0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

4 visualizzazioni84 pagineVery Helpful

Jul 12, 2018

© © All Rights Reserved

PDF, TXT o leggi online da Scribd

Very Helpful

© All Rights Reserved

0 valutazioniIl 0% ha trovato utile questo documento (0 voti)

4 visualizzazioni84 pagineVery Helpful

© All Rights Reserved

Sei sulla pagina 1di 84

APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

applications of derivatives.

rules, we are in a better position to pursue

the applications of differentiation in greater

depth.

APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

the shape of a graph of a function and,

in particular, how they help us locate

maximum and minimum values of functions.

APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

minimize a cost or maximize an area or

somehow find the best possible outcome

of a situation.

the optimal shape of a can and to explain

the location of rainbows in the sky.

APPLICATIONS OF DIFFERENTIATION

4.1

Maximum and

Minimum Values

How to find the maximum

and minimum values of a function.

OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

applications of differential calculus

are optimization problems.

way of doing something.

EXAMPLES

that we will solve in this chapter.

manufacturing costs?

(This is an important question to the astronauts

who have to withstand the effects of acceleration.)

EXAMPLES

that expels air most rapidly during a cough?

so as to minimize the energy expended by

the heart in pumping blood?

OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS

finding the maximum or minimum values

of a function.

by maximum and minimum values.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Definition 1

(or global maximum) at c if f(c) ≥ f(x) for

all x in D, where D is the domain of f.

of f on D.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Definition 1

if f(c) ≤ f(x) for all x in D and the number f(c)

is called the minimum value of f on D.

are called the extreme values of f.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES

with absolute maximum at d and absolute

minimum at a.

the highest point on

the graph and (a, f(a))

is the lowest point.

LOCAL MAXIMUM VALUE

instance, if we restrict our attention to the

interval (a, c)—then f(b) is the largest of those

values of f(x).

It is called a local

maximum value of f.

LOCAL MINIMUM VALUE

of f because f(c) ≤ f(x) for x near c—for

instance, in the interval (b, d).

a local minimum at e.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Definition 2

maximum) at c if f(c) ≥ f(x) when x is near c.

open interval containing c.

when x is near c.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 1

and absolute) maximum value of 1 infinitely

many times—since cos 2nπ = 1 for any

integer n and -1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 for all x.

value—where n is any integer.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 2

x2 ≥ 0 for all x.

minimum value of f.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 2

is the lowest point on the parabola y = x2.

So, this function has no maximum value.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 3

we see that this function has neither

an absolute maximum value nor an absolute

minimum value.

extreme values either.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 4

f(x) = 3x4 – 16x3 + 18x2 -1 ≤ x ≤ 4

is shown here.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 4

maximum, whereas the absolute maximum

is f(-1) = 37.

is not a local maximum

because it occurs at

an endpoint.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 4

f(3) = -27 is both a local and an absolute

minimum.

neither a local nor

an absolute maximum

at x = 4.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES

extreme values, whereas others do not.

under which a function is guaranteed to

possess extreme values.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM Theorem 3

then f attains an absolute maximum value f(c)

and an absolute minimum value f(d) at some

numbers c and d in [a, b].

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM

in the figures.

can be taken on more than once.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM

very plausible, it is difficult to prove

and so we omit the proof.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM

possess extreme values if either hypothesis

(continuity or closed interval) is omitted from

the theorem.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM

defined on the closed interval [0, 2] but has

no maximum value.

is [0, 3).

arbitrarily close to 3, but never

actually attains the value 3.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM

because f is not continuous.

Nonetheless, a discontinuous

function could have maximum

and minimum values.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM

on the open interval (0, 2) but has neither

a maximum nor a minimum value.

The function takes on

arbitrarily large values.

This does not contradict

the theorem because

the interval (0, 2) is not closed.

EXTREME VALUE THEOREM

on a closed interval has a maximum value

and a minimum value.

extreme values.

We start by looking for local extreme values.

LOCAL EXTREME VALUES

with a local maximum at c and a local

minimum at d.

LOCAL EXTREME VALUES

minimum points, the tangent lines are

horizontal and therefore each has slope 0.

LOCAL EXTREME VALUES

of the tangent line.

So, it appears that f ’(c) = 0 and f ’(d) = 0.

LOCAL EXTREME VALUES

this is always true for differentiable

functions.

FERMAT’S THEOREM Theorem 4

minimum at c, and if f ’(c) exists, then

f ’(c) = 0.

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

has a local maximum at c.

if x is sufficiently close to c.

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof (Equation 5)

with h being positive or negative, then

f(c) ≥ f(c + h)

and therefore

f(c + h) – f(c) ≤ 0

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

by a positive number.

we have:

f (c + h ) ! f (c )

"0

h

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

of this inequality (using Theorem 2 in

Section 2.3), we get:

f (c + h ) " f (c )

lim+ # lim+ 0 = 0

h !0 h h !0

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

we have: f (c + h ) " f (c )

f '(c) = lim

h !0 h

f (c + h ) " f (c )

= lim+

h !0 h

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

in Equation 5 is reversed when we divide

by h:

f (c + h ) ! f (c )

"0 h<0

h

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

we have: f (c + h ) ! f (c )

f '(c) = lim

h "0 h

f (c + h ) ! f (c )

= lim! #0

h "0 h

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

that f ’(c) ≤ 0.

the only possibility is that f ’(c) = 0.

FERMAT’S THEOREM Proof

the case of a local maximum.

in a similar manner.

to deduce it from the case we have just proved.

FERMAT’S THEOREM

against reading too much into the theorem.

simply by setting f ’(x) = 0 and solving for x.

FERMAT’S THEOREM Example 5

can see from the graph.

Alternatively, observe

that x3 > 0 for x > 0

but x3 < 0 for x < 0.

FERMAT’S THEOREM Example 5

the curve y = x3 has a horizontal tangent

at (0, 0).

Instead of having

a maximum or minimum

at (0, 0), the curve crosses

its horizontal tangent there.

FERMAT’S THEOREM Example 6

absolute) minimum value at 0.

This is because—as

shown in Example 5

in Section 2.8—f ’(0)

does not exist.

WARNING

be careful when using the theorem.

there need not be a maximum or minimum at c.

In other words, the converse of the theorem

is false in general.

Furthermore, there may be an extreme value

even when f ’(c) does not exist (as in Example 6).

FERMAT’S THEOREM

at least start looking for extreme values of f

at the numbers c where either:

f ’(c) = 0

FERMAT’S THEOREM

special name—critical numbers.

CRITICAL NUMBERS Definition 6

a number c in the domain of f such that

either f ’(c) = 0 or f ’(c) does not exist.

CRITICAL NUMBERS Example 7

f(x) = x3/5(4 - x).

3/ 5 !2 / 5

f '( x) = x (!1) + (4 ! x)( x

3

5 )

3/ 5 3(4 ! x)

= !x + 2/5

5x

!5 x + 3(4 ! x) 12 ! 8 x

= 2/5

=

5x 5x2 / 5

CRITICAL NUMBERS Example 7

The same result could be obtained by

first writing f(x) = 4x3/5 – x8/5.

Therefore, f ’(x) = 0 if 12 – 8x = 0.

3

That is, x = , and f ’(x) does not exist

2

when x = 0.

2

CRITICAL NUMBERS

Theorem can be rephrased as follows

(compare Definition 6 with Theorem 4).

CRITICAL NUMBERS Theorem 7

minimum at c, then c is a critical

number of f.

CLOSED INTERVALS

of a continuous function on a closed interval,

we note that either:

a critical number by Theorem 7).

CLOSED INTERVALS

three-step procedure always

works.

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD

values of a continuous function f on a closed

interval [a, b]:

in (a, b).

2. Find the values of f at the endpoints of the interval.

3. The largest value from 1 and 2 is the absolute

maximum value. The smallest is the absolute

minimum value.

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD Example 8

and minimum values of the function

f(x) = x3 – 3x2 + 1 -½ ≤ x ≤ 4

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD Example 8

can use the Closed Interval Method:

f(x) = x3 – 3x2 + 1

f ’(x) = 3x2 – 6x = 3x(x – 2)

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD Example 8

numbers of f occur when f ’(x) = 0, that is,

x = 0 or x = 2.

the interval (-½, 4).

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD Example 8

are: f(0) = 1 f(2) = -3

are: f(-½) = 1/8 f(4) = 17

the absolute maximum value is f(4) = 17 and

the absolute minimum value is f(2) = -3.

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD Example 8

at an endpoint, whereas the absolute

minimum occurs at a critical number.

CLOSED INTERVAL METHOD Example 8

EXACT VALUES

a computer with graphing software, it is

possible to estimate maximum and minimum

values very easily.

calculus is needed to find the exact values.

EXACT VALUES Example 9

the absolute minimum and maximum values

of the function f(x) = x – 2 sin x, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2π.

and maximum values.

EXACT VALUES Example 9 a

the viewing rectangle [0, 2π] by [-1, 8].

EXACT VALUES Example 9 a

point, we see the y-coordinates don’t change

very much in the vicinity of the maximum.

The absolute

maximum value

is about 6.97

It occurs when

x ≈ 5.2

EXACT VALUES Example 9 a

the minimum point, we see the absolute

minimum value is about –0.68 and it occurs

when x ≈ 1.0

EXACT VALUES Example 9 a

estimates by zooming in toward

the maximum and minimum points.

EXACT VALUES Example 9 b

on [0, 2π].

when cos x = ½.

This occurs when x = π/3 or 5π/3.

EXACT VALUES Example 9 b

are

! ! !

f (! / 3) = " 2sin = " 3 # "0.684853

3 3 3

and

5! 5! 5!

f (5! / 3) = " 2sin = + 3 # 6.968039

3 3 3

EXACT VALUES Example 9 b

are

f(0) = 0

and

f(2π) = 2π ≈ 6.28

EXACT VALUES Example 9 b

using the Closed Interval Method, we see

the absolute minimum value is

f(π/3) = π/3 - 3

and the absolute maximum value is

f(5π/3) = 5π/3 + 3

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

deployed on April 24, 1990, by the space

shuttle Discovery.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

during this mission—from liftoff at t = 0

until the solid rocket boosters were jettisoned

at t = 126 s—is given by:

(in feet per second)

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

maximum and minimum values of

the acceleration of the shuttle between

liftoff and the jettisoning of the boosters.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

not of the given velocity function,

but rather of the acceleration function.

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

the acceleration:

a (t ) = v '(t )

d 3 2

= (0.001302t ! 0.09029t

dt

+ 23.61t ! 3.083)

2

= 0.003906t ! 0.18058t + 23.61

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

to the continuous function a on the interval

0 ≤ t ≤ 126.

a’(t) = 0.007812t – 0.18058

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

when a’(t) = 0:

0.18058

t1 = ! 23.12

0.007812

MAXIMUM & MINIMUM VALUES Example 10

and at the endpoints, we have:

a(0) = 23.61 a(t1) ≈ 21.52 a(126) ≈ 62.87