Sei sulla pagina 1di 26
 4.0 Analysis of the section  A satisfactory & economic design of a concrete of a concrete structure rarely depends on a complex theoretical analysis.  It is achieved more by deciding or a practical overall layout of the structure, careful attention to detail & sound construction practice.  However, we still need to analyze the individual member sections, which should be kept simple.  The 3 most important principles that unite the analysis are: - The stress & stains are related by the material properties, including the stress – strain curves for concrete and steel. - The distribution of strains must be compatible with the distorted shape of the cross – section. - The resultant forces developed by the section must balance the applied loads for static equilibrium.  The above principles are true irrespective of how the stresses and strains are distributed, or how the member is loaded, or whatever the shape of the cross – section.  This chapter describes & analysis the action of a member section under load. It derives the basic equations used in design & also those equations required for the preparation of design charts. 4.1 Stress – strain relations 4.1.1 Concrete

The behavior of structural concrete (fig.4.1) is represented by a parabolic stress strain relationship, up to ε o , from which point the strain increase while the stress remains constant.

ε o & tangent modulus at the origin are both specified as a function f cu (characteristic strength of concrete).

The ultimate design stress is given by

0.67

f

cu

m

0.67

f

cu

1.5

0.45 f

cu

At where, 0.67 factor is the difference between bending strength factor (0.8) multiply with crushing concrete strength factor (0.85) of the concrete, and γ m = 1.5 is the

difference between the site curing factor (1.13) multiply with laboratory curing factor

(1.3).

  The ultimate strain o 0.0035 is typical for all concrete grades. Figure 4.1 Short – term design stress – strain curve for concrete for concrete in compression. 4.1.2 Reinforcing steel  The representative short – term design stress – strain curve for reinforcement is given in fig. 4.2.  The behavior of the steel is identical in tension & compression, being linear in the elastic range up to the design yield stress of f y /γ m .  Within the elastic range, the relationship between the stress & strain is Stress = Elastic modulus (E s ) x strain (ε o ) [4.1]

So, design yield stain is

y

f

y

m

E

s

At ultimate,

- For high yield steel (f y = 460N/mm 2 )

y

460

1.05

200000

0.00219

- For mild steel ((f y = 250N/mm 2 )

-

y

250

1.05

200000

0.0019

4.2 The distribution of strains and stresses across a section

The theory of bending for R.C. assumes that the concrete will cracks in the regions of tensile strains & that, after cracking, all the tension is carried by the reinforcement.

Another assumption is that plan sections of a structural member remain plane after straining, so that across the section there must be a linear distribution of strains.

Fig. 4.3 shows the cross sections of a member subject to bending, & the resultant strain diagram, together with 3 different types of stress distribution in the concrete. - The triangular stress distribution applies when the stresses are very nearly proportional to the strains, which generally occurs at the loading levels encountered under working conditions and is used at the serviceability limit state.

- The rectangular parabolic stress block represents the distribution at failure when the compressive strains are within the plastic range & it is associated with the design for ultimate limit state.

- The equivalent rectangular stress block is a simplified alternative to the rectangular parabolic distribution.

- There is compatibility of strain between the reinforcement & the adjacent concrete, so ε st & ε sc can be determined from strain diagram.

s t

s c

cc

cc

d

x

x

x

d

1

x

d = effective of beam d’ = depth of compression steel

[4.2]

[4.3]

With analysis of a section with known steel strains,

x

d

1

st

st

At ultimate limit state, ε cc = 0.0035, fy = 460N/mm2, ε st = 0.00219

x

d

1

0.00219

0.0035

0.615 d

To ensure yield of tension steel at the ultimate state:

x 0.615d

At the ultimate limit state, it is important that member section in flexure should be ductile & that failure should occur with the gradual yielding of the tension steel & not by a sudden catastrophic compression failure of the concrete.

Yielding of steel reinforcement enables the formation of plastic hinges so that redistribution of maximum moments can occur, resulting in a safer & more economical structural.

To be very certain of tension steel yielding, the code of practice limits the depth of neutral axial so that

x

b

x

b

(

b

0.4)

d

Moment at the section after redistribution moment at the section before redistribution

0.9(for moment redistribution not greater than 90%)

0.5d

This limit will normally be adopted for ultimate limit state. If larger moment redistribution required, smaller x is required.

4.3 Bending and the equivalent rectangular stress block

For R.C. design, it is usual to commence the design for the conditions at the ultimate limit state, which is then followed by check to ensure that the ultimate limit state, which is then followed by checks to ensure that the structure is adequate for the serviceability limit state without excessive deflection or cracking of the concrete.

For this reason, we will consider the simplified rectangular stress block, which can be used for the design at the ultimate limit state.

The rectangular stress block is shown in fig. 4.4. The stress block (rectangular) has a depth s = 0.9x. So the centroid of stress block = s/2 = 0.45x from the top edge of the section.

The moment of resistance will be similar for both the rectangular & rectangular parabolic stress blocks.

4.4 Singly reinforced rectangular section in bending

Bending of the section will induce a resultant tensile force F st in the reinforcing steel, and a resultant compressive force in the concrete F cc which acts through the centroid of the effective area of concrete in compression, as in fig. 4.4.

For equilibrium, the ultimate design moment, M must be balanced by the moment of resistance of the section so that M = F cc x z = F st x z Where z is the level arm between F cc & F st F cc = stress x area of action = 0.45f cu x bs

And Z = d s/2

0.67 f

cu

 M     0.9 f bz 2 0.9 f cu bdz  cu   z 2  z d  M 0.9 f cu b ( z ) 2  z  M d d 0.9 f cu d 2 b M f bd cu 2    2 z k   d 0.9  0

M

let

k

z

d

1.5

z

0.45

f

cu

b

[2(

d

0.9

f

cu

b d

(

z

)

z

z

)]

0.9

f

cu

bdz

0,9

f

cu

0

0

0

bs

(

) 4 k
1
1
z
0.9
2
d
z
d [0.5 k
0.25
0.9

z

bz

2

4.8

4.7

Which is the equation in the code of practice BS 8110 for the lever arm, z of a singly reinforcement section From eqn. M = F cc x z = F st x z

F

st

A

s

f

y

m

A

s

0.95 f A

y

M

s

0.95 f z

y

4.9

The equation 4.8for the level arm z can be used to set up a table & draw a level arm as shown in fig. 4.5, & the curve may be used to determine the level arm z, instead of solving equation 4.8.

The upper limit of the lever arm curve, z = 0.95d, is specified by BS8110. The lower limit of z = 0.775d is when the depth of neutral axis x = d/2, which is the maximum value allowed by the code for a singly reinforcement section in order to provided a ductile section which will have a gradual tension type failure. When z = 0.775d & from eqn. 4.7.

M

or M

0.9

0.9

cu

f b d

cu

(

  ) z z  d x 0.775 ) 0.775 d

cu

bd

2

f b d

(

0.156f

The coefficient 0.156 has actually been calculated using a concrete stress as more precisely equal 0.67f cu m = 0.67f cu /1.5 = 0.447f cu instead of 0.45 f cu .

When

k

M

2

bd f

cu

0.156

Compression reinforcement is also required to supplement the moment of resistance of the concrete. Procedure:

2. Determine the load combination factor. (1.4G k , 1.6Q k …)

3. Calculate the ultimate design load.

4. Apply the live load patter. (Refer to example 3.2)

5. Calculate the critical moment and shear for each case and plot the bending and shear

envelopes.

6. Calculate the area of steel reinforcement, A s base on BS 8110 clause 3.4.4.4 (beam).

- determine the K value (if K < k’ = 0.156, no compression bar required)

- calculate the lever am, z. (if K >0.156, z = 0.775d)

7. Check the minimum areas of reinforcement in members (clause 3.12.5) and its

maximum areas of reinforcement in members (clause 3.12.6). 0.13% < A s < 4%

8. Check the spacing of reinforcement (clause 3.12.11). Min. clearance = 35 ~ 50mm.

9. Sketch the detailing (refer BS 8110 figure 3.24).

Example 4.1

Design of a singly reinforced rectangular section

The ultimate design moment to be resisted by the section in fig. 4.6 is 185kNm. Determine the area of tension reinforcement, A s required given the characteristic material strengths are f y = 460kN/mm 2 & f cu = 30kN/mm 2 . K

M

2

bd f

cu

185

kNm

2

260(440) (30)

0.122

0.156

clause 3.4.4.4

Therefore, compression steel is not required. k
Level arm, z
d[0.5
0.25
]
0.9
440[0.5
0.122
]
0.9
 369 mm
M
A 
clause 3.4.4.4
z
0.95 f z
y
185 kNm

0.95(460)(369)

1148 mm

2

clause 3.4.4.4

Provide 3T25, A s = 1470mm 2 > 1148mm 2

Minimum clearest

b - 2(cover) - 2(link ) - 3(25)

260

2(30)

2

75

2

62.5mm

35mm  b=260
3T25

Analysis Equation for a singly reinforced section.

The following equations may be used to calculate the moment of resistance of a given section with a known area of steel reinforcement.

For equilibrium of the compressive force in the concrete and the tensile in the fig. 4.4

0.45

F

cc

f bs

cu

F

st

0.95

f A

y

s

Therefore depth of stress block is

s

x

0.95f

y

A

s

0.45 f

cu

s

0.9

b

[4.11]

Moment of resistance of the section is

M

F z

s

t

0.95

0.95

f A

y

s

(

d

f A d

y

s

(

s

)

2

0.95 f A

y

s

0.9 f

cu

b

)

[4.12]

The above equations assume the tension reinforcement has yield (x < 0.615d). If this is not the case, the problem would require solving by trying successive values of x until F cc = F st .

With the steel strains and hence stresses being determined from ε st = ε cc (d-x/x) & stress = E s x

ε s .

Example 4.2

Analysis of singly reinforced rectangular section in bending

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the cross section shown in fig. 4.7 given that the characteristic strength are f y = 460Nmm -2 for the reinforcement & f cu = 30Nmm -2 for the concrete. For equilibrium of the compressive and tensile force on the section

F cc = F st

Therefore

F

cc

f bs

cu

s

0.45

0.45(30)(300)

F

st

0.95

0.95(460)(1470)

f A

y

s

 s  159 mm x  177 mm  0.615 d  319.8 mm

M

The steel has yieldd & f

F z

st

st

0.95

f A

y

s

(

d

s

2

)

0.95(460)(1470)(520

283 kNm

159

2

0.95 f

y

)

4.5

Rectangular section with compression reinforcement at the ultimate limit state.

The equations in this section have been derived for the case where the reduction in moment at a section due to moment redistribution is not greater than 10%. Otherwise, need to deal with effect of moment redistribution. From the section dealing with the analysis of a singly reinforced section when

M > 0.156f cu bd 2

The design ultimate moment > moment of resistance of concrete, ►compression reinforcement is required.

To ensure tension failure with a ductile section, the depth of neutral axis, x < 0.5d.

 

z

d

s

2

d

d

0.9 x

2

0.9 0.5

x

d

2

0.775 d

For equilibrium in fig. 4.8

F st = F cc + F sc

So that with the reinforcement at yield,

0.95f y A s = 0.45f cu bs + 0.95f y A’ s

Or with x = 0,5d,

s=0.9xd/2 =0.45d

 ۞ 0.95f y A s = 0.201f cu bd + 0.95f y A’ s [4.13] Taking moment about the centroid of the tension steel, M = F cc z + F sc (d-d’) = 0.201f cu bd(0.775d) + 0.95f y A’ s (d-d’) = 0.156f cu bd 2 + 0.95f y A’ s (d-d’) [4.14]

A '

s

M

0.156

f bd

cu

2

0.95

f

y

(

d d

')

[4.15]

Multiplying both sides of eqn. [4.13] by z = 0.775d 0.95f y A s z = 0.201f cu bdz + 0.95f y A’ s z

A

s

0.156 f

cu

bd

2

0.95 f z

y

A

'

s

[4.16]

Where z = 0.775d Hence the area of compression steel, A’ s & tension steel, A s , can be calculated. Substitute k’ = 0.156 & k = M / (bd 2 f cu ) into eqn. 4.15 & eqn. 4.16.

A '

s

or A '

A

s

2

kbd f k f bd

cu

'

cu

2

s

0.95 (

f

y

d d

')

(

k k f bd

')

cu

2

0.95 (

f

y

d d

')

k ' f bd

cu

2

0.95 f z

y

A

'

z

[4.17]

[4.18]

In this analysis it has been assumed that the compression steel has yield so that the steel stress f sc = 0.95f y . From fig. 4.8

s

c

0.0035

x

x

d

d '

'

x

s

c

x

0.0035

or

d'

x

 

1

s

c

0.0035

[4.19]

At yield with f y = 460N/mm 2 , ε sc y = 0.00219

d'  

1

0.00219

0.37

x 0.0035

With x = d/2

[4.20]

 d' 1   0.00219 d/2 0.0035 d '  0.185 [4.21] d

The ratio of d’/d for the yielding of other grades of steel can be determined by using their yield strain in eqn. 4.19 for value of f y = 460N/mm 2 , the application of 4.21 will provided an adequate safe check.

If d’/d > 0.185, it is necessary to calculate ε sc from eqn. 4.19 & then determine f sc from f sc = E s x ε sc = 200000ε sc so, in this case

&

A

'

s

A

s

M

0.156

f bd

cu

2

(

f

sc

(

d

0.156 f

cu

d

bd

')

2

f z

sc

A '

s

)

Example 4.3 Design of a rectangular section with compression reinforcement (moment redistribution factor β≥0.9)

The section shown in Fig. 4.10 is to resist an ultimate moment of 285kNm.

characteristic strengths are f y = 460N/mm 2 & f cu = 30N/mm 2 . reinforcement required.

The

Determine the areas o k

M

2

bd f

cu

285 10

x

6

0.156

x

260 440

2

x

30

d '

50

0.11

0.2

d

440

A '

(

k

k

')

f

cu

bd

2

s 0.95 f

d

d

' )

Compression

steel is required

Compression

bar has yielded

(0.189

0.156)(30)(260)(440)

2

0.95 460(440

x

50)

292

2

mm

A

s

k f bd

'

cu

2

0.95 f z

y

A '

s

0.156 30 260 440

x

x

x

2

0.95 460(0.775 440)

x

x

1873 mm

2

292

Example 4.4

Analysis of a doubly reinforcement rectangular section

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance o the cross section shown in fig. 4.11 given that the characteristic strengths are f y = 460Nmm -2 for the reinforcement & f cu = 30Nmm -2 for the concrete. For equilibrium,

F st = F sc + F cc

Assuming that the steel stresses f st & f sc are the design yield values, then

0.95f y A s = 0.45f cu bs + 0.95f y A’ s

s

0.95

f

y

(

A

s

A

'

s

)

0.45 f

cu

b

0.95(460)(2410

628)

(0.45)(30)(280)

206 mm

x = s/0.9 = 206/0.9 = 229mm

x/d = 229/510 = 0.45<0.615d

So, the tension steel have yielded. Also

d’/x = 50/229 = 0.22<0.37

So, the compression steel also have yielded as assumed.

Taking moment about the tension steel,

M

F

cc

(

d

s

2

)

F

s c

(

d

d

')

0.45

f

cu

bs d

(

s

2

)

0.95

0.45(30)(280)(206)(510

441 kNm

f A

y

'

s

(

d

d

' )

205

2

)

0.95(460)(620)(510

50)

If the depth of neutral axis was such that the compression or tensile steel had not yield, it would have been necessary to try successive values of x until

F st = F sc + F cc

Balances with the steel strains & stress being calculated from eqn. 4.2, 4.3 & 4.1, the steel stresses at balance would then be used to calculate the moment of resistance.

4.6 Flanged section in bending at the ultimate limit state

T section & L section which have their flanges in compression can both design & analysed in a similar manner.

As the flanges generally provide a large compressive area, it is usually unnecessary to consider the case where compression steel is required.

For singly reinforced section it is necessary to consider two conditions:-

- The stress block lies within the compression flange,

- The stress block extends below the flange.

4.6.1

Flanged section The depth of the stress block lies within the flange, s < h f (fig.

4.12) The beam can be considered as an equivalent rectangular section of breadth b f equal to the flange width. This is because the non rectangular section below the neutral axis is in tension and is, therefore inactive. Thus, k = M/b f d 2 f cu can be calculated & the lever arm determined from the lever arm curve of figure 4.5 or eqn. 4.8.

The relation between the lever arm, z & depth, x is given by z = d s/2 if s < h f , stress block does lie within the flange as assumed &

A

s

M

0.95 f z

y

Example 4.5

Analysis of a flanged section

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the T section shown in fig. 4.13. The f y = 460Nmm -2 & f cu = 30Nmm -2 . Assume initially that the stress block lies within the flange & the reinforcement is strained to the yield, so that f st = 0.95f y . For no resultant axial force on the section,

F cc = F st

0.45

f b s

cu

f

0.95

f A

y

s

 s  0.95 f A y s 0.45 f b cu f  0.95(460)(1470) 0.45(30)(800) s x  0.9  59  66 mm  150 mm 0.9

59 mm

Hence the stress block does lie within the flange & with this depth of neutral axis the steel will have yielded as assumed.

z = d s/2 = 420 59/2 = 390mm

Taking moments about the centroid of the reinforcement the moment of resistance is

M = F cc (z)

= 0.45f cu b f z

= 0.45(30)(800)(59)(390)10-6

= 249kNm

4.6.2 Flange section The depth of the stress block extends below the flange, s>h f .

Can use section 4.1 to check if s extends below h f .

Alternatively, can calculate M f (with s = h f ). So that if M > M f , the stress block must extend below the flange, & s>h f

In this case the design can be carried out by either

- Using an exact method to determined the depth of the neutral axis, as in example 4.6 or

- Designing for the conservative condition of x = d/2 as describes at the end of this section.

Example 4.6

Design of a flanged section with the depth of the stress block below the flange

The T section beam shown in fig. 4.14 is required to resits an ultimate design moment of 180kNm. The characteristic material strength are f y = 460Nmm -2 & f cu = 30Nmm -2 . Calculate the area of reinforcement required. In the figure

F cf = the force developed in the flange.

F ce = the force developed in the area of web in compression

Moment of resistance, M f of the flange

M f = F cf z 1

or

M

f = 0.45f cu b f h f (d-h f /2)

= 0.45(30)(400)(100)(350-100/2)(10 -6 )

>>

= 162kNm < 180kNm

The stress block must extent below the flange.

It is now necessary to determine the depth, s w , of the web in compression, where s w = s h f

For equilibrium:

Applied moment

180 = Fcfz1 + F cw z 2

= 162 + 0.45f cu b ws wz 2

= 162 + 0.45(30)(200s w (250-s w /2)10 -6

This eqn. can be rearranged into

s

w

2

500

s

w

13.33 10

x

3

s

w

0

500

500

2

4(13333)

2

28.5

mm or

471.5

mm

Hence, s w = 28.5mm

So, x = s/0.9 = (100+28.5)/0.9 = 142mm<175mm (0.5d)

If x<0.5d, compression reinforcement is not required.

For equilibrium

F st = F ct + F cw

0.95

f A

y

s

s

A

0.95(460)

0.45

0.45(30)[(400)(100)

f b h

cu f

f

0.45

f b s

cu w w

(200)(28.5)]

A

s

1410

mm

2

Example 4.7

Analysis of a flanged section

Determine the ultimate moment of resistance of the T section shown in fig. 4.15, given f y = 460Nmm -2 , f cu = 30Nmm -2 . The compressive force in the flange, is

F cf = 0.45f cu b f h f

= 0.45(30)(450)(150)10 -3

= 911.2kN

Then tensile force in the reinforcing steel, assuming it has yielded, is

F st = 0.95f y A s

= 0.95(460)(2410)10 -3

= 1053.2kN>f cf

Hence, s > h f

F cw = 0.45f cu b w (s-h f )

= 0.45(30)(300)(s-150)10 -3

For equilibrium

F cw = F st F cf

4.05(s-150) = 1053.2 911.2

s = 185mm

x = s/0.9 = 185/0.9 = 206mm

F cw = 142kN

If F cf > F st , then the section would be analysed as in example 4.2 for a rectangular section of dimension b f x d

Taking moment about the centroid of the reinforcement,

M = F cf (d h f /2) + F cw (d h f [s h f ]/2)

= F ct (d h f /2) + F cw (d h f /2 s/2)

= [911.2(440 150/2) +142(440 185/2 150/2)]10 -3

= 371kNm

Example 4.8

Design of a flanged section with depth of neutral axis x = d/2

A safe but conservative design for a flanged section with s > hf can be achieved by setting te depth of neutral axis to x = d/2, the maximum depth allowed in the code. Design equations can be derived for this condition as follow.

Depth of stress block, s = 0.9x = 0.45d Divide the flanged section within the depth of the stress block into area and 2 as shown in fig.

4.16

Area 1 = b w s = 0.45b w d

Area 2 = (b f b w )h f

F c1 = 0.45f cu (0.45b w d)

F c2 = 0.45f cu h f (b f b w )

= 0.20f cu b w d

Taking moments about F c2 at the centroid of the flange

M = F st (d h f /2) F c1 (s/2 h f /2)

= 0.95f y A s (d h f /2) 0.2 f cu b w d(0.45d h f )/2

A

s

 M  0.1 f b d cu w (0.45 d  h f ) 0.95 f d y (  0.5 h f )

[4.23]

Eqn. 4.23 should not be used when h f > 0.45d or h f > s, where x = d/2

Applying [4.23] to example 4.6

A

s

180 10

x

6

0.1(30)(200)(350)(0.45 350

x

100)

0.95(460)(350

0.5(100))

1465

2

mm

(compare with1410mm

2

of example 4.6

Before using eqn. 4.23 for calculating A s , it is necessary to confirm that compression

reinforcement is not required. This is achieved by using eqn. 4.24 to check that the moment

of resistance of concrete, M c , is greater than the design moment, M.

4.6.3 Flanged section with compression reinforcement.

With x = d/2 in fig. 4.16 and taking moments about A s , the maximum resistance

moment of the concrete is

M c = F c1 z 1 + F c2 z 2 = 0.156f cu b w d 2 + 0.45f cu (b f b w )(d-h f /2)

Note that the value of 0.156 was derived previously for the rectangular section,

Dividing through by f cu b f d 2

[4.24]

M

c

f b d

cu f

2

0.156

b

w

b

f

0.45

h

f

d

(1

b

w

b

f

)(1

h

f

2

d

)

[4.25]

If the applied design moment, M > M c , compression reinforcement is required. In

which case the areas of steel can be calculated from

A '

s

M M

c

0.95

f

y

(

d d

')

[4.26]

And considering the equilibrium of forces on the section

F st = F c1 + F c2 + F sc

So that

A

s

0.2

f b d

cu w

0.45

f h

cu f

(

b

f

bw

) A

'

s

0.95 f

y

[4.27]

Note, d’/x < 0.37, otherwise the design compressive steel stress is less than 0.95f y .

When, because of moment redistribution, β b < 0.9 the limiting depth of neutral axis is

less than d/2 and these equations will require modification using the factors.

M c = F c1 z 1 + F c2 z 2

= 0.156f cu b w d 2 + 0.45f cu (b f b w )(d-h f /2)

= 0.156(30)(200)(350)2 + 0.45(30)(400 200)(350 100 / 2)

= 115kNm < 180kNm Compression steel is required.

>>

If Mc > M, no compression steel is required.