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CHAPTER 5 CHEMICAL BONDS

5.1 FORMATION OF COMPOUNDS

Ionic bond The chemical bond formed through the transfer (release,receive) of electrons
from metal atoms to non-metal atoms.
Covalent bond Chemical bond formed through the sharing of electrons between non-metal

5.2 FORMATION OF IONC BOND

Exercise 1

1. Proton Number Na= 11 , Cl = 17 2. Proton Number K= 19 , Cl = 17

3. Proton Number Mg= 12 , Cl = 17 4. Proton Number Na= 11 , O = 8

5. Proton Number Ca= 20 , Cl = 17 6. Proton Number Li= 3 , Cl = 17

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7 Proton Number Ca= 20 , F = 9 8. Proton Number Mg= 12 , O = 8

Exercise 2

(a)
Elements Proton Numbers
Na 11
Cl 17

Explain the formation of ionic bond in sodium and chlorine. [5 marks]

Explanation:

1. Sodium atom has proton number 11 and electron arrangement 2.8.1


2. Sodium atom need to release 1 electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.
3. Sodium atom become Sodium ions ,Na+.
4. Chlorine atom has proton number 17 and electron arrangement 2.8.7
5. Chlorine atom need to accept 1 electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.
6. Chlorine atom become Chloride ions ,Cl-.
7. Na+ ion and Cl- ion are attracted by strong electrostatic forces of attration
8. Ionic compound with formula NaCl has been formed.

Exercise 3

(b) diagram below shows the symbols for two different elements

Mg , 8O
20 16
12

Explain the formation of ionic bond in magnesium and oxygen. [5 marks]

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Explanation:
1. Magnesium atom has proton number 12 and electron arrangment 2.8.2
2. Magnesium atom need to release 2 electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.
3. Magnesium atom become Magnesium ions ,Mg2+.
4. Oxygen atom has proton number 8 and electron arrangment 2.6
5. Oxygen atom need to accept 2 electron to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.
6. Oxygen atom become Oxygen ions ,O2-.
7. Mg2+ ion and O2- ion are attracted by strong electrostatic forces of attration
8. Ionic compound with formula MgO has been formed.

5.3 FORMATION OF COVALENT BOND

(a) The formation of hydrogen molecule, H2

Explanation:

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1. Hydrogen atom has proton number 1 and electron arrangement 1
2. Each of the 2 hydrogen atom need to contribute 1 electron for sharing to achieve stable duplet electron

arrangement.
3. Each of the 2 hydrogen atom will share a pair of electron to form single covalent bond.
4. Covalent compound with the formulae H2 will formed.

(b) The formation of chlorine molecule, Cl2

Explanation:

1. Chlorine atom has proton number 17 and electron arrangement 2.8.7


2. Each of the 2 chlorine atom need to contribute 1 electron for sharing to achieve stable octet electron

arrangement.
3. Each of the 2 chlorine atom will share a pair of electron to form single covalent bond.
4. Covalent compound with the formulae Cl2 will formed.

(c) The formation of oxygen molecule, O2

Explanation:

1. Oxygen atom has proton number 8 and electron arrangement 2.6


2. Each of the 2 oxygen atom need to contribute 2 electron for sharing to achieve stable octet electron

arrangement.
3. Each of the 2 oxygen atom will share 2 pair of electrons to form double covalent bond.
4. Covalent compound with the formulae O2 will formed.

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(d) The formation of hydrogen molecule, N2

Explanation:

1. Nitrogen atom has proton number 7 and electron arrangement 2.5


2. Each of the 2 nitrogen atom need to contribute 3 electron for sharing to achieve stable octet electron

arrangement.
3. Each of the 2 nitrogen atom will share 3 pair of electrons to form triple covalent bond.
4. Covalent compound with the formulae N2 will formed.

(e) The formation of hydrogen chloride molecule, HCl

Explanation:
1. Hydrogen atom has proton number 1 and electron arrangement 1

2. Hydrogen atom need to contribute 1 electron for sharing to achieve stable duplet electron arrangement.

3. Chlorine atom has proton number 17 and electron arrangement 2.8.7

4. Chlorine atom need to contribute 1 electron for sharing to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.

5. Hydrogen atom and chlorine atom will share 1 pair of electrons to form single covalent bond.

6. Covalent compound with the formulae HCl will formed.

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(f)
Elements Proton Numbers
Nitrogen 7
Hydrogen 1
Explain the formation of the compound above. [6 marks]

Explanation:
1. Hydrogen atom has proton number 1 and electron arrangement 1

2. Each of the 3 hydrogen atoms need to contribute 1 electron for sharing to achieve stable duplet electron

arrangement.

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3. Nitrogen atom has proton number 7 and electron arrangement 2.7

4. Nitrogen atom need to contribute 3 electrons for sharing to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.

5. 1 nitrogen atom will share 1 pair of electrons with each of the 3 hydrogen atom to form 3 single covalent

bond.

6. Covalent compound with the formulae NH3 will formed.


(g)
Elements Proton Numbers
Carbon 6
Oxygen 8
Explain the formation of the compound above. [6 marks]

Explanation:
1. Carbon atom has proton number 6 and electron arrangement 2.4

2. Carbon atom need to contribute 4 electrons for sharing to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.

3. Oxygen atom has proton number 8 and electron arrangement 2.6

4. Each of the 2 oxygen atoms need to contribute 2 electrons for sharing to achieve stable octet electron

arrangement.

5. 1 carbon atom will share 2 pair of electrons with each of the 2 oxygen atom to form 2 double covalent

bond.

6. Covalent compound with the formulae CO2 will formed.

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(h)
Elements Proton Numbers
Carbon 6
Hydrogen 1
Explain the formation of the compound above. [6 marks]

Explanation:
1. Carbon atom has proton number 6 and electron arrangement 2.4

2. Carbon atom need to contribute 4 electrons for sharing to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.

3. Hydrogen atom has proton number 1 and electron arrangement 1

4. Each of the 4 hydrogen atoms need to contribute 1 electrons for sharing to achieve stable duplet electron

arrangement.

5. 1 carbon atom will share 1 pair of electrons with each of the 4 hydrogen atoms to form 4 single covalent

bond.

6. Covalent compound with the formulae CH4 will formed.


(i)
Elements Proton Numbers
Carbon 6

8
Chlorine 17
Explain the formation of the compound above. [6 marks]

Explanation:
1. Carbon atom has proton number 6 and electron arrangement 2.4

2. Carbon atom need to contribute 4 electrons for sharing to achieve stable octet electron arrangement.

3. Chlorine atom has proton number 17 and electron arrangement 2.8.7

4. Each of the 4 chlorine atoms need to contribute 1 electrons for sharing to achieve stable octet electron

arrangement.

5. 1 carbon atom will share 1 pair of electrons with each of the 4 chlorine atoms to form 4 single covalent

bond.

6. Covalent compound with the formulae CCl4 will formed.

5.4 PROPERTIES OF IONIC AND COVALENT COMPOUND

Property Ionic compound Covalent compound


Melting point and High low
boiling point
Explanation Explanation
1. Ion positif and ion negative are attract 1. Molecules are held by weak
together with strong electrostatic force intermolecular force of attraction(Van
of attraction. der Waals force of attraction)
2. More heat energy is needed to 2. Less heat energy is needed to
overcome the attraction overcome this attraction.
Electrical Can conduct electricity in molten and Cannot conduct electricity at any states.
conductivity aqueous solution
Explanation In molten and aqueous solution, ions can Compound consist of neutral molecule
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move freely only
No freely moving ions
Solubility Soluble in water ,insoluble in organic Soluble in organic solvent, insoluble in
solvent water

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1. Proton Number H= 1, H = 1 2. Proton Number F= 9 , F = 9

3. Proton Number Cl= 17 , Cl = 17 4. Proton Number O= 8 , O= 8

5. Proton Number N= 7 , N= 7 6. Proton Number C= 6 , O = 8

7. Proton Number C= 6 , F = 9 8. Proton Number C= 6 , Cl = 17

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