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Persons and Family Relations

PERSONS AND FAMILY RELATIONS SYLLABUS


INTRODUCTION TO THE CIVIL CODE

Article 2. Effect and application of laws. (Art. 15 and 17) (1-18 CC)
Tanada vs. Tuvera, 146 SCRA 446
Roy v. CA G.R. No. 80718, January 29, 1988
Meaning of “Unless it is otherwise provided”
Fortune Motors Phils. Inc. v. Metropolitan Bank and Trust Company

Article 4. Prospective Application of Laws


Exceptions:
1. PHILIPPINE NATIONAL BANK v. TEJANO G.R. No. 173615 (October 16, 2009)
2. People v. Valdez 347 SCRA 594 (2000)
3. Systems Factors Cor. V. NLRC, 346 SCRA 149 (2000)
4. Ercectors Inc. v. NLRC 256 SCRA 629 (1996)
5. Bona v. Briones, 38 Phil 276
Article 5. Mandatory and Prohibitory Laws
Exceptions

Article 6. Waiver of Rights


F.F. Cruz & Co. Inc. v. HR Construction Corp. G.R. No. 187521, March 14, 2012
Guy v. CA 502 SCRA 151 (2006)

Article 7. Repeal of laws


CIR v. Primetown Property Group Inc. 531 SCRA 436 (2007)
Conflict between General and Special Laws
Laguna Lake Development Authority v. CA 251 SCRA 42 (1995)

Article 8. Judicial Decisions


Miranda v. Imperial (77 Phil 1066)

Article 9, 10, 11, 12


People v. Amigo (252 SCRA 43)
Mendiola v. CA (258 SCRA 492)
In re: Authority to Continue Use of Firm Name, 92 SCRA 12

Article 13
CIR v. Aichi Forging Company of Asia, Inc. 632 SCRA 422 (2010)
CO v. New Prosperity Plastic Products, 727 SCRA 503 (2014)

Article 14 General Applicability of Penal Laws


Exceptions: Schneckenburger v. Moran 63 Phil 249

Article 15 Nationality Principle


Lavadia v. Heirs of Juan Luces Luna 730 SCRA 376 (2014)
Van Dorn v. Romilo Jr. 139 SCRA 139 (1985
Vda de Catalan v. Catalan-Lee, 665 SCRA 487 (2012)
BAyot vs. CA ( 570 SCRA 472) 2008

B. Human Relations. (Art. 19, 20, 21 and 26)


Case: Albenson Enterprise vs. CA, 217 SCRA 16

II. PERSONS
A. Civil Personality
i. Civil Personality

1. General Provisions (Art. 37, CC)


a. Juridical capacity
b. Capacity to act
bi. Restrictions on capacity to act (Art. 38)
bii. Circumstances modifying capacity to act (Art. 39)
Cases: Standard Oil Co. vs. Arenas, 19 Phil. 363
Mercado vs. Espiritu, 37 Phil. 215
Bambalan vs. Maramba, 51 Phil. 417
Braganza vs. Villa Abrille, 105 Phil. 456

2. Natural Persons
a. Commencement of civil personality (Art. 40, CC)
b. Extinguishment of civil personality (Art. 42, CC)
c. Survivorship (Art.43, CC)
Case: Geluz vs. CA, 2 SCRA 8

3. Juridical Persons
a. Enumeration (Art. 44, CC)
b. Governing laws (Art. 45, 47, CC)
c. Rights and obligations (Art. 46, CC)
ii. Citizenship and Domicile
Case: Romualdez-Marcos v. COMELEC, 248 SCRA 300

III. THE CONSTITUTION AND THE REGULATION OF FAMILY RELATIONS

A. The Family (Art. 15, 1987 Constitution)


B. Policy of protection and government support to family. (Art. 2 Sec. 12, 1987 Constitution)
C. Equal Protection. (Art. 2, Sec. 14: Article 2, Section 1, 1987 Constitution)

IV. MARRIAGE
A. Definition and Nature of Marriage (Art. 1, Family Code)
Breach of Promise to Marry (Arts. 19-21. 2176, CC)
Cases: Wassmer vs. Velez, 12 SCRA 648
Tanjanco vs. CA, 18 SCRA 994
De Jesus vs. Syquia, 58 Phil 866
Gashem Shookat Baksh vs. CA, 219 SCRA 115
Constantino vs. Mendez, 209 SCRA 18
In Re Santiago, 70 Phil 66
Selanova vs. Mendoza, 64 SCRA 69
B. Requisites of Marriage.
a. Essential (Art. 2)
i. Legal capacity: male and female
1. Persons who may contract marriage (Art. 5, 21)
2. Impediments to contracting marriage (Art. 37, 38)

ii. Consent freely given


Case: People vs. Santiago, 61 Phil. 68

b. Formal (Art. 3)
i. Authority of solemnizing officer (Art. 7, 10, 31, 32, 35 (2)
Case: Navarro vs. Domagtoy, 129 SCRA 259
ii. License
1. General rule: required
a. Issuance (Art. 9, 24)
b. Marriages between Filipino citizens abroad (Art. 10)
c. Contents of application (Art.11)
d. Documents required for issuance (Art.12)
e. Additional requirement if party previously married (Art. 13)
f. Parental consent (Art. 14, 16)
g. Parental advice (Art. 15, 16)
h. Publication (Art. 17)
i. In case of alleged impediment (Art. 18)
j. Fees (Art.19)
k. Validity (Art.20)
l. Certificate of capacity (Art. 21)
Case: People vs. Janssen, 54 Phil 176

2. Marriages exempt from license requirement


a. In articulo mortis (Art. 27, 29, 30, 31, 32)
b. Remote locations (Art.28, 29, 30)
c. Among ethnic groups (Art.33)
d. Cohabitation for 5 years (Art.34)
Case: Cosca vs. Palaypayon, 237 SCRA
Manzano vs. Sanchez, AM no. MTJ00-1329, March 8, 2001

iii. Ceremony
1.Form (Art.6)
Note: Marriage certificate (Art. 22, 23)
2. Venue (Art. 8)
Cases: Martinez v. Tan, 12 Phil 731
Madrilejo v. De Leon, 55 Phil 1
Balogbog v. CA, 259 SCRA 269

C. Effect of non-compliance with requisites. (Art. 4, Family Code)


a. Absence of an essential requisite: void
b. Absence of a formal requisite: void
Exception: good faith (Art. 35.2)
c. Defect in an essential requisite: voidable (Art.45)
d. Irregularity in a formal requisite:
Liablibility of person responsible for irregularity (Sec. 38, Act No. 3613)

D. Presumption of Marriage. (Art. 220, CC; Sec. 3 (aa), Rule 131, ROC)
Cases: Trinidad vs. CA, 289 SCRA 188
Vda. De Jacob v. CA, 312 SCRA 772*

E. Marriage solemnized outside the Philippines. (Art. 26)


a. General rule: lex loci celebrationis
b. Exceptions: Minority, bigamy/polygamy, mistake of identity, psychological incapacity,
incest, public policy, same sex

F. Divorce of a Filipino by an alien spouse. (Art. 26)


Case: Tenchavez vs. Escano, 15 SCRA 25
Pilapil vs. Ibay-Somera 174 SCRA 653 (1989)
Llorente vs. CA G.R. 124371, 23 November 2000

V. VOID AND VOIDABLE MARRIAGES

A. Void marriages
a. Grounds
i. Minority (Art.35.1)
ii. No authority of solemnizing officer (Art.35.2)
Exception: good faith of one party
iii. No license (Art. 35.3)
Exception: marriages exempt from license requirement (Art. 27-34)
Cases: Republic vs. CA, 236 SCRA 257 Ninal Bayadog, supra
iv. Bigamous/polygamous (Art.35.4)
Exception: absence of prior spouse (Art.41)
Case: Republic vs. CA, supra
v. Mistake of identity (Art. 35.5)
vi. Non-compliance with recording requirements ( Art. 35.6, 40,52, 53)
vii. Psychological incapacity (Art.36)
Cases: Republic vs. Nolasca, 220 SCRA 20
Republic vs.Matias-Dagdag, G.R. No. 109975
Republic, Santos vs. Bedia-Santos, 240 SCRA 20
Chi-Ming Tsoi vs. CA, 266 SCRA 324
Marcos vs. Marcos, G.R. No. 136490
Antonio vs. Reyes, G.R. No. 155880
Perez-Ferraris vs. Ferraris, G.R. No. 162368
Bier vs. Bier, G.R. No. 173294
Te vs. Te, G.R. No. 161793
viii. Incest (Art. 37)
ix. Public policy (Art. 38)
x. Catch-all: absence of any essential or formal requisite (Art.4)

b. Prescriptive period of action/defense for declaration of absolute nullity (Art. 39 as


amended by E.O 227 and by RA 8533)

c. Judicial declaration of nullity (Art. 40)


Cases: Domingo vs. CA 226 SCRA 572
Wiegel vs. Sempio-Diy 143 SCRA 499
Valdes vs. RTC, 260 SCRA 221
Nicdao Carino vs. Yee Carino, G.R. No. 132529
Mercado vs. Mercado, G.R. No. 137110

d. Bigamous marriage when prior spouse has been absent (Art.41)


i. General rule on bigamous marriages (Art. 35.4)
ii. Waiting period
iii. Waiting period under extraordinary circumstances (Art. 391, CC)
iv. Declaration of presumptive death
v. Reappearance of prior spouse (Art. 42)
vi. Effect of termination of subsequent marriage (Art. 43)
vii. Effect if both spouses of subsequent marriage in bad faith (Art.44)
Case: Nicdao Carino vs. Yee Carino, supra
Mercado vs. Mercado, supra

B. Voidable marriages

a. Grounds
i. No parental consent where required (Art. 45.1)
ii. Unsound mind (Art.45.2)
ii. Fraud (Art.45.3)
iv. Force, intimidation, undue influence (Art. 45.4)
v. Impotence (Art. 45.5)
Cases: Jimenez vs. Canizares
Menciano vs. San Jose
vi. Serious incurable sexually transmissible disease (Art.45.6)
vii. Catch-all: Defect in any essential requisite (Art.4)
Cases: Aquino vs. Delizo, 109 Phil 21
Anaya vs. Palaroan, 36 SCRA 97
Buccat vs. Mangonon de Buccat, 72 Phil 19
Ruiz vs. Atienza 40 O.G. 1903
Ocampo vs. Florenciano, supra
Contreras vs. Macaraig, 33 SCRA 222
Somosa-Ramos vs. Vamenta, 46 SCRA 11

b. Persons entitled to file action for annulment (Art. 47)


c. Prescriptive periods (Art. 47)
d. Ratification (Art. 45.1, 45.2, 45.3)

C. Common provisions: Effects


a. Safeguards against collusion (Art. 48)
b. Support and custody during pendency of action (Art.49)
c. Application of Arts. 43.2, 43.3, 43.4, 43.5 and Art. 44 to marriages declared void ab
initio or annulled by final judgment under Art. 40 and 45
d. Delivery of presumptive legitimes (Art. 51)
e. Recording requirement (Art. 52)
f. Effects on children (Art. 54)
g.Name and surname (Art.371)

VI. LEGAL SEPARATION

A. Grounds (Art. 55)


Cases: Gandionco vs. Penaranda, 155 SCRA 725
Dela Cruz vs. Dela Cruz, 22 SCRA 333
Partosa-Jo vs. CA, 216 SCRA 692
B. Defenses (Art. 56)
Cases: People vs. Sansano, 59 Phil. 73
Ocampo vs. Florenciano 107 Phil. 35
Brown vs. Yambao, 102 Phil. 168
Bugayong vs. Ginez 100 Phil. 620
Matubis vs. Parexedes, 109 Phil. 620

C. Prescriptive Period (Art. 57)

D. Other requirements
a. Steps towards reconciliation (Art. 58)
b. Safeguards against collusion (Art. 60)
Cases: Ocampo vs. Florenciano 107 Phil. 35
Somosa-Ramos vs. Vamenta, 46 SCRA 11
Contreras vs. Macaraeg, 33 SCRA 222

E. Consequence of filing of petitions for legal separation

a. Entitlement to live separately (Art. 61)


b. Administration of absolute community/conjugal partnership property (Art. 61)
c. Custody and support (Art. 62 and 49)
Cases: De la Vina vs. Villareal, 41 Phil 13
Reyes vs. Ines-Luciano, 88 SCRA 803
Lapuz-Sy vs Eufemio, 43 SCRA 177

F. Effects of decree

a. Separate bed and board (Art. 63.1)


b. Dissolution and liquidation of community property (Art. 63.2 and 43.2)
c. Custody (Arts. 63.3 and 213)
d. Effects on succession (Art. 63.4)
e. Revocation of donations/insurance benefit (Art.64)
1. Manner of revoking
2. Prescriptive period

f. Name and surname (Art. 372, CC)


Cases: Matute vs. Macadalo, 99 Phil 340
Laperal vs. Republic, 6 SCRA 357
Banez vs. Banez, 23 January 2003
Macadangdang vs. CA, 108 SCRA 314

G. Reconciliation

a. Joint manifestation (Art. 65)


b. Consequences (Art. 66)
c. Option to revive property regime (Art. 67)

VII. RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS BETWEEN HUSBAND AND WIFE

A. Personal obligation of spouses (Art. 68)

B. Fixing of family domicile. (Art. 69)

C. Joint responsibility of Support (Art. 70, compare with Art. 11 of CC; Art. 199-200)

D. Household management. (Art. 71, compare with Art. 115 of CC)

E. Exercise of Profession (Art. 73, compare with Art. 117, CC)


(See RA 7192, Women in Development & Nation-Building Act)

F. Use of Surname (Art. 370, 373, 377, 378, CC)


(see RA 9048- Change of Name)

G. Relief (Art. 72)


Cases: Gotia vs. Campos Rueda 35 Phil 252
Lacson vs. Jose Lacson 24 SCRA
Tenchavez vs. Escano 17 SCRA 674
Ty vs. CA, Nov. 27 2000
Lilius vs. Manila Road Co 59 Phil 758
Narag vs. Narag 291 SCRA 451
Dadivas vs. Villanueva 52 Phil 952
Atilano vs. Chua Ching Beng 103 Phil 255
Del Rosario vs. Del Rosario 46 OG 611
Silva vs. Peralta 110 Phil 57
Arroyo vs. Vasquez de Arroyo 42 Phil 54
Perez vs. Perez 109 Phil 657
(See also RA 9262, Anti-Violence against Women and Children Act)

VIII. PROPERTY RELATIONS

A. General Provisions, Marriage Settlements (Art. 74-81)

B. Donations Proper Nuptials (Art. 82-87)


(Compare with Ordinary Donations, Art. 752-782, Tittle 3, Book 3 of CC)

C. Absolute Community of Property

1. General provisions (Art. 88-90)


2. Community Property and Exclusions (Arts. 91-92)
3. Charges and obligations (Art. 94-95)
4. Administration and enjoyment (Art. 96)
5. Disposition and Waivers (Art. 89, 77, 97-98)
6. Liquidation (Art. 102-104)
Cases: Onas vs. Javillo 59 Phil 733
Vda. De Delizo vs. Delizo 69 SCRA 216

D. Conjugal Partnership of Gains

1. General provisions (105-108)


2. Exclusive property (109-115)
Cases: Rodriguez vs. De la Cruz 8 Phil 665
People’s Bank and Trust Co. vs. Register of Deeds, 60 Phil 167
Philippine Sugar Estates vs. Poizat 48 Phil 536
Castro vs. Miat, Feb. 11, 2003
3. Conjugal Partnership Property (Arts. 116-120)
Cases: Jocson vs. CA 170 SCRA 333
Francisco vs. CA 299 SCRA 188
Zulueta vs. Pan Am 49 SCRA 1
Mendoza vs. Reyes 124 SCRA 154

4. Charges and Obligations (art. 121-123)

Cases: Javier vs. Osmena 34 Phil 336


Perez vs. Lantin 23 SCRA 637
DBP vs. Adil 161 SCRA 307
Ayala Investment vs. Ching 286 SCRA 273 (1998)
Carlos vs. Abelardo April 9, 2002

5. Administration (Art. 124-125)

Cases: Felipe vs. Heirs of Maximo Aldon 120 SCRA 268


Tintigan vs. Tintigan 100 SCRA 619
Guiang vs. CA 291 SCRA 372
Relucio vs. Lopez 373 SCRA 578
Jader-Manalo vs. Camaisa 374 SCRA 498

6. Dissolution (Art. 126-128)

7. Liquidation (Art. 129-133)

Case: Santero vs. CFI of Cavite 153 SCRA 728

E. Separation of Property and Administration of Common Property by One Spouse

1. Judicial Separation (Art. 134-135)


Cases: Garcia vs. Manzano 103 Phil 798
Partosa-Jo vs. CA 216 SCRA 692
De la Cruz vs. De la Cruz 22 SCRA 333

2. Voluntary Separation (Art. 136)


Cases: Bernas 14 SCRA 327
Lacson vs. San Jose 24 SCRA 837

3. Liquidation and Dissolution of Property (Art. 137 142)

4. Sole Administration of other spouse’s property ( Art. 142)

F. Regime of Separate Property (Art. 143-146)


G. Property Regimes of Unions without Marriage (Art147-148)

Cases: Agapatay vs. Palang 276 SCRA 340


Yaptinchay vs. Torres 28 SCRA 489
Vda. De Conseguera vs. GSIS 27 SCRA 315
Valdes vs. RTC
Carino vs. Carino

IX. THE FAMILY

A. Members of a Family

1. Nature (Art. 149-151; Art. 2035 CC)


Cases: Mendoza vs. CA 19 SCRA 756
Mendoza vs. Bionson 80 SCRA 82
Guerrero vs. RTC 229 SCRA 274
Hontiveros vs. RTC 309 SCRA 340 (1999)

2. Support (Art. 195-208)

a. Support (Art. 194)


b. Persons obliged to give support (Art.195-196)
c. Order of liability (Art.199)
d. Properties liable for support (Art.197)
e. Support pendent lite (Art.198, 203)
f. Division and order in case of joint obligation (Art. 200)
g. Amount, demandability, manner of fulfillment, adjustments (Art. 201-204, 208)
h. Exemption from attachment, exception to the rules (Art. 205, 208)
i. Support by third persons (Art. 206-207)
Cases: De Asis vs. Ca, 303 SCRA 176
Lim vs. Lim G.R. No. 163209, October 30, 2009

3. Funerals (Art. 305-310, CC)

B. The Family Home

Cases: Siari Valley Estates vs. Lucasan 97 Phil 987


Modequillo vs. Breva 185 SCRA 766
Taneo vs. CA 304 SCRA 308

X. PATERNITY AND FILIATION

A. Kinds of filiations. (Art. 163)

Cases: Perido vs. Perido 63 SCRA 97


Liyao vs. Liyao March 7, 2002

B. Legitimate Children. (Art. 146)

1. Impugning legitimacy
Cases: Andal vs. Macaraig 89 Phil 165
Jao vs. CA 152 SCRA 359
Macadangdang vs. CA 100 SCRA 73
Chua Keng Giap vs. TAC 166 SCRA 451
Republic vs. Labrador 305 SCRA 438
People vs. Tumimpad 235 SCRA 483
Benitez-Badua vs. CA 299 SCRA 468
Lumain de Aparicho vs. Paraguay 150 SCRA 279
2. How to prove filiations’

Cases: Constantino vs. Mendez 209 SCRA 18


Mendoza vs. CA 201 SCRA 675
Heirs of R. Banas vs. Heirs of B. Banas 134 SCRA 260
Uyguanco vs. CA 178 SCRA 684
Mariategui vs. CA 205 SCRA 675
Acebedo vs. Arquero March 11, 2003

3. Action to claim legitimacy

4. Rights to legitimate children


Cases: Republic vs. CA 300 SCRA 1998
De Asis vs. CA 303 SCRA 176

C. Illegitimate Children.

1. Proof of filiations (Art. 175)


Cases: Leuterio vs. CA 197 SCRA 369
Uyguanco vs. CA
Aruego vs. Ca 254 SCRA 150
Jison vs. CA 286 SCRA 495
Alberto vs. CA 232 SCRA 745

2. Rights of illegitimate children

RA 9255, amending Art. 176


RA 8972, Solo Parents Welfare Act
Cases: David vs. CA 250 SCRA 82
People vs. Namaya 246 SCRA 646
Mossesgeld vs. CA 300 SCRA 464
Republic vs. Abadilla 302 SCRA 358
Republic vs. Vicencio 300 SCRA 138
Gan vs. Reyes May 28, 2002
Tonog vs. Ca Feb. 7, 2002

D. Legitimated Children. (Art. 177-182)


Cases: De los Santos vs. Luciano 60 Phil 328
Ramirez vs. Gmur 42 Phil 855

XI. ADOPTION

A. Domestic Adoption

(RA 8552 and its IRR, Procedural Rules on Adoption, AM No. 02-6-02-SC)

(RA 9523, An Act Requiring the Certification of the DSWD to Declare a Child Legally Available for
Adoption as a Pre-requisite for Adoption Proceedings)

1. Policies (Sec. 2)
Case: Republic vs. CA, Bobiles 205 SCRA 356

2. Definition of terms (Sec. 3)

3. Pre-adoption services (Sec. 4, 5, 6)

4. Eligibility
a. Who may adopt (Sec. 7)
b. Who may be adopted (Sec. 8)
c. Required consents (Sec. 9)
Cases: In re Adoption of Edwin Villa 21 SCRA 399
Republic vs. Toledano and Spouses Clave 233 SCRA 9
Republic vs. Miller 306 SCRA 183

5. Procedures (Sec. 10, 11, 12, 15)


Cases: Lazatin vs. Campos 92 SCAR 250
Santos vs. Aranzanso 16 SCRA 344
DSWD vs. Belen 275 SCRA 645

6. Decree of adoption (Sec. 13, 14)


a. Effect on parental authority (Sec. 16)
b. Legitimacy (Sec. 17)
c. Succession (Sec.18)
Cases: Tamargo vs. CA SCRA 518
Sayson vs. CA 205 SCRA 321
Republic vs. Wong 209 SCRA 189
Republic vs. Hernandez 253 SCRA 509

7. Rescission (Sec. 19, 20)

8. Violations and penalties (Sec. 21, 22)

9. Miscellaneous (Sec. 1, 23-28)

B. Inter-Country Adoption

RA 8043, Inter-Country Adoption Act of 1995 and its IRR

Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Cooperation in respect of Inter-Country


Adoption

XII. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF PARENTS

A. General Provisions (Art. 209-215)


(See RA 8972 (Solo Parents Welfare Act)

Cases: Dempsey vs. RTC 164 SCRA 384


Santos vs. CA 242 SCRA 407
Cang vs. CA 296 SCRA 128
David vs. CA 250 SCRA 82
Espiritu vs. CA 242 SCRA 362 (1995)
Perez vs. CA 255 SCRA 661 (1996)

B. Substitute and Special Parental Authority (Art. 216-219)

Cases: Palisoc vs. Brillantes 41 SCRA 548


Amadora vs. CA 160 SCRA 315
St. Mary;s Academy vs. Carpitanos Jan. 23, 2000
Vancil vs. Belmes 358 SCRA 707

C. Effects of Parental Authority (Art. 220-226)

Cases: Cabanas vs. Pilapil 58 SCRA 94


Libi vs. IAC 214 SCRA 816
Lindain vs. CA 212 SCRA 725
People vs. Silvano 309 SCRA 362

D. Suspension or Termination of Parental Authority (Art. 225-235)


(See Sec. 5-10, 27-28, 31-c, RA 7610 Anti-Child Abuse Act)
Case: Chua vs. Cabangbang 27 SCRA 791
Abiera vs. Orin 8 Phil 193
Cortes vs. Castillo 41 Phil 466

E. Summary Procedures (Art. 249-252)


(See RA 8369 Family Courts Act of 1997)

F. Rights of Parents
Cases: Silva vs. CA and Gonzales 275 SCRA 604
London vs. BCC October 10, 2002

XIII. RIGHTS AND DUTIES OF CHILDREN


Arts. 356-364, 375-376, CC
Art. 129(a), 211, par. 2, 213, 226, FC
Arts. 3 and 4, P.D. 603