**&>.
rvr r. y t
•WM^M
VIBRATION
Arthur W. Leissa
Ohio State University
Columbus, Ohio
r; P
f Appiovea :CJ pucnc reieaa««
ments and advice during the course of the work were also greatly appreciated.
I particularly wish to thank Messrs. Milton Vagins and S. G. Sampath, who
did all the necessary work so that I could be free for the actual summarization
and writing. Without their efforts in supervising the procurement of papers,
in manuscript editing, and in providing technical criticism, this work would
not have been possible. I wish to recognize the contributions of the project
advisory panel, which consisted of Mr. Michel, Drs. Robert Fulton, W. H.
Hoppmann, T. C. Huang, Eric Reissner, and Howard Wolko, who generously
met with me twice during the course of the project and offered their comments.
I also thank my colleagues, Drs. C. T. West and F. W. Niedenfuhr, for their
technical advice. Finally, the enormous editorial assistance of Mr. Chester
Ball, Mrs. Ada Simon, and Miss Doris Byrd of The Ohio State University is
gratefully acknowledged.
ARTHUR W. LEISSA
The Ohio State University
Contents
CHAPTER pAGE
VII
Chapter 1
The classical differential equation of motion In the case of a plate supported by (or
for the transverse displacement w of a plate is embedded in) a massless elastic medium (or
given by (see app. A): foundation), equation (1.1) becomes
ö2w
(1.1) DV*w+Kw+p^=0 (1.8)
where D is the flexural rigidity and is denned by where K is the stiffness of the foundation
Eh 3 measured in units of force per unit length of
D (1.2) deflection per unit area of contact. If the
'12(1V)
foundation has significant mass, then its differ
E is Young's modulus, h is the plate thickness, ential equation must also be written and a
v is Poisson's ratio, p is mass density per unit coupled system of differential equations solved,
area of the plate, t is time, and V4=V2V2, where which is beyond the scope of the present work.
V2 is the Laplacian operator. Assuming the deflection form (eq. (1.3)) and
When free vibrations are assumed, the mo substituting into equation (1.8) again results in
tion is expressed as equation (1.4), where now
2
w= W cos ot (1.3) w_ PU K
(1.9)
D
where u is the circular frequency (expressed in
radians/unit time) and W is a function only of Thus, all results presented in this section as
the position coordinates. Substituting equa pertaining to the classical plate equation (eq.
tion (1.3) into equation (1.1) yields (1.1)) can also apply to the case of elastic
foundations by the simple use of equation (1.9)
(V***)TP=0 (1.4) .in place of equation (1.5).
where k is a parameter of convenience defined as 1.1 POLAR COORDINATES
par The location of a point P in polar coordinates
¥ (1.5) is shown in figure 1.1.
VWi+JWi=0
(1.7)
o} FIGURE 1.1.—Polar coordinate system.
VIBRATION OF PLATES
Mf.
2D rd2w d2w (1—p)sinh2£ bw (1—y)sin2?? dwl'
2
c (cosh2£—cos2?7) L i>f or,2 (cosh 21cos 2V) d£ +(cosh 2£cos 2V) br, J
M= 2£> r b2w b2w (ly)sinh2g bw (1—y)sin2i dw~ , n 90s
c (cosh2£cos2»7)L'' i>^^dv2 +(cosh2cos27;) d£ (cosh2fcos2i,) bv J ^ U""'
2
^=c'(cosh2?cos2r,)^42smh2fW+^)"(COSh2?~COS2^^W+v)J
(1.23)
2V2Z> Toc^o /ö2w , d2w\ , , _ _ , Ö /d2w . b2w\l
3 5JJ2_2 sin2, ^+_j(cosh 2?cos 2,) ^ {W+W)\
~c (cosh2£—cos2??)
1.2.2 Solutions
It has been shown (ref. 1.5) that equations equations (1.24) be discarded, and the complete
(1.7) have solutions composed of two parts: solution becomes:
CO
00
+ <7*Cera(£, q)cem(v— 2)]
+ S [SmSem(%, q) + QmGeym(£, q)]sem{n, q)
m=\ CO
771=1
+ G£Gekm(S,—q)]8em(fi,—q)^
(1.24)
where Cem, cem, Sem, sem, Feym, Fekm, Geym,
and Gekm are ordinary and modified Mathieu
functions of order m; Cm, <?*, Sm, S*, Fm> IJ=I80
* X
Fm) Gm, and (r* are constants of integration;
and
q=k2=^J/D (1.25)
W=W1+Wi (1.26)
dy2
Ü+(F_a2)7 _
d2F,7»2
(F+a 2
)F m
1
=0
(1.34)
ordinates is
ö2 a2 (L28) and two similar equations for F*, With the
H?+? assumption that &2>a2, solutions to equations
(1.34) are well known as
Bending and twisting moments are related to
the displacements by Fmi =Am sin ^a2y+Bm cos yjk2o?y
2
Ym=Cm sinh JF+rfy+Dn cosh VF+ a y )
(1.35)
(1.29)
where Am, . . ., Dm are arbitrary coefficients
determining the mode shape and are obtained
ö2w from the boundary conditions. If &2<a2, it is
Mxv=D(lv)
dxdy necessary to rewrite Ym as
Transverse shearing forces are given by Ym=Amsmhy[aJ=F2y+Bmcosh^a2k2y (1.36)
=x—ytana'\
+(1+2 cos2 j8)
brj1 ']
(1.38) 3
_Ö W_
cos a J Qv=—^~rz\ 5TT3cos0 Ö^2
' sm3/3_d»r
Ö3W i)3w
1.4.1 Classical Equations + (1 + 2C0B«/I)5^00B^]^
The Laplacian operator in skew coordinates (1.41)
is (ref. 1.6)
where ß= (ir/2)—a. The edge reactions are (ref.
V = 1 2 I ^^—2 sin a
2
i) (139)
1.7):
cos a\d£ d£Ö7? Ö17 D p3w
Vr 4COS/3öFö,
sin30_d£3
Bending and twisting moments are related to b3w
the displacements by (2+3 cos2/?—vsha.2ß)
0 d3w~]
b2w 2cos/
l_d£2 cos2a\ d£2
 Vj
(j2w b2w D rZ)3w . 3
n ö w
—2 sine Vr 5TT
^~TB 4cosß
sm .öi? 3
d£d,?2
2 (2+3 cos2 ßv sin2 ß)^
Mvv=D[^(sm
2
Leos a V
a^
Of2 3
„ „ d iif
—2 sin a
i>2w . ö2w\ Ö2W~\ 2cos^J J
(1.42)
Mifcr 2
cos a \ö£07j d£ / The strain energy of bending and twisting of
a plate expressed in skew coordinates is
(1.40)
b2w b2w . (i2w
U i
2JA\cOS a\
2(ly) fb2W Ö2W /i>2w\n\,. „ . 0.
REFERENCES
■X.f 1.1. MCLACHLAN, N.: Bessel Functions for Engineers.
Oxford Eng. Sei. Ser., Oxford Univ. Press
FIGURE 1.4.—Skew coordinate system. (London), 1948.
6 VIBRATION OF PLATES
1.2. NASH, W. A.: Bending of an Elliptical Plate by 1.5. MCLACHLAN, N.: Theory and Application of
Edge Loading. J. Appl. Mech., vol. 17, no. 3, Mathieu Functions. Oxford Univ. Press (Lon
Sept. 1950, pp. 269274. don), 1947.
1.3. GALEBKIN, B. G.: Berechnung der frei gelagerten 1.6. MORLEY, L. S. D.: Skew Plates and Structures.
elliptischen Platte auf Biegung. ZAMM, Bd. 3, * Macmillan Co., Inc., 1963.
1923, pp. 113117. 1.7. ÖDMAN, S. T. A.: Studies of Boundary Value
1.4. CHENG, SHUN: Bending of an Elliptic Plate Under Problems. Part II, Characteristic Functions of
a Moment at the Center. Tech. Sum. Rept. Rectangular Plates. Proc. NR 24, Swedish
No. 444, Math. Res. Center, Univ. Wisconsin, Cement and Concrete Res. Inst., Roy. Inst.
Dec. 1963. Tech. (Stockholm), 1955, pp. 762.
Chapter 2
Circular Plates
0 1 2 3 4 6 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
0 10.2158 21.26 34.88 51.04 69.6659 90.7390 114.2126 140.0561 168.2445 198.7561 231.5732 266.6790 304.0601 343.7038 385.5996
1 39.771 60.82 84.68 111.01 140.1079 171.8029 206.0706 242.8782 282.1977 324.0036 368.2734
2 89.104 120.08 153.81 190.30 229.5186 271.4283 316.0015 363.2097
3 158.183 199.06 242.71 289.17 338.4113 390.3896
4 247.005 297.77 361.38 407.72
5  356.568 416.20 479.65 645.97
6 483.872 564.37 627.75 703.95
7 . ... 631.914 712.30 795.52 881.67
8 799.702 889.96 983.07 1079.0
9 987.216 1087.4 1190.4 1296.2
circle. It is seen from equations (2.2) that the plate be a (see fig. 2.2). The boundary
frequency does not depend upon Poisson's ratio conditions are
in the clamped case. An accurate transcen
dental approximating equation for additional W(a)=0'
^(a)=0\
(2.9)
roots of equation (2.5) is given in reference 2.5. (r(a)=0j
MA
The mode shapes of equation (2.1) are
determined from either of equations (2.2). Substituting equation (2.1) and equation (1.11)
Using the first of equations (2.2) into equations (2.9) and noting that d2w/d02=O
on the boundary give the equations
/.(A) (2.7)
o. Jn(\) M(x)+tt(x)=o
where the X values are taken from table 2.1. A[J;'(A)+^;(X)]+(7„[/;'(X)+^/;(\)]=O
The radii of nodal circles p=r/a are determined
from the equation (2.10)
Jn(\p)^Tn(\p)
(2.8)
Jn(\) i»(X)
and are presented in table 2.2 as taken from
reference 2.6.
The procedure for determining the motion
of a plate subjected to arbitrary initial dis
placement and velocity conditions is given in
reference 2.7.
The problem of finding stresses in a vibrating
clamped circular plate was discussed by Ungar
(ref. 2.8). The problem was also discussed
in references 2.9 to 2.18.
For more information concerning this prob
lem, see the section in the present work on
inplane forces in clamped circular plates
(10.1.1).
2.1.2 Plates Simply Supported All Around
Let the outside radius of the simply supported FIGURE 2.2.—Simply supported circular plate.
CIRCULAR PLATES
where the notation of the previous section is TABLE 2.3.—Values of X2=wa2Vp/D for a
used. It has been shown (ref. 2.11) that equa Simply Supported Circular Plate; v^O.S
tions (2.10) lead to the frequency equation
Jn+1(\) , In+1(\) 2\ X2 for values of n of—
8
T (2.11)
JnW /,(X) ~1
0 1 2
Roots of equation (2.11) and radii of nodal
circles for «=0.3 are taken from reference 2.6 0 4.977 13.94 25.65
and presented in tables 2.3 and 2.4, respectively. 1 29.76 48.51 70 14
Poisson, in an early paper (ref. 2.12), and 2 74.20 102. 80 134 33
Prescott (ref. 2.11) give X=2.204 for x=0.25. 3 138. 34 176. 84 218 24
Bodine (ref. 2.19) (see section entitled "Plates
308337 0^70 2
VIBRATION OF PLATES
10
TABLE 2 A.—Radii of Nodal Circles p=r/a/or a
Simply Supported Circular Plate; v=0.3
0 1 2
0 1 1 1
] 1 1 1
.441 .550 .613
2 . 1 1 1
.644 .692 .726
.279 .378 .443
3 1 1 1
.736 .765 .787
.469 .528 .570
.204 .288 .348
TABLE 2.5.—Values of X2= waVp/D for a, Completely Free Circular Plate; v=0,88
TABLE 2.6.—Values of X2=coaV^/D for a Com TABLE 2.7.—Radii of Nodal Circles p=r/a for a
pletely Free Circular Plate; v=0.25 Completely Free Circular Plate; v=0.33
0 5.513 12.75
1 1 0.680 0.781 0.822 0.847 0.863 0.881
8.892 20.41 35.28 53.16
2 2 .841 .871 .8897 .925 .926 .993
38.34 59.74 84.38 112. 36
3 .391 .4972 .562 .605 .635 .663
87.65 118.88 153. 29 191. 02
4 3 .893 .932 .936 .939 .943 .947
156. 73 196. 67 241. 99 289. 51
5 .591 .643 .678 .704 .726 .745
245. 52 296. 46 350. 48 408. 16
6 354. 08 .257 .351 .414 .460 .498 .529
414. 86 478. 73 545. 83
7 4 .941 .946 .950 .951 .955 .958
482. 37 553. 00 626. 75 703. 63
8 .691 .723 .746 .763 .779 .793
630. 41 710. 92 794. 51 881.20
9 .441 .498 .540 .572 .600 .623
798. 23 888. 58 982. 01 1078. 5 .192 .272 .330 .374 .411 .443
5 .952 .956 .959 .960 .963 .966
.752 .773 .790 .803 .814 .825
. 52 .590 .620 .644 .644 .682
The radii p=r/a of the nodal circles may .352 .407 .449 .483 .512 .536
be found from reference 2.20: .154 .222 .274 .316 .351 .381
j (v)_ (iO[^;(x)nV„(x)]+x2J„(x)
(l x (x) ,2/»(x) Xp
Ai (Xp) n
inCKp)J /n(Xp)
(2.18)
(2.19)
a iH
s s
_ 8
IN
K g'
Os
« lO ill
«~ 1 s?&
rH
:1 1i •i
W5 •9
*. M ! i !
J?
00
sit i i i
s
u »Q ill
s«
5 00
rH gg i ! i
ri i i ■
»
p
^
a
hfl
s g. ; : j
.^
lO S ! i i
I 1 Ig
O 1Q
I ! ! ■
i
eo » N ß i
rt t H I
O o o !
e
(M
gs'si? i
o
s ^ ^ «D 0? I
00
o t>.
> O !
« s <2 o *a i
»5 s t O
a ss s i
3
Ä ■H
JsS 'S
p. a>
CO CO
?S 3 S S S"
31OH e
rt t O
£
£ CO
s" sä si s t
"fr 03
H t
t*. tO t
»0 3 c3 £ 8 S
s S
GO rH »O
^ ! CO 0(3 «9 CS OS to > 3
1
i i
1^ eJ * >o oo i O i i
5e Is
» W
* £ OSS'3"H i
1
i
1
£ A
r» Ö
fi "«1
^ 03 ^ « 55 <j g 3s ^ i
H
fci B
?! CO N M rH
on .1
in
CO « d H to M
H N W lO
<N
H N
?*ösis*g§§
iJ
n
■<
11 § r r © o
H ri
ri S3 85 g S §
r o ^i ii o r
o rt
" ^ S* 8' £ £ f
oo
ft
«
Ü
o H N M * iQ CO N
CIRCULAR PLATES 13
and figure 2.4 taken from reference 2.21. Radii
of nodal circles p=r/a are given in table 2.9.
Other experimental data are presented in
references 2.20 and 2.22 to 2.28. Further dis
cussion of this problem is given in references
2.10, 2.11, 2.12, 2.15, 2.17, 2.29, 2.30, and 2.31.
2.1.4 Plates With Elastic Edge Supports
Consider a circular plate of radius a sup
ported elastically by springs uniformly dis
tributed about its contour as shown in figure
2.5. Translation in the direction of w is op
posed by springs having distributed stiffness
Kw (force/(unit length)2). Edge rotation ^ is
opposed by spiral springs having distributed
stiffness K# (moment/unit length).
J_
0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14
Number of Diameters, n
tr
FIGURE 2.4.—Experimental values of frequency ratios 77777 // ///
W/OJO for a completely free circular brass plate. (After FIGURE 2.5.—Elastically supported circular plate.
ref. 2.21)
TABLE 2.9. Experimentally Determined Radii of Nodal Circles p=r/a for a Completely Free
Circular Brass Plate
1 0.680 0.781 0.823 0.843 0.859 0.871 0.880 0.889 0.897 0.903 0.909 0.912
2 .391 .497 .562 .604 .635 .662 .681 .702 .715
.843 .867 .887 .898 .906 .915 .922 .927 .932
3__ .257 .349 .415 .461 .505 .531
.591 .643 .681 .706 .728 .745
.895 .902 .913 .919 .925 .933
4 . 190 .269 .328 . 374 .411 .443
.441 .495 .540 .571 .596 .623
.692 .726 .748 .764 .779 .794
.918 .928 .934 .938 .941 .944
5 . 154
.351
.548
.753
.956
6... . 131
.292
.456
.624
.794
.958
14 VIBRATION OF PLATES
3.0
2.5
>
[from reference 2.34 I
TABLE 2.11.—Values of X2=wa2Vp/B for a Circular Plate Clamped Along the Boundary Through
an Angle 2y and Simply Supported Along the Rest of the Boundary; v—1/4
shapes are identical to those obtained in the where E=(\n 2)—Euler's constant^0.11593.
previous sections when no constraint was The first 11 roots of equation (2.26) for v= 1/3
applied at the center. This can be seen be are given in table 2.12. It is seen that higher
cause at the intersection of two node lines the roots of X are separated by ir.
slopes in all directions, as well as the deflection, The equation determining nodal radii p—r/a
are zero. is (ref. 2.20)
Southwell (ref. 2.37) discussed the problem
of a free disk clamped at the center as a special EJ0(Xp)=Y0(\p) (2.27)
case of an annulus free on the outside and
clamped on the inner edge (see section entitled and has roots given in table 2.13 for v=l/3.
"Annular Plates Free on Outside and Clamped Reference 2.11 gives wa2^p/D=3717 for v=
on Inside" (2.2.7)). It is necessary to evaluate 0.25.
the fourthorder characteristic determinant by The axisymmetric cases for the plates having
a careful limit process as the inner radius ap simply supported or clamped edges in addition
proaches zero. He showed that in the case of to a point support at the center are discussed in
one nodal diameter (n= 1) the set of frequencies
reference 2.38. The frequency equation for the
is identical to those for the completely free
simply supported plate becomes
plate. For the axisymmetric case (n=0), the
first four roots for v=0.3 are given as:
(iy)^[/o(x)Jo(x)][ri(x)+^1(x)]
X2=wa2Vp/#=3.752
=20.91 + [JI(X)+/1(X)][F0(X)+?K0(X)]^
=60.68
=119.7 2x[/0(X)7o(X)+^Jo(X)tfo(X)]=0 (2.28)
TABLE 2.12.—Values of X2=a>a%/p/D for Axisymmetric Vibrations of a Free Circular Plate Fixed
at the Center; v=l/8
s 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
X2 3.752 20.91 61.2 120.6 199.9 298.2 416.6 555. 1 712.9 890.4 1088
TABLE 2.13.—Roots for Determining Relative Radii p=r/a for a Free Circular Plate Fixed at the
Center; v=l/S
[Values of p are determined by dividing each of successive roots by value of X of desired mode]
s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Xp 3.97 7.08 10.20 13.33 16.49 19.61 22.75 25.90 29.04 32.18
CIRCULAR PLATES 17
The frequency equation for the clamped plate is acteristic determinant equation. The roots of
the determinant are found by evaluating it
[J0(X)/O(X)][FI(X)+^1(X)] by computer for many values of X for a given
b/a ratio.
The numerical solution of this problem is
[Ji(X)+/,(X)][r0(X)+^(X)]=O (2.29)
reported in reference 2.19 for the fundamental
mode. The frequency parameter X2 is plotted
which has as its first two roots: in figure 2.9 and mode shapes for three repre
sentative b/a ratios are shown in figure 2.10,
X2=22.7
both for »=1/3.
=61.9
2.1.8 Plates With Concentrated Mass at Center
2.1.7 Plates Supported on Circle of Arbitrary
Radius The problems of free and clamped circular
plates having a concentrated mass m at the
A circular plate having a free outside edge of center were solved by Koberson (refs. 2.39 and
radius a is supported on a concentric ring 2.40) for the case of axisymmetric modes. The
having a radius b as shown in figure 2.8. The concentrated mass was treated as an impulse in
solution of this problem is very straightforward. the mass density function. The impulsive
One can recognize symmetry and take change in density makes it convenient to solve
Wn=AniJn(kr)+BniYn(kr)+CntIn(kr) the problem by Laplace transform methods.
In the case of the plate having free edges, it
+D„tKn(kr) (*=1,2) (2.30) is shown (ref. 2.39) that the frequency equation
takes the form
from equation (1.18), where the subscript 1
<fo M
refers to the region 0<r<6 and the subscript 2 (2.32)
X2(</>i+&) 4
refers to &<?•<>; Bnt and Dni are discarded
to satisfy regularity conditions at 7"=0. where
The remaining six boundary and continuity
conditions ^1(X)=[F1(X)7o(X)+F0(X)71(X)
wl(b)=w2(b)=Q •)
^(l^X^wji
\(b) \(b)
or dr 02(X)=[j1(X)Ko(X)Jo(X)K1(X)
(2.31)
b w1(6)_d2w2(6)
2
ör2 ör2
MrJia)=Vra(a)=Q,
«s(X)=[jo(X)/i(X)+Ji(X)/o(X)
are satisfied by substituting equation (2.30) into
equations (2.31) and forming a sixthorder char (1IO«7I(X)/.(X)]
(2.33)
and /i is the ratio of the concentrated mass at
the center to the mass of the plate; that is,
3f±L ^6^ m
irpa2
(2.34)
J&
7^7 The first four roots of equation (2.32) are shown
FIGURE 2.8.—Circular plate supported on a concentric graphically in figure 2.11 (for p=0.3) as func
circle. tions of the mass ratio p. An asymptotic
18 VIBRATION OF PLATES
lü
9 X* VALUES
s—I 2 3 4
9T 40 il58
8
7 8 36' 150
6 7 32 78' 142 1
6 28 72 134
v
\
\
s
5
K
4 5 24 66
V\ V.
s
s=l
s\ . =2
"■"*
T ■* ^s
4 20 60J 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4
"0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 f
b/a 2 2
FIGURE 2.11.—Values of X =wa Vp,'D for various mass
FIGURE 2.9.—Values of X2=<oa2Vp7Z> for » circular ratios for a free circular plate having a concentrated
plate of radius a supported on a concentric circle mass at the center; »=0.3. (After ref. 2.39)
of radius 6 (for fundamental mode); v= 1/3. (After
ref. 2.19)
expansion estimate of the higher roots for the
above problem can be obtained from the
frequency equation
tanX (2.35)
=(?)>
The accuracy of equation (2.35) is shown by
table 2.14 for the extreme mass ratios of M=<»
and /i=0. The first mode shape is shown in
figure 2.12 for three values of mass ratio.
For the clamped plate (ref. 2.40) the fre
quency equation is also given by equation (2.32)
where, in this case,
^(X)=/0(X)J1(X)+/i(X)Jo(X)
oo 0
s
Value from Estimate from Error of Value from Estimate from Error of
eq. (2.32) eq. (2.35) estimate, eq. (2.32) eq. (2.35) estimate,
[(2«l)(r/2)p percent percent
FIGURE 2.12.—First mode shape for a free plate having The clamped case having a general concen
a concentrated mass at its center; »=0.3. (After trated impedance at the center was discussed
ref. 2.39)
in reference 2.41, though no numerical results
were presented therein.
X2 VALUES
— 12 3 4
2.2 ANNULAR PLATES
Vv An annular plate consists of a circular outer
8 38 84 152
boundary and a concentric circular inner bound
ary. Throughout this work the radii a and b
6 34 78 i will define the outer and inner boundaries,
\
4 30 72 136 \\
respectively.
\V S= 1
There exist nine possible combinations of sim
2 26 66 128 V ^ S ple boundary conditions (i.e., clamped, simply
>S N
s=:
6= ?
JogaRao and Pickett (ref. 2.43) also evaluated In addition, Southwell (ref. 2.37) presented
the exact characteristic determinants in the results for the outsidefree, insideclamped case;
axisymmetric case when the outside boundary Hort and Koenig (ref. 2.47) and Kumai (ref.
is clamped, simply supported, or free and the 2.48) gave theoretical and experimental results
inside boundary is free. Their results closely for annular plates of given dimensions; reference
match those of Raju and will not be repeated 2.47 deals with the freefree case and reference
here. They also analyzed these cases for 2.48, with the case for both edges either clamped
a/b=0.5 by the RayleighRitz method and or simply supported.
obtained confirming results.
2.2.1 Annular Plates Clamped on Outside and
Twoterm RayleighRitz solutions were used
Inside
in reference 2.44 to obtain approximate axi
symmetric frequency parameters for all but the Substituting the complete solution (eq.
freefree cases. These results are summarized (1.18)) for the cos nd terms into the boundary
in table 2.16 for i/=l/3 and are compared with conditions W=dW/dr=0 at r=a and r=b
exact solutions. The b/a ratio is 0.5 throughout yields four homogeneous equations in A„, Bn,
the table. Cn, and D„ for which a nontrivial solution can
exist only if the determinant of coefficients is
Sakharov (ref. 2.45) solved the cases for
zero. Using recursion relationships of the types
plates with the outside clamped or simply sup
in equations (2.4) and equations (2.6), deriva
ported and the inside free, and Gontkevich tives of the Bessel functions can be expressed
(ref. 2.6) presented results for four additional in terms of functions of the zeroth and first
cases but omitted those for the simply supported orders. The frequency determinants for n=0
inside boundary. Vogel and Skinner (ref. 2.46) (axisymmetric), n=l (one diametral node), and
in a recent paper also obtained exact solutions n=2 (two diametral nodes) are given below
for all nine cases. (ref. 2.6).
Boundary wa?Vp]D
conditions "
Deflection function W(r)
Exact Rayleigh
r=a r=b solution Ritz
solution
For n=0,
Jo(x) r„(x) /o(X)
Ji(X) Ft(X) 7x(X) #i(X) =0
Mdk) Y0(a\) /o(aX) K0(a\)
Ji(«X) Y1(a\) /i(«X) Ki(«X)
where a=b/a.
i
CIRCULAR PLATES 21
For n=l,
Fx(X) 7t(X) Xi(X)
Jo(X) Y0(\) /o(X) 7Co(X)
Ji(aX) FiCaX) 7,(aX) ifi(aX)
Jo(«X) F0(aX) io(aX) Xo(aX)
For n=2,
Jo(X) To(X) 7o(X)+=/,(X) Äo(X)^Äi(X)
Fundamental roots for these three frequency equations are given in table 2.17.
2.2.2 Annular Plates Clamped on Outside and FIGURE 2.14.—Values of X=(pw2/D)1/4a for a clamped,
Simply Supported on Inside clamped annulus. (After refs. 2.6 and 2.42)
The case of plates clamped on the outside
and simply supported on the inside is not dis values for b/a=0 are given in the section en
cussed in reference 2.6. Fundamental eigen titled "Plates Clamped at Center With Various
values from reference 2.42 are given in table Conditions on Contour" (2.1.6). Additional
2.19 and are plotted in figure 2.15. Accurate information is given in table 2.16.
22 VIBRATION OP PLATES
w<x2Vp/ß for values of bja of— UCPTJP/D for values of b/a of—
n 5 n 8
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9
0 0 27.3 45.2 89.2 248 2237 0 0 22.6 33. V 63.9 175 1550
1 0 28.4 46.6 90.2 249 2238 1 0 25.1 35.8 65.4 175 1551
2 0 36.7 51.0 93.3 251 2 0 35.4 42.8 70.0 178 1553
3 0 51.2 60.0 99.0 256 2243 3 0 51.0 54.7 78.1 185 1558
0 1 75.3 125 246 686 6167 0 1 65.6 104 202 558 5004
1 1 78.6 127 248 686 6167 1 1 70.5 107 203 560 5004
2—. 1 90.5 134 253 689 2 1 86.7 116 210 563 5007
3 1 112 145 259 694 6174 3 1 111.0 130 218 570 5012
For n=2,
Fi(X) /x(X) ^i(X)
Eigenvalues from reference 2.42 are given in table 2.21 and figure 2.16. Results for b/a=0
are also given in the section entitled "Completely Free Plates" (2.1.3).
2 2
TABLE 2.23.—Values o/ X =wa V'p/D for a Simply Supported, Clamped Annulus; v=l/8
For n=0,
For«=l,
Ji(X) Fi(X) /i(X) #i(X)
2X 2X
Jo(X) Fo(X) io(X) Ii(X) ifo(X) #i(X)
1—* =0
Jo(«X) Fo(«X) Io(«X) Ko(aX)
«7i(«X) r,(ox) Ji(oX) X,(aX)
For n=2,
2X
Ji(x) r,(x) ^i(X)^Io(X) AK^X) Ko(\)
1—c li
where
5x 3v
5=
"1—K
Eigenvalues from reference 2.42 are given in table 2.23 and figure 2.17. Eigenvalues for the
second mode of n=0, taken from reference 2.6, are also given in figure 2.17. Additional infor
mation appears in table 2.16.
CIRCULAR PLATES 25
10
T
9
/
/
1/
/ /
8
' //
1 f
n»0 y
if
1/ 8 *
7
X 6
n=2 X
5
3
_ "n^O
nl •■
d
Jd
H ."L^
112— n=l^
^<=0
s=0
^
""°7
nin ■<,
2
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 10
b
3
o i1 02 03 04 os nR n
FIGTJBE 2.16.—Values of \=(pai/D)t'*a (ora, clamped,
free annulus; v= 1/3. (After ref. 2.42)
FIGURE 2.17.—Values of X=(p«2/Z))1/4a for a simply
supported, clamped annulus; v=l/3. (After ref.
2.42)
A more comprehensive set of results is given in table 2.24 (see ref. 2.46).
TABLE 2.24.—Frequency Parameters waVp/D for a Simply Supported, Clamped Annular Plate
2
WO VP/D for values of bja of—
n s
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9
308337 O—70—3
26 VIBRATION OF PLATES
A more comprehensive set of results is given in table 2.26 (see ref. 2.46).
TABLE 2.26.—Frequency Parameters ua^p/D for a Simply Supported, Simply Supported Annular
Plate
Theoretical and experimental results for shapes in reference 2.48. Additional informa
0^b/a^0.5 are given for the first three mode tion appears in table 2.16.
For »i=2,
Jx(X) Fi(X) EU\)FI0(\) ^MT^X)
Jo(X) Fo(X) <Hi(X)EJ0(X) G^Wz^x)
Jo(«X) Fo(aX) 4*/o(aX)B*/i(«X) 4*Z0(aX)+5*if1(aX)
Ji(oX) Fx(aX) <7/0(aX)i>/1(aX) CK0(aX)+Z?ii:i(aX)
CIRCULAR PLATES 27
where
■Z+v^ak
3+v . a\ 0_ 48(1 —y)a\
B*=BAB B
2a ' 4 "2a 12(l,;)2(aX)4
I2(lv)[(7+v)+(aky](a\y #=6=ü ^=,2X_ ö= 4 3
D
12(ly)2(aX)4 1— p * 1—v " X 1—v
Eigenvalues from reference 2.42 are given in table 2.27 and figure 2.19. Values for b/a=0
are also given in section 2.1.3. Additional information appears in table 2.16. A more compre
hensive set of results is given in table 2.28 (from ref. 2.46).
TABLE 2.27.—Values of X2=&>a2Vp/D/or a Simply Supported, Free Annulus; v=l/8
X2 for values of b/a of—
n
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 ' 0.8 0.9
TABLE 2.28.—Frequency Parameters wa%/p/D for a Simply Supported, Free Annular Plate
«a2Vp/.D for values of b/a of—
n s
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9
i
it
ii
ii
ii
ii
ii
l
1
1
1
i
i
*V »lb *rr i !\
* II
n=2^ y
Hbh ^z" / i
i
«77 /"T^/TT" fPz 4 ^r
"*■»■
* ^^ n=l /n*0
.•''^
._
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
a fe
Q
FIGURE 2.18.—Values of \= (Pco2/#)1/4a for a simply sup FIGURE 2.19.—Values of X=(pw2/D)1/4a for a simply
ported, simply supported annulus; »=1/3. (After supported, free annulus; v=\ß. (After ref. 2.42)
ref. 2.42)
28 VIBRATION" OF PLATES
The frequency determinants for n=0, 1, 2 taken from reference 2.6 are as follows:
For 7i=0,
For 7i=l,
where
4(1,)
A=l
For 7i=2,
Jo(X) Fo(X) (l4AB\)Jo(X)ZMi(A) (l4ABX)Äi(X)+I?Xi(X)
Eigenvalues from reference 2.42 are given in table 2.29 and figure 2.20. Accurate values for
b/a=0 are given in the section entitled "Plates Clamped at Center With Various Conditions
on Contour" (2.1.6).
A more comprehensive set of results is given in table 2.30 (see ref. 2.46).
Additional data for this case are available from the work of Southwell (ref. 2.37), who saved
considerable effort in computation of the Bessel functions by assuming arguments of X and then
finding the b/a ratios to which these correspond. These additional data are presented in table 2.31
for K=0.3. Kesults appear also in table 2.16. This problem was also discussed in reference 2.15.
T 7
1 1 1 /
MODES OF VIBRATION
/
/
I <J
3
i
/
i
1
b
«. /
1
/
/
/ /i. i
a
//
yiv=o n=Z/
s=l X n=l/
 . f^O
2
•—a» ^
A more comprehensive set of results is given in table 2.33 (see ref. 2.46).
TABLE 2.33.—Frequency Parameters wa%/p/D/or
a Free, Simply Supported Annular Plate
48(ly)(aX) 12(ly)[7+y+(aX)2](«X)«
c*= 12(l„ 2
)(aX)4 U
~ 12(l,2)(X)4
Eigenvalues from reference 2.42 are given in IOr
J 1
table 2.34 for the lowest root of n=2. The
lowest roots of n—0 and n=l are rigid body 9 ÜH
H 1—a
translation and rotation modes, respectively. 8
Other eigenvalues are plotted in figure 2.22 as ♦1 y
taken from reference 2.6. Labels near the 7 //
ordinate identify roots for b/a=0 given in the /
6
section entitled "Completely Free Plates" ■s=n,
, S;
U^2
(2.1.3). X 5
'1
j'0.n=4
4 s=l, '=! .
3
•s=0 n=3
Jf
£^n=2
2
0,
0. 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
b
a
TABLE 2.34.—Values of X2= «a%/p/D for an Annular Plate Free on Both Edges; v=ljS
2__. 5.203 5. 053 4.822 4.567 4.203 3.865 3.519 3.200 2.890
TABLE 2.35.—Frequency Parameters coa%/p/D where M is the total mass of the rigid insert. In
for a Free, Free Annular Plate the general case the condition of zero slope at
the junction with the rigid mass would be
«o2Vp/D for values of 6/0 of— replaced by an equation of motion relating the
n s
integral of the components of torque along the
0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7 0.9 edge r=b about a diametral axis to the product
of the mass moment of inertia and the rotational
2 0 5.30 4.91 4.28 3.57 2.94 acceleration about the axis.
3 0 12.4 12.26 11.4 9.86 8.14 Letting n=0 in equation (1.18) and substi
0 1 8.77 8.36 9.32 13.2 34.9 tuting into equation (2.37) result in a fourth
1 1 20.5 18.3 17.2 22.0 55.7 order frequency determinant. Expanding this
2 1 34.9 33.0 31.1 37.8 93.8
3 1 53.0 51.0 47.4 55.7 135
by making use of the recursion formulas for
0 2 38.2 50.4 92.3 251 2238 derivatives of Bessel functions yields a char
1 2 59.0 58.8 96.3 253 2240 acteristic equation which was given by
Handelman and Cohen (ref. 2.49):
where
X=(w2p/^)1/4a (2.39)
I V7777>W7Z^.
J
and
a=b/a 7=p'/P
5 / f> /
X ^=2
/
4
4
"y=IO %
3 O*^*
7>
2
2
I
0
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
o=b/a
°c) 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 0£
FIGURE 2.24.—Frequency parameter X=(pw2/I))'/<a
for an annular plate clamped on the outside and
having a rigid mass on the inside. FIGUBJS 2.25.—Critical mass density ratios yc.
34 VIBRATION OF PLATES
2.15. PFEIFFER, F.: Übergang zu Systemen mit unend 2.33. BARTLETT, C. C: The Vibration and Buckling of
lich vielen Freiheitsgraden. Ch. 4, Handbuch a Circular Plate Clamped on Part of Its
der Phys., Julius Springer (Berlin), 1928, pp. Boundary and Simply Supported on the Re
337402. mainder. Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math., vol.
2.16. CotTRANT, F.; AND HILBERT, D.: Methods of 16, pt. 4, 1963, pp. 431440.
Mathematical Physics. Vol. I. Julius Springer 2.34. NOBLE, BEN: The Vibration and Buckling of a
(Berlin), 1924. Interscience Publ., Inc. (New Circular Plate Clamped on Part of Its Boundary
York, N.Y.), 1953. and Simply Supported on the Remainder.
2.17. RAYLEIGH, LORD: Theory of Sound. Vol. I and Proc. 9th Midwest. Conf. Solid and Fluid
vol. II. Dover Pub., 1945. (Originally pub Mech., Aug. 1965.
lished in 1877.) 2.35. NOWACKI, W.; AND OLESIAK, Z.: Vibration,
2.18. POLY A, G.; AND SZEGö, G.: Isoperimetric In Buckling, and Bending of a Circular Plate
equalities in Mathematical Physics. Princeton Clamped Along Part of Its Periphery and
Univ. Press (Princeton, N.J.), 1951. Simply Supported on the Remaining Part.
2.19. BODINE, R. Y.: The Fundamental Frequencies Bull. Acad. Pol. Sei., cl. IV, vol. 4, no. 4, 1956,
of a Thin Flat Circular Plate Simply Supported
pp. 247258.
Along a Circle of Arbitrary Radius. ASME
2.36. NOWACKI, W.; AND OLESIAK, Z.: The Problem of
Paper no. APMW10, J. Appl. Mech., vol. 26,
a Circular Plate Partially Clamped and Par
Dec. 1959, pp. 666668.
tially Simply Supported Along the Periphery.
2.20. COLWELL, R. C; AND HARDY, H. C: The Fre
Arch. Mech. Stos., vol. 8, 1956, pp. 233255.
quencies and Nodal Systems of Circular Plates.
(In Polish.)
Phil. Mag., ser. 7, vol. 24, no. 165, Dec. 1937,
pp. 10411055. 2.37. SOUTHWELL, R. V.: On the Free Transverse
2.21. WALLER, MARY D.: Vibrations of Free Circular Vibrations of a Uniform Circular Disc Clamped
Plates. Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), vol. 50, at Its Centre and on the Effect of Rotation.
Proc. Roy. Soc. (London), ser. A, vol. 101,
1938, pp. 7076.
2.22. GRINSTED, B.: Nodal Pattern Analysis. Proc. 1922, pp. 133153.
Inst. Mech. Eng., ser. A, vol. 166, 1952, 2.38. SAKHAROV, I. E.: Dynamic Stiffness in the Theory
pp. 309326. of Axisymmetric Vibrations of Circular and
2.23. KIRCHHOFF, G.: Über das Gleichgewicht und die Annular Plates. Izv. An SSSR, OTN, Mekh.
Bewegung einer elastischen Scheibe. Math. i Mashin., no. 5, 1959, pp. 9098. (In Russian.)
J. (Crelle), Bd. 40, no. 5, 1850, pp. 5158. 2.39. ROBERSON, R. E.: Transverse Vibrations of a
2.24. WOOD, A. B.: An Experimental Determination of Free Circular Plate Carrying Concentrated
the Frequencies of Free Circular Plates. Mass. J. Appl. Mech., vol. 18, no. 3, Sept.
Proc. Phys. Soc. (London), vol. 47, no. 5, 1951, pp. 280282.
1935, pp. 794799. 2.40. ROBERSON, R. E.: Vibrations of a Clamped
2.25. COLWELL, R. C; STEWART, J. K.; AND ARNETT, Circular Plate Carrying Concentrated Mass.
H. D.: Symmetrical Sand Figures on Circular J. Appl. Mech., vol. 18, no. 4, Dec. 1951, pp.
Plates. J. Acoust. Soc. Am., vol. 12, Oct. 349352.
1940, pp. 260265.
2.41. TYUTEKIN, V. V.: Flexural Oscillations of a
2.26. COLWELL, R. C: The Vibrations of a Circular
Circular Elastic Plate Loaded at the Center.
Plate. J. Franklin Inst., vol. 213, no. 1276
Akusticheskii Zhurnal, vol. 6, no. 3, July 1960,
1277, 1932, pp. 373380.
pp. 388391. (In Russian.)
2.27. STEWART, J. K.; AND COLWELL, R. C: The Cal
culation of Chladni Patterns. J. Acoust. Soc. 2.42. RAJIT, P. N.: Vibrations of Annular Plates. J.
Am., vol. 11, July 1939, pp. 147151. Aeron. Soc. India, vol. 14, no. 2, May 1962,
2.28. CHLADNI, E. F. F.: Die Akustik. Leipzig, 1802. pp. 3752.
2.29. COLWELL, R. C; STEWART, J. K; AND FRIEND, 2.43. JOGARAO, C. V.; AND PICKETT, GERALD: Vibra
A. W.: Symmetrical Figures on Circular tions of Plates of Irregular Shapes and Plates
Plates and Membranes. Phil. Mag., ser. 7, With Holes. J. Aeron. Soc. India, vol. 13,
vol. 27, 1939, pp. 123128. no. 3, 1961, pp. 8388.
2.30. TIMOSHENKO, S.; AND WOINOWSKYKRIEGER, S.:
2.44. JOGARAO, C. V.; AND VIJAYAKTJMAR, K.: On
Theory of Plates and Shells. Second ed.,
Admissible Functions for Flexural Vibration
McGrawHill Book Co., Inc., 1959.
and Buckling of Annular Plates. J. Aeron.
2.31. KIRCHHOFF, G.: Ges. Abhandl. (Leipzig), 1882, p.
Soc. India, vol. 15, no. 1, Feb. 1963, pp. 15.
259.
2.32. KANTHAM, C. L.: Bending and Vibration of Elas 2.45. SAKHAROV, I. E.: Natural Vibrations Frequencies
tically Restrained Circular Plates. J. Franklin of Annular Plates. Izv. An SSSR, OTN, no. 5,
Inst., vol. 265, no. 6, June 1958, pp. 483491. 1957, pp. 107110. (In Russian.)
'CIRCULAR PLATES 35
2.46. VOGEL, S. M.; AND SKINNER, D. W.: Natural 2.48. KTJMAI, T.: The Flexural Vibrations of a Square
Frequencies of Transversely Vibrating uniform Plate With a Central Circular Hole. Proc. 2d
Annular Plates. J. Appl. Mech., vol. 32, Dec. Jap. Nat. Congr. Appl. Mech., 1952, pp. 339
1965, pp. 926931. 342.
2.47. HOBT, W.; AND KOENIG, M.: Studien über 2.49. HANDELMAN, G.; AND COHEN, H: On the Effects
of the Addition of Mass to Vibrating Systems.
Schwingungen von Kreisplatten und Ringen I.
AFOSR TN 56387 (ASTIA Doc. No. 96045),
Z. Tech. Phys., ser. 373, Bd. 9, Heft 10, 1928,
Sept. 1956. Also Proc. 9th Int. Congr. Appl.
pp. 373382.
Mech., vol. VII, 1957, pp. 509518.
Chapter 3
Elliptical Plates
b/a 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1
\2 10. 216 11. 443 13. 229 15. 928 20. 195 27. 378 40. 649 69. 163 149. 89 583. 10
ELLIPTICAL PLATES 39
TABLE 3.4.—Experimentally Determined Rela TABLE 3.5.—Experimentally Determined Rela
tive Frequencies for a Free Elliptical Brass tive Frequencies for a Free Elliptical Brass
Plate; a/b=1.98 Plate; a/b=1.24
*o> CD <SD> o> Sei. e Ricostruz. (C.N.R. Roma), vol. 17, no. 12,
Dec. 1947.
3.7. WALLER, MARY D.: Vibrations of Free Elliptical
with 72 as defined in equation (4.6). aries as nodal lines, except when the boundary
(/) Free at x=0 and Simply Supported is free.
at x=a: The frequency w is given by reference 4.1 as
4
*(*)=!» (m=l) (4.14) W»=^{öi+ö»0)
v/ x • (72/2)
/» 1\ , sin (72,
Z(x)=sm72^2;+^h(7V2) +2(jj[vHxHv+(lv)JxJv]} (4.16)
(m==2 3 4
sinh
*(lrs) ' ' ''° (415) where Qx, Hx, and Jx are functions determined
from table 4.1 according to the conditions at
with 72 as defined in equation (4.6). £=0 and x=a.
The functions Y(y) are similarly chosen by The quantities Gv, Hv, and Jv are obtained
the conditions at y=0 and y=a by replacing from table 4.1 by replacing x by y and m by n.
xbjy,aby 6, andm by n in equations (4.2) to Another comprehensive set of solutions was
(4.15). The indicators n and m are seen to be later given by Janich (ref. 4.2). Fundamental
the number of nodal lines lying in the x and frequencies were obtained for 18 combinations
^directions, respectively, including the bound of boundary conditions. He, too, used the
o. 3, 4, 5,
1
HJ[<(^)J HJp^J
0 0 0 2
0 0 12/TT
1.506 1.248 5.017
Fb. 3, 4, 5,
1
m~2
H) (m4) ■]
0.
SSb.
} 2, 3, 4,
(•
»yn 4_i
V _ (»§)*J
3/7T2
F"
+
SSb. 2, 3, 4,
Hlf^] ("0'[' (^>]
1+
i+
Fb. 3, 4, 5,
(O'pFS;] H)T f%J
a
b
a;=0.
x=a.
RECTANGULAR PLATES 43
Rayleigh method, but used simple trigono SSFFF, and SSSSFF) yield such poor
metric functions which satisfied only the geo results with mode shapes of the same type that
metric boundary conditions. The mode shapes they were not included in reference 4.2. The
used in reference 4.2 are given in table 4.2. forcetype boundary conditions as well as the
The frequency <o is given in reference 4.2 for geometric are satisfied in reference 4.1; this
c=0.25 by usually improves the accuracy of the solution,
9 w'DK
T . but occasionally makes it worse. The results
W =7
N (4.17)
determined from table 4.1 will decrease in
accuracy for higher mode shapes (increasing
with K and N given in table 4.2. values of m and n).
The results of references 4.1 and 4.2 are both A partial summary of vibration frequencies
obtained by the Rayleigh method and, hence, for rectangular plates was given in reference 4.3.
yield upper bounds on the frequency values.
However, it must be pointed out that both sets 4.1 SSSSSSSS
of results have limitations in accuracy. The The problem of plates with all sides SS is the
three cases not included in table 4.2 (FFFF, most simple to solve for the rectangular plate.
TABLE 4.2.Frequency Coefficients for Equation (4.17) and Different Mode Shapes; v=0.25
Boundary conditions Deflection function or mode shape N K
b
frl
S7TT77T7 2.25
*+8G),+iaG)4
"'■"'
i o 1.50
3.85+5(!)2+8(C>
.50
I)
2TTX ,
cos 1 li50
a
A
/ / v
/ (.co.gX.osl) 0.0514 0.0071 + 0.024 (J
'7777777'
+ 0.0071 (J)4
1 3TTX TTX\ . TV
00B__0OB_lBm_ .50 1.28+1.25 (j) + 0.50 ()
I
/
(™ 3irX TX\
s___cos_) .333 0.853+0.190
(92
VX
ZTVX
C08JT—COSjr 1.00 2.56
2a 2a
cz '
}C0S2a)v8mT
irx\ T2 . vy
.1134 0.0156+C0.0852 (j)
+ 0.1134 (j)*
/
/ /, vx\ y .0756 0.0104+0.0190 (J)
4
r
/ irX
/ H
1—cos s .2268 0.0313
/ 2a
1 1 . TX . vy
1 1 sin — sin — .25 0.25+0.50 (I) +0.25 (Jj
1 I a o
1 1
/ . TTX\ y
L___J .1667 0.1667+0.0760
©'
1 1
i ! .
sin —
a
TX
.50 0.50
The boundary conditions are satisfies the boundary conditions, where Amn is
an amplitude coefficient determined from the
w=0, Mx=0 0,a)\
(for z=0, a) initial conditions of the problem and m and n
(4.18)
w=0,M„=0 (fory= 0,6)/ are integers. Substituting equation (4.19) into
equation (1.4) gives the frequency
When equations (1.29) are used it is seen that
'' f*
s / \ /
/1
' T/^ ..■? I
\ / I\
/ \J
S 0.8
A4I=I.02AI4 A„ = 2AI4
0.6 , ' ül4=üJ4l <
11 ss ] 
A / I I 1
/ I I 1
^ S
ss
SS 0 ..
1 1 \ i
\ i >
I
!
I
'
1
i
1 60 80 100
0.90 cubzv(57D
200
—b—^
1 1 1 6001 II8001000
400
! •' •
!
i1
1
i
!
i
>
<
i
!
A„=3.57Au A4=IOAu A4I=<DA 14
FIGURE 4.1.—Frequency parameter 0.90W62VP/D for 1 / \
1
> / I
SSSSSSSS rectangular plate. (After ref. 4.4)
! > ' 1
W5=U5
1
\\
simply straight lines parallel to the edges as / V A5,=5A5
1
0 1 0 1
Xi 0 x2 0
=0 (4.28)
sin X^ cos Xi& sinh X26 cosh X26
i cos \ib —Xi sin Xi& X2 cosh X2ft X2 sinh Xa6
RECTANGULAR PLATES 47
X 28. 946 54. 743 69. 320 94. 584 102. 213 129. 086
which, when expanded, yields the characteristic &j5i) which would separate some of the values in
equation table 4.4 if a complete, sequential list were
available. These can be obtained from the
2X1X2(cos Xi& cosh \2b— 1) work of ödman (ref. 4.13) who solved equation
+ (X?X) sin X,6 sinh X26=0 (4.29) (4.29) with less accuracy than did Iguchi but
extracted the first six roots for m=l, 2, . . ., 6.
Iguchi (ref. 4.9) solved this problem in essen The corresponding frequency parameters are
tially the same manner and obtained the first listed in table 4.5.
six frequency parameters for the case of the Nishimura (ref. 4.14) achieved accurate results
square. They are presented in table 4.3. for the square using relatively coarse finite dif
For the frequency comM, the subscript m identifies ference grids. He obtained coa%/p/D=28.974
the number of halfsine waves in the zdirection for the fundamental mode by solving only third
and the subscript n identifies the nth lowest root order finitedifference determinants.
for a fixed value of m. The results of table 4.3 For nonsquare plates, fundamental frequen
are also verified in references 4.7 and 4.13. cies are available for various aspect ratios.
These are listed in table 4.6 (see also ref. 4.9).
TABLE 4.4.—12 Higher Frequency Parameters Hamada (ref. 4.15) used a variational approach
X=wa2(Vp/D) {not a Complete Set) jor SS and Kanazawa and Kawai (ref. 4.16) used an
CSSC Square Plate
TABLE 4.5.—Frequency Parameters coa%/p/D for
X Mode X Mode SSCSSC Square Plate
2
X=UO (VP7D) 28. 946 17. 369 13. 688 12. 129 11. 359 9.869
28. 946 24. 047 23. 814 23. 271 22. 985 22. 373
48 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.7.—Frequency Parameter cob2(Vp/I>) far the Second Antisymmetric Mode of a SSCSSC
Rectangular Plate
£ 1b 68. 181 65. 118 63. 641 62. 967 62. 602 61. 178
17777777
.,9,.J
integral formulation to obtain confirming results Eliminating three of the constants (e.g.,
for several a/b ratios. In reference 4.16, results Bn, Cn, and Dn) in equations (4.26) in favor of
are also obtained for the mode antisymmetric a fourth (e.g., A„) leaves one equation giving
about y=0, for a/b^l. Unfortunately, this is the eigenfunctions, or mode shapes, for this
the second antisymmetric mode shape of the case. From reference 4.7 it is known to be:
plate. These frequency parameters are given
in table 4.7. w(x, y) = [(cosh X26—cos Xi&) (Xi sinh X2y
The first six roots of equation (4.29) for —X2 sin \y)
m=l, 2, . . ., 6 and for a/6=0.5, 1.5, and 2.0
were found in reference 4.13. The correspond — (Xj sinh X2 sin Xiö) (cosh X2y—cos Xii/)] sin ax
ing frequency parameters are listed in table (4.30)
4.8.
By using equation (4.24), one can apply Substitution of Xi and X2 determined from
stability results to this problem. Fundamental equations (4.27) into equation (4.30), using the
frequencies are listed in table 4.9 for various frequencies from the tables of this section,
a/b ratios as given on page 367 of reference 4.17. completely determines the mode shapes. Mode
11
0
b
FIGUBE 4.5.—Mode shapes Wmn{$, V)=Xm(x)Yn(y) for 36 modes of a SSCSSC square plate, m, n=l, 2, . . . 6.
(After ref. 4.13)
wa2y/p/D 12. 139 13. 718 15. 692 18. 258 20. 824 24. 080
50 VIBRATION OF PLATES
°'b
0.6 J
/
' SS
C
T
a ■
'
0.4
SS I
FIGURE 4.6.—Variation in Yn(y) with a/b for the mode 
m=6, n=5 for a SSCSSC rectangular plate.
1 1 111
(After ref. 4.13) 20 40 60 8OIO0 200 400 600 8001000
0.90 (i>b2v^7D
shapes were computed and plotted in reference FIGURE 4.7.—Frequency parameter 0.90wb2Vp/D for a
4.13 for the first six roots of equation (4.29) SSCSSC rectangular plate. (After ref. 4.4)
for m=l, 2, . . ., 6. Plots were made for
a/b=0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0. These are repro 4.2.2 SSCSSSS
duced in figure 4.5 for a/b=1.0 alone. The The boundary conditions for SSCSSSS
mode shapes are represented as the products rectangular plates (fig. 4.8) at y=0, b are
Wmn(x,y)=Xm(x)Yn(y). Each of the six parts
of figure 4.5 corresponds to one value of m. W(x, 0)=Mv(x, 0)=W(x, b)=^ (x, 6)=0
The first six modes having that value of m (4.32)
are then determined from the separate curves
Yn{y). The curves for YJy) do not change mark Substituting equation (1.37) into equation
edly for variation of a/b in the range 0.5<a/& (4.32) as in the previous section yields the
<2.0. The maximum variations for the 36 modes characteristic equation (ref. 4.7)
shown in reference 4.13 are illustrated by
figure 4.6, which is for the mode m=6, n=5. X2 cosh X2& sin Xi6=Xi sinh X26 cos Xj6 (4.33)
When F+a2»l, then cosh yjk2+a2b^
sinh iJW+tfb and equation (4.29) reduces to
the following asymptotic formula (ref. 4.7):
X 23. 646 51. 674 58. 641 86. 126 100. 259 113. 217
X 1 2 3 4 5 6
133. 784 140. 840 188. 102
For nonsquare plates, fundamental frequencies are available for various aspect ratios as listed
in table 4.13 (ref. 4.9). Hamada (ref. 4.15) used a variational approach and Kanazawa and Kawai
(ref. 4.16) used an integral equation formulation to obtain confirming results for several a/b ratios.
\=wa2(Vp75) 23. 646 15. 573 12. 918 11. 754 11. 142 9.869
X*=u&2(V^D) 23. 646 18. 899 17. 330 16. 629 16. 254 15. 425
The mode shapes are (ref. 4.7) eters obtained from equation (4.16) are given
in figure 4.9 (ref. 4.4). The problem was also
W(x, y)=(sin \xb sinh \2y—sinh \2b sin Xij/) sin ax discussed in references 4.23 and 4.24.
(4.34)
4.2.3 SSCSSF
When P+a2>>l, equation (4.33) reduces
to (ref. 4.7) The boundary conditions for SSCSSF
rectangular plates (fig. 4.10) at y=0, b are
bW
W(x, 0)=^(x, 0)=Mw(x, b)=Vv(x, b)=0
(m, n integers) (4.35) (4.36)
Other approximate formulas are given in All results reported in this section are from
equations (4.16) and (4.17). Frequency param reference 4.7.
52 VIBRATION OF PLATES
4.0
.? 2X1X2[0(l^)2]+2XiX2[g)+(lv)2]
2.0
cosX,6 cosh X26+(X1X?) [(D^1"2')
i 1.0
 0.8
CK
_(l_y)2"]smXi&smhX26=0 (4.37)
0.6
ss t
,/ c SS " 
ss i where Xi and X2 are defined in equations (4.27).
10 20 40
1 60 80100 200
1 1 1 1 1
400 6O08O0I000
.
The first six frequencies for the case of the
square and J/=0.3 are listed in table 4.14,
with umn as described in the section covering
0.90 ub2v?7D
W(x, y)=(/[^y+(liO]coah\,&
,
+[® U>)]«»M}
(X2 sin Xi?/—Xi sinh \2y)
+[(y(lv)]x2sinX16j
FIGUEB 4.10.—SSCSSF plate.
Substituting equation (1.37) into equation (cosh X2j/—cos Xi?/)j sin ax (4.38)
(4.36) yields the characteristic equation
TABLE 4.14—First 6 Frequency Parameters X=wa2Vp/D for SSCSSF Square Plate; v=O.S
W13 <>>81
Mode   «n «»12 "21 6)22
When F=a2»l, equation (4.37) reduces to frequencies given in reference 4.17 (p. 364)
and reference 4.25 (p. 298) are listed in table
4.15 for various a/b ratios for y=0.25.
^{(?)+CT}v! 4.2.4 SSSSSSF
(m,n integers) (4.39)
The boundary conditions for SSSSSSF
Another approximate formula is given by rectangular plates (fig. 4.11) at y=0, b are
equation (4.17).
By using equation (4.24), one can apply W(x, 0)=M,(z, 0)=Mv(x, b)=Vv(x, 6)=0
stability results to this problem. Fundamental (4.40)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 53
W(x, 2/)=^y_(i_i;)Jsi11x22/
+ ()+(l—v) sinhX26 sin Xi?/ fsinaa;
(4.42)
When F+a2>>l, equation (4.41) reduces to
All results reported in this section are from Mv(x, 0)=Vv(x, 0)=Mv(x, b)=Vv{x, b)=0
reference 4.7. (4.44)
Substituting equation (1.37) into equation
(4.40) yields the characteristic equation Substituting equation (1.37) into equations
(4.44) yields the characteristic equation
X2 () — (1—c) coshX26sinXx6
=Xl
IW +(1"M smnX
2&cosX!6 (4.41) {4©<>]40+<>]}
XsinX,6sinhX26=2X1X2[~p) (lv)2l
where Xi and X2 are defined in equations (4.27).
The first six frequencies for the case of the
square and v=0.3 are listed in table 4.16, with X(cosX2&coshX26l) (4.45)
wmn as described in the section covering
SSCSSC plates (sec. 4.2.1). where Xi and X2 are defined in equation (4.27).
TABLE 4.16.—First 6 Frequency Parameters X=ua2(Vp/D) jor SSSSSSF Square Plate; v=0.S
TABLE 4.18.—First 6 Frequency Parameters X=coa2(Vp/D) far SSFSSF Square Plate; v=0.8
0>23
Mode  con 0)12 W13 "21 &>22
RECTANGULAR PLATES 55
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56 VIBRATION OP PLATES
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RECTANGULAR PLATES 57
TABLE 4.21.—Critical Constants Determining When k2<a2/or SSFSSF Plate
(b) (c)
+ //  \ +
\
+
I

+ \ /'+
1
lb') (c'l
FIGURE 4.13.—Frequency parameters u;a2/ir2Vp/jD for resulting nodal pattern of the superimposed
various a/b ratios of a rectangular SSFSSF plate. modes is shown in figure 4.14(c). If the initial
Numbered points are intersections where two modes amplitude of the 1/4 mode is taken 180° out of
can exist simultaneously. (After ref. 4.28)
phase as in figure 4.14(6'), the superimposed
motion is as in figure 4.14(c') Stepwise
where two modes can exist simultaneously. superposition of varying ratios of the modes
For example, at point 1 the fifth root for 3/2 and 1/4 yields nodal patterns as shown
m=l (called 1/4 mode) and the third root for in figure 4.15 (from ref. 4.13).
m=3 (3/2 mode) can exist simultaneously for
a plate having an a/b ratio of approximately 1 1
. \J J > /
0.9. Figures 4.14(a) and 4.14(6) (reprinted
from ref. 4.28) show the nodal patterns for
iT"
44
"t"f" '"N
,—»
f'~
>c "**._*'
,''"*^
these two modes. The areas denoted by plus i
—T—
signs can be taken as positive (upward) dis :—": ::;____• £»_' "<D" u. tt 1
+
placements and the others, as negative. If •tt •
the initial conditions are chosen so as to excite FIGURE 4.15.—Stepwise superposition of two modes
each mode with the same amplitude, the having the same frequency. (After ref. 4.28)
308337 0—70^—5
58 VIBRATION OF PLATES
The detailed mode shapes are (ref. 4.7): Other approximate formulas are given in equa
tions (4.16) and (4.17).
W(x,y)=( (cosh X26cos X^) [(£)* (1 ")2] Zeissig (ref. 4.28) reported many experimen
tal results which essentially substantiated his
analytical calculations. The problem was also
fx,r(^y+(li')]sinhX8y+Xa formulated in references 4.10 and 4.24.
2
[© (l)>^} 4.3 OTHER SIMPLE EDGE CONDITIONS
FIGUBE 4.16.—Mode shapes Wmn(x, y) = Xm(x) Yn(y) for 36 modes of a SSFSSF square plate. n=2, 3, ... 7.
(After ref. 4.13)
FIGURE 4.17.—Variation in Yn(y) with a/6 for the FIGURE 4.18.—CCCC rectangular plate.
mode m=b, ra=5 for a SSFSSF rectangular plate.
(After ref. 4.13)
TABLE 4.23.—Eigenfunction Parameters for a
the origin of the ^coordinate system is taken CG Beam
at one corner of the plate as shown in figure
m, n Cm, «n Gut) Cn
4.18.
Further results were obtained by Bolotin
(ref. 4.57), who used a variation of the series 1 .. _ ...  0. 98250222 4. 7300408
method to obtain approximate results for the 2 1. 00077731 7. 8532046
3 .. _ ... 0. 99996645 10. 9956078
square. These are summarized in table 4.24. 1. 00000145 14. 1371655
4
In table 4.24 odd values of m yield modes sym 5 . _ 0. 99999994 17. 2787596
metric about the yaxis, even values of m yield 6 _ ... 1. 00000000 20. 4203522
modes antisymmetric about the yaxis, and simi r>6_ 1. 0 (2r+l)ir/2
larly for n with respect to the xaxis. It is
TABLE 4.22.—First 6 Sets of Frequency Parameters, Nodal Lines, and Amplitude Coefficients for
a CCC0 Square Plate
Mode
WWPAD
Mode symmetry
Lower bound Upper bound Mean value Maximum
error, percent
1 35. 998965 73. 405 131. 902 210. 526 309. 038 (428)
2. 108. 237 165. 023 242. 66 340. 59 458. 27
3 .  220. 06 296. 35 393. 36 509.9
4 371. 38 467. 29 583. 83
.5 562. 18 (676)
792.5
A simple formula derived by Galin (ref. 4.45) plained previously. More extensive results are
for this case is obtained in reference 4.13 and are also listed in
ID table 4.29.
I2 + + (4 52)
"= VIö OT F)V7  Mode shapes in the form Wmn(x, y) =
Xm(x)Yn(y) corresponding to comB were found in
2
For a square this reduces to o}a ^p/D=S6, which reference 4.13. The components Xm(x)^a and
compares favorably with the accurate value of Yn(y)^b are shown in figure 4.19 for a/b= 1.0.
35.9866 from table 4.22. Variation in these curves with a/b is very small
A summary of the literature for frequencies for the range 0.5 ^ a/b ^ 2.0. The magnitude of
of nonsquare CCCC rectangular plates is this variation is shown by figure 4.20 for the
presented in table 4.28. Neither Iguchi (ref. components XS)4a and F4(y)V& Figure
4.9) nor Kanazawa and Kawai (ref. 4.16) recog 4.21, taken from reference 4.60, shows the
nized the existence of the other mode having
frequency parameter i=ua2(^p/D)/ir2 plotted
one symmetry axis and one antisymmetry axis
which is not shown in the table. as a function of a/b and b/a. For <z/6=0, the
Sixteen frequency parameters for a/b=0.25 frequencies are given by reference 4.60:
and 0.50 are computed in reference 4.60. These
2?
are given in table 4.29, with m and n as ex ,=^(m+r (4.53)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 63
TABLE 4.28.—uVjrfD for CCCC Rectangular Plates
ab^pjD for values of ajb of—
Source Mode (o>6)
1.5 2.5
Kanazawa and Kawai /'" ' '/ 67.58 65.41 64.49 64.02 61.78
(ref. 4.16).
3»
a
Kanazawa and Kawai
(ref. 4.16).
A / / I/ s / 81.57 72.66 68.89 66.96 61.78
I *b
XjlülVÖ or
^(z,2/)=SZMmBsin^sin^ (4.54)
m n 0.50
0.25 0.667
(ref. (ref.
4.60) Ref. Ref. 4.13)
4.60 4.13 0.4 0.6
o/b
4.3.2 COCSS
tit
6.0
0.4 0.6 0.8 Three sources of numerical data are available
o/b
for the problem of the CCCSS plate (fig.
FIGURE 4.25.—Frequency parameters X/TT2=wo2/jr2(VpÄD) 4.27). Results are listed in table 4.33 for the
for modes antisymmetric about both x and yaxes case of the square.
for a CCCC rectangular plate. (After ref. 4.35) Some higher frequencies for the square were
obtained by Kaul and Cadambe (ref. 4.61) as a
third symmetricantisymmetric frequencies special case of the parallelogram plate by using
cross in the vicinity of a/b=0.84. Such an the RayleighRitz method and beam functions
intersection point is termed a "transition (see sec. 5.1.1). Frequencies for four higher
point." It is the contention of Claassen and modes are presented in table 4.34.
Thorne that these curves do not actually cross For a general rectangle, a spectrum of funda
at transition points but only approach each mental frequency parameters is given in
other closely before "veering away" or being table 4.35.
"repelled." Very small increments of a/b are Frequencies for the first antisymmetric mode
taken in reference 4.36 in the vicinity of these with respect to x=a/2 are given in table 4.36
transition points and corresponding values of (ref. 4.16). However, it is obvious that this
frequency parameter X are computed which is at least the third mode of all mode shapes of
appear to substantiate this. The details of a plate for a/b ^ 1. No detailed mode shapes
this phenomenon can be seen in table 4.31. are available in the literature, but for a/b ^ 1
From the table it is seen that the two curves the second mode clearly must have a nodal line
approach each other most closely at a/& = 0.834. essentially parallel to the xaxis and located
It is the opinion of the writer that, although above y=6/2.
extremely precise work was performed in refer Approximate formulas for frequencies are
ence 4.36, certain questions of convergence of given previously in equations (4.16) and (4.17).
the series approach used need to be answered Frequency parameters obtained from equation
before the transitionpoint phenomena de (4.6) are plotted in figure 4.28 (from ref. 4.4).
scribed above can be accepted. For more information on this problem, see
In figure 4.26 are shown nodal lines for one the discussion of the antisymmetric modes of a
quadrant of the plate for various a/b ratios in CCCC rectangular plate in the preceding
the vicinity of transition points (ref. 4.36). section (sec. 4.3.1). Straight nodal lines of anti
In these figures the center of the plate is at symmetry duplicate SS boundary conditions.
(0,0) and the x and y coordinates have been
nondimensionalized to x/a and y/b, respectively. 4.3.3 CCCF
The rapid change from one mode form to The only known results for the problem of the
another with small variation in a/b is interest CCCF plate (fig. 4.29) are the approximate
ing. Precise nodeline coordinates used for formulas, equations (4.16) and (4.17).
figure 4.26 and other nodal patterns are given
in reference 4.36. 4.3.4 CCSSSS
Accurate upper and lower bounds for the Four sources of numerical data are available
doubly symmetric modes of a rectangle (see for fundamental frequencies of CCSSSS rec
discussion earlier in this section) are reported tangular plates (fig. 4.30). The results are
66 VIBRATION OF PLATES
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RECTANGULAR PLATES 67
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68 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.31.—Frequency Parameters o>a2Vp/D for the Second and Third Modes Symmetric About
x=0 and Antisymmetric About y=0 in Vicinity of a Transition Point
Second . _ __ 150. 2685 150. 1544 150. 0184 149. 8461 149. 6269 149. 3663 149. 0791
Third. 151. 2909 150. 9951 150. 7217 150. 4853 150. 2963 150. 1492 150. 0029
0.5
■ ■ ■ V.
0.7 /O.6I6
0.9999 0.615,
0.4 0.4
'
'
"■"09995
'
0.614
0.3 0.3
0.6
0.6
0.996 0.614
0.2 0.2
0.9
3996^»
< '
0.614
0.1 O.I rn
w
0.9995>^
0.6 0.6
«»0614 ■
0.7 15
^/0.9999
> '
0.816 \
O.I 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
M x/o (c) x/o
U.0
——1 ' \ ' ' I
0.9921 0.9
•■■v 0.9 (3.835 / 0.833J
I0.834/ 1
. 0.4
V).996 0.832
0.3 0.3
'
'
0.8
0.8
^ 0.2
0.2
10s
s^^y
0.834 S
Sosaz
0.1 0.1
n A 1.0 0.9
1 tt
\ ■
0.992 110.993
n
0 O.I 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
0.9999
0.4 0.4
0.8 0.9995
a833
0.3 0.3
""■"■""•CN).835 .
' 0.996
0.836 ^*= 0.9 0.9
• I ■
0.9
0.2 0.9 0.2
^ 1
0.9995^^
\ i
0.996
0.836 ,
0.1 0.1
1
0.8 \0.835
\o.834' 0.9999 1
0.8331
n
0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5
(e) x/a (g) x/a
0.5 0.5
£S5
1
0.1
0.6 \^>.537
0.538 \
« . . . \
O.l 0.2 0.3 0.4
(f) x/a
summarized in table 4.37. Kanazawa and and retained Cn, C13, Cn, and C33. Nishimura
Kawai (ref. 4.16) used an integral equation (ref. 4.14) used finite difference equations. Ap
formulation. Hamada (ref. 4.15) used a varia proximate formulas, equations (4.16) and (4.17),
tional approach. Iwato (ref. 4.62) used the may also be used. Frequency parameters ob
RayleighKitz method and mode shapes of the tained from equation (4.16) are plotted in figure
form 4.31 (from ref. 4.4) for four modes.
For more information on this problem, see
the discussion of the doubly antisymmetric
m n \ M
modes of a CCCC rectangular plate (sec.
3mTrx\/ nry 3niry\ 4.3.1). Straight node lines of antisymmetry
(4.55)
— COS COSprv—cos
2^ACOS 26 duplicate simply supported boundary conditions.
70 VIBRATION OF PLATES
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22. 799
26. 569
25. 297
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35. 214
26. 551
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87. 257
44. 771
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RECTANGULAR PLATES 71
TABLE 4.33.—Frequency Parameters coa2^p/D for TABLE 4.34.—Frequency Parameters for Higher
a GCCSS Square Plate Mode Shapes of a CCCSS Square Plate
2
UO VPÄ& for mode— Mode 6 7 8 9
Source
1 2 3 4 5 aa2^p/D 130. 84 152. 75 160. 00 209. 97
TABLE 4.36.—Fundamental Frequency Parameters coa2Vp/D for the First Antisymmetric Mode of a
CCCSS Rectangular Plate
/ ,_ — /
/ I 61. 781 63. 947 64.366 65. 161 66. 971 71. 259
/ /// /
a
Kanazawa and Kawai (ref. 4.16) _ 15.45 16.74 17.22 18. 16 20.39 27. 10
Hamada (ref. 4.15) 27.00 44.90
Iwato (ref. 4.62) 28. 357
Nishimura (ref. 4.14) 27. 234
VIBRATION OF PLATES
4.0
2.0
1.0
0.8
0.6 / ss T ""
C 1 ' / C SS a ..
C SS a _. c 1
0.4
C \ ] /
0.2,
0 20 40 6 0 81 3100 21DO
.
1
b
I 1 1
»
1
4130 600 8OOI
0.2 /
40
1 60 80100 200 400 600 8001000
0.90 u.b2v£7D
0.90 wb*v£7D
///
/
/
/
//
/
//
/
FIGURE 4.32.—CCSSF plate.
FIGUBE 4.29.—CCCF plate.
1 . 0. 7340955 1. 8751041
2. 1. 01846644 4. 6940911
3. . 99922450 7. 8547574
FIGURE 4.33.—CCFF plate. 4 1. 00003355 10. 9955407
5 . 99999855 14. 1371684
r>5 1.0 (2r 1)TT/2
A fundamental frequency of large error is
also computed in reference 4.48 by use of the
RayleighRitz method.
Results from using the Galerkin method are
given in reference 4.46; these results also appear
to have considerable error, particularly for the
fundamental mode. Approximate formulas,
equations (4.16) and (4.17), may also be used.
4.3.7 CSSCF
The approximate formulas, equations (4.16)
and (4.17), may be used for the problem of a
CSSCF rectangular plate (fig. 4.34). Addi
tional information can be obtained from an
antisymmetric mode of the case of the CF
CF plate (sec. 4.3.10). Straight node lines of FIGURE 4.34.—CSSCF plate.
TABLE 4.38. First Five Sets of Frequency Parameters, Nodal Lines, and Amplitude Coefficients for
a CCFF Square Plate; v=0.S
Mode ___ 1 2 3 4 5
/ X 7
/ * / \ / —>r /
/ / *». / 1 /
Nodal lines / / / / / \ / /
• 1
V V "/'"/ *~/ S / S // /// ' s / // // ///
Amplitude coeffi in= 1.0000 4u= 0 An= 0.1172 An= 0.0286 An= 0
cients. Ai2= 0.0604 A12= 1.0000 An = 1.0000 A12= 0.1566 A,2= 0.0030
Aa= — 0.0030 Aa= 0.00003 An = 0.0553 Ai3=0.0825 Ai3= 1.0000
A ,i= 0.0604 A2l= —1.0000 A 21 = 1.0000 ^2i= 0.1566 A2i=0.0030
An= 0.0101 A22= 0 An = 0.3223 A22 = 1.0000 An= 0
An= — 0.0003 A 23= 0.0221 An = 0.0111 A23= .1458 A23= 0.1350
Aji= — 0.0030 A 3i =0.00003 An = 0.0553 A3i=0.0825 A3i=10000
A32= 0.0003 .4.32= 0.0221 A 32 = 0.0111 A32= 0.1458 A32= 0.1350
A33=0.0017 A33= 0 A33 = 0.0022 A33= 0.0019 A33= 0
308337 O—70
74 VIBRATION OF PLATES
(b)
/
/
/
/
(d)
Ratio a/6
TABLE 4.42.—Frequency Parameters X=coaVp/D
and X*=cobVp/D for the AntisymmetricSym
metric Modes of a CFCF Rectangular Plate
TABLE 4.43.—Frequency Parameters X=a>a%/p/D problem are given by the approximate formulas,
and X*=o)b%/p/D for the Doubly Antisym equations (4.16) and (4.17).
metric Modes of a OFCF Rectangular Plate Further information on this problem can be
obtained by considering antisymmetric modes
Mode of the CFCF plate (see preceding section).
Straight node lines of antisymmetry duplicate
ajb for X, 1 2 SS boundary conditions.
b/a for X*
X X* X X* 4.3.12 CFFF (Cantilever)
Young (ref. 4.47) in his investigation of
1.0 67.2 67.2 124. 5 124.5 rectangular CFFF plates (fig. 4.40) used the
0.9 66. 1 55.5 112.6 112.6 products of beam functions and the Rayleigh
0.8 65. 1 45.0 102.0 102.0 Ritz method to obtain accurate upper bounds
0.7 64.3 35.7 92. 5 92.6 for frequencies in the case of the square canti
0.6 63.5 27.5 84.3 78.3
0.5 62.9 20.5 77.4 56.3
0.4 62.4 14.7 71.7 38.2
0.3 62.0 9.87 67.2 24.0
0.2 61.2 5.90 64. 1 13. 3
0.1 2.80 62. 1 5.6
0 .0 61.7 .0
Mode 1 2 3 4
TABLE 4.45. First Five Sets of Frequency Parameters, Nodal Lines, and Amplitude Coefficients for
a Square Cantilever Plate; v=0.S
Mode 1 2 3 4 5
1
/ I 1
/
Nodal lines. _
4/
/
/
/
A
1
\
\
/
/
/
/
J
i
\
Amplitude coeffi An= 1.0000 An= 1.0000 A„= 0.0054 A«= 0. 0090 A12= 0.1201
cients. A«= 0.0087 Au= 0.0134 Axi== 0.2731 Aa= 1.0000 An= 0.0627
Au= 0.0008 A]6=0.0011 ii« == 0.0092 Ai5=0.0120 Aie= 0.0080
An= 0.0026 A22= 0. 1212 Aii== 1.0000 A2i= 0.2866 A22= 1.0000
A23= 0.0050 A24= 0.0044 An== 0.0713 An= 0. 1786 Au= 0.0388
A25=0.0011 A26= 0.0006 Aa== 0.0079 A25= 0.0009 A26=0.0013
.4si= 0. 0001 432=0.0020 431 == 0.0118 A31=0.0451 AS2= 0.0776
An= 0.0014 434=0.0011 A33== 0.0050 Asi= 0.0125 A34= 0.0086
435=0.0006 ^36=0.0006 ^35 == 0.0003 ^35=0.0023 A36= 0.0024
RECTANGULAR PLATES 77
TABLE 4.46.—Eigenfunction Parameters for 0F and FF Beams
m, n am OCn ^m Cn
1 0. 7340955 1. 8751041
2 1. 01846644 4. 6940911
3 . 99922450 0. 98250222 7. 8547574 4. 7300408
4 1. 00003355 1. 00077731 10. 9955407 7. 8532046
5 . 99999855 . 99996645 14. 1371684 10. 9956078
6 1.0 1. 00000145 (2wl)ir/2 14. 1371655
lever for v=0.3. These results are summarized TABLE 4.47.—Frequency Parameters coa2v/p/D
in table 4.45. The mode shapes are given by for a Square Cantilever Plate
,«»y InV 1 2 3
+22Amn\ coshp+cos ,
cos^^fsinh^sin^Yl (4.56)
a \ a a /J yy
i
A2i .0011 .0040 .0048 *
A23 .0040 .0032 .0008 b An.. ... . 1120 .2359 .2469 <
A2!, .0023 .0004 . 0001 A2i .0088 .0009 .0001 /
A3i .0001 .0003 .0010 > An . 0091 . 1025 .0104 /
A33 .0005 .0015 .0005 ^33 .0020 .0351 .0381
.A35 .0008 .0003 . 0001 AK... ... . 001s .0003 .0002
Fifth mode
Second mode
a/b 1/2 2 5
0/6 1/2 2 5 Mode
Mode shape
2
shape o>a yplD 24.85 48.71 105.9
too2Vp/ö 5.372 14.93 34.73
x/a=0.5
=*==fix/a=0.5
^x/a=0.3
^oa^ x/a = 0.l t
0.4 0 2 0.2 0.4 0.4 0. 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.2
y/a
x/a=0.9
0.5
A Experimental
o Theoretical
FIGUBE 4.41.—Theoretical and experimental mode shapes for a square cantilever plate.
f
sion of the CCCC plate (sec. 4.3.1) to obtain
35
precise frequencies for small variations in a/b
/ ratio. Figure 4.43 gives the lowest five sym
metric frequencies and the lowest four antisym
/
I
30
f metric frequencies as functions of a/b, with
a<Cb. Figure 4.44 shows the variation with b/a
for a>&. Poisson's ratio ^=0.3 was used.
25
I .
y Detailed tabular data for the above curves
are given in tables 4.51 and 4.52. Additional
/ frequencies in the vicinity of "transition points"
20 / . ■
8.0 8.0
6.0 Ü /"
6.0
Symmetric AntiSymmetric
X 4.0 X 4.0 7^
2.0 £ ^Ji=!_
J . "H5* 2.0
^
^:
8.0 8.0
6.0
Symm etric
^
6.0
Ant s> mm«»trie
>
•r
'—
•
1
'—
'/ •
_X_4.0 •
• _X_4.0
w2 f . •
•
rr2
• • *£■ > • •
**•• > . •
2.0 r 2.0
• • •
» • • •
• • • • •
• • • • • • •
lft_ _1 _i,„ t—S— • _ 1 • • • ■
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
b/a b/a
FIGURE 4.44.—Frequency parameter A7T2=«62VP/I>U2) for a rectangular cantilever plate v=0 3
(After ref. 4.77)
82 VIBRATION OF PLATES
a/b X a/6
1.00 3.472 21.29 27.2 54.3 61.3 1.00 8.55 31. 1 64.2 71. 1
0.95 3.474 21. 13 25.3 51.8 61.2 0.95. 8.23 30.3 58.6 69.8
0.90 3.476 20.74 23.7 49.2 61.2 0.90 7.92 29.5 53.2 68.7
0.85 3.477 19.85 22.7 46.9 61. 1 0.85. 7.60 28.7 48.0 67.7
0.80 3.479 18.49 22.2 44.5 61.1 0.80 7.27 28.0 43.0 66.6
0.75 3.481 16.98 22. 1 42. 1 61.0 0.75 6.96 27.2 38.5 64. 1
0.70 3.484 15.48 22.0 40.0 60.3 0.70 6.63 26.5 34. 1 59.8
0.65 3.486 14.06 21.9 37.9 54.0 0.65 6.32 25.7 30.3 55.4
0.60 3.488 12.68 21.9 35.7 46.7 0.60 6.00 24.4 27.2 51. 1
0.55 3.491 11.41 21.9 33.7 40. 1 0.55 5.68 22.0 25.6 47.1
0.50 3.493 10.22 21.9 31.5 34. 1 0.50 5.38 19.0 24.8 43.2
0.45 3.496 9. 13 21.8 27.6 30.7 0.45. 5.07 16.4 24. 1 39.6
0.40 3.498 8. 11 21.5 22. 0 28.8 0.40 4.79 13.8 23.6 34.6
0.35 3.501 7. 18 18.3 21.9 27.2 0.35 51 11.5 23. 1 27.7
0.30 3.503 6.32 14.52 21.4 25.8 0.30 26 9.62 21.0 23.2
0.25 3. 506 5.57 11.31 15.3 0.25 04 7.91 15.8
0 20 3 508 4. 85 8. 65 0.20. 85 6.42 11.58
0 15 3 511 4. 28 6. 5 0.15 70 5.20
0 10 0.10 3.64
0.05
0 00 3. 5160 0—_
6/o X* 6/a X*
1.00 3.472 21.29 27.2 54.3 61.3 1.00. 8.55 31. 1 64.2 71. 1
0.95 3. 132 19.30 26.6 51.5 55.5 0.95. 8.01 28.8 62.3 66.6
0.90 2.809 17.36 26. 1 48.3 50.4 0.90. 7.49 26. 6 57.9 64. 8
0.85 2.504 15.51 25.6 43.8 47.0 0.85. 6.98 24.6 52.8 64.2
0.80 2.217 13.75 25.2 39.0 44.3 0.80. 6.47 22.5 47.9 63.7
0.75 1.946 12. 09 24.7 34.3 41.8 0.75. 5.99 20.6 43.0 63.2
0.70 1.694 10.53 24.2 30.0 39.6 0.70. 5. 51 18.8 38.6 62.5
0.65 1. 459 9.08 23.5 26.3 37.3 0.65 5.04 17.0 34.3 58.7
0.60 1.242 7.73 21.4 24.3 35.2 0.60 4.59 15.3 30.4 51.7
0.55 1.042 6.49 18.2 23.7 33.2 0.55 4. 15 13.7 26.6 44.7
0.50 .861 5.37 15.03 23.3 29.6 0.50 3.71 12. 1 23.2 38.3
0.45 .696 4.34 12. 18 22.7 24. 5 0.45 3.29 10.7 19.9 32.5
0.40 .549 3.42 9.61 18.9 23.0 0.40 2.87 9.21 17.0 27.0
0.35 .419 2.63 7.35 14.47 22.5 0.35. 2.48 7.86 14.2 22.3
0.30 .307 1.92 5.39 10.63 17.6 0.30. 2.09 6.56 11.7 18.0
0.25 .213 1.33 3.73 7.36 12.20 0.25 1.72 5.34 9.36 14.05
0.20 . 135 .85 2.39 4.70 7.79 0.20. 1.35 4. 16 7. 19 10.60
0. 15 .076 .47 1.34 2.64 4.36 0.15. .997 3.06 5.20 7. 52
0. 10 .034 .21 .59 1. 16 1.92 0.10. .66 1.99 3.36 4.78
0.05 .008 .05 . 15 .29 .47 0.05. .33 .98 1. 64 2.30
0.00 .000 .00 .00 .00 .00 0.00 .00 .00 .00 .00
RECTANGULAR PLATES 83
TABLE 4.53.—Theoretical and Experimental Frequencies (cps) for a Mild Steel Cantilever Plate;
&=5.12 inches, b=2.76 inches, and h=0.058 inch
FIGURE 4.45.—Photographs of nodal patterns on a square cantilever plate. (From ref. 4.81)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 85
h r —N ^J
39.8 cps 104.5 cps 249.5 cps 324 cps 367 cps 646 cps
MODES 1(0/0) 2(1/0) 3(0/1) 4(2/0) 5(1/1) 6(2/1)
(a)
y—~'
h
40.6 cps 95 cps 229.5 cps 254.5 cps 336 cps 518.5 cps
MODES 1(0/0) 2(1/0) 3(2/0) 4(0/1) 5(1/1) 6(3/0)
(b)
\ /
/ /
\ / "* "*•..,
i V /
/ t ~ \ /
/ I
/ 1 V
I
/ r" /
/ 1 » x
// i
i
\\
\
/ \ \ ^"
/ \ \ ,'
/ i
\ s
40.2 cps 7lcps I47cps 245.6cps 293cps 3l4cps
MOE)ES 1(0/0) 2(1/0) 3(2/0) 4(0/1) 5(1/13/0) 6(3/0+1/1)
(c)
/ \ V
/ \ \
/ 1 \
/ 1
/
/ 1
/ 
/ 1 1
/ / /
/ J
/
/ //
/ <f 1
/ I /
/ i 1
/ \ 1
/ I 1
/ 1 1
/
/ :
/ 1 1
/ \
/ / \
/ / V
/ / \
40.4 cps 60.5cps 105.4 cps 170.2 cps 251cps 274.5 cps
MODES 1(0/0) 2(1/0) 3(2/0) 4(3/0) 5(0/1) 6(1/1)
(d)
FIGURE 4.46.—Experimentally determined cyclic frequencies and nodal patterns for rectangular cantilever plates.
(a) a/6=1.0. (6) a/6 = 0.8. (c) o/6=0.6. (d) o/6 = 0.4.
86 VIBRATION OF PLATES
CLAMPED EDGE
\ 
C=o.i
1
yNODE .INE
\
4
iO.3
:
/ £ = 0.5
£=0.7
A
^3 —
£ = 0.9
/
/
(o)
(■0.3A
{054
««17,
{■09,
coshirXaK? , A*
^cosbTrA*^
A»—An
sinhxa„ sinh\*„
,,(** sinli7r\o.rag  A *** smh 7rXj„g
A*
coshxa„ coshx*a
(4.61)
cosh Tr\ßmV „.coshxX^
X m Jjr B
sinhx^m sinhxm
__ _g** sinh7rXgmr; s„** sinh TTXJLT;
coshx3ffl cosh  \*m
with
(4.62)
2 2
^ßm, X*ra = V(3 TO ±M*
FIGURE 4.47.—Experimentally determined nodal pat
terns for the first four modes of a CFFF square
plate; material, 6061T6 aluminum %inch thick,
(a) Experimental node lines and data points.
(6) Mode l;/i=7l.9 cps. (c) Mode 2;/2=175 cps.
(d) Mode 3;/3=437 cps. (e) Mode 4; /4=552 cps.
The boundary conditions are
308337 O—70
90 VIBRATION OF PLATES
10
0/6
77777
4/0 4/1 4/2 0/3±2/l 1/4+3/0 2/7±4/4
8,238 8,685 9,651 2,278 2,1154,335 12,590
12,840
Fundamental 64 cps  2 3 4 5
Number of Nodal Lines.n
Xn=anu„a(t)+alv„n(Z)
Ym=bmußm(,rj)+btlt>ßm(v)
C0Sh TXa f
«„(?)=^<K»vctW) "
A<*»
sinhx„K
1_ cosh xXj„?
^(XSwAi»)
sinhx2„ FIQUHE 4.51.—FFFF plate.
TABLE 4.61.—6 Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate
No. terms 6 6 15 6 15 15
Amplitude coefficients:
An _ 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000
Ai3_  .0378 .0328 .0325 .0320 .0318 .0306
. 00435 . 00541 . 0050 . 00555 . 00514 .00537
A15 __ . 0034 . 00265 . 00257 . 00255 .00246 .002285
A35 „ . 00118 . 00139 . 00121 . 00141 . 001235 . 001276
. 00045 . 000474 . 000365 . 00048 . 000366 . 000370
. 000413 . 000382 . 000328
. 000431 . 000440 . 000456
An . 000148 . 000149 . 000150
. 0000703 . 0000701 . 000070
. 0000767 . 0000638 . 0000413
. 000196 . 000201 . 0002086
. 0000720 . 0000727 . 0000733
. 0000382 . 0000382 . 00003805
. 000023 .0000230 . 0000228
RECTANGULAR PLATES 93
TABLE 4.61.—6 Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate—Con.
No. terms 3 4 11 4 11 IX
oja2Vp/D 20.49 19. 306 19. 231 19. 129 19. 045 18 707
Amplitude coefficients:
Am 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000
Am _ ._ . 131 . 0204 . 02042 . 02142 .02146 . 023312
An . 0043 . 00643 . 006105 .00675 .00642 . 006976
A06 _ . 00522 . 00518 . 00549 .00545 005927
. 00207 . 00217 . 00235
. 000098 .0001006 . 000105
. 002042 .00215 —. 002337
. 000929 . 000975 —. 001054
.0000613 . 0000631 —. 0000658
.0000080 . 0000083 . 0000087
. 001008 . 00106 . 001154
94 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.61.—6 Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate—Con.
\
\
1 (c) Third mode: W(x, £)=Ao2(XoF2+X2Fo)+A22X2F2
\ / +Aol(X0Yi+XiY0) +AM(XiYi+XiYi) +AiiXiYi+
\ N»,„• /
No. terms __ _ 5 6 15 6 15 15
Amplitude coefficients:
AM 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000
A22  . 0236 . 0447 . 0449 . 0484 . 0488 . 0563
AM  . 00132 . 02011 .0202 . 02115 .0213 . 02324
A21 __ . 0022 . 00384 . 00363 . 00409 . 00385 . 00426
An __ . 00166 . 00282 . 00252 . 00302 . 00271 . 00306
Am _ . 00503 . 00505 . 00529 . 00531 . 00580
. 00194 . 00206 . 00229
. 00199 . 00209 . 00228
. 000822 . 000884 . 000994
. 000987 . 00105 . 001166
. 000976 . 00103 . 001121
. 000293 . 000316 . 000353
A48 . 000355 . 000382 . 0004303
. 000138 . 000146 . 000163
4.88 . 000069 . 000073 . 000081
RECTANGULAR PLATES 95
TABLE 4.61.—6 Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate—Con.
! i
1 I
\ i
\ 1 (d) Fourth mode: W(x, y)  Ao2(XoY2\ X2Y0) ^AMXIYI
» i
/ \ +Aoi(XoYi+XiYo) +A2i(X2Yi+XiY2) +A 44X4^4+
•» ^—
i
•
1 i
No. terms.. _ 5 6 15 6 15 15
Amplitude coefficients:
A02  0. 0118 0. 02266 0. 0228 0. 0246 0. 0248 0. 02864
A22 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000
A 04   .020 . 0288 . 0275 . 03005 . 02875 .0310
A2i .0876 .0730 .0690 .0709 . 06704 . 06350
An . 0047 . 00951 .00674 .01015 . 007355 . 00841
AQU . 00529 . 00540 . 00556 . 00568 . 00619
.4 26 . 00971 . 00921 . 00830
Aw. . . . . 00314 .00330 . 003574
Am  . 00148 . 00151 . 00158
Am . 00211 .00222 .002425
.A28 . 00204 .00183 . 00147
^48   . 00153 . 00160 . 00172
^■68 . 00076 . 000778 . 000808
.4.88 . 000435 . 000441 . 000452
. 001006 . 00106 . 00116
gß VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.61.—6 Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate—Con.
7I\ ■
3 10 3 10 10
No. terms 3
Amplitude coefficients:
1. 0000 1.0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000
. 00024 . 01394 . 01423 . 0160 .01634 . 02008
.005895 . 00511 . 00707 . 00623 . 008235
.435 . 00216
.00643 . 00709 . 00826
. 004255 . 00470 . 005495
, . 00031 . 000315 . 000322
. 00338 . 00367 . 00419
.002713 .002934 .00333
. 000232 .000236 . 000241
. 000415 . 0000421 . 000043
RECTANGULAR PLATES 97
TABLE 4.61.—6 Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate—Con.
—I—1—I—
V .1 i—
6 6 15 6 15 15
Amplitude coefficients:
An 0.0746 0. 06456 0.0641 0. 0631 0.0627 0.06035
A\%  1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000 1. 0000
. 171 . 1295 . 1252 . 1227 . 1184 .10562
A\5 _____ .0431 . 05066 .0489 .0518 .0500 . 05194
^35^ . 0084 . 00480 . 00347 . 00419 .00285 . 00172
A55 . 00546 . 00814 . 00645 . 00856 . 00684 . 00755
. 01286 . 01321 . 01384
. 001936 . 00229 . 00295
.00290 . 003052 .00334
. 00139 . 00146 . 001575
. 00515 . 00531 . 00560
. 00184 . 002046 . 00242
. 00150 . 00158 . 001724
. 000766 . 000798 . 000858
. 000448 . 000466 . 000497
98 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.62.—Doubly Symmetric and Doubly Antisymmetric Frequencies and Mode Shapes for a
Completely Free Square Plate; v=0.225
I
I
I 12. 4318. 0 8»
■r X,F1+0.0394(X1F3+X3r1)0.0040Z3F30. 0034(X1r6+X57I)
i + 0.0011 (Z3F6+Z5F3)  0.0019Z5F6
i
i
_L_
x—
* ■1 «
i
 —— — *• 37857 8x 0.075Z1F1+(Z1F3+X3F1) + 0.173Z3F3+0.045(Z1F6+ZliF1)
i 0.015(Z3F5+Z6F3)0.029Z6F5
i
\ *
N i s
V i s
i i t
r—•» —i
■
i i
1
I i i 1554 0.009*^ 0.075(Z1F,+X3F,) + Z3F30.057(Z,FB+Z5Fi)
T"T
i i
IT
I
1
+ 0.121 (Z3F6+Z5F3)  0.007Z5F5
.i ■ L 1
.1 1 <_
V !^
2945 XtYs+XsYt
N\ I /t
5570 X3Y5* Z5F3
r~*\—r
¥ iV
CA 1 L2s
_7_r_
'/TV
1 1 \ 6303 Z3F5+Z5F3
\\ I /.
Ill
r _ 13 674 Z5F5
{~JI~IL
J.J I I '
RECTANGULAR PLATES 99
TABLE 4.62.—Doubly Symmetric and Doubly' Antisymmetric Frequencies and Mods Shapes for a
Completely Free Square Plate; v=0.225—Continued
—1 1—
\ /
■*N * ^~
^"*
\ t
266. 0274 «x
1 1 0.0122(X0F2 + Z2Fo) + Z2F20.0188(ZoF4 + X4Fo) + 0.0880
/ V (X2F4+XtYs)  O.OO44X4F4
v "\""
Xo F4 — X4 FQ
941 X0F4+X4F0
1702 X2F4+X4F2
k t \ N
2020 X2F4+X4F2
.;._ j.
" 1 ;
tt I
i
"1 5480 X4F4
I
1 1 1
t—1 "i
100 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.62.—Doubly Symmetric and Doubly Antisymmetric Frequencies and Mode Shapes for a
Completely Free Square Plate; v=0.22B—Continued
I V
X 5640 XoYt, + X$Y o
/Q
N i /■ xi'
.'iVlH
7840 ^2^64" Xj^
IK >■I I.
.....
< V»*.
^\ \ • •
» V"/
w\ />r .XiYj—X1Y4
13 840
1 IVI I
t."'' \"»\.
J ' *'"*»N V
/'.Jir«N \
f It ^
15 120 XiYe^XoYt
A. •„O,
i i i x •
1 1 1 \'_J
28 740 XeYe
rt1!
ttj r '■
RECTANGULAR PLATES 101
TABLE 4.63.—SymmetricAntisymmetric Frequencies and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square
Plate; v = O.i
W&, y)
W(.x,y)W(y,x)
nodal pattern
16D Nodal pattern
Mode shape
I 7Ti—
1131 X,F4
V
2497. Z5F0
v,
1
■ 1
1
t
1
K7~
Vx )
\ 's. **>
1 1
"T~
*• ** ~~\—1
■ ■« / 1
1 (» / f
4 r
XtYt 1
324 0_ _ I
j
1 /• V
)
1 I j
r'Vi_
rj—11 1—:
ir "/. •r
3927 X5F2 1
1
1
j_4
J l_
J
\» vX
6036_ XjFe
L—
1
102 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.63.  SymmetricAntisymmetric Frequencies and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square
Plate: v = 0.225—Contineud
W(x, y)
wWp W(x,v)W(v. x)
16Z> nodal pattern
Mode shape Nodal pattern
l
T__
lit' _ 1
I—r~i—pi
' 1 LJ
9030 X5F4
/ //'r T
■■1 v^: v ■ r 3
0 22. 373 61. 673 120. 903 199. 860 298. 556
1. 14. 920 37. 284 75. 948 134. 107 214. 138 (292. 4)
(309. 06)
2__ 67. 591 110. 599 169. 998 248. 064 345 669
3 159. 324 222. 700 302. 831 (399. 2)
(396. 8)
4 290. 427 373. 952 474. 596
5 460. 964 (562. 6)
(565. 5)
6_ 670 958
For modes symmetric with respect to x=0 The first four of these frequencies and the
(fig. 4.51) and antisymmetric about l/=0 (asym amplitude parameters are listed in table 4.66
metric with respect to the diagonals): (ref. 4.113).
The four nodal patterns corresponding to
wl
2
table 4.66 are shown in figure 4.52; also shown
W{x,y)= 2_ „«»({Xl) smnwn+ßMv) are interesting patterns which arise by taking
11 = 1,3, . . .
the linear combinations:
+ __: Ä»m(ij)(l)"flcoBnwr£ (4.69)
m=2,4,.. . W(x,y)KW(y,x)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 103
1 1
1 1 I \ 1 1 1
t 1 \ \ 1 1 f
\ 1 1 J 1
\ 1 1 » »
(Il) IHI) (ni) (121)
~I I—
i
V
/ CO
di
ii
*
■•* «*
J.
(12) (H2) (m2) (Et2)
/ j / ,<
~ri —* /
s/ y r
** 1!
/ 1
/ 1
y
(13) (13) (H3) (323)
7
~"i —>
\r ^x s
'.—'
/ •
•'
J
""»«»^ Y
/
J <''' N •
•
/
is ■>
H
^ (14)
/
(n4)
y
v. l'—'i
(3E4)
A (324)
FIGURE 4.52.—Superposition of mode shapes for a completely free square plate; r=0.3. (After ref. 4.113)
104 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.65.—Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate; v=0.S
i i ( o — 11966
2 1. 0000 3. 23309 »1. 56615i
■ i 63. 6870 4 . 03422 4. 73844 3. 08985
i i
._>»,— «V— 6 . 01065 6. 51558 5. 43573
i
■
I
>
I 8 . 00473 8. 39362 7. 58598
f °2 8.
1.
81714
00000 4. 05046 2. 89935i
C/ \) 122. 4449 1 4 1. 19356 5. 32975 1. 89572
6 . 08213 6. 95746 4. 85734
\f\ \\K/''*)
S
/ I 8 . 02402 8. 74107 7. 18288
' 0 . 07482
W 168. 4888
2
4
1.
.
00000
44885
4.
5.
59037
75078
3.
1.
61545i
03513*
\ \L ,'/ / 6 . 03590 7. 28502 4. 35069
I 8 . 01347 9. 00397 6. 85044
"\ W /
' 0 8. 90424
2 1. 00000 5. 86426 5. 13707i
299. 9325 4 . 59521 6. 81099 3. 79335i
6 1.39192 8. 14998 2. 36864
(W/' N.'».'^
I 8 . 13703 9. 71543 5. 79745
a
i= VT
Detailed mode shapes showing contour lines Taking a coordinate system as in figure 4.51,
for 16 of the modes described in the foregoing the modes are antisymmetric with respect to
paragraphs are shown in figure 4.53 (ref. 4.113). both x and y and are unaltered by interchange
Grauers (ref. 4.114) in an early work also of x and y (symmetric about the diagonals).
attempted to solve the problem using solutions Five nodal patterns of this type are shown
to the differential equation but obtained in in the third part of table 4.65. They also
accurate results. obtained extremely accurate upper bounds by
Upper and lower bounds for the fundamental the KayleighRitz method, using the first 50
frequency were obtained in references 4.115 admissible products of freefree beam functions.
and 4.116 and were improved to extreme Double precision arithmetic was used in the
accuracy in reference 4.117. For v=0.225, computations where necessary. Results are
these bounds are listed in table 4.67 for ?»=0.225 and J/=0.3.
Herein results from the RayleighRitz pro
14.1028<waVp/Z><14.1165 cedure are given; both 25 and 50 admissi
Bazley, Fox, and Stadter (ref. 4.118) used ble functions are used to show the rate of
a method developed in reference 4.59 to com convergence.
pute lower bounds for the first 10 frequencies Sigillito (ref. 4.76) showed that more precise
of the following symmetry class of a square: upper bounds can be obtained with the Ray
RECTANGULAR PLATES 105
TABLE 4.65.—FrequencyParameters andMode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate; v=0.3—Con.
( 2° 19.46060
1. 00000 2. 44653 1.41933
19. 5961 1 4 .00264 4. 24093 3. 74359
6 . 00487 6. 16324 5. 83219
I 8 .00290 8.12315 7. 87493
f 2° 3. 93698
'VJ
a
1. 00000 3. 25932 1.61926i
65. 3680 4 .09935 4. 75638 3. 06216
s\ A. 6 .01507 6. 52864 5. 42004
I 8 .00451 8. 40376 7. 57475
V7 3. 84826
1. 00000 3. 98317 2.80458*
117.1093 .48091 5. 27879 2.03331
.02845 6. 91850 4. 91267
(! .00453 8.71009 7. 22041
' 0 .02833
2 1. 00000 4. 51264 3. 51623Ü
161. 5049 4 .24428 5. 68893 .60322i
6 .01363 7. 23629 4. 43127
I 8 .00297 8. 96459 6. 90189
5. 79354
1. 00000 5. 81033 5. 07543*
293.7190 < . 66331 6. 76461 3. 70944*
xvx I
6
8
.61699
.05732
8.10925
9. 68297
2. 49801
5. 85150
leighRitz procedure by using Legendre func to plus or minus signs in equation (4.70)
tions rather than beam functions. Results Values given above the main diagonal of the
from this approach are also listed in table 4.67. array are for the minus sign, and values below
Waller (ref. 4.119) obtained experimental the diagonal are for the plus sign. Numbers on
frequencies and mode shapes for square brass the diagonal of the table are then for m=n.
plates (v=%). Consider the mode shapes as In reference 4.79 are plotted the experimental
being approximated by free membrane mode frequency ratios of reference 4.119. This plot
shapes; for example, is reproduced as figure 4.54. Experimentally
observed mode shapes corresponding to many
mir n7r n
wcz
W(x, f,\
y)—cos,
n *cos—±cos—
y , T& cos—
miry of these frequencies are shown in figure 4.55
a a a a (ref. 4.119). Other experimental results for
(4.70) the square are given in references 4.110,
4.113,4.120, and 4.121.
in terms of figure 4.51. Theratio of fre Waller (ref. 4.122) observed the transition
quencies relative to the fundamental are given points in sudden nodal pattern change in the
in table 4.68 for various m/n ratios. The plus fundamental mode as a/b varies for the com
or minus signs after m/n in the table correspond pletely free plate. This had been observed
308337 O—70 8
106 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.65.—Frequency Parameters and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Square Plate; v=0.S
Concluded
*=Vi.
RECTANGULAR PLATES
107
<oa2V^7T3 = 34.8010 (K=0.I) <üa2v^7Ü= 61.0931 U=0.5) <oa2,/£7D = 105.4632 (K=) üja2v£7ü = 204.6523 (<c = 0)
ü>a2v^7ü=63.6869 (<c=0) wa2v^ö7ü = 105.4632 (*=0) wa2v^7ü = 156.2384 (* = 0) o»a2^7Ü= 299.9320 (*=0)
FIGOEE 4.53.Contour lines for 16 modes of a completely free square plate; v=0.3. (After ref. 4.113)
VIBRATION OF PLATES
108
TABLE AM.Frequencies and Amplitude Parameters for a Completely Freejquare Plate; v0.8;
Modes Symmetric to x=0; antisymmetric to y=0; ^=V1
An
uaPyp/D
theoretically for other boundary conditions Xm(x) and Yn(y) are shown in figure 4.57 for
(see sees. 4.3.1 and 4.3.12). In figures 4.56(a) a/6=1.0. The curves of figure 4.57 do change
and 4.56(6) are shown the nodal patterns of slightly between the different modes and with
two brass plates having the same width, but varying a/6 ratio. Thirtysix precise sets of
the length in figure 4.56(a) is slightly greater. curves for Wmn(x, y) are plotted in reference
The a/b ratio is approximately 1.93. The cyclic 4.13, but is is not felt that the variations are
frequencies in figures 4.56(a) and 4.56(6) were sufficient to justify their detailed repetition here.
548.8 and 558 cps, respectively. It was found An estimate of this variation can be obtained by
that by gradually filing down the longer side looking at the edges where the variation is
the nodal patterns in figures 4.56(c), 4.56(d), usually the greatest. One of the mode compo
and 4.56(e) could be produced. It is esti nents having relatively large change in shape
mated that the transition between figures due to change in the other component or
4.56(6) and 4.56(f) occurs at a/6=3.9. a/6 is X2(x). Deflection values to be used at
Pavlik (refs. 4.111 and 4.112) extended Kitz' x/a=0.5 in figure 4.57 for varying values of
work to nonsquare rectangular plates. Fre Yn(y) are given in table 4.73 for a/6=1.0.
quencies and mode shapes for three aspect Increasing n also increases the magnitude of
ratios are presented in tables 4.69 to 4.71 for the negative curvature in the range
^=0.25. The functions Xm and Yn are as 0.3<z/a<0.5.
defined previously in equation (4.58). Variation in edge deflection of X2(x) with
In reference 4.13, extensive results are a/b ratio is shown in table 4.74 for Y2(y).
obtained for a/b=% and % and v=%. These Accurate upper and lower bounds for the
are listed in table 4.72. Values in parentheses doubly antisymmetric modes of a rectangle
are interpolated. (see discussion earlier in this section) are re
Mode shapes in the form Wmn(x, y)=Xm(x) ported in reference 4.118. These results are
Yn(y) corresponding to wmn were found in ref given in table 4.75 for */=0.3. Upper bounds
erence 4.13. The shape of the components from reference 4.78 for doubly antisymmetric
RECTANGULAR PLATES 109
120
TABLE 4.67.—Bounds on Frequency Parameters
«a%/p/D for Modes of a Completely Free
Square Plate Which Are Antisymmetric About
the Coordinate Axes and Symmetric About the
Diagonals
ua?ifp/D
v= 0.225
»=0.300
FIGURE 4.55.—Experimentally determined mode shapes for a completely free square plate. (From
ref. 4.119)
1
—r—
1 1 (b)
(a) 1 1
1 i
; /
/ / (d)
(c) / /
/ '
/ •
T 1 r
/ / I I I
(e) I I I (f)
/
i i L
FIGUEB 4.56.—Nodal patterns in the vicinity of a
transition point for a completely free rectangular
plate. (After ref. 4.122)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 111
TABLE 4.68.—Experimentally Determined Relative Frequencies for a Completely Free Square Brass
Plate; v=%
0 1.52 5.10 9.14 15.8 23.0 32.5 43 55.2 70 84 101 119 141
1 1 2.71 5.30 10.3 15.8 23.9 32.2 43 55.8 71 86.1 102 121
2 1.94 2.71 4.81 8.52 12.4 19.0 26.4 34 46.6 59 73 89 105 124
3 5.10 6.00 8.52 11.8 16.6 22.6 30.0 39.5 50.5 63.4 77.5 92.4 110 128
4 9.9 10.3 13.2 16.6 21.5 28.7 35.5 45.4 55.9 69.7 82.9 99 116 132 
5 15.8 16.6 19.0 23.3 28.7 35 43 52.1 64.5 75.9 90 106 122 136
6 23.8 23.9 27.1 30.0 35.9 43 51 61.7 73 84 99 115 130
7 32.5 32.4 34.0 39.8 45.4 53 61.7 70.3 84 93 108 124
8 43.0 43.0 46.6 50.5 57.2 64.5 73 84 94.4 106 120 136
9 55.2 55.8 59 63.4 69.7 76.2 84 93.2 106 120 133
10 70.0 71.0 73 77.5 82.9 90 99 108 120 133
11 84.0 86.1 89 92.4 99 106 115 124 136
12 101 102 105 110 116 122 130
13 119 121 124 128 132 136 147
14 141
1
Xs(x)v^orl
a'b
Ys(y)VB Y,(y),/b
TABLE 4.69.—Frequencies and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Rectangular Plate; &/b=1.041;
2
MO VP/JD W(x,]
TABLE 4.70.—Frequencies and Mode Shapes for a Completely Free Rectangular Plate; a/b=1.078;
2
&>O VP/D WQe,y)
NPID W(x,
X
A 0 5.593 15. 418 30. 223 49. 965 74. 639
1 7.374 (17.61) 27. 032 (42. 25) 61. 628 (85. 56)
2 22. 373 (26. 52) 37. 585 (51. 70) 70. 007 (91.78) (117. 29)
3 61. 673 (65. 17) (75. 05) 91. 963 (111.58) 135. 794 (162. 56)
4 120. 903 (123.34) (132.94) (149.57) 170. 974 (196.56) (223. 50)
5 199. 860 (200. 70) (210. 02) (226. 41) 248. 876 274. 639 (303. 18)
6 298. 556 (298. 94) (307. 30) (324. 72) (345. 96) (372. 88) 402. 968
2
A 0 9.944 27. 410 53. 735 88. 826 132 691
1 9.905 22. 245 40. 339 66. 309 100. 928 (144.5)
2 22. 373 (30. 36) 46. 654 (68. 39) 97. 822 (133.40) 177. 606
3 61. 673 (69. 56) 86. 028 111. 510 143. 532 . 182. 204 (226. 20)
4 120. 903 (127.7) (145.2) (160. 5) 204. 804 (245. 9) 294. 258
5 199. 860 (205. 1) 222. 088 (250. 0) 283. 715 326. 580 (374. 8)
6 298. 556 (302. 1) (320. 4) (347. 8) (382. 6) (425. 6) 476. 853
2
TABLE 4.75.—Bounds on Frequency Parameters «a Vp/D for the Doubly Antisymmetric Modes of a
Completely Free Rectangular Plate ; v=0J8
ma1 fpjD
Mode Lower bound Upper bound Lowerbound Upperbound Lowerbound Upper bound
1 . ._. . 13. 092 13. 474 10. 479 10.761 8. 6667 8. 9351
2  66. 508 69. 576 48. 352 50. 487 36. 651 38. 294
3 . 75. 146 77. 411 67. 665 69. 746 64. 844 66. 965
4 ... 145. 57 153. 12 117. 68 124. 15 94. 147 98. 648
5 196. 46 205. 17 132. 77 138. 41 103. 32 108.18
6 207. 87 214. 81 197. 36 205. 77 166. 83 176. 56
7 . 277. 72 292. 37 208. 75 220. 03 184. 44 193. 73
8 285. 47 299. 27 249. 46 262. 66 198. 62 205. 35
9 . 393. 93 420. 99 264. 27 277. 23 234. 75 244. 80
10 _ . . 410. 74 430. 66 339. 96 358. 87 261. 14 275. 96
TABLE 4.76.—Frequencies for Doubly Antisymmetric Modes of a Completely Free Rectangular Plate;
b/a= 4.0; v=0.8
Mode 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
ucPirfD .. . 3. 2597 10.711 20. 749 34. 622 53. 092 64. 080 71. 048 77. 232 84. 532 102. 87
4.4 ELASTIC, DISCONTINUOUS, AND POINT tions along x=0 and x=a. The remaining
SUPPORTS boundary conditions are
4.4.1 Elastic Edge Supports
My(x,0)=K^(x,0)
Consider first the rectangular plate simply
supported (SS) along the sides x=0 and x=a
and elastically restrained (ES) against both Mv(x,b)=K2^(x,b) (4.71)
translation and rotation along the other sides
as shown in figure 4.59. The solution equa V,(x,0)=KlW(*,0)
tion (eq. (1.37)) satisfies the boundary condi Vy{x,b)=KiW{x,b)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 115
30 40 6(0
TABLE 4.77.—Experimentally Determined Frequency Ratios for Completely Free Rectangular Brass
Plates
o/6=1.09
o/6=1.5
o/6=2.0
»Fundamental frequency of a 3.94 by 3.62 by 0.720in. plate was 423 cps. For a 6.15 by 5.67 by 0.0906in.
plate, it was 220 cps.
b
Fundamental frequency of a 9.81 by 6.38 by 0.934in. plate was 134 cps.
° Fundamental frequency of a 2.36 by 1.172 by 0.0807in. plate was 1730 cps. For a 5.55 by 2.78 by 0.1240in.
plate, it was 482 cps.
a/2 a/2
1 1
b/2
1 Elastic Supports
b/2
Smh XiV
W(x, y) = (coshX22/cos Xl2/)+_ (#/Z?)(X2 sin MM sinh X26)J
(X?+Xjj) sinh X26+(gX2/Z>)(cosh X26cos Xt6)
(K/D)(\2 sin Xi6—Xi sinh X26) '}
sin Xi?/ >sin ax (4.73)
8.8
00 /
8.4
5C)0
50
I
0 %
8.0 l\\\\
IC10
0
II
il 7 7
vi\
TO 40
0 '//■*
f<aL **./.
l—tril
7.6 65
 JU
ft <\,J>
'//
■\\>\\ ^
7.2 N 25 ' M,
/ <Oj
 NX
; 20 'S. o
\y
6.8 \\\
\\\N
v,\>
nV
.o' * 6.4
CM
CM
a CMP r y
3 E 6.0
IV \*
5.6
5.2 ^
^jk
4.8
\
4.4
4.0
0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 I.I 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 .1.8 1.9 2.0
1(5.)
FIGURE 4.60.—Frequency parameters tfaWplmWD for a SSESSSES rectangular plate with symmetrical slope
restraints.
In reference 4.127 the problem is also solved which gives A= (irKb/&D)B. Formulating the
by the Rayleigh method. A mode shape is Rayleigh quotient yields the frequency param
chosen as eter
■262
*RW[£(F£) D
m
120 ~r a 2t2~r
0 !)(§)'
Kb 4Kb\
+( —fSjcos^r Icosasr
\ W b J
(4.80)
<^){^m
2Kb
2DA
f**K2b2 4Kb{ , Kfr
2 ' 4D 2
■K D)
+K1+ 2D,J]}
so that .4=0 represents the condition of (4.82)
simply supported edges at y=±b/2, and 5=0
represents the condition of clamped edges.
Results obtained from equation (4.82) are
The ratio A/B is then a measure of edge re
given in table 4.78 in the columns denoted
straint and is determined from
by (a). Realizing that these values must be
upper bounds, correction factors were estab
KiW,
' OF /jM/2~
(4.81) lished based upon exact solutions of equation
EECTANGULAR PLATES 119
(4.78) for fundamental roots at selected points. Values of em, Am, and Bm are given in table 4.79
Column (b) lists the corrected values. Values for varying spring constant parameters £, with
marked by an asterisk identify the exact values
obtained. The values of column (b) are ti=p (iorXJ
plotted as figure 4.60.
(4.85)
Figure 4.60 gives valuable design information ifB=§ (forFn)
if properly used. The fundamental frequency
is obtained by letting m= 1. While frequencies
higher than the fundamental can be obtained and K defined as in equation 4.81.
from it by increasing m, it must be remembered The strain energy of the system is (fig. 4.59)
that all higher mode shapes considered have
v
nodal lines parallel to only the yaxis. Other
mode shapes are not considered in figure 4.60.
2 J„ J0 LU?v +KWJ +2vwW
The dashed line locates the minima of the
various curves.
It is suggested in reference 4.127 that, when
the two side moment restraints are unequal, 2_Jo \dy2 by Jo
a reasonably good approximation to the true
frequency value can be obtained by averaging
the results obtained from the separate sym
+JT(^£)>] <»
metric problems by considering first one where the second term represents the energy
magnitude of edge restraint and then the other. stored in the rotational springs along the edges.
If the frequency parameter r is defined by Calculations were based upon a 36term
series for the deflection function taking m,
w'a Vp n=l, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. Because the diagonal
(4.83)
'mWD terms of the resulting frequency determinant
are much greater than the others, an approxi
then the average used may be either the arith
mate solution for the (mn)th mode can be ob
metic mean, (ri+r2)/2, or the geometric mean,
tained by taking only the (mn)th term of
Vriiv W(x, y). The approximate frequency can then
Carmichael (ref. 4.128) used the Kayleigh
be written as
Ritz method to compute frequencies for a
rectangular plate having w=0 and uniform
slope restraint along pairs of opposite edges. ^=^Vf[(ä) 4,+4+2(y<M>n] (4.87)
Mode shapes of the type
where
W(x,y)=TtXm(x)T%(y) A _ *Uem(K+l)+2Am(Bml)]
^ em(2AllBll+l)+2An(Bm+l) ^V
were used, where Xm(x) and Y„(y) are the
characteristic functions of a vibrating beam and similarly for <j>n by replacing m by n in
having zero deflection and rotational restraint equation (4.88). Values of <£m,„ are given in
at its ends; that is, table 4.79.
Frequencies and approximate nodal patterns
Xm=Am ("cosh ^cos ^) are shown in table 4.80 for ranges of b/a and
■ \ a a / £a=£&=£ Values in parentheses are those
found from equation (4.87). Other results
+5msinh^+sin^ (4.84) for =20 and °° are obtained from the 36
a a
term series. Values for £=0 found from equa
and similarly for Y„, by replacing m, x, and a tion (4.20) are included for comparison. It is
in equation (4.84) by n, y, and b, respectively. seen that the approximate solution in the table
120 VIBRATION OF PLATES
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RECTANGULAR PLATES 121
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122 VIBEATION OF PLATES
m, n=l m, n = 2 m, w=3
1
nowhere differs from the series solution by more square by using the same procedure as in refer
than 0.7 percent. It must be noted from equa ence 4.128. These are shown in figure 4.62.
tions (4.81) and (4.85) that choosing equal In reference 4.130, the problem is also solved
values of £n and £& does not give equal slope by using the RayleighBitz method and alge
restraint along all edges except for the case braic polynomials.
In reference 4.131, the typical electronic
of the square. chassis which is formed by bending the edges
The case of uniform slope. restraint and of a plate down is treated as a plate with elastic
W=0 along all edges was studied by Bolotin edge supports. An eigenfunction is used to
et al. (ref. 4.60), who used a variation of the solve the problem which is an average of the
series method to obtain frequencies for the eigenfunctions for plates with simply supported
first 10 modes of a square having variable edges and those having clamped edges. The
restraint. These results are shown in figure RayleighBltz method is employed. Theo
4.61. Results for this problem were also pre retical and experimental results are obtained
sented in reference 4.129 for the case of the for particular chassis.
RECTANGULAB PLATES 123
Ends Elastically Restrained Against Rotation
Hoppmann and Greenspon (ref. 4.132) pre 4.4.2 Discontinuous Edge Conditions
sented a method for experimentally simulating Some interesting results are available for the
elastic edge supports by means of sharp V case of a square plate which is simply supported
grooves machined along the edges of a clamped but clamped along segments of its edges.
plate, the degree of slope restraint being deter Consider first the square which is clamped
mined by the depth of the grooves. A curve along four symmetrically located segments of
showing the frequency parameter for a clamped length lu and simply supported along the re
square plate as a function of the notch ratio R mainder of the boundary as in figure 4.64. Ota
is shown in figure 4.63; R is the ratio of the and Hamada (refs. 4.133 and 4.134) solved thö
depth of the notch to the thickness of the plate. problem by assuming a deflection function
which satisfies the simply supported boundary
Experimentally determined points are shown
conditions everywhere (eq. (4.19)), and applying
as circles. The curve was drawn through end distributed edge moments of the type, for
points determined by the theoretical results of example,
Iguchi (ref. 4.9) and fitted to the four experi
mental points. W,=o=(&« sin mirx) cos cot (4.89)
\m=l
124 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.80. Frequency Parameters cob%/p/5 and Approximate Nodal Patterns for a Rectangular
Plate Elastically Restrained Against Rotation Along All Edges
[Values in parentheses are found from eq. (4.87)]
2
W6 VP/5 for mode—
b/a £ ■
i 2 3 4 5 6
X o Fffl
1
1
1
1
i
1
■
1
0.9 0 17.86 41.85 47.47 71.46 81.82 111.4
20 28.21 54.57 61.97 86.85 97.03 123.0
(28. 28) (54. 77) (62. 17) (87. 15) (97. 34) (123.3)
CO 32. 67 62.29 70.76 98. 14 109.4 143.5
(32. 78) (62.71) (71. 06) (98. 66) (109.8) (144.1)
1 1 ■ 1
1 1 1
 1 + — 1 1 ~4t~
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
^
m=4,n=4
0 Experimental Data
3. 4
4 20
2,
3.
4
3
——^
3 t 1, 4
2, 3
1, 3
2, 2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0
1, 2
^^ R
2TTD
II
O.OI 0.1 I
Et3/l2ko
FIGURE 4.62.—Frequency parameters for a square FIGURE 4.64.—SSSSSSSS square plate clamped
plate having uniform slope restraint along air edges along four symmetrically located segments.
derived by procedure of reference 4.128. (After ref.
4.129)
pends upon the number of terms kept in the
summations and, hence, the orders of the
The coefficients Km are then chosen for each characteristic determinants used. The problem
edge such that the normal moments are zero was solved at essentially the same time by
along the simply supported segments and the Kurata and Okamura (ref. 4.135), who used a
normal slopes are zero along the clamped very similar method.
segments. These conditions, along with the Fundamental frequency parameters for
principle of stationary total energy, are used to several values of k are shown in figure 4.65
formulate a characteristic determinant for the (ref. 4.133) and tabulated in table 4.81. Ex
problem, the roots of which yield the vibration perimental data shown in figure 4.65 were
frequencies. The accuracy of the results de obtained on mild steel plates having edge
126 VIBRATION OF PLATES
_k2L
FIGURE 4.65.—Frequency parameters for SSSSSSSS i
square plate clamped along four symmetrically Nodal pattern i
located segments. (After ref. 4.133) izr
Ref. 4.133 19.74 33.9 35. 5 35.98 FIGURE 4.66.—SSSSSSSS square plate clamped
Ref. 4.135 19.74 33.97 35.98 along two symmetrically located segments of opposite
edges.
RECTANGULAR PLATES 127
t i g
TABLE 4.83.—Fundamental Frequency Parameters wa2Vp/D for a Simply Supported Square Plate
damped Along 2 Symmetrically Located Segments of Opposite Edges, v=0.S
TABLE 4.84.—Experimental Cyclic Frequencies and Nodal Patterns for a Simply Supported Square
Plate Clamped Along 2 Symmetrically Located Segments of Opposite Edges
Y/A Y/A
i
Y/A Y/A
■ X/A Y/A
i
4
i t ■
Nodal pattern i
\/>A
i
\/A Y/A
1
1
Y/A IY/A Y/A
Frequency, cps _. 225 420 500 660 785 955
128 VIBRATION OF PLATES
hla 0 % }i % 1
1^
aa^p/D 19.74 22.2 25.5 27.8 28.95
1 > ■"*
U/a 0 % }i % 1
S,/a
FIGURE 4.69.—Frequency parameters for SSSSSSSS wa2V' pjD 19.74 23.0 23.4 23. 6 23.65
square plate clamped along two unsymmetrically
located segments of opposite edges. (After ref. 4.133)
tained on the same plates as those described
earlier in this section.
The case when the plate is clamped along
one segment at the end of one edge is shown in
figure 4.72. Nowacki (refs. 4.136 and 4.137)
expressed a unit moment acting at a point
along the clamped interval in terms of a trigo
I cP I <; ?
Va
terns obtained in reference 4.135 are given in FIGURE 4.71.—Frequency parameters for SSSSSSSS
table 4.87 for li/a=%. Experimental results square plate clamped along one symmetrically
shown in figure 4.71 and table 4.87 were ob located segment of an edge. (After ref. 4.133)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 129
over discrete segments of the interval, which
resulted in a system of equations, each term
of which is an infinite series of transcendental
functions containing the eigenvalues. Trun
cating the series and solving the resulting
characteristic determinant yielded the vibration
frequencies.
Numerical results from reference 4.133 are
given in figure 4.73. Data from references
4.133 and 4.136 are also given in table 4.88.
By looking at the results of reference 4.136
in table 4.88, it is seen that they are clearly
inaccurate, the frequency parameter listed for
the case when k/a=% being greater than the
wellknown result for the case when ls/a=l
(see discussion on SSCSSSS plate, sec. 4.2.2).
The solution is also given in reference 4.136
for the case when the interval 0<a;<Z5 is
clamped along the edge y=0 (fig. 4.72), the
interval Z5<a:<a is free, and the remaining
FIGURE 4.72.—SSSSSSSS square plate clamped edges are simply supported. It was found
along one segment at the end of an edge. for l6/a=% that M2^JJD= 14.8.
The case obtained when the simply sup
nometric series and formulated an integral ported portions of the edges of the plate shown
equation involving a Green's function along in figure 4.72 are replaced by clamped edge
the clamped interval. The integral equation conditions and the remaining portion has zero
was replaced by a finite summation carried out slope and shear is included in reference 4.138.
TABLE 4.87.—Experimental Cyclic Frequencies and Nodal Patterns jor a Simply Supported Square
Plate damped Along 1 Symmetrically Located Segment of an Edge
TT
Nodal pattern
I
i l fF
TZT 77J Y7J V77 U Y7X
J.
K*
Frequency, cps_ 200 425 480 680 835 900 1000
TABLE 4.88.—Frequency Parameters coa2Vp/D jor a Simply Supported Square Plate Clamped Along
1 Segment at the End of an Edge
I <J '
f
TABLE 4.89.Frequency Parameters coa2Vp/D for a Free Rectangular Plate Point Supported at the
Jf. Corners; v=0.S
I
I I I I I
4—5 — 6 — 5 — 4 I
I I I I I I I I I
10—II —12 —13 —14 —15 —16 —17—
I I I I I I
18 — 19—18 17—16 —15—14 — 13—12—II—10
I I I I I
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
2 7 8 9—8 7 2 20 — 21 — 22—23 — 24—25—26 — 27 28—29 — 28 27—26—25—24—23—22—21 — 20
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
3 6 9 10—9 6 3 30 31—32—33—34—35—36—37 38—39—38 ■ 37—36—35—34—33—32 — 31—30
I I I I I 1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
2 7 9—9—8 7 2 20—21 — 22—23—24 — 25 — 26 — 27 28—29—28 27—26—25—24—23—22—21 — 20
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
5 6 5 4 I 10 II —12—13 —14—15 —16—17 18—19 —18 17 —16 —15 — 14 — 13 —12— II —10
I
I 1
I I
•2—3
2—3
I 2
I 1
II 1
[_ I
I 1 2
I I
3—4
I I
5 6
I I
7
I
■8 9
I I
8 7
I 6
I 5
I 4
I I
3
I
2 1
I I
'
a/b=l a/b=3
— Aa —
2 3 4—4 3 ■*—. I ? 7, 4 5 fi
6 5—4 — 3— 2 I 1
5 — 6
I I I I I
7— 8 — 9—9 — 8 7 6
~l
5
Abi
7
I
8' 9 — 10—11 —12— 13 —12— II —10— 9
I I I I 8
M 7
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
10 — II 12 —13 —14 — 14—13 12—II —10 14 — 15 16—17—18 —19—20—19 — 18—17— 16—15—14
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
15 —16 17 18 —19 —19 —18 17 —16 —15 21—22 23 — 24—25 26 27—26—25 — 24—23 — 22—21
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
10 — II 12—13—14—14 — 13 12—11 — 10 14—15 ■ 16—17 —18 19' 20 19— 18— 17— 16 — 15 — 14
I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I
5 6 7 8—9 9 — 8 — 7—6 — 5 7 8 ■9 —10—II •12 13 12—II—10—9—8 — 7
U ■2— 3 — 4 — 4—3
a/b=l.5
1
2— I l_l 1
I
I
I
I
I
2
2—3
a/b=2
I I
4 —5
I I
6— 5—4 — 3 — 2
5—6
I I I I I
I
I
'
was used with the RayleighRitz method. Pois 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
Ac^ A6 = o/5_ 15. 0541 16. 8311 35. 5951 38. 7292
Aa = A6 = a/6_ 15. 2650 17. 5659 36. 4827 40. 2638
» 15. 73 19. 13 » 38. 42 » 43. 55
Extrapolated values.
_. 5 45
a.
41
~—~
1
39
*
<>
1 22
UJ
4 20
1 i.
18
>■
I 3
16
8^
i.
Poisson s Ratio,v
TABLE 4.92.—Higher Mode Shapes W(x, y) for a Free Square Plate Point Supported at the 4 Corners;
v=0.S
TABLE 4.93.—Frequency Parameters, Nodal Patterns, and Amplitude Coefficients for a Rectangular
Plate Supported at Its 4 Corners; v=0.S
[Values in parentheses are obtained by keeping 24 terms of the series]
Mode 1: Mode 2:
a/6
aWp/D Normalized modeshape wcfi^pID Normalized modeshape
coefficients coefficients
TABLE 4.93.—Frequency Parameters, Nodal Patterns, and Amplitude Coefficients for a Rectangular
Plate Supported a} Its 4 Corners; v=0.8—Continued
[Values in parentheses are obtained by keeping 24 terms of the series
i > * \1 *
Mode 3: 1
\
Mode 4:
A 1
X—
1
\
i
a/b .
wa2yp/D Normalized modeshape o>a?^jp!D Normalized modeshape
coefficients coefficients
were used in reference 4.2 to obtain approximate lem of a free square plate clamped at one mid
fundamental frequencies for general values of point as shown in figure 4.83. A deflection
a/b and *<=0.25. The frequency may be com function
puted from equation (4.17) with
K
TF(5, y)=^(D"Q*[ck+^(D] (495)
2W 67
(4.94) was used to yield a fundamental frequency
2
N= +~ab+b') parameter oja.%/p/D=2.580. In this case the
point clamp at (0, 0) permits rotation about
Cox (ref. 4.142) also used the finitedifference
the 2:axis, but not about the yaxis.
method to solve the problem of the free square The square plate having two adjacent edges
plate supported at the midpoints of its sides
both either clamped or simply supported and
(see fig. 4.82). Frequencies obtained from two
a point support at the opposite corner (see
mesh widths and from the extrapolation formula
equation (4.90) are listed in table 4.95 for fig. 4.84) was also analyzed by Cox (ref. 4.144).
„=0.3. The finite difference method and y=0.3 was
Plass (ref. 4.143) used a variational method used. Frequency parameters for both prob
described later in this section to solve the prob lems are listed in table 4.96 for two mesh
RECTANGULAR PLATES 137
TABLE 4M.—Frequency Parameters, Nodal Patterns, and Amplitude Coeßcients for a Bectangul,ar
Plate Supported at Its 4 Corners; v=0.8—Continued
i
i
Mode 5: . + .. Mode 6:
.. i
a/b
a/b
Mode 7:
u
.'"s
aoi=0.1555 601=0.1555
48.3 o03=.1950 603=.1950
1 0
(44. 4) a2J= 1.000 62, = 1.000
o23=.1088 623=.1088
041= .0988 641=.0988
a0i=0.4491 601= 0.6498
a03=.1209 603=.0355
75.4 a2i= 1.000 62i=.5491
1.5
(70. 1) o23=.0468 623=.1078
O4i=.0658 641=.0590
308337 O  70 
138 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4M—Comparison Between Experimental and Theoretical Results for Cyclic Frequencies of
Rectangular Plates Point Supported in the Corners
Plate 1: 12 by 12 by 0.129in. 2024 aluminum Plate 2: 10 by 20 by3 0.173in. 2024 aluminum
Mode E= 10.6X 10» psi (book value) B=10.6X10 psi (book value)
a/2
a/2
Clamped Point
/ — x
:{T
a/2 a/2
FIGUKE 4.82.—Free square plate supported at the FIGURE 4.83—Free square plate clamped at one
midpoints of its sides. midpoint.
Mesh width
Extrapolated
value
a/8 a/10
for each section, and satisfying the boundary where a=mir/a. The roots X3 and X4 of
conditions along y=0 and y=b and the con equation (4.98) yield the frequencies.
tinuity conditions along y=v exactly. Con The fundamental frequency parameters for
tinuity of transverse shear along y=v requires three a/b ratios and with the point support at
expanding the point load at £, v into a Fourier the center (£=a/2, v=b/2) are listed in table 4.97.
sine series. These conditions lead to the char Frequencies were also determined (ref. 4.137)
acteristic equation for the case of the square when the support
^\ sinn2a£ p'sinh X4r; sinh X4(6—v) point was allowed to relocate along the line
y=a/2=b/2. Eesults are given in table 4.98.
m=l,2,...(Xi XI) L" X4 sinh X46
It is noted that corresponding values (£/a= %,
sinh X37? sinh X3(6—?;)"[ a/b=l) of tables 4.97 and 4.98 show consider
X3 sinh X36 J =0 (4.98)
able disagreement.
140 VIBRATION OF PLATES
Ha 0 Vs M % 14 +4©""©"+l©l
ucP^pID  19.7 25.5 30.4 38.9 49.3 +4is[©'i(D']}
The case when the plate is supported at a
point by a spring, with or without added mass,
is discussed in the section entitled "Point +«GXD[(IH(D']
Masses" (sec. 4.5.2).
The square hubpin plate (fig. 4.86) consists
of a hub support attached to the edge of a
+<l)©"[©5©'] <«°»
plate and having an axis of rotation parallel Moment boundary conditions were exactly
to the adjacent edges and a pin support at satisfied at discrete points and four degrees
another point along the same edge. For the of approximate satisfaction of the shear bound
particular locations shown in figure 4.87, the ary conditions were considered; the best results
boundary conditions at the hub are for W(x,y) were obtained when the transverse shear con
ditions on the free edges were ignored. Fre
quency parameters from reference 4.66 com
pared with the experimental data of reference
and at the pin 4.72 are presented in table 4.99 for an aluminum
plate 7.5 by 7.5 inches by 0.25 inch. Experi
w(o,^a)=Mx(o,^a)=0 (4.100) mental methods used to get these results are
described in reference 4.146.
Mode shapes corresponding to the first three
frequencies are shown in figure 4.87, where
E
zb
I53C S
W P
fExp =H9.6cps f
Exp =243.0cps
MODE I MODE 2
FIGURE 4.87.—Theoretical and experimental mode shapes for a square hubpin plate.
i=x/a and it—y/a. Further experimental re man (ref. 4.148). In reference 4.148, the
sults (ref. 4.86) for a thinner plate are shown RayleighRitz method is used with a funda
in figure 4.88. More work on pointsupported mental mode shape
plates is contained in reference 4.147.
4.5 ADDED MASS
4.5.1 Rigid Strip Mass
The problem of the rectangular plate, simply (4.102)
supported on two opposite edges, free on the where A is an undetermined coefficient to be
other two, and carrying a rigid mass of finite found from the minimization process. An ex
width I running across the center of the plate plicit formula for the frequency parameter is
(fig. 4.89) was studied by Cohen and Handel found to be
f r r r
v_C »C «2(C ,C «+ g1Cr.)+2Vrg,C«q<?6)2g2<75«73C4+ 0,0,)+ 010,0,+dCM ,A ino,
where
01=
(4.104)
142 VIBRATION OF PLATES
k^H ROTATIONAL
CONSTRAINT POINT
£ = 0.90
0.2 +0 2 +0.4
—i H _, 1 1 1
£=0.30A_
£=0.50£
£=0.70A
£=0.90A
SHAKER POSITION
0.801 NO DEFLECTION DATA
• SHAKER POSITION 
(b) NO DEFLECTION DATA (d)
RECTANGULAR PLATES 143
f=0.90,
£=0.30i
• SHAKER POSITION 
NO DEFLECTION DATA
• SHAKER POSITION
NO DEFLECTION DATA
FIGURE 4.88.—Experimental node lines and normalized deflection of a square hubpin plate;
material, 6061T6 aluminum l/% inch thick, (o) Experimental node lines and data points.
(6) First mode; /i = 58.8 cps. (c) Second mode; f2= 119 cps. (d) Third mode; /3 = 339
cps. (e) Fourth mode;/4 = 462 cps. (/) Fifth mode; /5 = 570 cps.
and where p' is the mass density per unit area large values of alb, equation (4.104) can be
of the plate plus the additional mass in the simplified by retaining terms of order (b/a)2,
region [(a/2)(Z/2)<a<[(a/2) + (Z/2)]. For but no higher powers, giving:
2
^^HytH)*^)'] (4.105)
4TT
15
Numerical results were evaluated in reference where
4.148 for p=0.25. For the square, equation
(4.103) was used. Frequency variation with wa2Jp/D
l/a ratio for several values of p'/p is shown in
figure 4.90. For a/b=10, equation (4.105) was D1=E2
used. Results are shown in figure 4.91. It is
interesting to note that in both figures for
p'/p<2 the frequency always increases as
l/a increases, whereas for p'/p^>2 there exist
crossover points where the frequency of the
plate with the added strip is the same as that of
•©'
\EzEi
Dz=D22EzEi(^j
the unloaded plate.
In reference 4.149 the technique of reference
4.148 was extended to the lowest antisym
metrical mode. A function
is found to be (4.109)
D12D2+2^Dl+DiD5
(4.108)
E^ 4
*'■*
4*
ftl
I/o
FIGURE 4.90.—Fundamental frequency variation for a FIGURE 4.91.—Frequency variation for a SSFSSF
SSFSSF square plate carrying a rigid strip mass; rectangular plate (a/6=10) carrying a rigid strip
«=0.25. (After ref. 4.148) mass; x=0.25. (After ref. 4.148)
BECTANGULAR PLATES 145
and where 5000
2000
^© 1000
E2=E5/(P
500
.\
fc/
200 II f
^4=^
100
m=p IP
f/
50
1+2
©
■00
7T
v^©. 20 Svt/
Sr
E 10
i=ZJ?E* ■ $/
««00'
*S00"
0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
i/o
(4.110) FIGURE 4.92.—Variation of the first antisymmetric
frequency for a SSFSSF square plate carrying a
For large values of a/b, equation (4.108) rigid strip mass. (After ref. 4.149)
simplifies to
ouuu
2000
1000
500
1
III
III
II
III I
///
si
" t ///
el 7/
200 ///
FIGURE 4.94.—SSSSSSSS rectangular plate with a
mp' >P
point mass M.
100 /
' /
'/
ric modes of a square (a=b) when the mass
is at the center (£=«/&, i?=a/2). It is obvious
50
^/•^
Ay 7/
//]
//
that for modes having an axis of antisymmetry
I the mass M will fall on a node line and, hence,
//
20 «
Y will not affect the plate. The frequencies may
*/ be obtained from the characteristic equation
V
10 — ii%
" v~ tanhV(2m+l)2X
/iW=xS
5 5^0 V(2m+1)2X
tanh£V(2m+l)2+X
2
V(2m+1)2+X HS <4112)
where
0.2 0.4 o.e 0.8 1.0
i/o P/D (4.113)
FIGURE 4.93.—Variation of the first antisymmetric
frequency for a SSFSSF rectangular plate carrying The function /i(X) is given in table 4.100 and
a rigid strip mass; ajb = 10. (After ref. 4.149) plotted in figure 4.95.
0 0 2.0 CO 10 CO
sinh(^V(2m+l)2At)
n
W(x,y)=T,{l)
m=0 V(2m+1)2Xi cosh ( V(2m+l)2xA
sinh fa V(2m+1)2+X^
sin [(2m + l)^] (4.114)
V(2m+1)2+X4 cosh (JV(2m+l)2+X,)
13.0 CO
150 VIBRATION OF PLATES
(2m+iy . (2m+l)wx
(l)mcos
W{x,y)=T, [ sin
]
7ryV(2m+l)2X s.nhW(2m+l)+X
sinh
(4.121)
,,.2 , , W(2m+1)2X ,n:—,..,,, , W(2m + 1)2+X
V(2 m l) —Xcosh—— j— V(2m+l)2fXcosh —— —
In references 4.156 and 4.157, Solecki gives The problem of the SSSSSSC square plate
the fundamental frequency of a square plate having two point masses, one at £i=?ji=0.2a
clamped all around and having a point mass at and the other at £2='?2=0.4a, was also solved
the center of twice its own mass. The fre by Das and Navaratna (ref. 4.158). Frequency
quency is found to be ratios are shown in figure 4.100.
A method for determining frequencies of
0.997T2
a2 V? (4.122) rectangular plates having added masses and
elastic edge constraints is given in reference
4.131. Theoretical and experimental fre
The problem of the rectangular plate having
three sides simply supported and the other quencies are given for specific plates used as
clamped and having a mass M and a spring of electronic chassis.
stiffness k attached at a given point (fig. 4.98) For a specific case of a rectangular cantilever
was solved in reference 4.158. The method plate having added mass at the tip (x=a),
used was essentially that given in reference see the discussion under parallelogram plates
4.153 and discussed previously in this section. entitled "Other Supports and Conditions"
Ratios of the fundamental frequency of the (sec. 5.2).
system to that of the plate alone as functions
of the stiffness ratio k/kc and the mass ratio
M/pab are shown in figure 4.99 for the case of
the square, and £=77=0.2a. The quantity 700
kc may be thought of as a generalized spring
constant corresponding to a uniformly loaded 600
SSSSSSC square plate of negligible mass;
that is, kc=D/0.00279a2. 500
Ü..O
400
/V
6/
4
300
2,
200
100
1 _
_05__.
I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Frequency Ratio
1 M, at £■  0.2
.. 11. t, £=0.4
1
T i/ = 0.3
1
15.6
^=,0.0
\ \ vv
1500
s// / 0.5
*
o/bl m000,
0.3 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.8 o
frequency Ratio CM
3
FIGURE 4.100.—Ratio of the fundamental frequency of
a SSSSSSC square plate having point masses ci/b= 11*
Mi and M2 at £i=iji=0.2a and f2='!2=0.4a, respec 1000
tively, to that of the plate alone.
a/b=to/o
o / Frequency ratio
Nodal pattern B
700 a
Clamped edge SS edge
0 1.000 1. 000
O o /
0* a .2
.4
.986
1. 118
.985
.965
i/=0.3
a/b = 1/2
o 0
.2
.4
1. 000
.916
.876
1.000
.913
.804
0 1.000 1. 000
I****"*"
o/ « o Experimenl
© .2
.4
1.040
1. 195
1.024
1.228
600.
0.1 0.2
case when the outer edge is completely free
R/a
was given in reference 4.37 as
FIGURE 4.103.—Theoretical and experimental frequency
parameters o>2a4p/D for a clamped rectangular plate coa2VP/I>=2.8963 (4.125)
having a central circular hole. (After ref. 4.159)
when R/a=0.5 and v=0.3. The Rayleigh
for a SSSSSSSS square plate having a Ritz method and the function
central circular hole, R/a=0.5, and v=0.3.
W(r,6) = (A1r2+A2ri+A3+Air2) sin 20 (4.126)
The function used was (see fig. 4.101)
(see fig. 4.101) was used. Frequency param
iFÄP)(iD(i5) eters for various numbers and combinations of
coefficients retained in equation (4.126) are
[A + A^ + At In 1 (4.124) listed in table 4.107.
4.6.2 Other Cutouts
Frequency parameters for various numbers The case of the completely free square plate
and combinations of coefficients retained in (fig. 4.106) having a centrally located square
equation (4.124) are listed in table 4.106. hole was investigated in reference 4.37. The
Because all results are upper bounds, the RayleighRitz method and functions given in
lowest value is the most accurate one. equation (4.126) were used for c/a=0.5. Fre
The frequency parameter for the square quency parameters for various numbers and
plate having a central circular hole in the combinations of coefficients retained in equa
TABLE 4.106.—Frequency Parameters wa2Vp/D for a SSSSSSSS Square Plate Having a Central
Circular Hole; v=0.S
1600
1400
a
u
1200
1000
800
400
300
E Experimental
O Theoretical [ö]
200
308337 O  70  11
154 VIBRATION OF PLATES
TABLE 4.107'.—Frequency Parameters coaVp/E) for a FFFF Square Plate Having a Central
Circular Hole
TABLE 4.108.—Frequency Parameters coa2Vp/D for a FFFF Square Plate Having a Central
Square Hole; v=0.S
i—x
•a/2 a/2
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RECTANGULAR PLATES 157
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RECTANGULAR PLATES 159
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Chapter 5
Parallelogram Plates
Because no exact solutions to equation (1.4) where kma is the mth positive root of the tran
expressed in skew coordinates by equation scendental equation
(1.39) are known to exist in variables separable
form, no significant exact solutions exist for tan (kma/2)=(l)m tanh (kma/2) (5.3)
parallelogram plates. Even the case when all
edges are simply supported requires an intricate The functions ^B(i?) are obtained by replacing
solution, unlike the case of the rectangle (sec. £, a, and m in equation (5.2) by rj, b, and n,
4.1). Some solutions have been obtained by respectively.
approximate methods for a few of the many Results were obtained in reference 5.1 by
possible combinations of boundary conditions. using only one term of equation (5.1) and the
Particular emphasis exists in the literature for Rayleigh method to obtain upper bounds for
the case of the cantilevered parallelogram frequency parameters for the case of the rhom
because of its importance as an aerodynamic bus (a=b). These results are given in table 5.1;
lifting or stabilizing surface. the notation m/n is used to indicate the number
of approximate half sine waves in the £/?;
5.1 SIMPLE EDGE CONDITIONS directions, respectively (at least for small
Results for plates with clamped (C), simply values of a). Combined modes of the form
supported (SS), and free (F) edges are given (m/n±n/m) having nearly equal frequencies
in the following subsections. exist, as in the case of the square. (See sec.
5.1.1 CCCC 4.3.1.)
Kaul and Cadambe (ref. 5.1) proposed a Lower bounds were obtained in reference 5.1
solution to the problem of the CCCC for some of the modes by use of the Kato
parallelogram plate which used the Rayleigh
Ritz method and the products of characteristic
TABLE 5.1.—Frequency Parameters wa2Vp/D
beam functions; that is, 2
cos a jor a CCCC Rhombic Plate
TABLE 5.2.—Upper and Lower Bounds of coaVp/D cos2 a for a OOC0 Rhombic Plate
ci>02Vp/D COS2 a
Maximum
Skew angle, a, deg Mode type possible
Lower bound Upper bound Mean value percentage
deviation from
mean value
1 Ref. 5.5 35. 636 35. 376 34. 624 34. 172
Ref. 5.2 35. 625 34. 788 32. 795 30. 323
0.5 Ref. 5.5 24. 484 24. 388 24. 196 24. 096
Temple method. These are given in table 5.2 and by Hasegawa (ref. 5.5) who used the
along with a mean value of frequency parameter RayleighKitz method and deflection functions
determined from the lower and upper bounds (see fig. 5.1)
and a computation of the maximum possible
error which can arise from using the mean W(i, v)=ie(a/2YY [?(cV2)T(Ao
value.
+Au&+A2012+A02y2+A31?v
It is clear from table 5.2 that the accuracies
of the solutions decrease as (1) the mode +Al&+A*?nr) (5.5)
number increases and (2) the skew angle
increases. These results are summarized in table 5.3 for
Further results for this problem were obtained a/b=l and a/b=0.5. The problem is also
by Hamada (refs. 5.2 and 5.3) who used the discussed in reference 5.6.
method of Trefftz (ref. 5.4) and deflection In references 5.2 and 5.3, experimental results
functions for the rhombic plate were also given. Mild
steel plates with a=&=2.36 inches and h=0.035
nKt) inch were used. Figure 5.2 shows the ratio of
W(£,?7)=S ZJ( ^4mrecos—^cos
the frequency of the rhombic plate to that of
. 7, mir? . men . ,, . m:r£ nirri the square as a function of the skew angle.
+Bmn cos —— sin j + Cmn sin —— cos —r~
a o ab The curve shown is from the theoretical results.
Plotted points are experimental data.
+Z?mBsin^sinj') (5.4) Conway and Farnham (ref. 5.7) analyzed
PARALLELOGRAM PLATES 163
TABLE 5.4.—Frequency Parameters for a CCCCRhombic Plate
U&TJP/D 18.00 21.70 24. 05 26.90 34.66 40.03 47.05 56.02 67.91 107. 27
\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\Vs
i
'
FIGURE 5.3.—CCCC rhombic plate.
I )
o Expe iment TABLE 5.5.—Frequency Parameters wa2Vp/D
2
cos a for a CCCSS Rhombic Plate
TABLE 5.6.—Upper and Lower Bounds of coa2Vp/D cos2 ajor a CCCSS Rhombic Plate
ua?4pjD cos2 a
TABLE 5.8.—Upper and Lower Bounds oj wa2Vp/D cos2 ajor a CÖSSSS Rhombic Plate
M02Vp/.D COS2 a
ÖW
T _« 42ÖW
(5.8)
£3=4
bfrva
r _ÖW
FIGURE 5.5.—CCSSSS parallelogram plate.
racies of the solutions decrease as (1) the mode and € may be considered as a perturbation
number increases and (2) the skew angle parameter. Solutions for W and X are then
increases. assumed in the form
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