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# Klein bottle

## In topology, a branch of mathematics, the Klein bottle /ˈklaɪn/ is an example of

a non-orientable surface; it is a two-dimensional manifold against which a
system for determining a normal vector cannot be consistently defined.
Informally, it is a one-sided surface which, if traveled upon, could be followed
back to the point of origin while flipping the traveler upside down. Other related
non-orientable objects include the Möbius strip and the real projective plane.
Whereas a Möbius strip is a surface with boundary, a Klein bottle has no
boundary (for comparison, asphere is an orientable surface with no boundary).

The Klein bottle was first described in 1882 by the German mathematician Felix
Klein. It may have been originally named theKleinsche Fläche ("Klein surface")
and then misinterpreted as Kleinsche Flasche ("Klein bottle"), which ultimately
[1]
may have led to the adoption of this term in the German language as well.

Contents
Construction
Properties
Dissection
Simple-closed curves
Parametrization
The figure 8 immersion
4-D non-intersecting A two-dimensional representation of the
3D pinched torus / 4D Möbius tube Klein bottle immersed in three-
Bottle shape dimensional space

Homotopy classes
Generalizations
Klein surface
Notes
References

Construction
The following square is a fundamental polygon of the Klein bottle. The idea is to 'glue' together
the corresponding coloured edges with the arrows matching, as in the diagrams below. Note that
this is an "abstract" gluing in the sense that trying to realize this in three dimensions results in a Structure of a three-
self-intersecting Klein bottle. dimensional Klein bottle
To construct the Klein bottle, glue the red arrows of the square together (left and right sides), resulting in a cylinder. To glue the ends
of the cylinder together so that the arrows on the circles match, you must pass one end through the side of the cylinder. This creates a
circle of self-intersection – this is animmersion of the Klein bottle in three dimensions.

This immersion is useful for visualizing many properties of the Klein bottle. For example, the Klein bottle has no boundary, where
the surface stops abruptly, and it is non-orientable, as reflected in the one-sidedness of the immersion.

The common physical model of a Klein bottle is a similar construction. The Science Museum in
London has on display a collection of hand-blown glass Klein bottles, exhibiting many variations
on this topological theme. The bottles date from 1995 and were made for the museum by Alan
Bennett.[2]

The Klein bottle, proper, does not self-intersect. Nonetheless, there is a way to visualize the Klein
bottle as being contained in four dimensions. By adding a fourth dimension to the three-
dimensional space, the self-intersection can be eliminated. Gently push a piece of the tube
containing the intersection along the fourth dimension, out of the original three-dimensional
space. A useful analogy is to consider a self-intersecting curve on the plane; self-intersections can
be eliminated by lifting one strand off the plane.
Immersed Klein bottles in
Suppose for clarification that we adopt time as that fourth dimension. Consider how the figure the Science Museum in
London
could be constructed inxyzt-space. The accompanying illustration ("Time evolution...") shows one
useful evolution of the figure. At t = 0 the wall sprouts from a bud somewhere near the
"intersection" point. After the figure has grown for a while, the earliest section of the wall begins to recede, disappearing like the
Cheshire Cat but leaving its ever-expanding smile behind. By the time the growth front gets to where the bud had been, there’s
nothing there to intersect and the growth completes without piercing existing structure. The 4-figure as defined cannot exist in 3-
space but is easily understood in 4-space.
More formally, the Klein bottle is the quotient space described as the square [0,1] × [0,1] with
sides identified by the relations(0, y) ~ (1, y) for 0 ≤ y ≤ 1 and (x, 0) ~ (1 − x, 1) for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1.

Properties
Like the Möbius strip, the Klein bottle is a two-dimensional manifold which is not orientable.
Unlike the Möbius strip, the Klein bottle is a closed manifold, meaning it is a compact manifold
without boundary. While the Möbius strip can be embedded in three-dimensional Euclidean space
R3, the Klein bottle cannot. It can be embedded inR4, however.

The Klein bottle can be seen as a fiber bundle over the circle S1, with fibre S1, as follows: one
takes the square (modulo the edge identifying equivalence relation) from above to be E, the total A hand-blown Klein
space, while the base space B is given by the unit interval in y, modulo 1~0. The projection Bottle
π:E→B is then given by π([x, y]) = [y].

The Klein bottle can be constructed (in a mathematical sense, because in reality it
cannot be done without allowing the surface to intersect itself) by joining the edges
of two Möbius strips together, as described in the following limerick by Leo
Moser:[3]

## A mathematician named Klein

Time evolution of a Klein figure in
Thought the Möbius band was divine. xyzt-space
Said he: "If you glue
The edges of two,
You'll get a weird bottle like mine."

The initial construction of the Klein bottle by identifying opposite edges of a square shows that the Klein bottle can be given a CW
complex structure with one 0-cellP, two 1-cells C1, C2 and one 2-cell D. Its Euler characteristic is therefore 1-2+1 = 0. The boundary
homomorphism is given by ∂D = 2C1 and ∂C1=∂C1=0, yielding the homology groups of the Klein bottle K to be H0(K,Z)=Z,
H1(K,Z)=Z×(Z/2Z) and Hn(K,Z) = 0 for n>1.

There is a 2-1 covering map from the torus to the Klein bottle, because two copies of the fundamental region of the Klein bottle, one
being placed next to the mirror image of the other, yield a fundamental region of the torus. The universal cover of both the torus and
the Klein bottle is the planeR2.

The fundamental group of the Klein bottle can be determined as the group of deck transformations of the universal cover and has the
presentation <a,b | ab = b−1a>.

Six colors suffice to color any map on the surface of a Klein bottle; this is the only exception to the Heawood conjecture, a
generalization of the four color theorem, which would require seven.

A Klein bottle is homeomorphic to the connected sum of two projective planes. It is also homeomorphic to a sphere plus two cross
caps.

When embedded in Euclidean space, the Klein bottle is one-sided. However, there are other topological 3-spaces, and in some of the
non-orientable examples a Klein bottle can be embedded such that it is two-sided, though due to the nature of the space it remains
non-orientable.[4]

Dissection
Dissecting a Klein bottle into halves along its plane of symmetry results in two mirror image
Möbius strips, i.e. one with a left-handed half-twist and the other with a right-handed half-twist
(one of these is pictured on the right). Remember that the intersection pictured is not really there.

Simple-closed curves
One description of the types of simple-closed curves that may appear on the surface of the Klein
bottle is given by the use of the first homology group of the Klein bottle calculated with integer
coefficients. This group is isomorphic to Z×Z2. Up to reversal of orientation, the only homology
classes which contain simple-closed curves are as follows: (0,0), (1,0), (1,1), (2,0), (0,1). Up to
reversal of the orientation of a simple closed curve, if it lies within one of the two crosscaps that
make up the Klein bottle, then it is in homology class (1,0) or (1,1); if it cuts the Klein bottle into
two Möbius strips, then it is in homology class (2,0); if it cuts the Klein bottle into an annulus,
then it is in homology class (0,1); and if bounds a disk, then it is in homology class (0,0).

Parametrization
Dissecting the Klein
bottle results in Möbius
strips.
The figure 8 immersion
To make the "figure 8" or "bagel" immersion of
the Klein bottle, you can start with a Möbius strip and curl it to bring the edge to the
midline; since there is only one edge, it will meet itself there, passing through the
midline. It has a particularly simple parametrization as a "figure-8" torus with a half-
twist:

bottle.

## In this immersion, the self-intersection circle (where sin(v) is zero) is a geometric

circle in the xy plane. The positive constant r is the radius of this circle. The
parameter θ gives the angle in thexy plane as well as the rotation of the figure 8, and
v specifies the position around the 8-shaped cross section. With the above
parametrization the cross section is a 2:1Lissajous curve.

## Klein bagel cross section employing 4-D non-intersecting

a figure eight curve (thelemniscate
of Gerono). A non-intersecting 4-D parametrization can be modeled after that of theflat torus:
where R and P are constants that determine aspect ratio, θ and v are similar to as defined above. v determines the position around the
figure-8 as well as the position in the x-y plane. θ determines the rotational angle of the figure-8 as well and the position around the
z-w plane. ε is any small constant and ε sinv is a small v depended bump in z-w space to avoid self intersection. The v bump causes
the self intersecting 2-D/planar figure-8 to spread out into a 3-D stylized "potato chip" or saddle shape in the x-y-w and x-y-z space
viewed edge on. When ε=0 the self intersection is a circle in the z-w plane <0, 0, cos
θ, sinθ>.

## 3D pinched torus / 4D Möbius tube

The pinched torus is perhaps the simplest parametrization of the klein bottle in both
three and four dimensions. It's a torus that, in three dimensions, flattens and passes
through itself on one side. Unfortunately, in three dimensions this parametrization
has two pinch points, which makes it undesirable for some applications. In four
dimensions the z amplitude rotates into the w amplitude and there are no self
intersections or pinch points.

## The pinched torus immersion of the

Klein bottle.
You can view this as a tube or cylinder that wraps around, as in a torus, but its
circular cross section flips over in four dimensions, presenting its "backside" as it
reconnects, just as a Möbius strip cross section rotates before it reconnects. The 3D orthogonal projection of this is the pinched torus
shown above. Just as a Möbius strip is a subset of a solid torus, the Möbius tube is a subset of a toroidally closed spherinder (solid
spheritorus).

Bottle shape
The parametrization of the 3-dimensional immersion of the bottle itself is much more complicated. Here is a version found by Robert
Israel:

## Klein Bottle with slight transparency

for 0 ≤ u < π and 0 ≤ v < 2π.

Homotopy classes
Regular 3D embeddings of the Klein bottle fall into three homotopy classes (four if you're allowed to paint them).[5] The three are
represented by

## 1. The "traditional" Klein bottle

2. Left handed figure-8 Klein bottle
3. Right handed figure-8 Klein bottle
The traditional Klein bottle embedding isachiral. The figure-8 embedding is chiral (the pinched torus embedding above is not regular
as it has pinch points so it's not relevant in this section). The three embeddings above cannot be smoothly transformed into each other
in three dimensions. If you cut the traditional Klein bottle lengthwise it deconstructs into two, oppositely chiral Möbius strips.

If you cut a left handed figure-8 Klein bottle it deconstructs into two left handed Möbius strips. And similarly for the right handed
figure-8 Klein bottle.

If the traditional Klein bottle is two color painted, this induces chirality on it, creating four homotopy classes.

Generalizations
The generalization of the Klein bottle to highergenus is given in the article on thefundamental polygon.

In another order of ideas, constructing 3-manifolds, it is known that a solid Klein bottle is topologically equivalent with the
Cartesian product: , the Möbius strip times an interval. The solid Klein bottle is the non-orientable version of the solid torus,
equivalent to .

Klein surface
A Klein surface is, as for Riemann surfaces, a surface with an atlas allowing the transition maps to be composed using complex
conjugation. One can obtain the so-calleddianalytic structure of the space.

Algebraic topology
Alice universe
Bavard's Klein bottle systolic inequality
Boy's surface

Notes
1. Bonahon, Francis (2009-08-05).Low-dimensional geometry: from Euclidean surfaces to hyperbolic knots
(https://boo
ks.google.com/books?id=YZ1L8S4osKsC). AMS Bookstore. p. 95.ISBN 978-0-8218-4816-6. Extract of page 95 (htt
2. "Strange Surfaces: New Ideas"(https://web.archive.org/web/20061128155852/http://www .sciencemuseum.org.uk/on
-line/surfaces/new.asp). Science Museum London. Archived fromthe original (http://www.sciencemuseum.org.uk/on-
line/surfaces/new.asp) on 2006-11-28.
3. David Darling (11 August 2004).The Universal Book of Mathematics: From Abracadabra to Zeno's Paradoxes
(http
e+mine). John Wiley & Sons. p. 176.ISBN 978-0-471-27047-8.
4. Weeks, Jeffrey (2002). The shape of space, 2nd Edn. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8247-0709-5.
5. Séquin, Carlo H (1 June 2013)."On the number of Klein bottle types"(http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1
7513472.2013.795883?journalCode=tmaa20) . Journal of Mathematics and the Arts. 7 (2): 51–63.
doi:10.1080/17513472.2013.795883(https://doi.org/10.1080/17513472.2013.795883) .

References
Weisstein, Eric W. "Klein Bottle". MathWorld.
A classical on the theory ofKlein surfaces is Norman Alling and Newcomb Greenleaf (1969). "Klein surfaces and
real algebraic function fields".Bulletin of the American Mathematical Society
. 75 (4): 627–888. doi:10.1090/S0002-
9904-1969-12332-3. MR 0251213. PE euclid.bams/1183530665.

Imaging Maths - The Klein Bottle
The biggest Klein bottle in all the world
Klein Bottle animation: produced for a topology seminar at the Leibniz University Hannover .
Klein Bottle animation from 2010 including a car ride through the bottle and the original description by Felix Klein:
produced at the Free University Berlin.
Klein Bottle, XScreenSaver "hack". A screensaver forX 11 and OS X featuring an animated Klein Bottle.