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K K. (1) Symbol for potassium (from Latin kalium). (2) symbol for Kelvin scale. Grade:

K

K. (1) Symbol for potassium (from Latin kalium). (2) symbol for Kelvin scale.

Grade: USP. Use: Medicine (antibacterial).

k. Abbreviation for kilo-, as in kcal.

K acid.

(1-amino-8-naphthol-4,6-disulfonic

acid). C 10 H 4 NH 2 OH(SO 3 H) 2 . Derivation: Fusion of a naphthylamine trisulfonic

acid with sodium hydroxide. Use: Azo dye intermediate.

“Kansil” [PQ].

TM for potassium silicate.

Grade: Liquids, solids, and powders in SiO 2 :K 2 O weight ratio of 1.60 to 2.5. Use: Ceramics, welding rod coatings, detergents, corrosion inhibitor, electronics, and inorganic coatings.

kaolin.

(China clay).

kainic acid.

CAS: 1332-58-7. A white-burning aluminum sili-

methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid). cate that, due to its great purity, has a high fusion

point and is the most refractory of all clays. Compo- sition: Mainly kaolinite (50% alumina, 55% silica, plus impurities and water).

Use: To simulate brain degeneration in a laboratory Properties: White to yellowish or grayish fine pow-

environment. der. D 1.8–2.6. Darkens and develops clay odor when moistened. Insoluble in water, dilute acids,

and alkali hydroxides; has high lubricity (slippe- riness). Noncombustible. Occurrence: Southeastern U.S., England, France. Grade: Technical, NF, also graded on basis of color and particle size. Hazard: TLV: TWA 2 mg/m 3 ; Respirable Fraction;

Occurrence: Germany; one of the Stassfurt min- not classifiable as a human carcinogen.

Use: Filler and coatings for paper and rubber, refrac- tories, ceramics, cements, fertilizers, chemicals (es-

See potash. pecially aluminum sulfate), catalyst carrier, anticak-

erals. Use: Chemicals (potassium salts), fertilizer (as such).

([2S-(2a,3b,4b)]-2-Carboxy-4-(1-

CAS: 487-79-6. C 10 H 15 NO 4 Properties: White crystalline powder. Soluble in wa- ter or dilute aqueous base.

kainite.

MgSO

4

KCl3H 2 O.

Properties: A natural, hydrated, double salt of potas- sium and magnesium. White, gray, reddish, or color- less solid; streak, colorless; vitreous luster. D

2.05–2.13, hardness 2.5–3. Contains 30% potassium chloride.

“Kalrez” [DuPont-Toray].

TM for engineer-

ing resins and high end specialty polymers.

kalsomine.

“Kamicryl 2089” [Kamsons].

See calcimine.

TM for a wa-

ter based overprint varnish hard nonfilm-forming liquid. Use: In high gloss varnish and water based inks.

ing preparations, cosmetics, insecticides, paint, source of alumina, adsorbent for clarification of liquids, electrical insulators. See Toth process; kaolinite; aluminum silicate; clay; “Pharmolin” [Engelhard].

kaolinite.

Al 2 O 3 2SiO 2 2H 2 O. A clay mineral

rarely found pure, the main constituent of kaolin and some other clays.

kapok. Cottonlike fibers obtained from the seed pods of various species of Ceiba and Bombax. Ex-

for a vinyl acetate acrylic copolymer. tremely light and resilient but too brittle for spin-

Kamicryl Paint CP651 [Kamsons].

TM

Use: In a superior quality emulsion paint.

“Kamicryl Thickner 5360” [Kamsons].

ning. Combustible; not self-extinguishing. Source: Indonesia, Philippines, Ecuador. Use: Life jackets, insulation, pillows, upholstery.

TM for a crosslinked acrylic copolymer emulsi- fier. Use: Keeps pigment and filler in suspension and prevents sedimentation.

karatavic acid.

CAS: 21800-49-7. mf: C 24 H 28 O 5 . Hazard: A poison.

kanamycin sulfate.

TM for an

agricultural fungicide-miticide based on dinitro(1-

spectrum antibiotic. methylheptyl)phenyl crotonate, supplied as a wetta-

ble powder or liquid concentration. May be com- bined with most other insecticides and fungicides, except oil-based products.

CAS: 25389-94-0. C 18 H 36 N 4 O 11 H 2 SO 4 . A broad-

“Karathane” [Rohm & Haas].

Properties: White, crystalline powder; odorless. De- composes over a wide range above 250C. Soluble in water; practically insoluble in methanol and ethanol.

724

725

“KE HEAVY DUTY”

Use: Controls powdery mildew and various species of mites on plants. See dinocap.

karaya gum.

(sterculia gum; India traga-

Katadyne process. A proprietary method of sterilizing water and other potable liquids with a specially prepared form of silver.

katapol vp-532.

canth; kadaya gum). A hydrophilic polysaccha- CAS: 63091-06-5.

ride which exudes from certain Indian trees of the Hazard: A severe skin and eye irritant. genus Sterculia. Color varies from white to dark brown or black. katharometer. A gas and air detector instru-

ment. Its multiple uses include the comparison of two gases via comparison of the rate of heat loss from heating coils surrounded by the gases. Also can be used in gas chromatography as a detector and to

colloidal gel in water. detect impurities in the air.

Properties: A carbohydrate polymer of varying chemical composition. The properties depend on freshness and time of storage. Viscosity greatly de- creases over 6 months storage. Forms a translucent

Grade: Technical, FCC. Use: Pharmaceuticals, textile coatings, ice cream and other food products, adhesives, protective colloids,

kauri. A fossil (hard) copal resin, derived from the kauri pine (Agathis australis) of New Zealand.

stabilizers, thickeners, emulsifiers. Soluble in alcohols and ketones, acid value 60–80, See gum, natural. must be heat-treated (cracked) before use in var- nishes. Combustible. Karle, Jerome. (1918 ). An American physi- Use: Varnishes and lacquers, paints, organic ce-

ments, to evaluate the solvent power of hydro- carbons.

cal chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry along with Hauptman in 1985. He developed a series

of

mathematical equations that allow determination

of

phase information from X-ray crystallography

kauri-butanol value.

A measure of the aro-

matic content and hence the solvent power of a hydrocarbon liquid. Kauri gum is readily soluble in butanol but insoluble in hydrocarbons. The kb value

is the measure of the volume of solvent required to produce turbidity in a standard solution containing

Structure of Matter. kauri gum dissolved in butanol. Naphtha fractions

have a kb value of about 30, and toluene about 105.

at the Naval Research Laboratory in Washington,

D.C. where Karle headed the Laboratory for the

tion of thousands of chemicals. The work was done

intensity patterns. The advent of computers allowed the use of the equations to determine the conforma-

Karl Fischer reagent.

A solution of iodine,

sulfur dioxide, and pyridine in methanol or methyl “Cellosolve.”

KB.

bases.

Abbreviation for kilobase—one thousand

Use: Determination of water. Note: Do not confuse with Fischer’s reagent. kcal. Abbreviation for kilocalorie; Cal has the same meaning.

Karrer, Paul. (1889–1971). A recipient of the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1937 with Haworth. Although born in Moscow, he attended European

universities and received his doctorate in Zurich. He initiated work on flavins, carotenoids, and vitamins

A and B, and accomplished work on structure and

synthesis of vitamin B 2 as well as vitamins A and E.

karyogamy.

A process of fusion of the nuclei of

two cells; the second step in syngamy.

karyotype. A photomicrograph of an individu- al’s chromosomes arranged in a standard format showing the number, size, and shape of each chro- mosome type; used in low-resolution physical map-

K-capture. (K-radiation). A type of radioactive decay in which an electron is captured by an atomic nucleus and immediately combines with a proton to form a neutron. The product of this radioactivity has the same mass number as the parent but the atomic number is one unit less. Thus 55 iron with atomic number 26 decays by K-capture to form 55 manga- nese, with atomic number 25. Terms synonymous with K-capture are K-electron capture and orbital electron capture.

“KC Finings, Super-Kleer” [Home

Brewery]. TM for is a two pouch system con- taining liquid Kieselsol and chitosan finings.

ping to correlate gross chromosomal abnormalities Use: In brewing. with the characteristics of specific diseases. “KE-106A Natural Insecticide” [Kinzua].

Kastone [Du Pont].

(hydrogen peroxide)

CAS: 7722-84-1. TM for oxidizer and bleaching agent. Use: For textile and pulp bleaching, cyanide destruc-

tion, wastewater and sewage treatment, food pro- cessing, electronics industry.

TM for a limonene-based (non-toxic) insecticide. Use: Safe for use around children.

KE Heavy Duty [Kinzua].

TM for a de-

greaser. Use: Environmentally safe degreaser.

KEENE’S CEMENT

726

Keene’s cement.

See gypsum cement.

Kekule, August.

(1829–1896). Born in Darms-

tadt, Germany, Kekule laid the basis for the ensuing development of aromatic chemistry. His idea of a hexagonal structure for benzene in 1865 was a mon- umental contribution to theoretical organic chemis-

try. “This had been preceded in 1858 by the remark-

able notion that carbon was tetravalent and that carbon atoms could be joined to each other in mole-

been

cules.” The theory of the benzene ring has

called the “most brilliant piece of scientific predic- tion to be found in the whole field of organic chemis- try, for besides promulgating the idea, he had pre-

dicted the number and types of isomers which

be expected in various substitutions on the ring” (L.

B. Clapp).

Kelvin scale.

“Kelzan” [Kelco]. TM for xanthan gum. Kelzan XC [Kelco]. TM for xanthan gum. Kemamide [ACH].

See absolute temperature.

Properties: High-melting solids. TM for fatty am- ides and bisamides. Use: For slip agents and for friction reduction in polyolefin films. As process lubricants for styrenics and PVC, mold release for phenolics, as antiblock agents for polyolefins.

might “Kemester EGDS” [ACH]. (ethylene gly-

col distearate). TM for pearlizing agents. Use: For shampoos, liquid soaps, and detergents.

“Kelacid” [Kelco]. TM for alginic acid. “Kelate CU” [Tri-K].

CAS: 14025-15-1. TM for copper disodium EDTA. Use: Sequestering agent in cosmetics.

Kemstrene [ACH]. TM for glycerin.

Use: For a solvent and humectant in cosmetics, liquid soaps, confections, inks, lubricants, in polyester and polyurethane formulations.

TM for a series of

gum.

They are strongly hydrophobic and are biodegrad- able.

products including polymers of chlorotrifluoroethy- Use: Cationic intermediate, removal of moisture

lene and certain copolymers available as extrusion from surfaces. and molding powders, resins, dispersions, gums,

TM for a series of for-

high termal stability, resistance to chemical corro- mulated blowing agent masterbatches.

oils, waxes, and greases that are characterized by

straight-chain amines from primary through quater- nary; available in chain lengths from C 12 through C 22 .

“Kenamine”

[ACH].

“Kelcoloid HVF” [Kelco].

TM for xanthan

“Kel-F” [3M]. TM for a series of fluorocarbon

Ken-Cel [Kenrich].

sion, high dielectric strength, and high impact, ten- sile, and compressive strength. Use: Corrosion control, contamination prevention, insulation, electrical equipment, molded and fabri- cated industrial equipment, lubricants, gyro and damping fluids. Especially useful under extreme

conditions, including jet See fluorocarbon polymer.

and space technology.

“Kencolor” [Kenrich]. TM for a series of dis-

persions based on silicone binders. Use: Pigmenting of silicone elastomers.

“Ken-Cure” [Kenrich].

TM for a series

of

specialty curative chemicals.

Kelgin [Kelco].

“Kelmar”

[Kelco].

nates.

TM for sodium alginates.

TM for potassium algi-

kelp. A large coarse seaweed occurring chiefly off the coast of California. It is a type of algae and is mechanically harvested by specially equipped barges. Dried kelp contains 2–4% ammonia, 1–2% phosphoric acid, 15–20% potash, and traces of io- dine. Use: Fertilizers, plastics and conversion to methane by microorganisms; permissible chewing-gum base.

“Keltex” [Kelco]. TM for alginate.

“Keltose” [Kelco].

nates.

TM for self-gelling algi-

Kendall-Mattox

Formation of a

conjugated ketone from an -bromoketone via a phenylhydrazone or semicarbozone.

reaction.

Kendrew, John C. (1917–1997). An English molecular biologist who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1962 with Perutz. His work verified Pauling’s earlier thesis concerning the -helix struc- ture of the polypeptide chain. After receiving his Ph.D. from Cambridge, he was science advisor to the allied air commander-in-chief during World War II. He was also editor of the journal Molecular Biology.

“Kenflex” [Kenrich].

TM for a series of aro-

matic oligomers of dimethyl naphthalene and blends thereof. Use: Processing and compounding aid for neoprene, “Hypalon,” SBR, vinyl compounds and other plas- tics; potting compounds; protective coatings; paper

727

KEROSENE

are generally harder than the fibrous collagen group of proteins. The softer keratins are components of the external layers of skin, wool, hair, and feathers, while the harder types predominate in such struc-

maceous earth and related products. tures as nails, claws, and hoofs. The hardness is

and textile coatings; insecticides; ink; chemical syn- thesis.

Kenite [World Minerals].

TM for diato-

Ken-Kem [Kenrich].

specialty chemicals.

TM for a series

of

largely due to the extent of cross-linking by the disulfide bonds of cystine by the mechanism shown below:

“Kenlastic” [Kenrich].

TM for a series of elas-

tomer-based dispersions of rubber chemicals. Use: Dispersion for elastomers.

“Ken-Mag” [Kenrich].

TM for a bar form of

dispersed magnesium oxide. Use: Curing of elastomers.

of dispersed magnesium oxide. Use: Curing of elastomers. “Kenmix” [Kenrich] . Keratins are insoluble in organic

“Kenmix” [Kenrich].

Keratins are insoluble in organic solvents but do absorb and hold water. The molecules contain both acidic and basic groups and are thus amphoteric. Use: Tablet coatings that dissolve only in the intes- tines, foam extinguishers, protein hydrolyzates.

ticizers based on

keratinase. A water-soluble, proteolytic enzyme having the ability to digest the keratin in wool and

other forms of hair, converting a portion of it to a

diluents for epoxy. water-soluble form. It thus acts as a depilatory and is

TM for a series of

organometallic coupling agents based on titanium, zirconium, and aluminum.

cata-

TM for betaxolol hydro-

used in removing hair from pelts and hides, as well as from human skin. It is inactivated by heating to

dispersions of rubber

TM for a series of paste chemicals.

Use: Dispersions for elastomers.

“Kenplast” [Kenrich]. TM for a series of plas-

aromatic hydrocarbons or deriva-

tives of cumyl phenol. Use: Plasticizer for nitrile elastomers and reactive

“Ken-React” [Kenrich].

Use: Bonding agents, polymer process aids,

lysts, blowing agent activators, corrosion inhibitors, dispersing agents.

100C.

“Kerlone” [Searle].

chloride.

Use: Drug.

“Ken-React KR TTS‘”

a series of alkyl titanates.

[Kenrich]. TM for kernite. Na 2 B 4 O 7 4H 2 O. A natural sodium borate

found in Kern County, California. Properties: Colorless to white, two good cleavages, luster vitreous to pearly. Mohs hardness 3, d 1.95. Noncombustible. Use: Major source of borax and boron compounds.

Available forms: Liquid, powder, and pellets. Use: Catalyst, intermediates for ceramic coatings.

“Ken-Stat” [Kenrich].

TM for a series of an-

tistats based on combined neoalkoxy titanates or

combined neoalkoxy zirconates.

kerogen. The organic component of oil shale, it is a bitumen-like solid whose approximate composi- tion is 75–80% carbon, 10% hydrogen, 2.5% nitro-

Use: Curing of elastomers. gen, 1% sulfur, and the balance oxygen. It is a

mixture of aliphatic and aromatic compounds of

kepone. (chlordecone; decachlorooctahydro- humic and algal origin and comprises a substantial 1,3,4-metheno-2H-cyclobuta[cd]pentalene-2-one). proportion of the shale; after fractionating and refin-

Ken-Zinc [Kenrich].

dispersed zinc oxide.

TM for a bar form of

CAS: 143-50-0. C

10 Cl 10 O.

Properties: Crystalline solid. Mp 350C (decom- poses). Soluble in acetic acid, alcohols, ketones, acetone; slightly soluble in water. Hazard: A carcinogen. Toxic by ingestion, inhala-

ing, the oil is reported to yield 18% gasoline, 30%

kerosene, 27% gas oil, 15% light lube oil, and 10% heavy lube oil.

kerosene.

(kerosine).

tion, and skin absorption. Manufacture and use have CAS: 8008-20-6.

been prohibited. Properties: Water-white, oily liquid; strong odor. D Use: Insecticide, fungicide. 0.81, boiling range 180–300C, flash p 100–150F (37.7–65.5C), autoign temp 444F (228C). Combus-

tion properties can be greatly improved by a propri- etary hydrotreating process involving a selective catalyst.

keratin.

A class of natural fibrous proteins occur-

ring in vertebrate animals and humans, they are characterized by their high content of several amino

acids, especially cystine, arginine, and serine. They Derivation: Distilled from petroleum.

KETAL

728

Hazard: Moderate fire risk, explosive limits in air -ketoglutaric acid. (ADA, acetonedicarbox- 0.7–5.0%. Toxic by inhalation. ylic acid). HOOCCH 2 CH 2 COCOOH

Properties: Colorless needles. Mp 135C (decom- poses). Soluble in water and alcohol; insoluble in benzene and chloroform. Derivation: By heating dehydrated citric acid and concentrated sulfuric acid together. Use: Organic synthesis.

an alcohol to a ketone. Analogous to acetal. See hemiketal.

Use: Rocket and jet engine fuel, domestic heating, solvent, insecticidal sprays, diesel and tractor fuels.

ketal.

Organic compound produced by addition of

ketene.

CAS: 463-51-4. H 2 C==C==O.

Properties: Colorless gas; disagreeable odor. Readi-

or stored in a

gaseous state. Mp 151C, bp 56C. Derivation: Pyrolysis of acetone or acetic acid passing its vapor through a tube at 500–600C.

Hazard: Toxic by inhalation, strong irritant to skin

membranes. TLV: TWA 0.5 ppm;

by

ly polymerizes; cannot be shipped

and mucous

STEL 1.5 ppm. Use: Acetylating agent, generally reacting with com-

with

ammonia to give acetamide. Starting point for mak-

products, espe-

pounds having an active hydrogen atom; reacts

ing various commercially important

cially acetic anhydride and acetate esters.

-ketoglutaric acid, disodium salt.

CAS: 305-72-6. mf: C 5 H 4 O 5 2Na. Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion.

ketohexamethylene.

See cyclohexanone.

ketone. A class of liquid organic compounds in which the carbonyl group, C==O, is attached to two alkyl groups; they are derived by oxidation of secon- dary alcohols. The simplest member of the series is acetone, CH 3 C(O)CH 3 , but many more complex ke- tones are known. Use: Solvents, especially for cellulose derivatives, in lacquers, paints, explosives, and textile processing. See acetone; diethyl ketone; methyl ethyl ketone.

ketone bodies. A group of molecules normally produced in very low amounts, but increased amounts are found during fasting or in untreated diabetes mellitus.

ketone, Michler’s.

ketimine.

A type or class of curing agent for

epoxy resins that makes it possible to use very-high- solids content coatings in spray equipment. Reacts with epoxies very slowly and thus delays curing time, which prevents setting up of the resin during spraying operation. In presence of water or water vapor, ketimine breaks down to a polyamine and a ketone. Epoxy coatings cured with ketimine should

See

tetramethyldiaminobenzophenone.

ketonimine dye. A dye whose molecules con-

not exceed a thickness of 10 mils. tain the NH==C== chromophore group. There are only two members in the class: auramine and a 4-ketobenzotriazine. (benzazimide; 4-keto- closely related homolog, methyl aurin, in which a

(3H)-1,2,3-benzotriazine). C 7 H 5 N 3 O Bicyclic. methyl group replaces one of the hydrogen atoms of

aurin. These are basic dyes used on cotton with

Properties: Tan powder. Mp 210C (decomposes).

Soluble in alkaline solutions and organic bases. tannin or tartar emetic as mordant.

Use: Organic synthesis.

1-keto-2,3-dihydrocyclopentindole oxime.

CAS: 22942-83-2. mf: C 11 H 10 N 2 O. Hazard: A poison.

keto-enol tauterism.

A compound with iso-

mers in equilibrium between the keto form CH2COand the enol form CH==C(OH). It occurs by migration of a hydrogen atom between

a

carbon atom and the oxygen on an adjacent carbon. See isomerization.

4-ketopentenal.

CAS: 5729-47-5. mf: C 5 H 6 O 2 . Hazard: A poison.

-ketopropionic acid.

ketose.

See pyruvic acid.

A simple monosaccharide in which the

carbonyl group is a ketone.

ketosis.

A metabolic condition in which the con-

centration of ketone bodies in the blood, tissues, and

urine is abnormally high.

ketogenic amino

acids.

Amino acids with

-ketovaleric acid. See levulinic acid.

Kevlar

[Du

Pont].

carbon skeletons that are metabolized to ketone bod-

TM for an aromatic

polyamide fiber of extremely high tensile strength and greater resistance of elongation than steel. Its

acid). HOOCCH 2 CH 2 COCOOH. high energy-absorption property makes it particu-

larly suitable for use in belting radial tires, for which it was specifically developed; it is also used as a

hol. Important

ies. Contrast with the glucogenic amino acids.

-ketoglutaric acid. (2-oxopentanedioic

Properties: Mp 113.5C. Soluble in water and alco-

in amino-acid metabolism.

729

KINETICS, CHEMICAL

kinase. A kinase is in general an enzyme that

let-proof vests and in cordage products. catalyzes the transfer of a phosphate group from See aramid. ATP to something else. In molecular biology, it has acquired the more specific verbal usage for the

Keyes process. A distillation process involving the addition of benzene to a constant-boiling 95% alcohol-water solution to obtain absolute (100%) alcohol. On distillation, a ternary azeotropic mixture containing all three components leaves the top of the column while anhydrous alcohol leaves the bottom. The azeotrope (which separates into two layers) is redistilled separately for recovery and reuse of the benzene and alcohol.

kinetics, chemical. Chemical phenomena can be studied from two fundamental approaches: (1) thermodynamics, a rigorous and exact method con- cerned with equilibrium conditions of initial and

final states of chemical changes; (2) kinetics, which

is less rigorous and deals with the rate of change

from initial to final states under nonequilibrium con- ditions. The two methods are related. Thermody- namics, which yields the driving potential—a mea- sure of the tendency of a system to change from one state to another—is the foundation upon which ki- netics is built. The rate at which a change will occur

depends upon two factors: (1) directly with driving kieselguhr. See diatomaceous earth. force or potential, and (2) inversely with a resis- tance. A measure of the tendency of a system to

resist chemical change is the so-called activation energy, which is independent of the driving force or so-called free energy of the reaction. The diagram is

See magnesium sulfate. a mechanical analogy illustrating the difference be- tween activation energy and driving potential. The

chemical system is represented by a sphere resting in

a valley. The initial equilibrium state, A, is at a

higher elevation than the final state, B. The differ- ence in elevation between A and B is a measure of the free energy change of the reaction, that is, the driving force that will take the system from A to B. This quantity, G, is determined by the classical methods of thermodynamics. Now A and B are equi- librium states represented by the valleys. For the system to go from A to B it must first overcome the hill separating the valleys. The elevation of this hill from the valley of the initial state is a measure of the resistance to change in the system in going from A to B. The quantity G*, known as free energy of acti- vation, is determined by the methods of kinetics.

Kick’s law. The amount of energy required to crush a given quantity of material to a specified fraction of its original size is the same, regardless of the original size.

molecules of a monomer converted to a polymer for each active center formed in an initiation reaction.

kinematic viscosity. See viscosity. kinetic chain length. The average number of

transfer onto DNA of a radiolabeled phosphate group. This would be done in order to use the resul- tant “hot” DNA as a probe.

reinforcing material for plastic composities in bul-

kg.

grams.

Abbreviation

for

kilogram.

Equals

1000

kier.

A large metal tank or vessel in which wool or

cotton fibers or fabrics are scoured, bleached, or dyed, usually in an alkaline solution (kier boiling).

kieserite.

MgSO 4 H 2 O. A natural magnesium

sulfate occurring in enormous quantities in the Stassfurt salt beds (Germany), Austria, and India.

Kiliani-Fischer synthesis.

Extension of the

carbon atom chain of aldoses by treatment with

cyanide. Hydrolysis of the cyanohydrins

followed

by reduction of the lactone yields the homologous aldose.

“killed” steel.

Steel deoxidized by the addition

of aluminum, ferrosilicon, etc., while the mixture is

maintained at melting temperature until all

bubbling

ceases. The steel is quiet and begins to solidify

at

once without any evolution of gas when poured into

the ingot molds.

kiln.

(1) A refactory-lined cylinder, either station-

ary or rotary. Use: Calcination of lime, magnesia, cement, ores, etc., and for incinerating gaseous, liquid, and solid wastes. (2) A furnace for firing ceramic products.

kilo-.

Prefix meaning 10 3 units (symbol k), e.g., 1

kg = 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams.

(symbol k), e.g., 1 kg = 1 kilogram = 1,000 grams. kilogram. (1) A mass identical

kilogram. (1) A mass identical with that of the international kilogram at the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in France. It is the mass of a liter of water at 4C. (2) A force equal to the weight of

The system of molecules that is undergoing reaction consists of these molecules in different energy states. If the temperature of a gas is raised, there is an

one kilogram mass, measured at sea level. increase in the energy of these states and hence an

KINETIC THEORY

730

many chemical awards, he was the recipient of the Priestley Medal as well as distinguished Medals of Honor from three Presidents of the U.S. President Eisenhower appointed him as his assistant for sci- ence and technology, and he was chairman of the

reaction will increase. Science Advisory Committee from 1957 to 1963.

Note: Adapted from an article by Roger Gilmont in “Encyclopedia of Chemistry” Hampel and Hawley,

editors, 3rd ed., 1973. explosives. A key member of the Manhattan Project,

See thermodynamics, chemical; thermodynamics. he devised the detonating mechanism for the first experimental atomic bomb in New Mexico, at which

time he was head of the Los Alamos Laboratory. Though he ranks high among those who developed the bomb, he perceived the awesome destructive potential of nuclear weapons and became an ardent opponent of their future use. Resigning from the Pentagon in 1967, he returned to teaching at Har- vard. Among other distinguished organizations, he was a member of the Royal Society of London, the AAAS, and the ACS.

Among his many achievements in both chemistry and physics, he was a world-famous authority on

increase in the collisions of molecules which have the necessary activation energy; as a result, the rate of the reaction will increase. Also, if by means of a catalyst, the activiation energy is decreased, more colliding molecules will react and again the rate of

kinetic theory. A theory of matter based on the mathematical description of the relationship be- tween the volumes, temperatures, and pressures of gases (P-V-T phenomena). This relationship is sum- marized in the so-called gas laws as follows: (1) Boyle’s law (at constant temperature the volume of a gas is inversely proportional to its pressure); (2) Charles’s law (at constant volume the pressure exerted by a gas is proportional to its absolute tem- perature); (3) Avogadro’s law (equal volumes of the same or different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain the same number of molecules). The theory involves the basic concept of matter as composed atoms and/or molecules that move more rapidly (gases) or vibrate more energetically (solids) as temperature increaes. Thus, crystals melt at a point where the heat or energy input exceeds the

kinetin.

(6-furfurylaminopurine).

Kjeldahl flask. A round bottom flask with a long wide neck that is used in the determination of nitrogen by Kjeldahl’s method.

Kjeldahl test. An analytical method for deter- mination of nitrogen in certain organic compounds. It involves addition of a small amount of anhydrous potassium sulfate to the test compound, followed by

bond energy of the solid state. See kinetics, heating the mixture with concentrated sulfuric acid,

chemical; gas; thermodynamics. often with a catalyst such as copper sulfate. As a result ammonia is formed. After alkalyzing the mix-

ture with sodium hydroxide, the ammonia is sepa- rated by distillation, collected in standard acid, and the nitrogen determined by back-titration.

“Kjelgest” [Thomas]. TM for anhydrous gran-

ular magnesium perchlorate for use as a desiccant.

dormancy breaker.

CAS: 525-79-1. C 10 H 9 N 5 O. A plant growth regulator used to promote growth in bacterial cultures and as

kings green.

See copper acetoarsenite.

TM for a soldering

kinin. (cytokinin). One of a group of plant growth regulators that promote cell division and differentiation. See kinetin.

TM for

Kipps apparatus. An apparatus for producing a white mineral oil, technical grade, d 0.828–0.838. a gas by the action of a liquid on a solid that consists Use: Cosmetic preparations, eggshell preservation.

of three globes. The top one has a funnel-shaped extension in to the bottom globe which stores the Klein’s reagent. A saturated solution of cadmi- liquid. The middle globe contains the solid. um borotungstate, formula variously given, possibly 2CdOB 2 O 3 18H 2 O, d 3.28. Kishner cyclopropane synthesis. Forma- Use: Separation of minerals by specific gravity. tion of cyclopropane derivatives by decomposition of pyrazolines formed by reacting , -unsaturated Klucel [Hercules]. TM for hydroxypropyl ketones or aldehydes with hydrazine. cellulose. Use: A thickener for paint removers, tablet binders,

aqueous film-coating polymers, sustained-release matrix polymer for pharmaceuticals.

“Kleanrol” [Du Pont].

flux crystal based on zinc chloride and ammonium chloride.

“Klearol” [Crompton & Knowles].

Kistiakowsky,

George

B.

(19001982).

Born in Kiev, Russia, where he fought in the White

Russian Army, he studied in Germany under Max-

well Bodenheim, where he obtained his doctorate in Klug, Aaron S. (1926– ). A South Afri-

chemistry. In 1926, he came to the U.S. and became an American citizen in 1933. For 41 years, he was Professor of Chemistry at Harvard; in addition to

canborn chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1982 for his work with the electron microscope and research into the structure of nucleic

731

KOHLRAUSCH’S LAW

and protein complexes. He used crystallographic electron microscopy to analyze the structures of biologically important complex chemicals was noteworthy. He was cited in particular for his estab-

lishment of Fourier microscopy. role derivatives by condensation of -amino ke-

Formation of pyr-

ed hydrazines, two structurally isomeric pyrazoles are formed.

Knorr pyrrole synthesis.

kneading. Blending of soft, plastic, semisolid materials into a uniform mixture by subjecting them

to a rolling pressure exerted by agitators of specific

action

is a combination of turning, folding, and pressing. The operation is used in processing bakery doughs,

and pastes of various types.

printing inks, clays,

shape rotating in trough-like containers. The

See blend; sigma blade.

tones as such or generated in situ from isonitrosoke- tones with carbonyl compounds containing active -methylene groups.

Knorr quinoline synthesis. Formation of -

hydroxyquinolines from -ketoesters and aryla- mines above 100C. The intermediate anilide under- goes cyclization by dehydration with concentrated sulfuric acid.

knife. See doctor knife. Knowles, William S. (1917– ). An American born in Taunton, Massachusetts who won the Nobel

Prize for chemistry in 2001 for his pioneering work concerning chirally catalysed hydrogenation reac- tions. He was awarded an undergraduate degree from Harvard and worked many years for the Mon-

See octane number. santo Corporation. Knowles received the ACS Award for Creative Invention 1982.

knock.

Ignition of a portion of the gasoline in the

oxidation reac-

power

cylinder head due to spontaneous

tions rather than to the spark. It causes serious

loss, especially in high-compression engines.

knock-out

experiment. A technique for delet-

ing, mutating or otherwise inactivating a gene in

mouse. This laborious method involves transfecting a crippled gene into cultured embryonic stem cells, searching through the thousands of resulting clones for one in which the crippled gene exactly replaced the normal one (by homologous recombination), and inserting that cell back into a mouse blastocyst. The resulting mouse will be chimaeric but its germ cells will carry the deleted gene. A few rounds of careful breeding can then produce progeny in which both copies of the gene are inactivated. See gene; locus; model organisms.

a “KOALA-TY” [Accurate].

ry apparatus.

Koch acid.

acid).

TM for laborato-

(1-naphthylamine-3,6,8,-trisulfonic

acid). TM for laborato- (1-naphthylamine-3,6,8,-trisulfonic Knoevenagel condensation; Doebner modification.

Knoevenagel condensation; Doebner

modification. Condensation of aldehydes or ketones with active methylene compounds (specifi- cally malonic ester) in the presence of ammonia or

amines; the use of malonic acid

and pyridine is

known as the Doebner modification.

Properties: White solid. Slightly soluble in water. Derivation: Naphthalene- -sufonic acid is sulfonat- ed with 60% oleum at 165C, the resulting naphtha- lene-1,3,6-trisulfonic acid is nitrated and the prod- uct reduced with iron. Use: Azo dye intermediate.

Knoop hardness.

Knoop-Oesterlin amino acid synthesis.

See hardness.

Preparation of -amino acids by catalytic hydro- genation of -oxo acids in aqueous ammonia in the presence of platinum, palladium, or Raney nickel catalysts, probably via an unstable iminocarboxy- late ion intermediate.

Koch-Haaf carboxylations.

Formation of ter-

tiary carboxylic acids by treating alcohols with car- bon monoxide in strong acid.

Kochi reaction.

Synthesis of organic chlorides

by decarboxylation of carboxylic acids in the pres-

ence of lead tetraacetate and lithium chloride.

Koenigs-Knorr synthesis.

Formation of gly-

Knoop

scale.

Comparative

hardness

scale,

cosides from acetylated glycosyl halides and alco-

ranges

from

glass

(300600)

to

diamond

hols or phenols in the presence of silver carbonate or

(60006500).

 

silver oxide. The reaction proceeds with inversion of configuration.

Knorr pyrazole synthesis.

Formation of py-

razole derivatives from hydrazines, hydrazides, semicarbazides, and aminoguanidines by condensa- tion with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds; with substitut-

Kohlrauschs law. Ions have independent mi- grations, and the conductance of a solution is the sum of the conductances of the anions and cations.

KOH NUMBER

732

KOH number. In the electrometric titration of latex with KOH. the number of grams of KOH per 100 grams of rubber necessary to obtain a pH of

10.7-11.

Kohn, Walter (1923– ). Awarded Nobel Prize

for

their pioneering contributions in developing meth-

the

properties of molecules and the chemical processes in which they are involved. He performs his research at the University of California at Santa Barbara.

in chemistry in 1998 jointly with John A. Pople

ods that can be used for theoretical studies of

kojic acid.

[5-hydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-4-

pyrone]. CAS: 501-30-4. C 6 H 6 O 4 . Properties: Crystals. Mp 152–154C. Soluble in

wa-

ter, acetone, alcohol; slightly soluble in ether; insol- uble in benzene. Mildly antibiotic. Derivation: Fermentation of starches and sugars by certain molds. Use: Chemical intermediate, metal chelates, insecti- cide, antifungal and antimicrobial agent.

the liquid mixture results in an increase of the total vapor pressure.

Kopp’s law. The molecular heat of a solid com- pound is an additive function of the atomic heat capacities of its individual atoms. The molecular volume of a liquid is equal to the sum of the atomic volumes of its constituent atoms.

korax.

CAS: 600-25-9. Generic name for 1-chloro-1-nitro- propane. ClCH CH(CH )NO . Properties: Liquid. Bp 170.6C (745 mm Hg), flash p 144F (62.2C). Miscible with most organic solvents; slightly soluble in water. Combustible. Hazard: Moderate fire risk. Strong irritant. TLV: 2 ppm. Use: Fungicide.

2

3

2

Kostanecki

Formation of chro-

mones or coumarines by acylation of o-hydroxyaryl ketones with aliphatic acid anhydrides followed by cyclization.

acylation.

kola.

Kolbe electrolytic synthesis.

See cola.

Formation of

hydrocarbons by the electrolysis of alkali salts carboxylic acids (decarboxylative dimerization).

of

“KR” [Kenrich]. TM for a prefix for a series of monoalkoxy, chelate, and coordinate type titanates and zirconates.

Kr.

Symbol for krypton.

Krafft degradation. Conversion of carboxylic acids, especially of high molecular weight, into the next-lower homolog by dry distillation of the alka- line earth salt with the corresponding acetate, fol- lowed by chromic acid oxidation of the methyl ke- tone.

Krafft point. Temperature (°C) at which cogel or crystal formation takes place in a soap solution and produces opacity.

kraft paper. A strong and relatively cheap paper made cheifly from pine by digestion with a mixture of caustic soda, sodium sulfate, sodium carbonate, and sodium sulfide. It is by far the largest volume paper made in the U.S. See holopulping process.

Kolbe-Schmidt reaction.

The preparation of

carbon dioxide

salicyclic acid or its derivatives from

and sodium or potassium phenolate.

“Kolene” DGS Salt [Kolene].

TM for an

anhydrous molten oxidizing salt bath using a sodium

hydroxide base with additives necessary to provide controlled chemical oxidizing and dissolving prop- erties. Use: Descaling of heat-treated and hot-work oxides and scales; deglassing (removal of glass-drawing

removal

of burned-in carbon deposits; cleaning of oils, greases, and organic materials from the surface of metals.

lubricants), investment, and silica removal;

Komarowsky reaction.

“Kraton” 101 [Shell]. TM for a styrene-buta-

diene elastomer that requires no vulcanization, while displaying most of the properties of conven- tional vulcanized polymers. White, free-flowing crumb, readily soluble in a large number of commer- cially used solvents. Use: In pressure-sensitive wet lay-up and hot-melt adhesives, dip coating, spraying, and spreading ap- plications.

“Kraton Liquid l-207” [Ripplewood].

CAS: 103599-19-5. TM for a basic polymer liquid. Konowaloff rule. The vapor over a liquid is Hazard: Moderately toxic by skin contact. Low tox-

Kondakov rule. Olefins that add mineral acids readily react with chlorine or bromine to give unsat- urated monohalides; those that do not add mineral acids readily form dihalides.

The reaction between

certain alcohols and p-hydroxybenzaldehyde in di- lute sulfuric acid solutions to give soluble colored complexes. 1,2-Propylene glycol gives a colored

product while ethylene glycol does not. The

reaction

has also been employed to determine cyclohexanol in cyclohexanone.

relatively rich in the component whose addition to

icity by ingestion. A mild skin irritant.

733

“K-TEA ALGACIDE”

Krebs cycle. See TCA cycle. Properties: Colorless gas; odorless. Bp 152.9C (1 atm), fp 157.1C, d 2.818 (air = 1), sp vol 4.61 cu ft/

lb (21C, 1 atm). Only slightly soluble in water. Known to combine with fluorine at liquid nitrogen

of urea and ammonium nitrate in aqueous ammonia;

contains 43.5% nitrogen. temperature by means of electric discharges or ion-

izing radiation to make KrF 2 and KrF 4 . These com- pounds decompose at room temperature. Noncom- bustible. See noble gas. Derivation: By fractional distillation of liquid air. Air contains 0.000108% of krypton by volume. Use: Incandescent bulbs and fluorescent light tubes, lasers, high-speed photography. Note: Solid krypton exists at cryogenic temperatures as a white, crystal- line substance; mp 116K.

“K-Resin” [Phillips]. TM for a styrene-butadi- ene copolymer. Use: Clear packaging, film, medical applications, and toys.

Krohnke aldehyde synthesis.

Krenite 10 [Du Pont].

TM for a solution

Use: Manufacture of mixed fertilizers.

Transforma-

tion of benzyl halides into aldehydes via their pyri- dinium salts which, on treatment with p-nitrosodi- methylaniline, give nitrones. Hydrolysis of the

nitrones yields

aldehydes. krypton-86. Radioactive krypton of mass num- ber 85.

Properties: Half-life 10.3 years. Radiations: with a small component of . Low radiotoxicity. Derivation: A fission product extracted from irradi- ated nuclear fuel. Available forms: Gas of high chemical purity, but

mixed with other isotopes of krypton in sealed glass flasks. See kryptonates. Use: Activation of phosphors for self-luminous markers, detecting leaks, medicine to trace blood flow, and in measurement of standard meter.

Kroll process.

A widely used process for ob-

taining titanium metal. Titanium tetrachloride is re- duced with magnesium metal at red heat and atmo- spheric pressure, in the presence of an inert gas blanket of helium or argon. Magnesium chloride and

titanium metal are produced. The reaction is TiCl 4 2Mg Ti + 2MgCl 2 . Essentially the same process is also used for obtaining zirconium.

+

“Kromatherm” [Pfizer].

TM for high-tem-

perature pigments designed for silicone- and fluoro- carbon-resin-based paint vehicles.

“Kronitex” [FMC]. TM for a series of synthet-

products

ic phosphate esters to replace such natural

as tricresyl and cresyl diphenyl phosphates. Use: Flame-retardant plasticizers for vinyls, dust

fil-

ter medium, gas additives, wood-treating chemical, foam control.

kryptonates. Materials impregnated with kryp- ton-85 in such a way that the radioactive atoms are held within the crystalline lattice structure. Ele- ments, alloys, glasses, inorganic compounds, rub- bers, and plastics have been so impregnated with tracer atoms.

krotiline.

“Krytox” [Du Pont]. TM for a series of hexaf- luroropropylene epoxide polymers of medium mo- lecular weight, used as lubricating oils and greases; in high-temperature or corrosive conditions, good

Use: Agricultural chemical. chemical inertness, even with boiling sulfuric acid;

low solubility in most solvents; good lubricity under load; nonflammable, have thermal stability up to

CAS: 2971-38-2. mf: C 12 H 11 Cl 3 O 3 . Hazard: Moderately toxic by ingestion and inhala- tion.

Kroto, Sir Harold W.

(1939– ). A British

chemist who won the Nobel Prize for chemistry along with Robert F. Curl, Jr. and Richard E. Smal-

TM for po-

tassium tri-sec-butylborohydride, 1.0 molar solu- tion in tetrahydrofuran. KB[CH(CH 3 )C 2 H 5 ] 3 H. Properties: Moisture-sensitive liquid. Mw 222.27, d

0.913, fp –17C. ley, Richard E. Hazard: Flammable liquid, handle under nitrogen.

Use: Stereoselective reduction of ketones; conjugate reduction and alkylation of , -unsaturated ke- tones.

compound called buckminsterfullerene. He

ley in 1996, the 100th anniversary of Alfred Nobel’s death. The trio won for the discovery of the C 60

260C.

“K-Selectride” [Sigma-Aldrich].

re-

ceived a Ph.D. from the University of Sheffield. See buckminsterfullerene; Curl, Robert F., Jr.; Smal-

“Krum” [Silbrico].

lite.

TM for horticultural per-

krypton.

CAS: 7439-90-9. Kr. Element of atomic number 36, “K-Tea Algacide” [Agrisel]. TM for an alga- noble-gas group of the periodic table, aw 83.80, cide. valence = 2 (possibly others), has six stable isotopes Use: To kill most forms of algae in lakes and fish and a number of artificially radioactive forms. hatcheries, rivers, streams, and golf course waters.

KTPP

734

KTPP.

hate.

Abbreviation for potassium tripolyphosp-

“Kuron” [Dow].

and brush killer.

TM for a hormone-type weed

Kucherov reaction.

Hydration of acetylenic

hydrocarbons with dilute sulfuric acid in the

ence of mercuric sulfate or boron trifluoride as cata-

lyst.

Kurroll’s salt.

NaPO 3 (IV).

A high-tempera-

pres- ture crystalline form of sodium metaphosphate.

“Kuzo” [Afrocare].

TM for a beeswax formu-

Kuhn,

German

chemist who won the Nobel Prize in 1938. He worked on cartinoids and synthetic vitamins and discovered the chemical formula for vitamin B 6 . He

also discovered a method for dissolving symplexes Al 2 O 3 .SiO 2 . A mineral.

A

Richard.

(1900–1967).

lation. Use: For dreadlocks and braid ends.

kyanite.

(cyanite; disthene; rhoetizite).

from plants using invert soaps. He received his PhD in Munich, and went on to teach in Switzerland.

Kuhn-Roth method for C-methyl

determination. Oxidation of organic com-

pounds with chromic and sulfuric acids in such a

to

acetic acid which can be assayed volumetrically. The method has been modified and extended (1) to saturated fatty acids and alcohols containing up to about 20 carbon atoms, and (2) to aliphatic long- chain compounds of very high molecular weight.

manner that the C-methyl groups are converted

Kuhn-Winterstein reaction.

Conversion of

1,2-glycols into trans olefins by reaction with di- phosphotetraiodide (P 2 I 4 ) or other halogenated re- agents. This reaction is useful in the preparation of polyenes.

Kydex [Rohm & Haas]. TM for a thermo-

formed acrylic polyvinyl chloride alloy plastic sheet. Use: Housings, trays, covers, containers, protective guards, and decorative parts exposed to severe ser- vice conditions.

“Kynol” [Carborundum]. TM for a flame-re-

sistant fiber available as 1.5 inch staple, 1.7 denier. It is a cross-linked, amorphous phenolic polymer, inert to all solvents and with fair resistance to oxidiz- ing acids and strong alkalies. Will not ignite up to 2500C, but will char slowly at 260C. Potential uses are as ablative agent in spacecraft, flameproof ap- parel, protective clothing, etc. See ablation.

“K-Universal Line Klisters” [Swix].

TM

for ski wax. Use: Versatile wax products utilizing newest raw materials.

kynurenine.

C 10 H 12 N 2 O 3 . An amino acid that is a

metabolic product of tryptophan. Use: Biochemical and nutritional research, especially in connection with B-complex deficiencies.