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1944

Studies on the Chemical Nature of the Substance Inducing Transformation of Pneumococcal Types. Induction of Transformation by a Desoxyribonucleic Acid Fraction Isolated from Pneumococcus Type III

O. T. AVERY, C. M. MACLEOD, AND M. MCCARTY

T he authors of this paper were the first to report that the biochemical

material responsible for the transfer of genetic information was

deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The observations presented in this man-

uscript laid the foundation for the evolution of our understanding of the molecular function of DNA and for the development of Watson and Crick’s Nobel Prize-winning model of that structure. In this study, Avery and col- leagues pursued an observation reported by F. Griffith (J. Hyg. 27:113–159,

1928) that, until that time, had not been fully appreciated. Griffith found that when a culture of avirulent, live, rough Streptococcus pneumoniae type II was mixed with virulent, heat-killed smooth-type III pneumococci and injected subcutaneously into mice, the animals frequently died. Smooth-type III S. pneumoniae were isolated from the heart blood of dying animals. Avery et al. made the critical connection that transformation of S. pneumoniae from an avirulent phenotype to a virulent one was a consequence of transfer of DNA from dead smooth organisms to live rough ones. The authors correctly con-

cluded that the

chemically induced alterations in cellular structure and

function are predictable, type-specific, and transmissible.”

ALISON O’BRIEN

Reproduced from The Journal of Experimental Medicine 79:137–156. Copyright © 1944, by permission of The Rockefeller University Press.

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Microbiology:

A Centenary Perspective

Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 117
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms
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118 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
A Centenary Perspective
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 119
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms
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120 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
A Centenary Perspective
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 121
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms
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122 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
A Centenary Perspective
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 123
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms
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124 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
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Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 125
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126 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
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130 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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A Centenary Perspective
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132 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
A Centenary Perspective
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 133
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms
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134 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
A Centenary Perspective
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 135
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms
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136 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
A Centenary Perspective
Pathogenesis and Host Response Mechanisms 137
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138 Microbiology: A Centenary Perspective
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Microbiology:
A Centenary Perspective