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Syllabus

COURSE DETAILS (PROPOSED TO BE INTRODUCED)

1. Name of the Department submitting the proposal:

Electronics & Communication Engineering

2. Name of the Course proposed to be introduced.

Title of

Specialization,

Intake

Proposed year of Commencement

Entry Level

Degree

If any.

(Full time)

Qualification

M. Tech

Electronics and

18

2010

B. E. /B. Tech.

Communication

(EC/Electronics/E&TC

Engineering

/Equivalent)

DETAIL SYLLABUS

Semester- I

EC-101 Essential Mathematics:

Review of Vector Spaces, Subspaces, Linear Independence, Bases, Rank, Linear Transformations. Norms, Inner Products, Orthogonal Bases, Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization, QR Factorization Range-Nullspace Decomposition, Singular Value Decomposition Projections, Least Squares Problems, Data Fitting/Regression Eigenvalues, Eigenvectors, Diagonalization, Positive Definite Matrices.

Probability, Axioms of Probability, Random Variable, Probability Distributions and Density Functions, Function of a Random Variable, Mean and Variance, Function of two Random Variables, Correlation Covariance, Correlation Matrices and their Properties, Chebychev’s Inequality, Central Limit Theorem, Moments, Random Processes - Temporal Characteristic, Random Processes - Spectral Characteristic, Linear Systems with Random Inputs, Optimum Linear Systems.

References:

1. Papuoulis and Pillai, Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes, 4th ed, McGraw Hill.

2. Gray and Davisson, An Introduction to Statistical Signal Processing.

3. David Tse, Probability and Random Process.

4. G. H. Golub, C. F. Van Loan, Matrix Computation, North Oxford Academic.

EC-102 Signal Detection and Estimation:

Statistical decision theory, hypothesis testing, detection of known signals and signals with unknown parameters in noise, receiver performance and error probability, applications to radar and communications. Composite and nonparametric decision theory. Statistical estimation theory, performance measures and bounds, efficient estimators. Estimation of unknown signal parameters, applications. Linear estimation, Wiener filtering, Kalman filtering.

References:

1. H.Vincent Poor, An Introduction to Signal Detection and Estimation, 2nd Edition, Springer Verlag, 1994.

2. Robert McDonough, Anthony N-Whalen , Detection of Signals in Noise, Academic Press, 1995.

EC-103 Mobile Communications:

Radio propagation: Introduction, Fundamental radio propagation, Related Antenna’s basics, Propagation characteristics, Multipath faded radio signal models, Evolution of standards for cellular & wireless systems, Hexagonal cell and frequency reuse, Hard and soft handoffs, cell splitting , sectoring, umbrella cell concept, distance to frequency reuse , Co channel & adjacent channel interference concept, Erlang concept, Diversity techniques: Different diversity techniques, Rake receiver & equalization, Multiple access technique Mobile communications: GSM & CDMA standards( IS -95 & CDMA 2000 with WLL), RF planning, Planning & implementation of mobile communication network with project planning.

References:

1. Theodor S. Rappaport ,Wireless communications principal & practice (Pearson

Edition,3 rd Edition)

2. William C.Y.Lee , Mobile cellular Telecommunication (McGraw Hill)

EC-104 Communication Lab I:

Experiments should be based on the Core and Elective courses offered in the program.

EC-A Fiber Optics Communication:

Importance of OFC, Light wave propagation in dielectric slab waveguides, Ray Theory, Numerical aperture, SI and GI waveguides, channel waveguides, Optical fibers: Types, fabrication techniques, attenuation, dispersion, Modes in SI and GI, DSF, DFF, PM fibers, plastic fibers, fiber bundles, connectors, couplers, power splitters etc. Optical sources and detectors: Review of PN junction diodes, LEDs, Laser Diodes, Noise sources, Photo- detectors: PIN and APD design. Noise characteristics, Modulation of LEDs/LDs, drive circuits for LDs and PDs, high speed operation. OFC systems: Simple networks and their analysis. BER calculations. WDM principle and techniques. Optical TDM etc, long haul DWDM. EDFAs and their applications to OFC. Optical fiber sensors, Coherent detection in OFC.

References:

1. G.P. Agarwal, Fiber Optic Communication Systems, John Wiley 1997

2. Senior J., Optical fiber communications, Principles and Practice, PHI, 1992

3. Keiser G., Optical fiber communications, McGraw-Hill, 1999

4. A Selvaranjan, S.Kar, T Srinivas, Optical fiber communications, TMH, 2002

5. William B. Jones, Introduction to Optical fiber communication systems,OUP,1998

EC-B RF Circuits:

Review of Basic Transmission Line Theory, Impedance Matching and Tuning. Matching networks using lumped elements, Single- and double-stub tuning, Quarter wave transformer, Theory of small reflection. Binomial and Chebyshev Multi-section matching transformers, Concept of various types of microwave resonator. Two port network analysis and S- parameters and signal flow graphs. Basic properties and analysis of Power Divider and Directional Couplers. Microwave filters. Basics of MIC, MMIC and MEMS technologies - Substrates used. Fabrication process. Relative advantages.

References:

1. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

2. Peter A. Rizzi, Microwave Engineering Passive Circuits, Prentice Hall ,Englewood Cliff,

New Jersey

07632

3. D. K. Misra, Radio Frequency and Microwave Communication Circuits – Analysis and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 2001;

4. M.M. Radmanesh, Radio Frequency and Microwave Electronics, Pearson Education Asia, 2001.

5. B. Bhat & S.K. Koul, Stripline-like Transmission Line for Microwave Integrated Circuits, New Age International.

6. S.Y.Liao, Microwave devices and circuits, Prentice Hall of India ,New Delhi ,1998.

EC-C Digital Signal Processing:

2-D signals and systems, Analysis of 2D systems in spatial, frequency and transform domains; Short time Fourier Transform; Multirate Signal Processing: Decimation Interpolation, DFT filter banks, QMF filter banks, Multiresolution Signal analysis wavelets theory of sub band decompositions, Sub band coding and wavelet transforms, Application of wavelet transforms. Power spectral estimation; higher order spectral estimation; Adaptive filters and applications. Recursive estimation and Kalman filters.

References:

1. P.P. Vaidyanathan, Multirate systems and Filter banks, Prentice Hall, 1993.

2. S.J. Orfanidis, Optimum Signal Processing, McGraw Hill, 1989.

3. S. Haykin, Adaptive Filter Theory, Pearson, 1996

EC-D Still Image & Video Processing:

1 Introduction

What Is Digital Image Processing? , The Origins of Digital Image Processing, Examples of Fields that Use Digital Image Processing, Gamma-Ray Imaging, X-ray Imaging, Imaging in the Ultraviolet Band, Imaging in the Visible and Infrared Bands, Imaging in the Microwave Band, Imaging in the Radio Band, Examples in which Other Imaging Modalities Are Used, Fundamental Steps in Digital Image Processing, Components of an Image Processing System.

2 Digital Image Fundamentals

Elements of Visual Perception, Structure of the Human Eye, Image Formation in the Eye, Brightness Adaptation and Discrimination, Light and the Electromagnetic Spectrum, Image Sensing and Acquisition, Image Acquisition Using a Single Sensor, Image Acquisition Using Sensor Strips, Image Acquisition Using Sensor Arrays, A Simple Image Formation Model, Image Sampling and Quantization, Basic Concepts in Sampling and Quantization, Representing Digital Images, Spatial and Gray-Level Resolution, Aliasing and Moiré Patterns, Zooming and Shrinking Digital Images, Some Basic Relationships Between Pixels, Neighbors of a Pixel, Adjacency, Connectivity, Regions, and Boundaries, Distance Measures, Image Operations on a Pixel Basis, Linear and Nonlinear Operations

3 Image Enhancements in the Spatial Domain

Background, Some Basic Gray Level Transformations, Image Negatives, Log Transformations, Power-Law Transformations, Piecewise-Linear Transformation, Histogram Processing, Histogram Equalization, Histogram Matching, Local Enhancement, Use of Histogram Statistics for Image Enhancement, Enhancement Using Arithmetic/Logic Operations, Image Subtraction, Image Averaging, Basics of Spatial Filtering, Smoothing Spatial Filters, Smoothing Linear Filters, Order-Statistics Filters, Sharpening Spatial Filters, Use of Second Derivatives for Enhancement– The Laplacian

4 Image Enhancements in the Frequency Domain

Background, Filtering in the Frequency Domain, Correspondence between Filtering in the Spatial and Frequency Domains, Smoothing Frequency-Domain Filters, Sharpening Frequency Domain Filters, The Laplacian in the Frequency Domain, Unsharp Masking, High-Boost Filtering, High-Frequency Emphasis Filtering Homomorphic Filtering, The Fast Fourier Transform

5 Video Formation, Perception and Representation

Color Perception and Specification, Light and Color, Human Perception of Color, The Trichromatic Theory of Color Mixture, Color Specification by Tristimulus Values, Color Specification by Luminance and Chrominance Attributes, Video Capture and Display Principles of Color Video Imaging, Video Cameras, Video Display, Composite versus Component Video, Gamma Correction, Analog Video Raster, Progressive and Interlaced Scan, Characterization of a Video Raster, Analog Color Television Systems, Spatial and Temporal Resolution, Color Coordinate, Signal Bandwidth, Multiplexing of Luminance, Chrominance, and Audio, Analog Video Recording, Digital Video Notation, ITU-R BT.601 Digital Video, Other Digital Video Formats and Applications, Digital Video Recording, Video Quality Measure

6 FOUNDATIONS OF VIDEO CODING

Overview of Coding Systems, General Framework, Categorization of Video Coding Schemes, Basic Notions in Probability and Information Theory, Characterization of Stationary Sources, Entropy and Mutual Information for Discrete Sources, Entropy and Mutual, Information for Continuous Sources, Information Theory for Source Coding, Bound for Lossless Coding, Bound for Lossy Coding, Rate-Distortion Bounds for Gaussian Sources, Binary Encoding, Huffman Coding, Arithmetic Coding, Scalar Quantization Fundamentals, Uniform Quantization, Optimal Scalar Quantizer, Vector Quantization Fundamentals, Lattice Vector Quantizer, Optimal Vector Quantizer, Entropy-Constrained Optimal Quantizer Design.

References:

1. Rafael C. Gonzalez& Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall Publications

2. Ralt Steinmetz and Klara Nahrstedt, Multimedia: Computing, Communication &

Applications, Pearson Education Publications, 2004. 3. Yao wang, Jorn ostermann and Ya-Qin Zhang: Video Processing and Communications, Prentice Hall Publication, 2002.

EC-E Embedded Systems Design:

Introduction to Microprocessors and Embedded RISC processors., Architecture of the ARM processor, DSP processor (Multicore architecture ARM/DSP), Instruction set, programming model, Exception handling and processing, MMU, Instruction and Data Cache. ,Memory controller, Communication Processors module and Serial Interface, Serial Management Controller and Serial Communication Controller., HDLC and Ethernet Protocol, SDMA channels and IDMA emulation. , CPM interrupt controller and CPM timers, SPI, I2C and Parallel ports, Reset, Clock, Power control External bus interface, System Development and Debugging, Real-Time system concepts, Kernel structure, Task management, Inter task communication & synchronization, Memory management. , Developing embedded solutions Configuration of RTOS (boot loaders), Preparing an Application Development Environment, Implementing Real-Time systems, Understanding Device Drivers. , Connecting Network- Enabled RTOS Devices, Case study using ARM+DSP.

References:

1. J. W. Valvo, Embedded Micro computer system, Brooks/Cole.

2. K. J. Ayala, The 8051 Microcontroller, Pernam Intl.

3. Jack Ganssle. The art of designing Embedded Systems.

4. Daniel W. Lewis, Fundamentals of Embedded Software

DETAIL SYLLABUS Semester- II

EC-201 Error Control Codes:

Coding for reliable digital transmission and storage, Groups, Rings, Vector Spaces, Galois Fields, Polynomial rings, Channel models, Linear Block codes, Cyclic codes, BCH codes, Reed Solomon Codes, Berlekamp-Massey decoding algorithm, Applications of Reed- Solomon codes, Convolutional codes, Decoding algorithms for Convolutional codes, Viterbi, Stack and Fano algorithms, Application of Convolutional codes. Codes based on the Fourier Transform, Algorithms based on the Fourier Transform, Trellis coded modulation, Combinatorial description of Block and Convolutional codes, Soft decision decoding algorithms, Iterative decoding algorithms, Turbo-decoding, Space-Time codes.

References:

1. Blahut R. E, Theory and Practise of Error Control Codes, Addisson Wesley, 1983.

2. Shu Lin and Daniel J. Costello Jr., Error Control Coding: Fundamentals and Applications, Prentice Hall, 2003.

3. Todd K. Moon, Error Correction Coding: Mathematical Methods and Algorithms, Wiley India, 2006.

4. Johanneson R and Zigangirov K. S., Fundamentals of Convolutional codes, IEEE press, 1999.

EC-202 Linear and Nonlinear Optimization:

Necessary and sufficient conditions for optima; convex analysis; unconstrained optimization; descent methods; steepest descent, Newton's method, quasi Newton methods, conjugate direction methods; constrained optimization; Kuhn-Tucker conditions, Quadratic programming problems; algorithms for constrained optimization; gradient projection method, penalty and barrier function methods, Linear programming, simplex methods; duality in optimization, duals of linear and quadratic programming problems

References:

1. J.Luenberger D.G., Introduction to Linear and Nonlinear Programming, 2 nd edition,

Addison Wesley, 1984.

2. Fletcher. R, Practical methods of Optimization, John Wiley, 1980

EC-203 Data Communications and Networks:

1. Introduction: Data communication, networks, the Internet and protocol and standards

2. Network Models: Layered task, OSI model, layers in OSI model, TCP/IP protocol suite

3. Transmission Media: Guided media, wireless media

4. Switching: Circuit switched network, Datagram networks, virtual circuit networks, Structure of switch

5. Using telephone& cable networks for Data transmission: Telephone network, Dial up modems, digital subscriber line, cable TV networks, Cable for Data transfer.

6. Data link Control: Framing, Flow & error control, Protocols, noiseless & noisy channels

7. Multiple Access: Random Access, controlled Access, Channelization

8. Wired LANs: Ethernet

9. IEEE standard, Standard Ethernet, Changes in Standard, Fast Ethernet

10. Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11, Blue tooth

11. Connecting LANs Backbones Networks & virtual LAN

12. Virtual circuit Networks : Frame relay, ATM, ATM LANs

13. IPv4 & IPv6

14. SONET/ SDH : Architecture, SONET layers, SONET frames, STS Multiplexing, SONET networks.

References:

1. Behrouz A. Forouzan, Data communication & Networking, 2nd Edition, Mc Graw Hill.

2. T. Viswanathan, Telecommunication Switching Systems & Networks, (PHI), 2008

EC-204 Communication Lab II:

Experiments should be based on the Core and Elective courses offered in the program.

EC-F Optical Networks:

Introduction to Optical Networks, Propagation of Signals in an optical fiber, Optical Components, Modulation and demodulation, Transmission system engineering, Client layer of the optical layer, WDM network elements, WDM network designing, DWDM networks.

References:

1. R. Ramaswami and K.N.Sivarajan, Optical Networks, A Practical Perspective, Harcourt Asia Pvt. Ltd., 2000.

2. Optical Network Technology, Smith, D.W. (Ed.), Vol. 5, 1994.

3. Emerging Optical Network Technologies, Architectures, Protocols and Performance Sivalingam, K.M., Subramaniam, S. (Eds.), 2004.

4. Optical Network Design and Modelling, van As, H.R., Jukan, A. (Eds.), 1998.

EC-G Microwave Engineering

Active microwave circuits-over view of microwave sources, Noise in microwave circuits, Detectors and mixers, PIN diode control circuit. Design of microwave Amplifier and Oscillator-characteristic of microwave transistors ,Gain ,stability, single stage transistor amplifier design, Broadband transistor amplifier design, Introduction to microwave systems, theory of ferromagnetic components. RF/Microwave frequency conversion- mixer design.

References:

1. D. K. Misra, Radio Frequency and Microwave Communication Circuits – Analysis and Design, John Wiley, 2004.

2. G. Gonzalez, Microwave Transistor Amplifiers – Analysis and Design, Prentice Hall,

1997.

3. D. M. Pozar, Microwave Engineering, John Wiley, 1998.

4. S.K. Koul and B. Bhat, Microwave and Millimeter Wave Phase Shifters, Vol.II- Semiconductor and Delay Line Phase Shifters, Artech House, 1991

5. G.D. Vendelin, A.M. Pavio and U.L. Rhode, Microwave Circuit Design using Linear and Nonlinear Techniques, 1990.

EC-H VLSI System & Architecture:

1.

Behavior and Architecture: Dedicated and Programmable VLSI architectures, Instruction sets and through enhancement techniques (Parallelism. pipelining. cache, etc.)

2.

CISC Architecture Concepts: Typical CISC instruction set and its VLSI implementation, RT-level optimization through hardware flow charting, Design of the execution unit, Design of the control part (micro programmed and hardwired), handling exceptions: Instruction boundary interrupts, immediate interrupts and traps.

3.

RISC Architecture concepts: Typical RISC instruction set and its VLSI implementation, Execution pipeline, Benefits and problems of pipelined execution, Hazards of various types of pipeline stalling, concepts of scheduling (Static and dynamic) and forwarding to reduce / minimize pipeline stalls Exceptions in pipelined processors

4.

DSP architecture concepts: Typical DSP instruction set and its VLSI implementation

5.

Dedicated Hardware Architecture Concepts: Example and Case studies

6.

Dedicated DSP architecture Concepts: Synthesis, Scheduling and Resource allocation, Conventional Residue number, distributed arithmetic architecture

7.

Future Trends

References:

1. GABlaauw and F P Brooks, Computer Architecture: Concepts and Evolution, Addison Wesley, 1997

2. D A Patterson and J L Hennessy, Computer organization and Design: Hardware/Software interface, Second Edition, Margan Kaufmann, 1998

3. D A Patterson and I L Hennessy, Computer Architecture: A Quantitative approach, Second edition, Margon Kaufmann, 1996

4. W. Stallings, Computer Organization and architecture: Designing for Performance, Fourth Edition, PH, 1996

EC-I Antenna Theory:

Planar Antennas - Microstrip rectangular and circular patch antennas- Analysis and design, Feeding methods; circularly polarized microstrip antennas, Broadbanding techniques. Printed slot antennas. Array Theory – Linear array; Broadside and end fire arrays; Self and mutual impedance of between linear elements, grating lobe considerations. Planar array- Array factor, beamwidth, directivity. Example of microstrip patch arrays and feed networks. Electronic scanning. Broadband Antennas- Folded dipole, Sleeve dipole, Biconical antenna- Analysis, characteristics, matching techniques. Yagi array of linear elements and printed version, Log-periodic dipole array. Frequency Independent Antennas- Planar spiral antenna, Log periodic dipole array. Aperture Antennas- Field equivalence principle, Babinet’s principle. Rectangular waveguide horn antenna, Parabolic reflector antenna. Antennas for mobile communication - Handset antennas, Base station antennas. Beam steering and antennas for MIMO applications. Active and smart microstrip antennas, Design and analysis of microstrip antenna arrays.

References:

1. C. A. Balanis, Antenna Theory and Design, John Wiley & Sons, 1997.

2. J.D. Kraus, Antennas, McGraw-Hill, 1988.

3. R.A. Sainati, CAD of Microstrip Antennas for Wireless Applications, Artech House,

1996.

4. R. Garg, P. Bharhia, I. Bahl, and A. Ittipiboo, Microstrip Antenna design Handbook, Artech House.

5. J. R. James, P.S. Hall and C.Wood, Microstrip Antennas: Theory & Design, Peter Peregrinns ,UK

EC-J Digital Signal Compression:

1. Introduction: Compression techniques, Modeling & coding, Distortion criteria, Differential Entropy, Rate Distortion Theory, Vector Spaces, Information theory, Models for sources, Coding – uniquely decodable codes, Prefix codes, Kraft McMillan Inequality

2. Quantization: Quantization problem, Uniform Quantizer, Adaptive Quantization, Non- uniform Quantization; Entropy coded Quantization, Vector Quantization, LBG algorithm, Tree structured VQ, Structured VQ, Variations of VQ – Gain shape VQ, Mean removed VQ, Classified VQ, Multistage VQ, Adaptive VQ, Trellis coded quantization

3. Differential Encoding: Basic algorithm, Prediction in DPCM, Adaptive DPCM, Delta Modulation, Speech coding – G.726, Image coding.

4. Transform Coding: Transforms – KLT, DCT, DST, DWHT; Quantization and coding of transform coefficients, Application to Image compression – JPEG, Application to audio compression.

5. Sub-band Coding: Filters, Sub-band coding algorithm, Design of filter banks, Perfect reconstruction using two channel filter banks, M-band QMF filter banks, Poly-phase decomposition, Bit allocation, Speech coding – G.722, Audio coding – MPEG audio, Image compression.

6. Wavelet Based Compression: Wavelets, Multiresolution analysis & scaling function, Implementation using filters, Image compression – EZW, SPIHT, JPEG 2000.

7. Analysis/Synthesis Schemes: Speech compression – LPC-10, CELP, MELP, Image Compression – Fractal compression.

9. Lossless Coding: Huffman coding, Adaptive Huffman coding, Golomb codes, Rice codes, Tunstall codes, Applications of Huffman coding, Arithmetic coding, Algorithm implementation, Applications of Arithmetic coding, Dictionary techniques – LZ77, LZ78, Applications of LZ78 – JBIG, JBIG2, Predictive coding – Prediction with partial match, Burrows Wheeler Transform, Applications – CALIC, JPEG-LS, Facsimile coding – T.4,

T.6.

References:

1. K. Sayood, Introduction to Data Compression, Harcourt India Pvt. Ltd. & Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, 1996.

2. N. Jayant and P. Noll, Digital Coding of Waveforms: Principles and Applications to Speech and Video, Prentice Hall, USA, 1984.

3. D. Salomon, Data Compression: The Complete Reference, Springer, 2000. Z. Li and M.S. Drew, Fundamentals of Multimedia, Pearson Education (Asia) Pte. Ltd., 2004.

4. Ralt Steinmetz and Klara Nahrstedt, Multimedia: Computing, Communication & Applications, Pearson Education Publications, 2004.

5. Rafael C. Gonzalez& Richard E. Woods, Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall Publications.