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Prepared By: Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, CE, RMP Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC

Prepared By: Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, CE, RMP

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio -dAVAO 1
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio -dAVAO
1
BuildingBuildingBuildingBuilding andandandand StructuresStructuresStructuresStructures andandandand itsitsitsits

BuildingBuildingBuildingBuilding andandandand StructuresStructuresStructuresStructures andandandand itsitsitsits componentscomponentscomponentscomponents CodesCodesCodesCodes andandandand ReferencesReferencesReferencesReferences EngineeringEngineeringEngineeringEngineering MechanicsMechanicsMechanicsMechanics

Forces and Loads

StrengthStrengthStrengthStrength ofofofof MaterialMaterialMaterialMaterial

Stress and Strain Types of Beam, Supports and Load Moment of Inertia and Section Modulus

StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural SystemSystemSystemSystem (truss and frames) ReinforcedReinforcedReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete

Foundation Piles Retaining walls Pre stress members

StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural SteelSteelSteelSteel

Steels and Carbon Methods of design Structural Steel Section Compression members Flexural members Welding

WoodWoodWoodWood

Properties of Material Concrete Proportioning Design Methods Beam Columns Development Lengths Slabs

Properties of woods Classification of Lumbers Wood Columns Wood Beams

MiscellaneousMiscellaneousMiscellaneousMiscellaneous

Tagalog to English Construction terms

Tagalog to English Construction terms SampleSampleSampleSample

SampleSampleSampleSample QuestionnaireQuestionnaireQuestionnaireQuestionnaire

32 item review test

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

2

CivilCivilCivilCivil EngineeringEngineeringEngineeringEngineering is the application of the knowledge of the forces of
CivilCivilCivilCivil EngineeringEngineeringEngineeringEngineering is the application of the knowledge of the forces of

CivilCivilCivilCivil EngineeringEngineeringEngineeringEngineering

is the application of the knowledge of the forces of nature, principles of mechanics, and the properties of materials to the evaluation, design and construction of civil works.

of materials to the evaluation, design and construction of civil works. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

3

BuildingBuilding-BuildingBuilding is any structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or occupancy.

BuildingBuilding-BuildingBuilding

is any structure used or intended

for supporting or sheltering any use or

occupancy.

StructureStructureStructureStructure – is that which is built or constructed, an edifice of building of any kind, or any piece of work artificially built up or composed of parts joined together in some definite manner.

built up or composed of parts joined together in some definite manner. Engr. Manny Wendell B.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

4

C o d e s C o d e s C o d e s

CodesCodesCodesCodes (concerning Structures)

NBCPNBCPNBCPNBCP – National Building Code of the Philippines

NSCPNSCPNSCPNSCP – National Structural Code of the Philippines (2001, 2010)

ASTMASTMASTMASTM – American Society of Testing and Materials

AISCAISCAISCAISC – American Institute of Steel Construction

AASHTOAASHTOAASHTOAASHTO – American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials

AWSAWSAWSAWS – American Welding Society

ASEPASEPASEPASEP –Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines

ACIACIACIACI –American Concrete Institute, 318-08

GovernmentGovernmentGovernmentGovernment PoliciesPoliciesPoliciesPolicies andandandand EnforcementsEnforcementsEnforcementsEnforcements

BuildingBuildingBuildingBuilding OfficialOfficialOfficialOfficial – is the officer or other designated authority charged with the administration and enforcement of the codes, or the building official’s duly authorized representative.

ImplementingImplementingImplementingImplementing RulesRulesRulesRules andandandand RegulationsRegulationsRegulationsRegulations

BuildingBuildingBuildingBuilding PermitsPermitsPermitsPermits

InspectionsInspectionsInspectionsInspections

CertificateCertificateCertificateCertificate ofofofof OccupancyOccupancyOccupancyOccupancy

◦ CertificateCertificateCertificateCertificate ofofofof OccupancyOccupancyOccupancyOccupancy

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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STRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURES CivilCivilCivilCivil EngineerEngineerEngineerEngineer – is a professional

STRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURES

CivilCivilCivilCivil EngineerEngineerEngineerEngineer – is a professional engineer licensed

to practice in the field or civil engineering.

StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural EngineerEngineerEngineerEngineer – is a registered Civil

Engineer with special qualification in the practice of Structural Engineering as recognized by the Board of Civil Engineering of the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC) of the Philippine and Instituted of Civil Engineers (PICE) through the Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP)

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) Materials Engineer Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC
Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) Materials Engineer Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC

Materials Engineer

Association of Structural Engineers of the Philippines (ASEP) Materials Engineer Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

6

GEOLOGYGEOLOGYGEOLOGYGEOLOGY EngineeringEngineeringEngineeringEngineering GeologistGeologistGeologistGeologist – is a

GEOLOGYGEOLOGYGEOLOGYGEOLOGY

EngineeringEngineeringEngineeringEngineering GeologistGeologistGeologistGeologist – is a licensed geologist experienced and knowledgeable in Engineering Geology.

Engineering Geology is

an application of geological knowledge and principles in the investigation and evaluation of naturally occurring rocks and soil for use in the design of civil works.

rocks and soil for use in the design of civil works. Somewhere in Bislig, Philippines Engr.

Somewhere in Bislig, Philippines

and soil for use in the design of civil works. Somewhere in Bislig, Philippines Engr. Manny

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

7

SOILSOILSOILSOIL GeotechnicalGeotechnicalGeotechnicalGeotechnical EngineerEngineerEngineerEngineer is an engineer
SOILSOILSOILSOIL GeotechnicalGeotechnicalGeotechnicalGeotechnical EngineerEngineerEngineerEngineer is an engineer
SOILSOILSOILSOIL
GeotechnicalGeotechnicalGeotechnicalGeotechnical EngineerEngineerEngineerEngineer is an
engineer experienced and
knowledgeable in the practice of
Geotechnical Engineering. Also
term as Soil Engineer
◦ Geotechnical Engineering is
the application of the
principles of soil and rock
mechanics in the
investigation, evaluation and
design of civil works involving
the use of earth materials and
the inspection or testing of
the construction thereof.
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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1 . 1 . 1 . 1 . A P P R O V A

1.1.1.1. APPROVALAPPROVALAPPROVALAPPROVAL shall mean that the proposed work or completed work conforms to this section in the opinion of the building official.

2.2.2.2. ASASASAS GRADEDGRADEDGRADEDGRADED is the extent of surface conditions on completion of grading.

3.3.3.3. BEDROCKBEDROCKBEDROCKBEDROCK is in-place solid rock.

4.4.4.4. BENCHBENCHBENCHBENCH is a relatively level step excavated into earth material on which fill is to be placed.

5.5.5.5. BORROWBORROWBORROWBORROW is earth material acquired from an off-site location for use on grading on a site.

6.6.6.6. COMPACTIONCOMPACTIONCOMPACTIONCOMPACTION is the densification of a fill by mechanical means.

7.7.7.7. EROSIONEROSIONEROSIONEROSION is the wearing away of the ground surface as a result of the movement of wind, water or ice.

8.8.8.8. EXCAVATIONEXCAVATIONEXCAVATIONEXCAVATION is the mechanical removal of earth material.

9.9.9.9. FILLFILLFILLFILL is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means.

L L F I L L is a deposit of earth material placed by artificial means.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . 1 0 . G R A

10.10.10.10. GRADEGRADEGRADEGRADE is the vertical location of the ground surface. 11.11.11.11. GRADEGRADE,GRADEGRADE EXISTINGEXISTING,EXISTINGEXISTING is the grade prior to grading. 12.12.12.12. GRADEGRADE,GRADEGRADE FINISHFINISH,FINISHFINISH is the final grade of the site that conforms to the approved plan. 13.13.13.13. GRADEGRADE,GRADEGRADE ROUGHROUGH,ROUGHROUGH is the stage at which the grade approximately conforms to the approved plan. 14.14.14.14. GRADINGGRADINGGRADINGGRADING is any excavating or filling or combination thereof. 15.15.15.15. KEYKEYKEYKEY is a designed compacted fill placed in a trench excavated in earth material beneath the toe of a proposed fill slope. 16.16.16.16. SITESITESITESITE is any lot or parcel of land or contiguous combination thereof, under the same ownership, where grading is performed or permitted. 17.17.17.17. SLOPESLOPESLOPESLOPE is an inclined ground surface the inclination of which is expressed as a ratio of vertical distance to horizontal distance. rise / run 18.18.18.18. SOILSOILSOILSOIL is naturally occurring superficial deposits overlying bedrock. 19.19.19.19. TERRACETERRACETERRACETERRACE is a relatively level step constructed in the face of a graded slope surface for drainage and maintenance purposes.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

in the face of a graded slope surface for drainage and maintenance purposes. Engr. Manny Wendell

10

MAJORMAJORMAJORMAJOR BACKGROUNDSBACKGROUNDSBACKGROUNDSBACKGROUNDS (subject)(subject)(subject)(subject) OFOFOFOF

MAJORMAJORMAJORMAJOR BACKGROUNDSBACKGROUNDSBACKGROUNDSBACKGROUNDS (subject)(subject)(subject)(subject) OFOFOFOF STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL

Engineering Mechanics

Covers the relations between forces acting on

ideallyideallyideallyideally rigidrigidrigidrigid

bodies: in statics, the bodies are in equilibrium, whereas in

dynamics, they are accelerated but can be put in equilibrium by applying correctly placed inertia forces.

StrengthStrengthStrengthStrength ofofofof MaterialsMaterialsMaterialsMaterials

Deals with the relations between externally applied loads and their internal effects on bodies.

Bodies are no longer assumed rigid and deformation, however small, are of major interest.

It involves the effects properties of materials and dimensions.

StrengthStrengthStrengthStrength and RigidityRigidityRigidityRigidity

◦ StrengthStrengthStrengthStrength and RigidityRigidityRigidityRigidity Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 11

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

11

Covers the relations between forces acting on ideally rigid bodies Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,

Covers the relations between forces acting on ideally rigid bodies

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 12
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
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FORCEFORCEFORCEFORCE ◦ anything that cause an object at rest to move or a moving object

FORCEFORCEFORCEFORCE

anything that cause an object at rest to move or a moving object to move in a different direction or cause an internal change on the body of the object.

or cause an internal change on the body of the object. Properties forces ◦ MAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDE
or cause an internal change on the body of the object. Properties forces ◦ MAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDE
or cause an internal change on the body of the object. Properties forces ◦ MAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDE
or cause an internal change on the body of the object. Properties forces ◦ MAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDE
or cause an internal change on the body of the object. Properties forces ◦ MAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDE

Properties forces

MAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDEMAGNITUDE (Scalar)(Scalar)(Scalar)(Scalar)

the amount of force (length, area, volume, mass, density)

DIRECTIONDIRECTIONDIRECTIONDIRECTION

refers to the orientation of

its path

or

line of

action. It is usually

described

reference.

by

the angle that

the

line of

action makes

with some

VECTORVECTORVECTORVECTOR A Quantity possessing both magnitude and direction, represented by an arrow whose length is proportional to the magnitude and whose orientation in space represents the direction.

(weight, force, acceleration, lift)

SENSESENSESENSESENSE refers to the manner in which it acts along its line of action

refers to the manner in which it acts along its line of action Engr. Manny Wendell

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

13

Forces System COPLANARCOPLANARCOPLANARCOPLANAR o all acting in wall a single plane of a vertical

Forces System

COPLANARCOPLANARCOPLANARCOPLANAR

o

all acting in wall

a single plane of a vertical

COLLINEARCOLLINEARCOLLINEARCOLLINEAR

o

Concurrent forces having the same line of

all having the same direction

o ◦ Concurrent forces having the same line of all having the same direction
o ◦ Concurrent forces having the same line of all having the same direction

action, vector sum of which is the algebraic sum of the magnitude of the forces, acting

along the same line of action. PARALLELPARALLELPARALLELPARALLEL

CONCURRENTCONCURRENTCONCURRENTCONCURRENT

all having their lines of action intersect at a common point. MOMENTMOMENTMOMENTMOMENT (Force x Distance)

moment can be about any point called

CenterCenterCenterCenter ofofofof MomentMomentMomentMoment

MOMENTMOMENTMOMENTMOMENT ARMARMARMARM

distance from center of moment to force

shortest or perpendicular distance from the center of moment to line of action of force.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio
distance from the center of moment to line of action of force. Engr. Manny Wendell B.
d F
d
F

14

MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL

MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES

LOADS (NSCP sec 203) are forces or other actions that result from the weight of all building materials, occupants, and their possessions, environmental effects, differential movements, and restrained dimensional changes. Permanent loads are those loads in which variations over time are rare or of small magnitude. All other loads are variable loads.

1. Dead Load,

D

2. Live Load,

L

3. Wind Load,

W

4. Earthquake Load, E

Other Minimum Loads

F

6. Lateral Soil Pressure, H

P

5. Fluid Pressure,

7. Ponding Loads,

8. Self-Straining Loads, T

8. Self-Straining Loads, T

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL

MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES

LOADS (NSCP sec 203)

1. Dead Load,

DL

consist of the weight of all materials and fixed equipment incorporated into the building or other structure.

2. Live Load,

LL

Are those loads produced by the use and occupancy of the buildings or other structure and do not include dead load, construction loads, or environmental loads such as wind, snow, rain load, earthquake load and flood load.

loads such as wind, snow, rain load, earthquake load and flood load. Engr. Manny Wendell B.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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ILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATION 1. Dead Load, DL 2. Live Load, LL Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC
ILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATION 1. Dead Load, DL 2. Live Load, LL Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC
ILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATION
1. Dead Load,
DL
2. Live Load,
LL
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL

MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES

DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition ofofofof Terms:Terms:Terms:Terms:

LOADS (NSCP sec 203)

3. Wind Load,

LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND
LOADS (NSCP sec 203) 3. Wind Load,   BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND

 

BASICBASICBASICBASIC WINDWINDWINDWIND SPEEDSPEED,SPEEDSPEED V is a 3-second gust speed at 10 meters above the

 

ground in Exposure

associated with

an

C and

annual

probability of 0.02 of being equaled

or

exceeded

(50-year

mean

LEEWARD

recurrence interval).

 

DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN

PRESSUREPRESSURE,PRESSUREPRESSURE

P,

is the

R

equivalent static pressure to be used in the determination of wind loads for buildings. W IMPORTANCEIMPORTANCEIMPORTANCEIMPORTANCE FACTORFACTOR,FACTORFACTOR I, is a factor that accounts for the degree of hazard to human life and damage to property.

W

the degree of hazard to human life and damage to property. W WINDWARD PPPP ==== CeCeCeCe
the degree of hazard to human life and damage to property. W WINDWARD PPPP ==== CeCeCeCe

WINDWARD

PPPP ==== CeCeCeCe CqCqCqCq qsqsqsqs ((Iw((IwIw)Iw)))

wwherewwherehere:here:::

Ce,Ce,Ce,Ce, combined height, exposure and gust factor coefficient. CqCq,CqCq,,, pressure coefficient IwIw,IwIw,,, Importance factor qsqsqsqs ,,,, wind stagnation pressure

MAINMAINMAINMAIN WINDWIND-WINDWIND--FORCE-FORCEFORCEFORCE RESISTINGRESISTINGRESISTINGRESISTING

SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

structural elements assigned to provide support and stability for the overall structure. The system generally receives wind loading from more than one surface.

is

an

assemblage

of

generally receives wind loading from more than one surface. is an assemblage of Engr. Manny Wendell

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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WindWindWindWind ZoneZoneZoneZone MapMapMapMap ofofofof thethethethe PhilippinesPhilippinesPhilippinesPhilippines
WindWindWindWind ZoneZoneZoneZone MapMapMapMap ofofofof
thethethethe PhilippinesPhilippinesPhilippinesPhilippines
(figure(figure(figure(figure takentakentakentaken fromfromfromfrom NCSP,NCSP,NCSP,NCSP,
ChapterChapterChapterChapter 2)2)2)2)
DecemberDecemberDecemberDecember 3,3,3,3, 2012201220122012
SuperSuperSuperSuper TyphoonTyphoonTyphoonTyphoon PabloPabloPabloPablo
250250250250 KphKphKphKph windswindswindswinds
NovemberNovemberNovemberNovember 7,7,7,7, 2013201320132013
SuperSuperSuperSuper TyphoonTyphoonTyphoonTyphoon YolandaYolandaYolandaYolanda
315315315315 KphKphKphKph windswindswindswinds
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL

MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES

LOADS (NSCP sec 203)

4. Earthquake Load,

E

F3 F2
F3
F2
F1
F1

Story driftLOADS (NSCP sec 203) 4. Earthquake Load, E F3 F2 F1 Seismic gap DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition

(NSCP sec 203) 4. Earthquake Load, E F3 F2 F1 Story drift Seismic gap DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition
Seismic gap
Seismic gap

DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition ofofofof Terms:Terms:Terms:Terms:

is the level at which

the earthquake motions are considered to be imparted to the structure or the level at which the structure as a dynamic vibrator is supported. BASEBASEBASEBASE SHEARSHEAR,SHEARSHEAR V, is the total design lateral force or shear at the base of the structure. STORYSTORYSTORYSTORY SHEARSHEAR,SHEARSHEAR VVVV, is the summation of design lateral forces above the story under consideration.

BASEBASEBASEBASE

STORY DRIFT-The horizontal movement of one level of a structure relative to the level above or below.

Base shear

Base shear

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition ofofofof termsterms:termsterms::: SeismographSeismographSeismographSeismograph A

DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition ofofofof termsterms:termsterms:::

SeismographSeismographSeismographSeismograph

A device that measures and recordsrecordsrecordsrecords thethethethe movementmovementmovementmovement of the earth during the earthquake.

An apparatus to measure and record vibrations within the earth and the ground.

AccelelographAccelelographAccelelographAccelelograph

An instrument used to measuremeasuremeasuremeasure velocityvelocityvelocityvelocity &&&& accelerationaccelerationaccelerationacceleration of an earthquake

RichterRichterRichterRichter ScaleScaleScaleScale

a scale used to measure the magnitude of energy released by an earthquake.

MercalliMercalliMercalliMercalli ScaleScaleScaleScale

a scale used to measure the intensity or severity of the damage of an earthquake.

EpicenterEpicenterEpicenterEpicenter

a point directly above the hypocenter, from which the shock waves of an earthquake apparently emanate.

HypocenterHypocenterHypocenterHypocenter

the point of origin of an earthquake. also called focus.

FaultFaultFaultFault

A break in the earth’s crust accompanied by a dislocation in the plane of the fracture.

PlatePlatePlatePlate

in the plane of the fracture. PlatePlatePlatePlate Any of the huge movable segments into which the

Any of the huge movable segments into which the earth’s crust is divided.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL

MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES

ALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLE STRESSSTRESSSTRESSSTRESS DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN (WSD) is a method of proportioning structural

elements such that computed stresses produced in the elements by the allowable stress load combinations do not exceed specified allowable stress (also called working stress design).

STRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTH DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN METHODMETHODMETHODMETHOD is a method of proportioning structural

elements such that the computed forces produced in the elements by the factored load combinations do not exceed the factored element strength. The term “strength design” is used in the design of concrete and masonry structures.

CombinationCombinationCombinationCombination ofofofof Loads:Loads:Loads:Loads:

Required Strength,

U= 1.4DL + 1.7LL

Loads:Loads:Loads:Loads: Required Strength, U= 1.4DL + 1.7LL U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7W) U= 0.75

U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7W) U= 0.75 (1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.87E)

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL

MINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUMMINIMUM DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES

LOADLOADLOADLOAD FACTORSFACTORSFACTORSFACTORS

dead load, DL…………………

1.40

live load, LL……………………

1.70

wind load, WL…………………

1.70

earthquake, E…………………

1.87

earth or water pressure, H……

1.70

STRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTH REDUCTIONREDUCTIONREDUCTIONREDUCTION FACTORFACTORFACTORFACTOR ØØØØ

Flexure w/o axial load Axial tension & axial tension w/ flexure Shear and torsion

0.90

0.90

0.85

Axial compression & axial compression w/ flexure

a. spiral reinforcement

0.75

 

 

0.70

 
   

b. tie reinforcement Bearing on concrete

0.70

   

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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Deals with the relations between externally applied loads and their internal effects on bodies. Engr.

Deals with the relations between externally applied loads and their internal effects on bodies.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 24
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
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StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties ofofofof

StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural PropertiesPropertiesPropertiesProperties ofofofof MaterialsMaterialsMaterialsMaterials SimpleSimpleSimpleSimple StressStressStressStress SimpleSimpleSimpleSimple StrainStrainStrainStrain BeamsBeamsBeamsBeams

TypeTypeTypeType ofofofof BeamsBeamsBeamsBeams TypeTypeTypeType ofofofof SupportsSupportsSupportsSupports TypeTypeTypeType ofofofof LoadsLoadsLoadsLoads ShearShearShearShear andandandand MomentMomentMomentMoment DiagramDiagramDiagramDiagram MomentMomentMomentMoment ofofofof InertiaInertiaInertiaInertia SectionSectionSectionSection ofofofof ModulusModulusModulusModulus MaximumMaximumMaximumMaximum MomentsMomentsMomentsMoments andandandand DeflectionsDeflectionsDeflectionsDeflections

andandandand DeflectionsDeflectionsDeflectionsDeflections Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 25

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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INTERNALINTERNALINTERNALINTERNAL ANDANDANDAND EXTERNALEXTERNALEXTERNALEXTERNAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES ◦

INTERNALINTERNALINTERNALINTERNAL ANDANDANDAND EXTERNALEXTERNALEXTERNALEXTERNAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES StressStressStressStress

The intensity of force per unit area, σ = P/A

Applied loads are

1.1.1.1. AxialAxialAxialAxial ForceForceForceForce

2.2.2.2. ShearShearShearShear ForceForceForceForce

3.3.3.3. TorqueTorqueTorqueTorque

4.4.4.4. BendingBendingBendingBending MomentMomentMomentMoment

4.4.4.4. BendingBendingBendingBending MomentMomentMomentMoment Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 26

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

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Strength of Materials ◦ StressStressStressStress The intensity of force per unit area Applied loads is

Strength of Materials StressStressStressStress

The intensity of force per unit area

Applied loads is

1.1.1.1. AxialAxialAxialAxial ForceForceForceForce – pulling or pushing action over the section

1.1.1.1. TensileTensileTensileTensile forceforceforceforce – the act of stretching or state of being pulled apart, resulting in the elongation of an elastic body.

apart, resulting in the elongation of an elastic body. 2.2.2.2. CompressiveCompressiveCompressiveCompressive
apart, resulting in the elongation of an elastic body. 2.2.2.2. CompressiveCompressiveCompressiveCompressive
apart, resulting in the elongation of an elastic body. 2.2.2.2. CompressiveCompressiveCompressiveCompressive
apart, resulting in the elongation of an elastic body. 2.2.2.2. CompressiveCompressiveCompressiveCompressive
apart, resulting in the elongation of an elastic body. 2.2.2.2. CompressiveCompressiveCompressiveCompressive

2.2.2.2. CompressiveCompressiveCompressiveCompressive forceforceforceforce – an applied force producing or tending to produce compression in an elastic body, tends to shorten the member.

σ =

P

Where:

 

A

σ = axial stress , Mpa P = axial force, Mpa A = cross-sectional area, mm 2

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

27

Strength of Materials ◦ StressStressStressStress A stress produced by a force acting parallel to the

Strength of Materials StressStressStressStress

A stress produced by a force acting parallel to the area.

Applied loads is

2.2.2.2. ShearShearShearShear ForcesForcesForcesForces – an applied force producing or tending to produce shear in the body, designate by “V”

tending to produce shear in the body, designate by “V” 1. Shear – the lateral deformation
tending to produce shear in the body, designate by “V” 1. Shear – the lateral deformation

1. Shear – the lateral deformation produced in a body by an external force that causes one part of the body to slide relative to an adjacent part in direction parallel to their plane contact.

τ =

V

A Where:

τ = shear /tangential stress

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

V = shear force A = surface area

28

Strength of Materials ◦ StressStressStressStress Applied load is 3 . 3 . 3 . 3

Strength of Materials StressStressStressStress

Applied load is

3.3.3.3. TorqueTorqueTorqueTorque – (T) the moment of a force system that causes or tends to cause rotation or torsiontorsiontorsiontorsion (the twisting of an

elastic body about longitudinal axis cause by two equal and opposite torques, producing shearing stresses in the body).

τ = Tr J
τ =
Tr
J

T T

r r

J J

G G

ø = TL JG
ø =
TL
JG
T
T
T r ø L
T
r
ø
L

T

= twisting moment

= twisting moment

= radius of solid circular shaft

= radius of solid circular shaft

= polar moment of inertia

= polar moment of inertia

= shear modulus in Mpa

= shear modulus in Mpa

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

29

Strength of Materials ◦ StressStressStressStress A stress produced by a bending moment Applied loads is

Strength of Materials StressStressStressStress

A stress produced by a bending moment

Applied loads is

4.4.4.4. BendingBendingBendingBending MomentsMomentsMomentsMoments – measures the resistance to bending the member about an axes, denotes by My, Mz

Mc

= M

σ f =

Where:

σ f = bending stress , Mpa M = bending moment, Nm c = dist. from neutral axis to outer most fiber (mm) I = moment of inertia (mm 4 ) s=I/c = Section Modulus (mm 3 )

I S

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

30

DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES

DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS ANDANDANDAND LATERALLATERALLATERALLATERAL FORCESFORCESFORCESFORCES Strength of Materials

Definition of Terms:

TENSIONTENSION-TENSIONTENSION

the act of stretching or state of being pulled apart, resulting in the

elongation of an elastic body

AXIALAXIALAXIALAXIAL STRESSSTRESS-STRESSSTRESS the tensile or compressive stress that develops to resist axial force, assumed to be normal to and uniformly distributed over the area of the cross section. Also called direct stress, normal stress

COMPRESSIONCOMPRESSION-COMPRESSIONCOMPRESSION the act of shortening or state of being pushed together, resulting in the reduction in size or volume of an elastic body

ECCENTRICECCENTRICECCENTRICECCENTRIC FORCEFORCE-FORCEFORCE

a force applied parallel to the longitudinal axis of a

structural member but not to the centroid of the cross section, producing bending and uneven distribution of stresses in the section. Also called eccentric load.

and uneven distribution of stresses in the section. Also called eccentric load. Engr. Manny Wendell B.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

31

Strength of Materials Definition of Terms: S T R E S S S T R

Strength of Materials

Definition of Terms:

STRESSSTRESS-STRESSSTRESS

the internal resistance or reaction of an elastic body to external

forces applied to it. Equal to the ratio of force to area and expressed in units

of force per unit of cross- sectional area. Also called unit stress.

TENSILETENSILETENSILETENSILE STRESSSTRESS-STRESSSTRESS

the axial stress that develops at the cross section of an

elastic body to resist the collinear tensile forces tending to elongate it.

TENSILETENSILETENSILETENSILE STRENGTHSTRENGTH-STRENGTHSTRENGTH

the resistance of a material to longitudinal stress,

measured by the minimum amount of longitudinal stress required to rupture

the material

COMPRESSIVECOMPRESSIVECOMPRESSIVECOMPRESSIVE STRESSSTRESS-STRESSSTRESS

the axial stress that develops at the cross section of

an elastic body to resist the collinear compressive forces tending to shorten

it.

body to resist the collinear compressive forces tending to shorten it. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

32

Strength of Materials TypesTypesTypesTypes ofofofof Deformations:Deformations:Deformations:Deformations: 1.1.1.1.

Strength of Materials

TypesTypesTypesTypes ofofofof Deformations:Deformations:Deformations:Deformations:

1.1.1.1. AxialAxialAxialAxial deformationdeformationdeformationdeformation

ElongationElongationElongationElongation orororor shorteningshorteningshorteningshortening ofofofof membersmembersmembersmembers alongalongalongalong itsitsitsits longilongilongilongitudinaltudinaltudinaltudinal axis.axis.axis.axis.

axis.axis.axis.axis. STRAIN GAUGE An instrument for measuring minute
STRAIN GAUGE An instrument for measuring minute deformations in a test specimen caused by compression,
STRAIN GAUGE
An instrument for measuring
minute deformations in a
test specimen caused by
compression, tension etc.
Also called EXTENSOMETER

δ =

PL

Where:

AE

P = internal axial force, N

A = cross-sectional area, mm 2 δ = axial deformation , mm

L E Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
L
E
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

= Original Length, mm = modulus of elasticity, Mpa

33

Strength of Materials ◦ StrainStrainStrainStrain The deformation of a body under the action of an

Strength of Materials

StrainStrainStrainStrain

The deformation of a body under the action of an applied force. It is a dimensionless quantity, equal to the ratio of the change in size and shape to the original size and shape of a

stressed element. = δ/L

Compressive Strain

of a stressed element. € = δ /L Compressive Strain Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC
of a stressed element. € = δ /L Compressive Strain Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

Tensile Strain

34

STRAINSTRAIN-STRAINSTRAIN--HARDENING-HARDENINGHARDENINGHARDENING RANGERANGERANGERANGE The range of unit stresses for which

STRAINSTRAIN-STRAINSTRAIN--HARDENING-HARDENINGHARDENINGHARDENING RANGERANGERANGERANGE The range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits increased strength w/ some loss of ductility.

σ = P/A

PLASTICPLASTICPLASTICPLASTIC RANGERANGERANGERANGE

The range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits plastic deformation

ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC RANGERANGERANGERANGE

The range of unit stress for which a materials exhibits elastic deformations

PROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONAL LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT The stress beyond which the ratio of stress to strain for material no longer remains constant.

ALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLE

STRESSSTRESSSTRESSSTRESS

YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINT,POINT,POINT,POINT, fyfyfyfy ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT
YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINT,POINT,POINT,POINT, fyfyfyfy
ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT

ULTIMATEULTIMATEULTIMATEULTIMATE STRENGTH,STRENGTH,STRENGTH,STRENGTH, fufufufu

RUPTURERUPTURERUPTURERUPTURE

YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINTPOINTPOINTPOINT The stress beyond which a marked increase in strain occurs in a material
YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINTPOINTPOINTPOINT
The stress beyond which a
marked increase in strain
occurs in a material without a
concurrent increase in stress.
ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT
The maximum stress that can
be applied to a material
without causing permanent
deformation.
to a material without causing permanent deformation. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

ELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITY The property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force

= δ/L

35

BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS: Types of beams according to support: 1.1.1.1. SimplySimplySimplySimply

BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS:

Types of beams according to support:

1.1.1.1. SimplySimplySimplySimply supportedsupportedsupportedsupported beambeambeambeam

supportedsupportedsupportedsupported beambeambeambeam 2.2.2.2. OverhangingOverhangingOverhangingOverhanging

2.2.2.2. OverhangingOverhangingOverhangingOverhanging beambeambeambeam

2.2.2.2. OverhangingOverhangingOverhangingOverhanging beambeambeambeam Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 3 6
2.2.2.2. OverhangingOverhangingOverhangingOverhanging beambeambeambeam Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 3 6
2.2.2.2. OverhangingOverhangingOverhangingOverhanging beambeambeambeam Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 3 6

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

36

BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS: Types of beams according to support: 3.3.3.3. CantileverCantileverCantileverCantilever

BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS:BEAMS:

Types of beams according to support:

3.3.3.3. CantileverCantileverCantileverCantilever beambeambeambeam

CantileverCantileverCantileverCantilever beambeambeambeam 4.4.4.4. ProppedProppedProppedPropped beambeambeambeam

4.4.4.4. ProppedProppedProppedPropped beambeambeambeam

4.4.4.4. ProppedProppedProppedPropped beambeambeambeam 5.5.5.5. FullyFullyFullyFully
5.5.5.5. FullyFullyFullyFully restrainedrestrainedrestrainedrestrained beambeambeambeam
5.5.5.5. FullyFullyFullyFully restrainedrestrainedrestrainedrestrained beambeambeambeam

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

37

Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv

Types of Supports:

1. Roller Support

2. Hinge Support

M

Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.
Types of Supports: 1. Roller Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3.

Rh

Rv

Rh Rv Rv
Rh
Rv
Rv

3. Fix Support

4. Link Support

Support 2. Hinge Support M Rh Rv Rh Rv Rv 3. Fix Support 4. Link Support

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

38

KindsKindsKindsKinds ofofofof LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS 1.1.1.1. ConcentratedConcentratedConcentratedConcentrated

KindsKindsKindsKinds ofofofof LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS

1.1.1.1. ConcentratedConcentratedConcentratedConcentrated LoadLoadLoadLoad

A Load acting on a very small area or particular point of a supporting structural element.

2.2.2.2. UniformlyUniformlyUniformlyUniformly DistributedDistributedDistributedDistributed LoadLoadLoadLoad

A distributed load of uniform magnitude.

LoadLoadLoadLoad A distributed load of uniform magnitude. P R W Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC

P

LoadLoadLoadLoad A distributed load of uniform magnitude. P R W Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC
R
R

W

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

39

KindsKindsKindsKinds ofofofof LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS 3.3.3.3. UniformlyUniformlyUniformlyUniformly

KindsKindsKindsKinds ofofofof LOADSLOADSLOADSLOADS

3.3.3.3. UniformlyUniformlyUniformlyUniformly varyingvaryingvaryingvarying LoadLoadLoadLoad

4.4.4.4. AppliedAppliedAppliedApplied couplecouplecouplecouple

4.4.4.4. AppliedAppliedAppliedApplied couplecouplecouplecouple W (N/m) M Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 4 0
W (N/m) M
W (N/m)
M
4.4.4.4. AppliedAppliedAppliedApplied couplecouplecouplecouple W (N/m) M Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 4 0

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

40

a)a)a)a) SHEARSHEARSHEARSHEAR DIAGRAMDIAGRAMDIAGRAMDIAGRAM : a graphic representation of the variation W in magnitude

a)a)a)a) SHEARSHEARSHEARSHEAR DIAGRAMDIAGRAMDIAGRAMDIAGRAM :

a graphic representation of the variation W in magnitude of the external shears present in
a
graphic representation of the variation
W
in magnitude of the external shears
present in a structure for a given set of
transverse loads and support conditions
concentrated loads produce external
shears which are constant in magnitude
between the loads uniformly distributed
loads produce linearly varying shears
L
Rv
Rv
+V
a)
b)b)b)b) MOMENTMOMENTMOMENTMOMENT DIAGRAMDIAGRAM:DIAGRAMDIAGRAM:::
a
graphic representation of the variation
-V
in magnitude of the bending moment
present in a structure for a given set of
transverse load and support conditions.
+M
b)
c)
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

41

SAMPLE EXERCISE : Solution: 20N FOR SHEAR DIAGRAM 4N/m 8N-m V = 0 A C

SAMPLE EXERCISE:

Solution: 20N FOR SHEAR DIAGRAM 4N/m 8N-m V = 0 A C D V AR
Solution:
20N
FOR SHEAR DIAGRAM
4N/m
8N-m
V
= 0
A
C
D
V AR = 0+21
= 21 N
A
V BL = 21-4(6)
=-3N
B
V BR = -3-20
=-23N
6m
2m
4m
V CL = -23+0
=-23N
Rav=21N
Rcv=23N
V CR = -23+23
= 0
V
= 0+0
= 0
21N21N21N21N
C
0.75m
V-diagram
5.25m
FOR MOMENT DIAGRAM
--3N--3N3N3N
= 0
M A
--23N--23N23N23N
= 0 + ½ (21)(5.25)
= 55.125 N-m
M M
55.125N.m55.125N.m55.125N.m55.125N.m
M CB = 55.125 – ½(3)(0.75)
= 54
54N.m54N.m54N.m54N.m
point of inflection
= 54 - (23)(2)
= 8
M C
M-diagram
M DL = 8 + 0
= 8
--8N.m--8N.m8N.m8N.m
M DR = 8 - 8
= 0
--8N.m--8N.m8N.m8N.m
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

42

MomentMomentMomentMoment ofofofof InertiaInertiaInertiaInertia ( I ) :::: element areas multiplied by the square of the

MomentMomentMomentMoment ofofofof InertiaInertiaInertiaInertia ( I ):::: element areas multiplied by

the square of the moment arm about the reference axis.

b h/2 h/2
b
h/2
h/2

I o = bh 3

r=d/2 r=d/2 I o = πd 4
r=d/2
r=d/2
I o = πd 4
2h/3 h/3 b
2h/3
h/3
b

I o = bh 3

12

64

= πr 4 4 Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
= πr 4
4
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

36

center of gravity

43

SectionSectionSectionSection ModulusModulusModulusModulus ( S=I/c ) :::: a geometric property of a cross section,

SectionSectionSectionSection ModulusModulusModulusModulus

( S=I/c ):::: a geometric property of a cross

section, defined as the moment of inertia of the section divided by the distance from the neutral axis to the most remote surface.

b h/2 h/2
b
h/2
h/2
the neutral axis to the most remote surface. b h/2 h/2 r=d/2 r=d/2 2h/3 h/3 b

r=d/2

r=d/2

2h/3 h/3 b
2h/3
h/3
b

S = bh 2

S = πd 3

S = bh 2

6

32

24

NoteNote:NoteNote the efficiency of a beam is increased by configuring the cross section to provide the required moment of inertia or section modulus with the smallest possible area, usually by making the section deep with most of the material at the extremeties where the maximum bending stresses occur.

at the extremeties where the maximum bending stresses occur. center of gravity Engr. Manny Wendell B.
at the extremeties where the maximum bending stresses occur. center of gravity Engr. Manny Wendell B.

center of gravity

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

44

MaximumMaximumMaximumMaximum MomentsMomentsMomentsMoments andandandand DeflectionDeflectionDeflectionDeflection ofofofof

MaximumMaximumMaximumMaximum MomentsMomentsMomentsMoments andandandand DeflectionDeflectionDeflectionDeflection ofofofof Beams:Beams:Beams:Beams:

Where:

P = Concentrated Load

W

= Distributed Load

EI

= Flexural Rigidity

y

= Max. Deflection

1. Simply supported beam

W

L
L

M = wL 2

y = 5wL 4

P L/2 L/2 M = PL y = PL 3
P
L/2
L/2
M = PL
y = PL 3
8 38EI
8
38EI

4

48EI

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

45

Maximum Moments and Deflection of Beams: 2. Fully restrained beam P w L/2 L/2 L

Maximum Moments and Deflection of Beams:

2. Fully restrained beam

P w L/2 L/2 L -M = wL 2 +M = wL 2 y =
P
w
L/2
L/2
L
-M = wL 2
+M = wL 2
y = wL 4
12
24
384EI
M = PL
y = PL 3
@ support
@ midspan
8
19EI
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

46

Maximum Moments and Deflection of Beams: 3. Cantilever beam W L M = wL 2

Maximum Moments and Deflection of Beams:

3. Cantilever beam

W

L
L

M = wL 2

y = wL 4

2 3EI
2
3EI
P L M = PL y = PL 3
P
L
M = PL
y = PL 3

3EI

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

47

Maximum Moments and Deflection of Beams: 4. Propped beam W Where: L M = wL

Maximum Moments and Deflection of Beams:

4. Propped beam

W

Where:

L
L

M = wL 2

y = 0.005416 wL 4 EI

8

P = Concentrated Load

W

= Distributed Load

EI

= Flexural Rigidity

y

= Max. Deflection

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

48

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 49
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 49
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
49
STRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURE A stable assembly of structural elements designed and constructed to function as a

STRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURE

A stable assembly of structural elements designed and constructed to function as a whole in supporting and transmitting applied loads safely to the ground without exceeding the allowable stresses in the members.

Refers to a system of connected parts that can support loads while performing primary functions. Must

be design for Safety, Serviceability, Aesthetics, Economy and Environmental Conditions.

CLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATIONCLASSIFICATION

1.1.1.1. CivilCivilCivilCivil StructureStructureStructureStructure–––– building, bridges, towers and etc. intended for public use or civilian use

2.2.2.2. MilitaryMilitaryMilitaryMilitary StructureStructureStructureStructure–––– ships, aircrafts frames, tanks etc. used for military.

BASICBASICBASICBASIC TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES OFOFOFOF STRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURESTRUCTURE

1.1.1.1. FramesFramesFramesFrames

2.2.2.2. TrussesTrussesTrussesTrusses

3.3.3.3. CablesCablesCablesCables andandandand ArchesArchesArchesArches –––– Used for long span ,usually flexible and carry their loads in tension only.

4.4.4.4. SurfaceSurfaceSurfaceSurface StructuresStructuresStructuresStructures –––– Membrane , plates and shell type with much less thickness compared to its

and shell type with much less thickness compared to its dimensions. - the structure is subjected

dimensions.

- the structure is subjected to in-plane (tension and compression mainly)

- may be shaped as folded plates and cylinders.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

50

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6) 1.1.1.1. BearingBearingBearingBearing wallwallwallwall
(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)
1.1.1.1. BearingBearingBearingBearing wallwallwallwall systemsystemsystemsystem
2.2.2.2. BuildingBuildingBuildingBuilding frameframeframeframe systemssystemssystemssystems
3.3.3.3. MomentMomentMomentMoment –––– resistingresistingresistingresisting frameframeframeframe
systemsystemsystemsystem
4.4.4.4. ShearShear-ShearShear--Wall-WallWall-Wall--Frame-FrameFrameFrame InteractionInteractionInteractionInteraction
SystemsSystemsSystemsSystems
5.5.5.5. CantileveredCantileveredCantileveredCantilevered columncolumncolumncolumn systemsystemsystemsystem
6.6.6.6. DualDualDualDual systemssystemssystemssystems
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

51

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME

SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)

BearingBearingBearingBearing wallwallwallwall systemsystemsystemsystem –––– A structural system without a complete vertical load-carrying space frame. Bearing walls or bracing systems provide support for all or most gravity loads. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames.

1.1.1.1.

to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames. 1.1.1.1. Engr. Manny Wendell B.
to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames. 1.1.1.1. Engr. Manny Wendell B.
to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames. 1.1.1.1. Engr. Manny Wendell B.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

52

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6) WALLSWALLSWALLSWALLS

BEARINGBEARINGBEARINGBEARING WALLWALLWALLWALL

is any wall meeting either of the following

classifications: (minimum thickness 100mm)

Any metal or wood stud wall that supports more than 0.5 KN per linear meter of superimposed load. Any masonry or concrete wall that supports more than 1.0 KN per linear meter superimposed loads, or any such wall supporting its own weight for more than one story.

EXTERIOREXTERIOREXTERIOREXTERIOR WALLWALLWALLWALL is any wall or element of a wall, or any member or group of members, that defines the exterior boundaries or courts of a building and that has a slope of 60 degrees or greater with the horizontal plane.

an exterior wall supported wholly by the

CURTAINCURTAINCURTAINCURTAIN WALLWALLWALLWALL

structural frame of a building and carrying no loads other than

its own weight and wind loads.

NONBEARINGNONBEARINGNONBEARINGNONBEARING WALLWALLWALLWALL is any wall that is not a bearing wall

PARAPETPARAPETPARAPETPARAPET WALLWALLWALLWALL is the part of any wall entirely above the roof line.

RETAININGRETAININGRETAININGRETAINING WALLWALLWALLWALL is a wall designed to resist the displacement of soil or
RETAININGRETAININGRETAININGRETAINING WALLWALLWALLWALL
is
a
wall
designed
to
resist
the
displacement of soil or other materials.

later

wall designed to resist the displacement of soil or other materials. later Engr. Manny Wendell B.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

53

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)

2.2.2.2. BuildingBuildingBuildingBuilding frameframeframeframe systemssystemssystemssystems ––––

A

structural

system

with

an

essentially

complete space frame providing support for gravity. Resistance to lateral load is provided by shear walls or braced frames.

Photo By I Structures Engineers Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Photo By I Structures Engineers
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

54

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec
BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec
BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL
SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)
3.3.3.3. MomentMomentMomentMoment –––– resistingresistingresistingresisting
frameframeframeframe system.system.system.system.
A structural system with
an essentially complete space
frame providing support for
gravity. Moment-resisting
frames provide resistance to
lateral load primarily by
flexural action of members.
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
55
BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)

4.4.4.4. ShearShear-ShearShear--Wall-WallWall-Wall--Frame-FrameFrameFrame InteractionInteractionInteractionInteraction SystemsSystemsSystemsSystems

Vertical Diaphragm acting as a thin, deep, cantilever beam in transferring lateral loads to the ground foundation.

Horizontal Diaphragm – a rigid floor or roof plane acting as a thin, deep beam in transferring lateral forces to vertical shear walls, braced frames or rigid frames.

lateral forces to vertical shear walls, braced frames or rigid frames. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
lateral forces to vertical shear walls, braced frames or rigid frames. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
lateral forces to vertical shear walls, braced frames or rigid frames. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

56

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM

(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6208.4.6)208.4.6208.4.6)))

5.5.5.5. CantileveredCantileveredCantileveredCantilevered columncolumncolumncolumn system.system.system.system.

A structural system relying on cantilevered column elements for lateral resistance.

system relying on cantilevered column elements for lateral resistance. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

57

BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM
BASICBASICBASICBASIC STRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURALSTRUCTURAL FRAMEFRAMEFRAMEFRAME
SYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEMSYSTEM (NSCP(NSCP(NSCP(NSCP secsecsecsec 208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)208.4.6)
6.6.6.6. DualDualDualDual systemssystemssystemssystems –––– with the
following features::::
An essentially complete
space frame that provides
support for gravity.
Resistance to lateral load is
provided by shear walls or
braced frames and moment-
resisting frames.
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

58

TRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSES A structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle (same plane) All
TRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSES A structural frame based on the geometric rigidity of the triangle (same plane) All
TRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSES
A structural frame based on
the geometric rigidity of the
triangle (same plane)
All
members
are
PIN
connected (free to rotate).
Load that cause entire truss to
bend are converted into axial
and compressive force.
Frequently used as support for
bridges and roof.
Can span ranges from 30 ft to
400ft.
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
59
TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES ofofofof TRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSES HoweHoweHoweHowe TrussTrussTrussTruss FanFanFanFan

TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES ofofofof TRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSES

TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES ofofofof TRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSESTRUSSES HoweHoweHoweHowe TrussTrussTrussTruss FanFanFanFan

HoweHoweHoweHowe TrussTrussTrussTruss

HoweHoweHoweHowe TrussTrussTrussTruss FanFanFanFan TrussTrussTrussTruss PrattPrattPrattPratt

FanFanFanFan TrussTrussTrussTruss

TrussTrussTrussTruss FanFanFanFan TrussTrussTrussTruss PrattPrattPrattPratt TrussTrussTrussTruss

PrattPrattPrattPratt TrussTrussTrussTruss

PrattPrattPrattPratt TrussTrussTrussTruss SawtoothSawtoothSawtoothSawtooth TrussTrussTrussTruss

SawtoothSawtoothSawtoothSawtooth TrussTrussTrussTruss

PinkPinkPinkPink TrussTrussTrussTruss
PinkPinkPinkPink TrussTrussTrussTruss
TrussTrussTrussTruss PinkPinkPinkPink TrussTrussTrussTruss ScissorScissorScissorScissor TrussTrussTrussTruss Engr.

ScissorScissorScissorScissor TrussTrussTrussTruss

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

60

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 61
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 61
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 61

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

61

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 62
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 62

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

62

Reinforced Concrete + Steel + Wood Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 63

Reinforced Concrete + Steel + Wood

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 63
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
63
The process of arranging, interconnection, sizing, and proportioning the members of a structural system in
The process of arranging, interconnection, sizing, and proportioning the members of a structural system in
The process of arranging, interconnection, sizing, and
proportioning the members of a structural system in order to
safely carry a given set of loads without exceeding the allowable
stresses of the materials

MATERIALSMATERIALSMATERIALSMATERIALS Concrete Reinforcements Steels Wood Glass Masonry STRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURESSTRUCTURES ReinforcedReinforcedReinforcedReinforced ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete andandandand StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural SteelsSteelsSteelsSteels

SteelsSteelsSteelsSteels Footing , Foundation and Piles Beams (includes grade beams,

Footing , Foundation and Piles

Beams (includes grade beams, lintel beams)

Columns (Short and Long columns)
Columns
(Short and Long columns)

Walls (Bearing and Non-Bearing walls)

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

64

Concrete + Reinforcements Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 65

Concrete + Reinforcements

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 65
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
65
ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete Is a mixture of sand, gravel or crushed rock, or other aggregates held together

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete

Is a mixture of sand, gravel or crushed rock, or other aggregates

held together in a rocklike mass with a paste of cement and water.

ReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcements

A system of steel bars, strands or wires for absorbing tensile,

shearing and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete member or structure.

CementCementCementCement

A calcined mixture of clay and limestone, finely pulverized and

used as an ingredient in concrete and mortar. PortlandPortlandPortlandPortland CementCementCementCement A hydraulic cement made by burning a mixture of clay and limestone in a rotary kiln and pulverizing the resulting clinker into a very fine powder.

REINFORCEDREINFORCEDREINFORCEDREINFORCED CONCRETECONCRETE:CONCRETECONCRETE:::

is a combination of concrete and steel wherein the steel reinforcement provides the tensile strength lacking in the concrete. Steel Reinforcing is also capable of resisting compressive forces and is used in columns as well.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

b

is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete
is used in columns as well. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete

h

Concrete Beam r=d/2 r=d/2
Concrete Beam
r=d/2
r=d/2

Concrete Column

66

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

CompressiveCompressiveCompressiveCompressive StrengthStrength:StrengthStrength:::

Cast-in-place production of concrete with ordinary aggregates is usually in the range of 21212121 totototo 41414141 MpaMpa.MpaMpa

production of concrete with ordinary aggregates is usually in the range of 21212121 totototo 41414141 MpaMpa.MpaMpa
production of concrete with ordinary aggregates is usually in the range of 21212121 totototo 41414141 MpaMpa.MpaMpa

Pre-cast and Prestressed application ranges 2727.2727

6.666

totototo 5555.5555 1.111

MpaMpa.MpaMpa

CompressionCompressionCompressionCompression TestTestTestTest A test for determine the H=H=12H=H=1212”12”””
CompressionCompressionCompressionCompression TestTestTestTest
A
test
for
determine
the
H=H=12H=H=1212”12”””
compressive strength of a concrete batch,
using a hydraulic press to measure the
maximum load a test-cylinder can support in
axial compression before fracturing.
TestTestTestTest cylindercylindercylindercylinder
A cylinder of concrete 6inches in
diameter and 12inches high, cast form a
representative batch and cured in a laboratory
or in the field under controlled condition.
ReboundReboundReboundRebound HammerHammerHammerHammer
an apparatus that provides a relative
indication of the strength or hardness of
concrete based on the rebound distance of a
spring-driven mass after it impacts a rod in
contact with the concrete surface.
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

67

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete Is a mixture of sand, gravel, crushed rock, or other aggregates held together in a rocklike mass with a paste of cement and water. fc = allowable compressive stress of concrete (Mpa) = 0.450.450.450.45 fc’fc’fc’fc’ fc’ = specified compressive strength of concrete at 28 days curing ( Mpa) = 21Mpa, 25Mpa, 28 Mpa γconcrete = unit weight

23232323 KN/m 3 Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete 4,7004,7004,7004,700 (fc’(fc’(fc’(fc’ )))) Mpa

=

= Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
=
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

b

)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2
)))) Mpa = = Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio b h Concrete Beam r=d/2

h

Concrete Beam r=d/2 r=d/2
Concrete Beam
r=d/2
r=d/2

Concrete Column

68

STRAINSTRAIN-STRAINSTRAIN--HARDENING-HARDENINGHARDENINGHARDENING RANGERANGERANGERANGE The range of unit stresses for which

STRAINSTRAIN-STRAINSTRAIN--HARDENING-HARDENINGHARDENINGHARDENING RANGERANGERANGERANGE The range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits increased strength w/ some loss of ductility.

σ = P/A

PLASTICPLASTICPLASTICPLASTIC RANGERANGERANGERANGE

The range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits plastic deformation

ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC RANGERANGERANGERANGE

The range of unit stress for which a materials exhibits elastic deformations

PROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONAL LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT The stress beyond which the ratio of stress to strain for material no longer remains constant.

ALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLE

STRESSSTRESSSTRESSSTRESS

YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINT,POINT,POINT,POINT, fyfyfyfy ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT
YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINT,POINT,POINT,POINT, fyfyfyfy
ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT

ULTIMATEULTIMATEULTIMATEULTIMATE STRENGTH,STRENGTH,STRENGTH,STRENGTH, fufufufu

RUPTURERUPTURERUPTURERUPTURE

YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINTPOINTPOINTPOINT The stress beyond which a marked increase in strain occurs in a material
YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINTPOINTPOINTPOINT
The stress beyond which a
marked increase in strain
occurs in a material without a
concurrent increase in stress.
ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT
The maximum stress that can
be applied to a material
without causing permanent
deformation.
to a material without causing permanent deformation. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

ELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITY The property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force

= δ/L

69

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete ProportioningProportioningProportioningProportioning (mix(mix(mix(mix

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete ProportioningProportioningProportioningProportioning (mix(mix(mix(mix design)design)design)design)

the most economical selection and proportioning of cement, water, and aggregate to produce concrete or mortar having the required properties of workability, strength, durability and water tightness.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

70

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete ProportioningProportioningProportioningProportioning WaterWaterWaterWater

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete ProportioningProportioningProportioningProportioning

ProportioningProportioningProportioningProportioning WaterWaterWaterWater ––Cement––CementCementCement

WaterWaterWaterWater ––Cement––CementCementCement ratioratioratioratio

the ratio mix of cement and water. It controls the

strength, durability, and watertightness

of

hardened

concrete.

SlumpSlumpSlumpSlump TestTestTestTest

a

method

for

determining

the

consistency

(flow)

and

workability

(can

be

handled) of freshly mixed concrete by measuring the slump of a test specimen.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio
handled) of freshly mixed concrete by measuring the slump of a test specimen. Engr. Manny Wendell

71

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

ReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcements A system of steel bars, strands or wires for absorbing tensile, shearing and sometimes the compressive stresses in a concrete member or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa)

b

or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy
or structure. fs = allowable tensile stress of steel (Mpa) b h = 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy

h

= 0.600.600.600.60 fyfyfyfy fy = yield stress of steel ( Mpa)

= 275Mpa, 345Mpa, 415 Mpa

γ = unit weight of steel = 77.0177.0177.0177.01 KN/m 3 Ec = modulus of elasticity of concrete = 200,000200,000200,000200,000 Mpa

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio
Concrete Beam with top bars d
Concrete Beam
with top bars
d

Concrete Spiral Column

72

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

PROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIESPROPERTIES OFOFOFOF MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:MATERIALS:

ReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcements DesignationDesignationDesignationDesignation

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

73

SpacingSpacingSpacingSpacing LimitsLimitsLimitsLimits forforforfor

SpacingSpacingSpacingSpacing LimitsLimitsLimitsLimits forforforfor ReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcements According to Sec 5.7.6 of NSCP, the minimum clear spacing between parallel bars in a layer should be d b but not less than 25mm. For two to more layer, upper layers should be placed directly above bars in the bottom layer with cleat distance between layers not less than 25mm. In spirally reinforced or tied reinforced compression members, clear distance between longitudinal bars shall be not less than 1.5d b nor 40mm.

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete CoverCoverCoverCover forforforfor ReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcements

25mm

a. Concrete cast permanently exposed to earth … 75mm75mm75mm75mm b. Concrete not exposed to earth
a.
Concrete cast permanently exposed to earth … 75mm75mm75mm75mm
b.
Concrete not exposed to earth
25mm
Slabs, walls and joists …………………………………
20mm20mm20mm20mm
Beams and Columns ……………………………… 40mm40mm40mm40mm
h
dddd
b
thkthkthkthk
FootingFootingFootingFooting rebarsrebarsrebarsrebars
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

75mm75mm75mm75mm ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete CoverCoverCoverCover

74

MinimumMinimumMinimumMinimum RequirementRequirementRequirementRequirement ofofofof

MinimumMinimumMinimumMinimum RequirementRequirementRequirementRequirement ofofofof ReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcementsReinforcements forforforfor RCRCRCRC columncolumncolumncolumnssss

b

forforforfor RCRCRCRC columncolumncolumncolumnssss b h b ≥6” h Square and Rectangular Column r=d/2 r=d/2 d b

h

b

≥6” h
≥6”
h

Square and Rectangular Column

b h b ≥6” h Square and Rectangular Column r=d/2 r=d/2 d b h Triangular Column

r=d/2

r=d/2

b h b ≥6” h Square and Rectangular Column r=d/2 r=d/2 d b h Triangular Column

d

b h b ≥6” h Square and Rectangular Column r=d/2 r=d/2 d b h Triangular Column
b
b

h

Triangular Column

Circular Column
Circular Column

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

75

STRAINSTRAIN-STRAINSTRAIN--HARDENING-HARDENINGHARDENINGHARDENING RANGERANGERANGERANGE The range of unit stresses for which

STRAINSTRAIN-STRAINSTRAIN--HARDENING-HARDENINGHARDENINGHARDENING RANGERANGERANGERANGE The range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits increased strength w/ some loss of ductility.

σ = P/A

ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC RANGERANGERANGERANGE

The range of unit stress for which a materials exhibits elastic deformations

PLASTICPLASTICPLASTICPLASTIC RANGERANGERANGERANGE

The range of unit stresses for which a material exhibits plastic deformation

YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINT,POINT,POINT,POINT, fyfyfyfy ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT
YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINT,POINT,POINT,POINT, fyfyfyfy
ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT

ULTIMATEULTIMATEULTIMATEULTIMATE STRENGTH,STRENGTH,STRENGTH,STRENGTH, fufufufu

RUPTURERUPTURERUPTURERUPTURE

YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINTPOINTPOINTPOINT The stress beyond which a marked increase in strain occurs in a material
YIELDYIELDYIELDYIELD POINTPOINTPOINTPOINT
The stress beyond which a
marked increase in strain
occurs in a material without a
concurrent increase in stress.
ELASTICELASTICELASTICELASTIC LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT
The maximum stress that can
be applied to a material
without causing permanent
deformation.
to a material without causing permanent deformation. PROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONAL

PROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONALPROPORTIONAL LIMITLIMITLIMITLIMIT The stress beyond which the ratio of stress to strain for material no longer remains constant.

ALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLEALLOWABLE

STRESSSTRESSSTRESSSTRESS

STRESSSTRESSSTRESSSTRESS ELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITY The property of a

ELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITYELASTICITY The property of a material that enables it to deform in response to an applied force to recover its original size and shape upon removal of the force

= δ/L

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

76

DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN METHOD:METHOD:METHOD:METHOD: 1.1.1.1. WSDWSDWSDWSD –––– WorkingWorkingWorkingWorking

DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN METHOD:METHOD:METHOD:METHOD:

1.1.1.1. WSDWSDWSDWSD –––– WorkingWorkingWorkingWorking StressStressStressStress DesignDesignDesignDesign (STRAIGHT(STRAIGHT(STRAIGHT(STRAIGHT ––LINE––LINELINELINE DESIGN)DESIGN)DESIGN)DESIGN) The Dead Load and Live Load to be supported , called the working loads or Service Load, were first estimated. Then the members of the structure were proportioned so the stresses calculated by an elastic analysis did not exceed certain permissible or allowable stress.

Mc

= ½ (fc) kj bd 2

Ms

= (As) (fs) jd

- concrete

- steel

2.2.2.2. USDUSDUSDUSD –––– UltimateUltimateUltimateUltimate StrengthStrengthStrengthStrength DesignDesignDesignDesign (Strength(Strength(Strength(Strength DesignDesignDesignDesign Method):Method):Method):Method):

is a method of proportioning structural elements such

that the computed forces produced in the elements by the factored load combinations do not exceed the factored element strength. The term “ Strength Design” is used in the design of concrete and masonry structures.

Strength Design” is used in the design of concrete and masonry structures. Engr. Manny Wendell B.

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

77

TypeTypeTypeType ofofofof ProblemsProblemsProblemsProblems 1. Design – given the load, determine the size 2.

TypeTypeTypeType ofofofof ProblemsProblemsProblemsProblems

1. Design – given the load, determine the size

2. Investigation – given the size, determine the load.

CriteriaCriteriaCriteriaCriteria forforforfor design:design:design:design:

1. Safety

2. Economy

3. Practicability / Aesthetics

1. Safety 2. Economy 3. Practicability / Aesthetics Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 78

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

78

TypeTypeTypeType ofofofof StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural DesignDesignDesignDesign :::: 1.1.1.1.

TypeTypeTypeType ofofofof StructuralStructuralStructuralStructural DesignDesignDesignDesign ::::

1.1.1.1. BALANCEDBALANCEDBALANCEDBALANCED SECTIONSECTIONSECTIONSECTION

a concrete in which the tension reinforcement theoretically

reaches its specified yield strength as the (same time) concrete in

compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain (0.003)

2.2.2.2. OVERREINFORCEDOVERREINFORCEDOVERREINFORCEDOVERREINFORCED SECTIONSECTIONSECTIONSECTION

a concrete section in which the concrete in compression reaches its

assumed ultimate strain before the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength. This is a dangerous condition since failure of the section could occur instantaneously without warning

3.3.3.3. UNDERREINFORCEDUNDERREINFORCEDUNDERREINFORCEDUNDERREINFORCED SECTIONSECTIONSECTIONSECTION a concrete section in which the tension reinforcement reaches its specified yield strength before the concrete in compression reaches its assumed ultimate strain. This is desirable condition since failure of the section would be preceded by large deformations giving prior warning of impending collapse

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

be preceded by large deformations giving prior warning of impending collapse Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,

79

SIGN CONVENTION : Positive : moment that produces a concave curvature of the member Negative

SIGN CONVENTION :

Positive

: moment that produces a concave curvature of the member

Negative : moment that produces a convex curvature of the member

Positive shear Negative shear Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Positive shear
Negative shear
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

80

BEAMBEAMBEAMBEAM b @ supports a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads

BEAMBEAMBEAMBEAM

b
b

@ supports

a rigid structural member designed to carry and transfer transverse loads across spaces supporting elements.

BENDINGBENDINGBENDINGBENDING MOMENT,MOMENT,MOMENT,MOMENT, M an external moment tending to cause part a

the

algebraic sum of the moments about the

under

neutral

consideration

structure to rotate or

axis

of

bend,

equal

to

the

section

c
c

@ midspan

NA

h

BENDINGBENDINGBENDINGBENDING STRESS,STRESS,STRESS,STRESS, fbfbfbfb A combination of compressive and tensile stresses
BENDINGBENDINGBENDINGBENDING STRESS,STRESS,STRESS,STRESS, fbfbfbfb
A combination
of
compressive and tensile
stresses developed at a
cross section of a
structural member to
resist transverse force

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

RESISTINGRESISTINGRESISTINGRESISTING MOMENT,MOMENT,MOMENT,MOMENT, M’ an internal moment equal and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force couple to maintain equilibrium of the section being considered

and opposite to a bending moment, generated by a force couple to maintain equilibrium of the

81

SIMPLE BENDING THEORY M = M’ M = f b I NA C f b

SIMPLE BENDING THEORY

M = M’ M = f b I NA C f b = M c
M
= M’
M
= f b I NA
C
f b = M c
, Bending stress
I
NA
since
S=I /c
, Section Modulus
fb
= M
S
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
82
STRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTH DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN FORFORFORFOR BEAMSBEAMSBEAMSBEAMS

STRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTH DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN FORFORFORFOR BEAMSBEAMSBEAMSBEAMS

(Ultimate(Ultimate(Ultimate(Ultimate StrengthStrengthStrengthStrength Design,Design,Design,Design, USD)USD)USD)USD) LoadLoadLoadLoad FactorFactorFactorFactor ultimate load-carrying ability of member U.

U

= 1.4DL + 1.7LL

U

= 0.75(1.4DL + 1.7LL + 1.7W)

U

= 0.9DL + 1.3 W

U

= 1.3 DL + 1.1 LL + 1.1 E

CapacityCapacityCapacityCapacity ReductionReductionReductionReduction FactorFactorFactorFactor ØØØØ

(for uncertainties, dimensions , workmanship)

0.90

bending in Reinforced Concrete

 

0.85

 

0.70

shear and torsion bearing on concrete

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

83

b 0.85 fc’ € c C c a c N.A. d As d-c T €
b 0.85 fc’ € c C c a c N.A. d As d-c T €
b
0.85 fc’
€ c
C
c
a
c
N.A.
d
As
d-c
T
€ s

Beam section

Beam elevation

Strain diagram

STRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTH DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN FORFORFORFOR BEAMSBEAMSBEAMSBEAMS

RESISTINGRESISTINGRESISTINGRESISTING MOMENT:MOMENT:MOMENT:MOMENT:

EffectiveEffectiveEffectiveEffective depthdepthdepthdepth

is the distance measured from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tension reinforcement.

MuMuMuMu ==== Ø ω fc’ b d 2 (1- 0.59ω) MuMuMuMu = Ø As fs (d –a/2)

………… Concrete ………… Steel

where : ω = ρ fy

and

ρ = As/bd,

ρmin =1.4/fy

fc’
fc’

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 84

TYPICALTYPICALTYPICALTYPICAL FORFORFORFOR BEAMBEAMBEAMBEAM DETAILDETAILDETAILDETAIL :::: STIRRUPSSTIRRUPSSTIRRUPSSTIRRUPS

TYPICALTYPICALTYPICALTYPICAL FORFORFORFOR BEAMBEAMBEAMBEAM DETAILDETAILDETAILDETAIL ::::

STIRRUPSSTIRRUPSSTIRRUPSSTIRRUPS Any of the U-shaped or closed hoop bars placed perpendicular to the longitudinal
STIRRUPSSTIRRUPSSTIRRUPSSTIRRUPS
Any of the U-shaped or closed hoop
bars placed perpendicular to the longitudinal
reinforcements of a concrete beam to resist the
vertical components of diagonal tension.
LAPLAPLAPLAP SPLICESPLICESPLICESPLICE
A splice for transferring tensile and
compressive stresses from one longitudinal bar
to another.
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
85
ShearShearShearShear DesignDesignDesignDesign forforforfor RCRCRCRC BeamsBeamsBeamsBeams ◦ There area also inclined

ShearShearShearShear DesignDesignDesignDesign forforforfor RCRCRCRC BeamsBeamsBeamsBeams

There area also inclined stresses resulting from combined effects of bending and shearing.

Without stirrups, there is nothing to stop the concrete from splitting due to diagonal tension

τ = V bd
τ = V
bd
Where: τ = shear stress or tangential stress V = critical shear force at distance
Where:
τ = shear stress or tangential stress
V = critical shear force at distance “d” from support
b,d = surface area, beam dimension
Vn = Vc + Vs d Vu≤ Ø Vn d Vc = 0.17√fc’ b w
Vn = Vc + Vs
d
Vu≤ Ø Vn
d
Vc = 0.17√fc’ b w d
S=A v f yt d
S S
V s
critical section

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 86

ShearShearShearShear DesignDesignDesignDesign forforforfor RCRCRCRC BeamsBeamsBeamsBeams CORBELCORBEL-CORBELCORBEL---

ShearShearShearShear DesignDesignDesignDesign forforforfor RCRCRCRC BeamsBeamsBeamsBeams CORBELCORBEL-CORBELCORBEL---

or

bracket

is

a

haunched

used

girder.

cantilever

to support a

short-

is

beam or

and

It is usually supports pre-cast structural system as pre-cast beam and stressed beams.

(2/3)d

Corbels

are

cast

monolithically

with

the

column

element

or

wall

element.
element.

column

the column element or wall element. column beam Vu d stirrups Primary Tension reinforcement Engr.
beam Vu d stirrups Primary Tension
beam
Vu
d
stirrups
Primary
Tension

reinforcement

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 87

COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN a rigid, relatively slender-structural member designed primarily to support compressive load

COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN a rigid, relatively slender-structural member designed primarily to support compressive load applied (bending load) at the member ends.

SlendernessSlendernessSlendernessSlenderness ratioratioratioratio The ratio of the effective length (unsupported) of a column to its radius of gyration. SR = Lu/r

RadiusRadiusRadiusRadius ofofofof gyration,rgyration,rgyration,rgyration,r The radial distance from any axis to a point at which the mass of a body could be concentrated without altering the moment of

a body could be concentrated without altering the moment of inertia of the body about that

inertia of the body about that axis. r= I/A

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

88

SHORTSHORTSHORTSHORT COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN A thick column subject to failure by crushing rather than by buckling.

SHORTSHORTSHORTSHORT COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN

A thick column subject to failure by crushing rather

than by buckling. Failure occurs when the direct stress from an axial load exceeds the compressive strength of the material available in the cross section.

INTERMEDIATEINTERMEDIATEINTERMEDIATEINTERMEDIATE COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN

A column having a mode of failure between that of a

short column and a long column. Often partly inelastic by crushing and partly elastic by buckling.

LONGLONGLONGLONG COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN

A slender column subject to failure by buckling rather

than by crushing.

than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥
to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥

P≥ Pc

to failure by buckling rather than by crushing. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio P≥

P= Pc

P<Pc 89
P<Pc
89
SHORTSHORTSHORTSHORT COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio LONGLONGLONGLONG
SHORTSHORTSHORTSHORT COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio LONGLONGLONGLONG

SHORTSHORTSHORTSHORT COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio
COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio LONGLONGLONGLONG COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN 9 0

LONGLONGLONGLONG COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN

90

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition ofofofof

ConcreteConcreteConcreteConcrete COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN

DefinitionDefinitionDefinitionDefinition ofofofof termsterms:termsterms:::

BucklingBucklingBucklingBuckling

The sudden lateral or torsional instability of a slender structural member induced by the action of a compressive load. Buckling can occur well before the yield stress of the material is reached.

CriticalCriticalCriticalCritical BucklingBucklingBucklingBuckling loadloadloadload

The maximum axial load that can theoretically be applied to a column without causing it to buckle.

PP-PP--delta-deltadeltadelta EffectEffectEffectEffect An additional moment developed in a structural member as its longitudinal axis deviates from the line of action of compression. P∆

PostPostPostPost

A stiff vertical support, especially a wooden column in timber framing.

h/6 h/6 KernKernKernKern A central area of any horizontal section of b/6 a column with
h/6
h/6
KernKernKernKern
A central area of any horizontal section of
b/6
a column with which the resultant of all
compressive loads must pass.
b
b/6
h
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

91

STRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTH DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN FORFORFORFOR COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN SHORTSHORTSHORTSHORT

STRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTHSTRENGTH DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN FORFORFORFOR COLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMNCOLUMN

SHORTSHORTSHORTSHORT AXIALLYAXIALLYAXIALLYAXIALLY LOADED:LOADED:LOADED:LOADED:

PuPuPuPu ==== Ø 0.80 [0.85(fc’) ( A g - A st ) + fy A st ] ……Tied Column PuPuPuPu = Ø 0.85 [0.85(fc’) ( A g - A st ) + fy A st ] ……Spiral Column

where :

A g is area gross of section

A st is the total area of longitudinal reinforcement

A s t is the total area of longitudinal reinforcement ACI Specs: 1. A st =
ACI Specs: 1. A st = 0.01 A g - 0.06 A g b 2.
ACI Specs:
1. A st = 0.01 A g - 0.06 A g
b
2. Min conc. Cover is 40mm
3. Min. Longitudinal rebars:
1. 4-16mm for rectangular section
r=d/2
h
2. 6-16mm for circular
4. Min. Lateral ties is 10mm for<32mm
r=d/2
5. Spacing of ties: (use smallest of)
a) 16 longitudinal bar diameter
b) 48 lateral tie bar diameter
c) Least column dimension
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor,
ARC Studio

92

DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT LENGTHLENGTHLENGTHLENGTH DevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopment

DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT LENGTHLENGTHLENGTHLENGTH DevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopmentDevelopment lengthlengthlengthlength ofofofof straightstraightstraightstraight barsbarsbarsbars

BarBarBarBar developmentdevelopmentdevelopmentdevelopment lengthlengthlengthlength LdLdLdLd isisisis thethethethe embedmentembedmentembedmentembedment necessarynecessarynecessarynecessary totototo assureassureassureassure thatthatthatthat aaaa barbarbarbar cancancancan bebebebe stressedstressedstressedstressed totototo itsitsitsits yieldyieldyieldyield ppppointointointoint withwithwithwith somesomesomesome reservedreservedreservedreserved totototo insureinsureinsureinsure membermembermembermember toughness.toughness.toughness.toughness.

Concrete F =Ab fy
Concrete
F =Ab fy

For deformed 32mm bar & smaller BasicBasicBasicBasic developmentdevelopmentdevelopmentdevelopment lengthlengthlengthlength ofofofof barsbarsbarsbars inininin tension*tension*tension*tension*

LLLLdbdbdbdb ==== 0.020.020.020.02 AAAAbbbb ffffyyyy //// √fc’ butbutbutbut notnotnotnot lesslesslessless
LLLLdbdbdbdb ==== 0.020.020.020.02 AAAAbbbb ffffyyyy //// √fc’
butbutbutbut notnotnotnot lesslesslessless thanthanthanthan 0.060.060.060.06 ddddbbbb ffffyyyy
Ld
Ld
BasicBasicBasicBasic developmentdevelopmentdevelopmentdevelopment lengthlengthlengthlength ofofofof barsbarsbarsbars
BasicBasicBasicBasic developmentdevelopmentdevelopmentdevelopment lengthlengthlengthlength ofofofof barsbarsbarsbars inininin compressioncompressioncompressioncompression
LLLLdbdbdbdb ==== 0.240.240.240.24 ddddbbbb ffffyyyy //// √fc’
butbutbutbut notnotnotnot lesslesslessless thanthanthanthan 0.040.040.040.04 ddddbbbb ffffyyyy
thanthanthanthan 0.040.040.040.04 ddddbbbb ffffyyyy * Note: basic development length shall be multiplied by the

*Note: basic development length shall be multiplied by the application modification factors m

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

93

REINFORCEDREINFORCEDREINFORCEDREINFORCED CONCRETECONCRETECONCRETECONCRETE SLABSLAB:SLABSLAB::: A rigid planar structure of

REINFORCEDREINFORCEDREINFORCEDREINFORCED CONCRETECONCRETECONCRETECONCRETE SLABSLAB:SLABSLAB:::

A rigid planar structure of concrete designed to act together with principal and secondary reinforcement in resisting applied forces.

ONEONE-ONEONE--WAY-WAYWAYWAY SLABSLABSLABSLAB A concrete slab of uniform thickness reinforced in the direction and cast integrally with parallel supporting beams. Suitable only for relatively

short spans. Short/Long side ratio, m< 0.5

TWOTWO-TWOTWO--WAY-WAYWAYWAY SLABSLABSLABSLAB A concrete slab of uniform thickness reinforced in two direction and cast integrally with supporting edge beams or bearing walls on 4 sides.

Short/Long side ratio, m≥0.5

FLATFLATFLATFLAT SLABSLABSLABSLAB A slab resting directly on columns without beams.

SLABSLABSLABSLAB A slab resting directly on columns without beams. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

94

TYPICALTYPICALTYPICALTYPICAL SLABSLABSLABSLAB PLANPLANPLANPLAN DETAILSDETAILS:DETAILSDETAILS::: Engr. Manny Wendell B.

TYPICALTYPICALTYPICALTYPICAL SLABSLABSLABSLAB PLANPLANPLANPLAN DETAILSDETAILS:DETAILSDETAILS:::

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio 95
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
95
ONEONE-ONEONE--WAY-WAYWAYWAY SLAB,SLAB,SLAB,SLAB, ACIACIACIACI CodeCodeCodeCode

ONEONE-ONEONE--WAY-WAYWAYWAY SLAB,SLAB,SLAB,SLAB, ACIACIACIACI CodeCodeCodeCode SpecificationSpecification:SpecificationSpecification:::

1. Minimum

main

bars

diameter

1212mm1212mmmmmm

shall

be

2. Minimum temperature bar diameter shall be 1010mm1010mmmmmm

be

3. Minimum

clear

concrete

cover

shall

20mm

4. Minimum slab thickness:

t= L (0.4 + fy/700)

10

t= L (0.4 + fy/700)

20

t= L (0.4 + fy/700)

24

t= L (0.4 + fy/700)

……… cantilever slab

………simply supported

……… one-end continuous

……

both-end continuous

28 L = Length or span of short side (m)
28
L = Length or span of short side (m)

10mm10mm10mm10mm temptemptemptemp barsbarsbarsbars

side (m) 10mm10mm10mm10mm temptemptemptemp barsbarsbarsbars 12mm12mm12mm12mm mainmainmainmain barsbarsbarsbars dddd
side (m) 10mm10mm10mm10mm temptemptemptemp barsbarsbarsbars 12mm12mm12mm12mm mainmainmainmain barsbarsbarsbars dddd
side (m) 10mm10mm10mm10mm temptemptemptemp barsbarsbarsbars 12mm12mm12mm12mm mainmainmainmain barsbarsbarsbars dddd

12mm12mm12mm12mm mainmainmainmain barsbarsbarsbars

12mm12mm12mm12mm mainmainmainmain barsbarsbarsbars dddd hhhh CoverCoverCoverCover ++++ dddd b b b b A main
dddd hhhh
dddd
hhhh

CoverCoverCoverCover ++++ dddd bbbb

A main bars = ρ bh ρ min = 1.4/fy SPACING main bars ≤3h or
A main bars = ρ bh
ρ min = 1.4/fy
SPACING main bars ≤3h or 45Omm
A temp bars = 0.002 bh
SPACING temp bars ≤5h or 45Omm

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

96

FOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION the lowest division of a building or other construction, partly or wholly below

FOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION the lowest division of a building or other construction, partly or wholly below the surface of the ground, designed to support and anchor the superstructure and transmit its loads directly to the earth.

superstructure and transmit its loads directly to the earth. Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

97

FootingFootingFootingFooting the part of a foundation bearing directly upon the supporting soil, set below the frostline and enlarged to distribute its load over a greater area. AllowableAllowableAllowableAllowable BearingBearingBearingBearing PressurePressurePressurePressure The maximum unit pressure a foundation is permitted to impose vertically or laterally on a supporting soil mass. ActiveActiveActiveActive EarthEarthEarthEarth PressurePressurePressurePressure The horizontal component of pressure that a soil mass exerts on a vertical retaining structure.

The horizontal component of pressure that a soil mass exerts on a vertical retaining structure.
TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES OFOFOFOF FOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION (shallow)(shallow)(shallow)(shallow) 1.1.1.1.

TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES OFOFOFOF FOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION (shallow)(shallow)(shallow)(shallow)

1.1.1.1. STEPPEDSTEPPEDSTEPPEDSTEPPED FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING – a continuous or strip footing that changes levels in stages to accommodate a sloping site or bearing stratum 2.2.2.2. STRIPSTRIPSTRIPSTRIP FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING –––– the continuous spread footing of a foundation wall 3.3.3.3. ISOLATEDISOLATEDISOLATEDISOLATED FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING – a single spread footing supporting a free standing pier or column. 4.4.4.4. CONTINUOUSCONTINUOUSCONTINUOUSCONTINUOUS FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING – a reinforced concrete footing extended to support a row of columns 5.5.5.5. COMBINEDCOMBINEDCOMBINEDCOMBINED FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING – a reinforced concrete footing for a perimeter column or foundation wall extended to support an interior column. 6.6.6.6. MATMATMATMAT – a thick, slab like footing of reinforced concrete supporting a number of columns or an entire building. RAFT 7.7.7.7. CANTILEVERCANTILEVERCANTILEVERCANTILEVER FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING – a reinforced concrete footing connected by a tie beam to another footing in order to balance an symmetrically imposed load, as at the perimeter of a building site. Strap footing.

imposed load, as at the perimeter of a building site. Strap footing . Engr. Manny Wendell

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

98

TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES OFOFOFOF FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING ILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATION Engr. Manny

TYPESTYPESTYPESTYPES OFOFOFOF FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING ILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATIONILLUSTRATION

Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio

99

DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN OFOFOFOF FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING (isolated(isolated(isolated(isolated type)type)type)type)
DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN OFOFOFOF FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING (isolated(isolated(isolated(isolated type)type)type)type)
DESIGNDESIGNDESIGNDESIGN OFOFOFOF FOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTINGFOOTING
(isolated(isolated(isolated(isolated type)type)type)type)
1. Solve for Pn.
2. Compute for
required footing
area.
3. Compute for qu
and qa.
4. Check “d” for
punching shear
5. Check for bending
6. Compute for steel
area requirement.
7. Check for required
development
length
Engr. Manny Wendell B. Amor, ARC Studio
100
DEEPDEEPDEEPDEEP FOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION the 101 A foundation system that extends down through bearing

DEEPDEEPDEEPDEEP FOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATIONFOUNDATION

the 101
the
101

A foundation system that extends down through

bearing

stratum

well

to

unsuitable soil to transfer building loads

appropriate

superstrucuture.

a more

below

PilePilePilePile capcapcapcap

a

cluster of piles to distribute the load from a column or

grade beam equally among the piles.

PilePilePilePile

reinforced concrete slab or mat joining the heads of a

A long slender column of wood, steel, or reinforced concrete , driven or hammered vertically into the earth to form part of a foundation system.

PierPierPierPier

A cast-in-place c