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For a general structure built on ground, that part of the structure, which is located above the
ground, is generally termed as the superstructure, and the part, which lies below ground, is
termed as the substructure or the ‘Foundation structure’. The purpose of foundation is to
effectively support the superstructure by

1. Transmitting the applied load effects to the soil below, without exceeding the safe
bearing capacity of the soil.

2. Ensuring the settlement of the structure is within the limits, and it should be uniform.
Further, the foundation should provide adequate safety against possible instability due
to overturning or sliding and/or possible pullout due to tension.

Ideally the shape of foundation should be determined in such a manner that the
center of gravity of footing coincides with the resultant of loads at the base of column
supported by it so that the soil bearing pressure has uniform intensity. The size of the footing
should be determined such that the soil bearing pressure does not exceed its allowable value.

Figure 1.1. Typical picture of a footing


1.2.1 Shallow Foundations

Shallow foundations are those founded near to the finished ground surface, generally where
the founding depth is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m. These are not
strict rules, but merely guidelines: basically, if surface loading or other surface conditions
will affect the bearing capacity of a foundation it is 'shallow'. Shallows foundations are
used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they
are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils.
Types of Shallow Foundation Isolated Footing

The ordinary structures located on reasonably firm soil, it usually suffices to provide a
separate footing for every column. Such a footing is called an isolated footing. It is
generally square or rectangular in plan. The footing basically comprises a thick slab,
which may be flat, stepped or sloped as shown in figure 3.2. The soil bearing pressures
from below tend to make the base slab of the footing bend upwards, somewhat into a
saucer-like shape and hence the footing needs to be suitably reinforced by a mesh provided
at the bottom of the slab.

Figure 1.2. Combined Footing

In cases where it is not convenient to provide separate isolated footings for columns on
account of inadequate areas available in plan. This may occur when two or more columns
are located close to each other and if they are relatively heavily loaded and rest on soil
with low safe bearing capacity, resulting in an overlap of areas if footings are attempted.

Generally two-column combined footing is required in which there is property line, which
restricts the extension of footing on one side. In this case, combining the footing with that
of an interior column circumvents the non-availability of space near the exterior column.
The width of the footing may be kept uniform or tapered. The trapezoidal footing is
required when the exterior column is more heavily loaded than the interior column.
Figure 1.3. Combined footing Wall Footing

Wall footings are used to support structural walls that carry loads for other floors or to
support non-structural walls.

Figure 1.4 Cantilever or Strap Footing

Strap footing consists of two single footings connected with a beam or a strap and support
two single columns. This type replaces a combined footing and is more economical.

Figure 1.5 Continuous Footing

Continuous footings support a row of three or more columns. They have limited width
and continue under all columns. This type of footing is useful when there is a restriction
for the boundary columns of the structure.

Figure 1.6 Continuous footing Mat or Raft Foundation

Mat footing consists of one footing usually placed under the entire building area. They
are used, when soil bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy single footings
cannot be used, piles are not used and differential settlement must be reduced. Raft
foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the
entire area of the structure. They are used when column loads or other structural loads are
close together and individual pad foundations would interact. A raft foundation normally
consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened
by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation. Raft foundations have the advantage of
reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements
between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing
capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area.

Figure 1.7 Mat or Raft Foundation

1.2.2 Deep Foundations

Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for
their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions, this is usually at depths
>3 m below finished ground level. They can be used to transfer the loading to deeper,
more competent strata at depth if unsuitable soils are present near the surface. They are
used generally when there are weak (“bad”) soils near the surface or when loads are
very high, such as very large skyscrapers. Deep foundations derive their support from
deeper soils or bedrock.

Types of Deep Foundation Pile Foundation

Pile foundation are relatively long, slender members that transmit foundation loads
through soil strata of low bearing capacity to deeper soil or rock strata having a high
bearing capacity. They are used when for economic, constructional or soil condition
considerations it is desirable to transmit loads to strata beyond the practical reach of
shallow foundations. In addition to supporting structures, piles are also used to anchor
structures against uplift forces and to assist structures in resisting lateral and
overturning forces. Pile Cap is a thick slab used to tie a group of piles together to
support and transmit column loads to the piles.
Figure 1.8 Pile Foundation Caissons

Caissons are a form of deep foundation which are constructed above ground level,
then sunk to the required level by excavating or dredging material from within the

Figure 1.9


1.3.1 Isolated footing

The area of the footing is fixed on the basis of the allowable bearing pressure qa and the
applied loads and moments under service load conditions. Once the base area of the footings is
determined, the subsequent structural design of the footing is done for the factored loads,
using the partial load factors applicable for the ‘ultimate limit state’. In order to compute the
factored moments, shears, etc., acting at the critical sections of the footings, a factious factored
soil pressure qu, corresponding to the factored loads, should be considered. The factored net
soil pressure qu to be considered in the design of the footing at the limit state is obtainable
from the factored loads on the column as shown in figure.

Figure 1.11 Distribution of Soil pressure Thickness of footing base slab

The thickness of footing base slab is generally based on considerations of shear and
flexure, which are critical near the column location. Generally, shear considerations
predominate, and the thickness is based on shear criteria. Except in the case of small
footings, it is economical to vary the thickness from a minimum at the edge to a maximum
near the face of the column, in keeping with the variations in the bending moment and
shear force. This may be achieved either by sloping the top face of the base slab or by
providing a stepped footing.

In any case code restricts the minimum thickness at the edge of the footing to 150 mm for
footings in general. This is done to ensure that the footing has sufficient rigidity to provide
the calculated bearing pressure. A leveling course ‘of lean concrete’ (about 100 mm thick)
is usually provided below the footing base. Design for shear

The thickness of the footing base slab is most often dictated by the need to check shear
stress, and for this reason, the design for shear usually precedes the design for flexure.
Both one-way shear and two-way shear need to be considered in general. The critical
section one-way shear is taken, at a distance deff (effective depth) from the face of the
column/pedestal. The critical section for two-way shear is taken at a distance deff /2 from
the periphery of the column.
Figure 1.12 One way shear

Figure 1.13 Two way shear Design for flexure

The footing base slab may be designed against flexure by considering the bending moment
at the critical section defined as a straight section passing through the face of a column,
pedestal or wall for a footing supporting a concrete column, pedestal or wall. In one-way
reinforced footings, the flexural reinforcement is placed perpendicular to the wall at a
uniform spacing. In the perpendicular direction, nominal distribution reinforcement should
be provided mainly to account for secondary moments. In two-way reinforced square
footings also, flexural reinforcement may be placed at a uniform spacing in both the
directions. In two-way reinforced rectangular footings, the reinforcement in the long
direction is uniformly spaced across the full width of the footing.

In one way reinforced footings (such as wall footings), the flexural reinforcement
(calculated for the moment at the critical section) is placed perpendicular to the wall at a
uniform spacing. In the perpendicular direction (along the length of the wall), nominal
distributor reinforcement should be provided mainly to account for secondary moments
due to Poisson effect and possible differential settlement, and also to take care of
shrinkage and temperature effects. In two way reinforced square footings also, flexural
reinforcement may be placed at a uniform spacing on both directions. In two way
reinforced rectangular footings, the reinforcement in the long direction is uniformly spaced
across the full width of the footing, but in the short direction, the code requires a larger
concentration of reinforcement to be provided within a central band width, equal to the
width B of the footing.

Reinforcement in central band width = Ast,short x [2/(β+1)]

where, Ast,short = total flexural reinforcement required in the short direction

β = ratio of the long side (L) to the short side (B) of the footing.

This reinforcement is to be uniformly distributed within the central band width (equal to
width B), and the remainder of the reinforcement distributed uniformly in the outer portions
of the footing. This is done to account for the observed variation of the transverse bending
moment along the length of the footing.

1.3.2 Description
For designing the isolated footings, support reactions are extracted from the superstructure
of the building. Only the working stress Load Combinations are used to calculate support
reactions at the base of the columns. These support reactions are then converted to Load
inputs for the STAAD model of sub-structure. This helps to calculate the moment at the
base of the footing due to loads accurately. Also, the loads due to the self-weight of the
pedestal are incorporated in the support reactions. Working stress load combinations are
then used to calculate the support reactions for the sub-structure to check for base pressure
stability criterion. These loads are multiplied with the limit state factor to design the
footings for moment, and for punching and one-way shear.

The materials used in RC footings are concrete and steel. The minimum grade of concrete
to be used for footings is M20, which can be increased when the footings are placed in
aggressive environment, or to resist higher stresses.

Cover: The minimum thickness of cover to main reinforcement shall not be less than 50 mm
for surfaces in contact with earth face and not less than 40 mm for external exposed face.
However, where the concrete is in direct contact with the soil the cover should be 75 mm. In
case of raft foundation the cover for reinforcement shall not be less than 75 mm.

Minimum reinforcement and bar diameter: The minimum reinforcement according to slab
and beam elements as appropriate should be followed, unless otherwise specified. The
diameter of main reinforcing bars shall not be less 10 mm. The grade of steel used is either
Fe 415 or Fe 500
An illustration showing the excel design sheet for isolated footings of a service building
model is shown below:
Column is a vertical compression member whose unsupported length ‘l’ shall not exceed
sixty times ‘b’ (least lateral dimension), if restrained at the two ends. Further, the
unsupported length of a cantilever column shall not exceed (100b2 / D), where ‘D’ is the
larger lateral dimension which is also restricted up to four times of ‘b’.

The limit states of axial compression and bending moments about two axes, in general,
govern the design of columns. Shear in columns is small and shear stress works out to be
safe. Stirrups in columns are provided mainly for holding column bars in place and making
them strong against buckling as these bars come under direct compression. Moments in
columns change sign in each storey, so that, we generally provide symmetrical bar
arrangement in a column section and the steel area is kept constant throughout a given
storey. Columns, therefore, consume a good quantity of steel. Further, minimum eccentricity
moments and additional moments due to slenderness, if any are also included in the column

2.1 Types of Columns

Classification of Columns Based on Loadings:

 Columns subjected to axial loads only (concentric)

 Columns subjected to combined axial load and uni-axial bending

 Columns subjected to combined axial load and bi-axial bending

Figure 2.1
Classification of Columns Based on Slenderness ratios:

 Short columns
 Slender or long columns

Figure 2.2. represents the three modes of failure of columns with different slenderness ratios
when loaded axially. In the mode 1, column does not undergo any lateral deformation and
collapses due to material failure. This is known as compression failure. Due to the combined
effects of axial load and moment a short column may have material failure of mode 2. On
the other hand, a slender column subjected to axial load only undergoes deflection due to
beam-column effect and may have material failure under the combined action of direct load
and bending moment. Such failure is called combined compression and bending failure of
mode 2. Mode 3 type of failure occurs by elastic instability of very long column even under
small load much before the material reaches the yield stresses. This type of failure is known
as elastic buckling.

Figure 2.2. Classification of Columns based on slenderness ratio

2.2. Design Considerations and Codal Requirements

The slenderness ratio of steel column is the ratio of its effective length (le) to its least radius
of gyration ‘r’. In case of reinforced concrete column, however, IS 456 stipulates the
slenderness ratio as the ratio of its effective length le to its least lateral dimension. As
mentioned earlier, the effective length le is different from the unsupported length, the
rectangular reinforced concrete column of cross-sectional dimensions B and D shall have
two effective lengths in the two directions of b and D.
Accordingly, the column may have the possibility of buckling depending on the two values
of slenderness ratios as given below:

Slenderness ratio about the major axis = lex / D

Slenderness ratio about the minor axis = ley / B

Based on the above discussion, Cl. 25.1.2. of IS 456 stipulates the following:

A compression member may be considered as short when the slenderness ratios (lex/D) and
(ley/B) are less than 12.

where, lex = effective length in respect of the major axis D = depth in respect of the major
axis, ley = effective length in respect of the minor axis, B = width of the member.

It shall otherwise be considered as a slender compression member.

Further, it is essential to avoid the mode 3 type of failure of columns so that all columns
undergo material failure (modes 1 and 2) only. Clause 25.3.1. of IS 456 stipulates the
maximum unsupported length between two restraints of a column to sixty times its least
lateral dimension. For cantilever columns, when one end of the column is unrestrained, the
unsupported length is restricted to (100b2/D) where ‘b’ and ‘D’ are as defined earlier.

Compression Reinforcement: The maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not

exceed 0.04 bD.

3.3. Numerical Example

Problem definition:

Column size = 400mm x 600mm Axial Load = 2500 kN Unsupported length = 4.5 m,
Boundary conditions = Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at both
ends, Grade of concrete = M25, Grade of reinforcing steel = Fe 415


Check if column is short or slender: lex = ley = 0.65*L = 0.65*4500 = 2600mm

Slenderness ratio = lex / D = 2600 / 600 = 4.33 ley / B = 2600 / 400 = 6.5

Therefore, short column.

Minimum eccentricity:

ex,min = max( (L/500 + D/30) and 20 mm ) = 25.2 mm

ey,min = max( (L/500 + B/30) and 20 mm ) = 20.0 mm


0.05D = 0.05(600) = 30 mm > 25.2 mm

0.05B = 0.05(400) = 20 mm = 20 mm

Hence, for the equation given in clause 39.3. Of IS 456: 2000 is applicable for the design

Area of steel, Ast:

Pu = 0.4fckAc + 0.67fyAsc

Asc = 2238.39 mm2

Provide 6-20mm dia and 2-16mm dia.

Reinforcement provided = 2287 mm2 > 2238.39 mm2

Percentage of reinforcement provided = 0.953% which is more than the min percentage of
steel (0.8%) and less than the maximum percentage (4%). O.K.

Provisions for design of lateral ties as per IS 456: 2000

Dia of lateral ties shall not be less than max (φ/4, 6mm) where, φ – largest longitudinal bar

Pitch of the lateral ties should not be more than min (least lateral dimension of column,
sixteen times the smallest dia of longitudinal reinf bar, 300mm)

Lateral ties:

Dia of lateral ties = max (20/4, 6) = 6mm

Pitch = min (400, 16 X 16, 300) = 256mm

Adopt a pitch of 250mm.

Beams are structural members whose main function is to transfer load principally by the
means of flexural or bending action.

 Primarily designed on the basis of limit state of collapse in flexure.

 Limit states of shear and torsion also checked.
 Can be designed as either singly or doubly reinforced beams.

Beams are meant for supporting slabs, walls or secondary beams.

3.1.1 Types of Beams

Beams can be classified on the basis of nature of the reinforcement provided. These are:

 Singly Reinforced beams - Reinforcing steel is provided only in the tensile face of
the beam. The beam fails when the steel yields.

 Doubly Reinforced beams - Reinforcing steel is provided in both tensile and

compressive face of the beam. This enhances the moment carrying capacity of the
beam as the compressive strength of concrete is enhanced.

They can also be classified on the basis of their limiting bending moment. These are:

 Under-reinforced section:
Tension capacity of the tensile reinforcement is smaller than the combined
compression capacity of the concrete and compression steel. Ductile failure
occurs in these types of sections.

 Over-reinforced section:
Tension capacity of the tensile reinforcement is higher than the combined
compression capacity of the concrete and compression steel. So the beam
fails by crushing of the compression zone i.e. brittle failure.

 Balanced reinforced section:

Both the compressive and the tensile zones reach yielding at the same time.
Beam can be of various shapes. These include the Rectangular beams, T-
beams, L-beams.
3.2 Design Considerations and Codal Requirements

Effective span: Unless specified otherwise, the effective span of a beam shall be taken as

For a simply supported beam the effective span shall be taken as clear span plus effective
depth or the distance between the centers of bearing whichever is less.

In the case of continuous beam, if the width of the support is less than 1/12 of the clear span
or 600 mm, whichever is less, the effective span shall be taken as follows:

o For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous, or for
intermediate spans, the effective span shall be the clear span between
o For end span with one end free and the other continuous, the effective
span shall be equal to the clear span plus half the width of the
continuous support, whichever is less.

Note – In the case of spans with roller or rocker bearings, the

effective span shall always be the distance between the centers of the

o In the analysis of a continuous frame, the effective span is the

distance between the centers of the supporting members.

Stiffness of beams and control on deflection:

Beams must possess adequate stiffness to prevent such deflection as might impair the
strength, appearance or efficiency of the structure or produce cracks in finishes and
partitions. The deflection shall generally be limited to the following:

 The final deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature, creep and
shrinkage measured from the cast-level of the supports of the floors, roofs and all
other horizontal members should not normally exceed span/250.

 The deflection including the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage occurring
after erection of partitions and the application of finishes should not normally exceed
span/350 or 20 mm whichever is less.
For beams, the vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied provided
that the spans to depth ratios are not greater than the values obtained below:

i. Basic values of span to effective depth ratios for spans up to 10 m: 7 – Cantilever; 20

- Simply supported beams; 26 - Continuous beams
ii. For spans above 10 m. the values given above may be multiplied by (10/span in
meters) except for cantilevers in which case deflection calculations must be made.
 Depending on the area and the type of steel for tension reinforcement the values in (i)
or (ii) shall be modified.
 Depending on the area of compression reinforcement the value of the span to depth
ratio shall be further modified.
 For flanged beams, the values of (i) or (ii) be modified and the reinforcement
percentage should be based on area of section equal to bd.

 Slenderness limits for beams to ensure lateral stability. A simply supported or

continuous beam shall be so proportioned that the clear distance between the lateral
restraints does not exceed 60 b or 250 b2/d whichever is less, where d is the effective
depth of the beam and b the breadth of the compression face midway between the
lateral restraints. For a cantilever the clear distance from the free end of the
cantilever to the lateral restraints shall not exceed 25 b or 100 b2/d whichever is less.

 The breadth of the beam must be such as to accommodate the necessary

reinforcement. Often this is selected from architectural considerations. Generally a
beam is satisfactory when its breadth is between half the effective depth to 2/3 the
effective depth.

Minimum and Maximum Reinforcement in Beams (Working stress method): Tension

Reinforcement: The minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than that
given by the following:

= 0.85/𝑓𝑦

where, Ast = Minimum area of tension reinforcement

b = breadth of the beam or the breadth of the web of a T-beam

d = effective depth, and

fy = characteristic strength of reinforcement in N/mm2

Compression Reinforcement: The maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not

exceed 0.04 bD.

Side Face Reinforcement: Where the depth of the web in a beam exceeds 750 mm, side
face reinforcement shall be provided along the two faces. The total area of such
reinforcement shall not be less than 0.10 percent of the web area and shall be distributed
equally on two faces at a spacing not exceeding 300 mm or web thickness whichever is less.
2.3. Numerical Example

Problem definition:

Width = 300 mm

Depth = 600 mm

Length = 6 m

Grade of concrete = M20

Grade of Steel = Fe 415

Imposed Load = 9kN/m


Dead load of beam = 25 x 0.3 x 0.6 = 4.5 kN/m

Total load = 9 + 4.5 = 13.5 kN/m

Factored Bending Moment = 1.5 x (13.5 x 62/8) = 91.125 kNm

Mu,lim = Ru.bd2 = 2.76 x 0.3 x 0.6 x 0.6 x 1000

= 298.08 kNm

Factored B.M. < Mu,lim

Hence, under-reinforced section needs to be designed. Mu = 0.87 x fy x Ast x d (1-(Ast x fy

/ (fck x d))

91.125 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 450(1-(Ast x 415/20 x300 x 600)) Ast = 895.84145 mm2

pt = 0.7963

Hence provide 3 # 20 dia bars.


The following are the calculations of different parameters in order to determine the moment
capacity of the hollow circular section with openings conforming to ACI 307-08 (Code
Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Chimneys).

Input Parameters:

fck = 30.00 MPa

fc' = 25.00 MPa

fy = 500.00 MPa

Es = 2.00 x 105 MPa

r = 4.092 m

t = 0.606 m

ρt = 0.3%

β = 17.990 = 0.314 rad

n1 =1

Location of NA from compressed end = x = 0.100 m


Ke = Es / fy (Eqn: 5-7, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 2.00 x 105/ 500

= 400

ωt = ρtfy / fc' (Eqn: 5-8, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.3 x 500 / (100 x 25)

= 0.06

x = r – rcosα

α = cos-1(1 – x/r)

= cos-1(1 – 0.1/4.092)

= cos-1(0.975562)

= 12.69280 = 0.22 rad

Here fc' = 25.00 MPa = 3625.94 psi

As fc' < 4000 psi

β1 = 0.85 (Eqn: 5-15, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

cosτ = 1 - β1(1-cosα) (Eqn: 5-12, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

τ = cos-1(1 - β1(1-cosα))

= cos-1(1 – 0.85(1- cos(12.69280))

= cos-1(1 – 0.85(1-0.97556))

= cos-1(0.979175)

= 11.710

= 0.2044 rad

λ = τ - n1β (radians) (Eqn: 5-9, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.2044 – 1x 0.314

= - 0.11 rad
cosΨ = cosα - (1 - cosα)/ εm*(fy/Es) ≥ -1.0 (Eqn: 5-13, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

εm = 0.07(1- cosα) / (1 + cosα) ≤ 0.003 (Eqn: 5-17, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.07(1-0.975562)/(1 +0.975562)

= 8.659 x 10-4 ≤ 0.003

cosΨ = 0.975562- (1 - 0.975562)/ (8.659 x 10-4)*( 500 / (2 x 105))

= 0.905 ≥ -1.0

Ψ = 25.1530

= 0.439 rad

cosμ = cosα + (1 - cosα)/ εm*(fy/Es) < 1.0 (Eqn: 5-14, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.975562 + (1 -0.975562)/ (8.659 x 10-4)*(500 / (2 x 105))

= 1.046

But cosμ < 1.0

cosμ = 1.0

μ = 00

λ1 = μ + Ψ – π (radians) (Eqn: 5-11, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0 + 0.439 – π

= -2.702 rad

Q1 = (sinΨ - sinμ - (Ψ - μ)cosα)/(1 - cosα) (Eqn: 5-10, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= (sin25.1530 – sin00 - (0.439 - 0)0.975562)/(1 – 0.975562)

= (0.42503 – 0.4283)/0.024438

= -0.134

For 100 < α ≤ 170

Q = (-0.488 + 0.076α) + (9.758 - 0.640α) (t/r) (Eqn: 5-22, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= (-0.488 + 0.076 x 12.6928) + (9.758 - 0.640 x 12.6928) (606/4092)

= 0.4766 + 0.2424

= 0.719
Pu/rtfc' = K1 = 1.7Qλ + 2εmKeωtQ1 + 2ωtλ1 (Eqn: 5-6, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 1.7x0.719x-0.11 + 2x(8.659x10-4)x400x-0.134x0.06 + 2x0.06x-2.702

= -0.46398

Pu = K1rtfc'

= -0.46398x4092x606x25

= -28763.978 KN

K = sinΨ + sinμ + (π - Ψ - μ)cosα (Eqn: 5-27, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= sin25.1530 + sin00 + (π – 0.439 - 0)x0.975562

= 0.42053 + 0 + 2.642

= 3.062

Q2 = [(Ψ - μ) (1+2 cos2α) + (1/2) (4 sin 2α + sin 2Ψ - sin 2μ) - ς] / (1 - cosα)

(Eqn: 5-26, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

ς = 4cosα( sinα + sinΨ - sinμ)

= 4x0.975562x(0.2197 + 0.425 - 0)

= 2.517

Q2 = [(0.439 - 0) (1+2x0.9755622) + (1/2) (4x0.4287 + 0.7695 - 0) – 2.517] / (1 – 0.975562)

= (1.27579 + 1.24241 – 2.517)/0.024438

= 0.03096

𝑅̅ = sinτ - (τ -n1β)cosα - (n1/2)[sin(ϒ + β) - sin(ϒ - β)] (Eqn: 5-28, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

For n1 = 1, ϒ = 0

= sin(11.710) - (0.2044 -1x0.314)x0.975562 - (1/2)[sin(0 + 17.990) - sin(0 - 17.990)]

= 0.2029 + 0.10692 – 0.309

= 0.001

K2 = 1.7Q𝑅̅ + εmKeωtQ2 + 2ωtK (Eqn: 5-19, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 1.7x0.719x0.001 + (8.659x10-4)x400x0.06x0.03096 + 2x0.06x3.0619

= 0.0012 + 0.0006434 + 0.3674

= 0.3693
Mu/Pur = K3 = cosα + K2/K1 (Eqn: 5-18, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.97556 + 0.3693/(-0.46398)

= 0.97556 – 0.7953

= 0.18

Mn = Pur K3

= -28763.978x4.092x0.18

= -21143.8 KNm