3) in a series of coupled reactors as a function of the amount of mass
input to each reactor (the right-hand sides in g/day),
15c1 − 3c2 − c3 = 3300
−3c1 + 18c2 − 6c3 = 1200
−4c1 − c2 + 12c3 = 2400
a. Determine the matrix inverse.
b. Use the inverse to determine the solution.
c. Determine how much the rate of mass input to reactor 3 must be increased
to induce a 10 gm/m3 rise in the concentration of reactor 1.
d. How much will the concentration in reactor 3 be reduced if the rate of
mass input to reactors 1 and 2 is reduced by 700 and 350 g/day,
respectively?
e. Solve this problem with the Gauss-seidel method to ε s = 5%.
f. Repeat (e) using Jacobi iteration.

Solutions to be submitted:

## Group 1 to 4 : Questions 6, 7, 8, 11 (a) and 13.

Group 5 to 8 : Questions 5, 7, 9, 11 (b) and 14.

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