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PASSAGE-1 - 6 q to be created

Artificial intelligence is becoming good at many “human” jobs—diagnosing


disease, translating languages, providing customer service—and it’s improving
fast. This is raising reasonable fears that AI will ultimately replace human workers
throughout the economy. But that’s not the inevitable, or even most likely,
outcome. Never before have digital tools been so responsive to us, nor we to our
tools. While AI will radically alter how work gets done and who does it, the
technology’s larger impact will be in complementing and augmenting human
capabilities, not replacing them.
Certainly, many companies have used AI to automate processes, but those that
deploy it mainly to displace employees will see only short-term productivity gains.
In our research involving 1,500 companies, we found that firms achieve the most
significant performance improvements when humans and machines work together.
Through such collaborative intelligence, humans and AI actively enhance each
other’s complementary strengths: the leadership, teamwork, creativity, and social
skills of the former, and the speed, scalability, and quantitative capabilities of the
latter. What comes naturally to people (making a joke, for example) can be tricky
for machines, and what’s straightforward for machines (analyzing gigabytes of
data) remains virtually impossible for humans. Business requires both kinds of
capabilities.
To take full advantage of this collaboration, companies must understand how
humans can most effectively augment machines, how machines can enhance what
humans do best, and how to redesign business processes to support the partnership.
Humans need to perform three crucial roles. They must train machines to perform
certain tasks; explain the outcomes of those tasks, especially when the results are
counterintuitive or controversial; and sustain the responsible use of machines (by,
for example, preventing robots from harming humans).
Machine-learning algorithms must be taught how to perform the work they’re
designed to do. In that effort, huge training data sets are amassed to teach machine-
translation apps to handle idiomatic expressions, medical apps to detect disease,
and recommendation engines to support financial decision making. In addition, AI
systems must be trained how best to interact with humans.
Organizations that use machines merely to displace workers through automation
will miss the full potential of AI. Such a strategy is misguided from the get-go.
Tomorrow’s leaders will instead be those that embrace collaborative intelligence,
transforming their operations, their markets, their industries, and—no less
important—their workforces.
Q1. Which of the following portray the shortcoming of AI when used only as a part
of the automation process?
1. Manual workers will lose their jobs.
2. Only short term goals can be achieved.
3. No one will be there to take the responsibility in case an AI malfunctions.
4. The outcomes can be controversial.
Solution: 2. Refer to-“… but those that deploy it mainly to displace employees will
see only short-term productivity gains.” Option 1 is inconclusive. Option 3
transcends the topic of the question. Similarly, option 4 is also out of the context.
Hence 2 is the correct answer.
Q2. What should be the ideal relationship between an Ai and human work force?
1. One should supplement the other.
2. Since AI is more effective than human work force it should be given the
maximum priority.
3. Both should complement each other.
4. Both should function effectively and this will reduce unwanted manual
labour.
Solution: 3. According to the given passage the author stresses on the fact that the
full potential of AI will be harnessed only if it works with the human force and not
in isolation. Refer to- “…the technology’s larger impact will be in complementing
and augmenting human capabilities, not replacing them.” This makes option 3 the
correct answer.
Q3. Which of the following is true as far as the author’s intention behind this
passage is concerned?
1. AI systems cannot be made to work with human work force as it will always
surpass human intelligence.
2. AI didn’t create the humans but it is the other way round and it can be
trained to work with humans.
3. The use of AI will benefit a company in the long run.
4. The only duty of the humans is to learn how to use AI accurately and
without any hindrance.
Solution: 2. Option 1 contradicts the tone of the passage. Option 3 is vague.
‘without any hindrance’ makes option 4 incorrect as nothing has been mentioned
about using AI accurately. Refer to the 4th and 5th paragraph. Both the paragraphs
state that machines should be trained to understand human work force.
Q4. Which of the following cannot be inferred from the given passage?
1. Humans and the AI systems should learn to understand each other for better
collaborative performance.
2. Companies where AI replaces human work force will not be able to harness
the full potential of AI.

3. Business policies should be reinvented so that both AI and human work


force and work together.
4. AI training should be given to all so that one may learn to use certain
important applications.
Solution: 4. All other options except 4 can be derived from the passage. The
passage does not talk about AI training which should be given to humans. This
makes 4 incorrect and hence the correct option choice.
Q5. The central idea of the passage is to
1. understand the full potential of AI.
2. understand the relationship between human and AI.
3. understand how the full potential of AI can be harnessed.
4. understand the roles of humans in the age of AI and what they should do to
protect their jobs.
Solution: 3. The given passage states that the full potential of AI can be harnessed
only if it complements the human work force. So, it answers the question how AI
systems can be harnessed completely for betterment of technology and
improvement of human life forms. This makes option3, the correct choice.
Q6. Which of the following does not depict the role of humans as far as their
training of machines is concerned?
1. Sustainable use of machines should be a priority.
2. When controversial results are arrived at with the help of AI, the outcomes
should be monitored.
3. Train AI systems to understand the importance of life saving apps.
4. Teaching AI systems to interact with humans.
Solution: 3. The passage does talk about “medical apps to detect disease” but it is
not mentioned anywhere in the passage that AI systems should be made to
understand the implications of any lifesaving app. Hence, 3 is the correct answer.

PASSAGE-3 (VIKINGS- 231 WORDS) - 3 q to be created


Viking, also called Norseman or Northman member of the Scandinavia seafaring
warriors who raided and colonized wide areas of Europe from the 9th to the 11th
century and whose disruptive influence profoundly affected European history.
These pagan Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish warriors were probably prompted to
undertake their raids by a combination of factors ranging from overpopulation at
home to the relative helplessness of victims abroad.
The Vikings were made up of landowning chieftains and clan heads, their retainers,
freemen, and any energetic young clan members who sought adventure and booty
overseas. At home these Scandinavians were independent farmers, but at sea they
were raiders and pillagers. During the Viking period the Scandinavian countries
seem to have possessed a practically inexhaustible surplus of manpower, and
leaders of ability, who could organize groups of warriors into conquering bands
and armies, were seldom lacking. These bands would negotiate the seas in their
longships and mount hit-and-run raids at cities and towns along the coasts of
Europe. Their burning, plundering, and killing earned them the name vikingr,
meaning “pirate” in the early Scandinavian languages.

The exact ethnic composition of the Viking armies is unknown in particular cases,
but the Vikings’ expansion in the Baltic lands and in Russia can reasonably be
attributed to the Swedes. Elsewhere, the nonmilitary colonization of the Orkney
Islands, the Faroe Islands, and Icelands was clearly accomplished by the
Norwegians.

Q1. Which of the following may not be shown as a reason behind the raids and
colonization by the Vikings?
1. Disruptive nature of the Vikings.
2. Overpopulation at home
3. Their victims were helpless.
4. They had immense man power.

Solution: 4. Refer to the 1st paragraph. Except option 4 all other options portray the
reasons behind their raids and colonization of Europe from 9th to 11th century AD.
Although there is a mention of manpower in the 2nd paragraph but that cannot be a
reason as manpower may or may not lead to colonization. This is a tricky question
where option 4 portrays the weakest of the reasons.

Q2. Which of the following earned them the name Viking?


1. They colonized the entire north Europe by 11th century.
2. Their nature of colonizing other countries.
3. They attacked via the seas which earned them the title Viking which means
pirate.
4. The imperialist policies of their leaders.

Solution: 2. Option 1 cannot be factually verified. Refer to the last line of the 2 nd
paragraph- “Their burning, plundering, and killing earned them the name vikingr,
meaning “pirate” in the early Scandinavian languages.” This particular sentence
shows their nature of colonizing. Hence 2 is the correct answer. 3 is incorrect as it
cannot be concluded with certainty.

Q3. The primary intention of the author behind this passage is to


1. showcase the origin of the Vikings.
2. showcase the manpower these Vikings had.
3. showcase the Vikings’ practice of colonization.
4. showcase their imperialist policies and the history of their colonization.

Solution: 3. The passage talks less about the origin of the Vikings and the focus is
more on how they colonized various European countries by ‘’burning, plundering
and killing”. It does not portray their imperialistic policies as such. 3 is the correct
answer.