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DESIGN OF FOUNDATION

1.1 INTRODUCTION

For a general structure built on ground, that part of the structure, which is located above the

ground, is generally termed as the superstructure, and the part, which lies below ground, is

termed as the substructure or the ‘Foundation structure’. The purpose of foundation is to

effectively support the superstructure by

1. Transmitting the applied load effects to the soil below, without exceeding the safe

bearing capacity of the soil.

2. Ensuring the settlement of the structure is within the limits, and it should be uniform.

Further, the foundation should provide adequate safety against possible instability due

to overturning or sliding and/or possible pullout due to tension.

Ideally the shape of foundation should be determined in such a manner that the

center of gravity of footing coincides with the resultant of loads at the base of column

supported by it so that the soil bearing pressure has uniform intensity. The size of the footing

should be determined such that the soil bearing pressure does not exceed its allowable value.

Shallow foundations are those founded near to the finished ground surface, generally where

the founding depth is less than the width of the footing and less than 3m. These are not

strict rules, but merely guidelines: basically, if surface loading or other surface conditions

will affect the bearing capacity of a foundation it is 'shallow'. Shallows foundations are

used when surface soils are sufficiently strong and stiff to support the imposed loads; they

are generally unsuitable in weak or highly compressible soils.

Types of Shallow Foundation

1.2.1.1 Isolated Footing

The ordinary structures located on reasonably firm soil, it usually suffices to provide a

separate footing for every column. Such a footing is called an isolated footing. It is

generally square or rectangular in plan. The footing basically comprises a thick slab,

which may be flat, stepped or sloped as shown in figure 3.2. The soil bearing pressures

from below tend to make the base slab of the footing bend upwards, somewhat into a

saucer-like shape and hence the footing needs to be suitably reinforced by a mesh provided

at the bottom of the slab.

Figure 1.2.

In cases where it is not convenient to provide separate isolated footings for columns on

account of inadequate areas available in plan. This may occur when two or more columns

are located close to each other and if they are relatively heavily loaded and rest on soil

with low safe bearing capacity, resulting in an overlap of areas if footings are attempted.

Generally two-column combined footing is required in which there is property line, which

restricts the extension of footing on one side. In this case, combining the footing with that

of an interior column circumvents the non-availability of space near the exterior column.

The width of the footing may be kept uniform or tapered. The trapezoidal footing is

required when the exterior column is more heavily loaded than the interior column.

Figure 1.3. Combined footing

Wall footings are used to support structural walls that carry loads for other floors or to

support non-structural walls.

Figure 1.4

1.2.1.4 Cantilever or Strap Footing

Strap footing consists of two single footings connected with a beam or a strap and support

two single columns. This type replaces a combined footing and is more economical.

Figure 1.5

Continuous footings support a row of three or more columns. They have limited width

and continue under all columns. This type of footing is useful when there is a restriction

for the boundary columns of the structure.

Mat footing consists of one footing usually placed under the entire building area. They

are used, when soil bearing capacity is low, column loads are heavy single footings

cannot be used, piles are not used and differential settlement must be reduced. Raft

foundations are used to spread the load from a structure over a large area, normally the

entire area of the structure. They are used when column loads or other structural loads are

close together and individual pad foundations would interact. A raft foundation normally

consists of a concrete slab which extends over the entire loaded area. It may be stiffened

by ribs or beams incorporated into the foundation. Raft foundations have the advantage of

reducing differential settlements as the concrete slab resists differential movements

between loading positions. They are often needed on soft or loose soils with low bearing

capacity as they can spread the loads over a larger area.

Deep foundations are those founding too deeply below the finished ground surface for

their base bearing capacity to be affected by surface conditions, this is usually at depths

>3 m below finished ground level. They can be used to transfer the loading to deeper,

more competent strata at depth if unsuitable soils are present near the surface. They are

used generally when there are weak (“bad”) soils near the surface or when loads are

very high, such as very large skyscrapers. Deep foundations derive their support from

deeper soils or bedrock.

1.2.2.1 Pile Foundation

Pile foundation are relatively long, slender members that transmit foundation loads

through soil strata of low bearing capacity to deeper soil or rock strata having a high

bearing capacity. They are used when for economic, constructional or soil condition

considerations it is desirable to transmit loads to strata beyond the practical reach of

shallow foundations. In addition to supporting structures, piles are also used to anchor

structures against uplift forces and to assist structures in resisting lateral and

overturning forces. Pile Cap is a thick slab used to tie a group of piles together to

support and transmit column loads to the piles.

Figure 1.8 Pile Foundation

1.2.2.2 Caissons

Caissons are a form of deep foundation which are constructed above ground level,

then sunk to the required level by excavating or dredging material from within the

caisson.

Figure 1.9

The area of the footing is fixed on the basis of the allowable bearing pressure qa and the

applied loads and moments under service load conditions. Once the base area of the footings is

determined, the subsequent structural design of the footing is done for the factored loads,

using the partial load factors applicable for the ‘ultimate limit state’. In order to compute the

factored moments, shears, etc., acting at the critical sections of the footings, a factious factored

soil pressure qu, corresponding to the factored loads, should be considered. The factored net

soil pressure qu to be considered in the design of the footing at the limit state is obtainable

from the factored loads on the column as shown in figure.

The thickness of footing base slab is generally based on considerations of shear and

flexure, which are critical near the column location. Generally, shear considerations

predominate, and the thickness is based on shear criteria. Except in the case of small

footings, it is economical to vary the thickness from a minimum at the edge to a maximum

near the face of the column, in keeping with the variations in the bending moment and

shear force. This may be achieved either by sloping the top face of the base slab or by

providing a stepped footing.

In any case code restricts the minimum thickness at the edge of the footing to 150 mm for

footings in general. This is done to ensure that the footing has sufficient rigidity to provide

the calculated bearing pressure. A leveling course ‘of lean concrete’ (about 100 mm thick)

is usually provided below the footing base.

The thickness of the footing base slab is most often dictated by the need to check shear

stress, and for this reason, the design for shear usually precedes the design for flexure.

Both one-way shear and two-way shear need to be considered in general. The critical

section one-way shear is taken, at a distance deff (effective depth) from the face of the

column/pedestal. The critical section for two-way shear is taken at a distance deff /2 from

the periphery of the column.

Figure 1.12 One way shear

The footing base slab may be designed against flexure by considering the bending moment

at the critical section defined as a straight section passing through the face of a column,

pedestal or wall for a footing supporting a concrete column, pedestal or wall. In one-way

reinforced footings, the flexural reinforcement is placed perpendicular to the wall at a

uniform spacing. In the perpendicular direction, nominal distribution reinforcement should

be provided mainly to account for secondary moments. In two-way reinforced square

footings also, flexural reinforcement may be placed at a uniform spacing in both the

directions. In two-way reinforced rectangular footings, the reinforcement in the long

direction is uniformly spaced across the full width of the footing.

In one way reinforced footings (such as wall footings), the flexural reinforcement

(calculated for the moment at the critical section) is placed perpendicular to the wall at a

uniform spacing. In the perpendicular direction (along the length of the wall), nominal

distributor reinforcement should be provided mainly to account for secondary moments

due to Poisson effect and possible differential settlement, and also to take care of

shrinkage and temperature effects. In two way reinforced square footings also, flexural

reinforcement may be placed at a uniform spacing on both directions. In two way

reinforced rectangular footings, the reinforcement in the long direction is uniformly spaced

across the full width of the footing, but in the short direction, the code requires a larger

concentration of reinforcement to be provided within a central band width, equal to the

width B of the footing.

β = ratio of the long side (L) to the short side (B) of the footing.

This reinforcement is to be uniformly distributed within the central band width (equal to

width B), and the remainder of the reinforcement distributed uniformly in the outer portions

of the footing. This is done to account for the observed variation of the transverse bending

moment along the length of the footing.

1.3.2 Description

For designing the isolated footings, support reactions are extracted from the superstructure

of the building. Only the working stress Load Combinations are used to calculate support

reactions at the base of the columns. These support reactions are then converted to Load

inputs for the STAAD model of sub-structure. This helps to calculate the moment at the

base of the footing due to loads accurately. Also, the loads due to the self-weight of the

pedestal are incorporated in the support reactions. Working stress load combinations are

then used to calculate the support reactions for the sub-structure to check for base pressure

stability criterion. These loads are multiplied with the limit state factor to design the

footings for moment, and for punching and one-way shear.

The materials used in RC footings are concrete and steel. The minimum grade of concrete

to be used for footings is M20, which can be increased when the footings are placed in

aggressive environment, or to resist higher stresses.

Cover: The minimum thickness of cover to main reinforcement shall not be less than 50 mm

for surfaces in contact with earth face and not less than 40 mm for external exposed face.

However, where the concrete is in direct contact with the soil the cover should be 75 mm. In

case of raft foundation the cover for reinforcement shall not be less than 75 mm.

Minimum reinforcement and bar diameter: The minimum reinforcement according to slab

and beam elements as appropriate should be followed, unless otherwise specified. The

diameter of main reinforcing bars shall not be less 10 mm. The grade of steel used is either

Fe 415 or Fe 500

An illustration showing the excel design sheet for isolated footings of a service building

model is shown below:

2. DESIGN OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMNS

Column is a vertical compression member whose unsupported length ‘l’ shall not exceed

sixty times ‘b’ (least lateral dimension), if restrained at the two ends. Further, the

unsupported length of a cantilever column shall not exceed (100b2 / D), where ‘D’ is the

larger lateral dimension which is also restricted up to four times of ‘b’.

The limit states of axial compression and bending moments about two axes, in general,

govern the design of columns. Shear in columns is small and shear stress works out to be

safe. Stirrups in columns are provided mainly for holding column bars in place and making

them strong against buckling as these bars come under direct compression. Moments in

columns change sign in each storey, so that, we generally provide symmetrical bar

arrangement in a column section and the steel area is kept constant throughout a given

storey. Columns, therefore, consume a good quantity of steel. Further, minimum eccentricity

moments and additional moments due to slenderness, if any are also included in the column

design.

Classification of Columns Based on Loadings:

Figure 2.1

Classification of Columns Based on Slenderness ratios:

Short columns

Slender or long columns

Figure 2.2. represents the three modes of failure of columns with different slenderness ratios

when loaded axially. In the mode 1, column does not undergo any lateral deformation and

collapses due to material failure. This is known as compression failure. Due to the combined

effects of axial load and moment a short column may have material failure of mode 2. On

the other hand, a slender column subjected to axial load only undergoes deflection due to

beam-column effect and may have material failure under the combined action of direct load

and bending moment. Such failure is called combined compression and bending failure of

mode 2. Mode 3 type of failure occurs by elastic instability of very long column even under

small load much before the material reaches the yield stresses. This type of failure is known

as elastic buckling.

The slenderness ratio of steel column is the ratio of its effective length (le) to its least radius

of gyration ‘r’. In case of reinforced concrete column, however, IS 456 stipulates the

slenderness ratio as the ratio of its effective length le to its least lateral dimension. As

mentioned earlier, the effective length le is different from the unsupported length, the

rectangular reinforced concrete column of cross-sectional dimensions B and D shall have

two effective lengths in the two directions of b and D.

Accordingly, the column may have the possibility of buckling depending on the two values

of slenderness ratios as given below:

Based on the above discussion, Cl. 25.1.2. of IS 456 stipulates the following:

A compression member may be considered as short when the slenderness ratios (lex/D) and

(ley/B) are less than 12.

where, lex = effective length in respect of the major axis D = depth in respect of the major

axis, ley = effective length in respect of the minor axis, B = width of the member.

Further, it is essential to avoid the mode 3 type of failure of columns so that all columns

undergo material failure (modes 1 and 2) only. Clause 25.3.1. of IS 456 stipulates the

maximum unsupported length between two restraints of a column to sixty times its least

lateral dimension. For cantilever columns, when one end of the column is unrestrained, the

unsupported length is restricted to (100b2/D) where ‘b’ and ‘D’ are as defined earlier.

exceed 0.04 bD.

Problem definition:

Column size = 400mm x 600mm Axial Load = 2500 kN Unsupported length = 4.5 m,

Boundary conditions = Effectively held in position and restrained against rotation at both

ends, Grade of concrete = M25, Grade of reinforcing steel = Fe 415

Solution:

Slenderness ratio = lex / D = 2600 / 600 = 4.33 ley / B = 2600 / 400 = 6.5

Minimum eccentricity:

Since,

0.05B = 0.05(400) = 20 mm = 20 mm

Hence, for the equation given in clause 39.3. Of IS 456: 2000 is applicable for the design

here.

Pu = 0.4fckAc + 0.67fyAsc

Percentage of reinforcement provided = 0.953% which is more than the min percentage of

steel (0.8%) and less than the maximum percentage (4%). O.K.

Dia of lateral ties shall not be less than max (φ/4, 6mm) where, φ – largest longitudinal bar

dia.

Pitch of the lateral ties should not be more than min (least lateral dimension of column,

sixteen times the smallest dia of longitudinal reinf bar, 300mm)

Lateral ties:

3. DESIGN OF RCC BEAMS

3.1 INTRODUCTION

Beams are structural members whose main function is to transfer load principally by the

means of flexural or bending action.

Limit states of shear and torsion also checked.

Can be designed as either singly or doubly reinforced beams.

Beams can be classified on the basis of nature of the reinforcement provided. These are:

Singly Reinforced beams - Reinforcing steel is provided only in the tensile face of

the beam. The beam fails when the steel yields.

compressive face of the beam. This enhances the moment carrying capacity of the

beam as the compressive strength of concrete is enhanced.

They can also be classified on the basis of their limiting bending moment. These are:

Under-reinforced section:

Tension capacity of the tensile reinforcement is smaller than the combined

compression capacity of the concrete and compression steel. Ductile failure

occurs in these types of sections.

Over-reinforced section:

Tension capacity of the tensile reinforcement is higher than the combined

compression capacity of the concrete and compression steel. So the beam

fails by crushing of the compression zone i.e. brittle failure.

Both the compressive and the tensile zones reach yielding at the same time.

Beam can be of various shapes. These include the Rectangular beams, T-

beams, L-beams.

3.2 Design Considerations and Codal Requirements

Effective span: Unless specified otherwise, the effective span of a beam shall be taken as

follows:

For a simply supported beam the effective span shall be taken as clear span plus effective

depth or the distance between the centers of bearing whichever is less.

In the case of continuous beam, if the width of the support is less than 1/12 of the clear span

or 600 mm, whichever is less, the effective span shall be taken as follows:

o For end span with one end fixed and the other continuous, or for

intermediate spans, the effective span shall be the clear span between

supports.

o For end span with one end free and the other continuous, the effective

span shall be equal to the clear span plus half the width of the

continuous support, whichever is less.

effective span shall always be the distance between the centers of the

bearings.

distance between the centers of the supporting members.

Beams must possess adequate stiffness to prevent such deflection as might impair the

strength, appearance or efficiency of the structure or produce cracks in finishes and

partitions. The deflection shall generally be limited to the following:

The final deflection due to all loads including the effects of temperature, creep and

shrinkage measured from the cast-level of the supports of the floors, roofs and all

other horizontal members should not normally exceed span/250.

The deflection including the effects of temperature, creep and shrinkage occurring

after erection of partitions and the application of finishes should not normally exceed

span/350 or 20 mm whichever is less.

For beams, the vertical deflection limits may generally be assumed to be satisfied provided

that the spans to depth ratios are not greater than the values obtained below:

- Simply supported beams; 26 - Continuous beams

ii. For spans above 10 m. the values given above may be multiplied by (10/span in

meters) except for cantilevers in which case deflection calculations must be made.

Depending on the area and the type of steel for tension reinforcement the values in (i)

or (ii) shall be modified.

Depending on the area of compression reinforcement the value of the span to depth

ratio shall be further modified.

For flanged beams, the values of (i) or (ii) be modified and the reinforcement

percentage should be based on area of section equal to bd.

continuous beam shall be so proportioned that the clear distance between the lateral

restraints does not exceed 60 b or 250 b2/d whichever is less, where d is the effective

depth of the beam and b the breadth of the compression face midway between the

lateral restraints. For a cantilever the clear distance from the free end of the

cantilever to the lateral restraints shall not exceed 25 b or 100 b2/d whichever is less.

reinforcement. Often this is selected from architectural considerations. Generally a

beam is satisfactory when its breadth is between half the effective depth to 2/3 the

effective depth.

Reinforcement: The minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than that

given by the following:

𝐴𝑠

= 0.85/𝑓𝑦

𝑏𝑑

exceed 0.04 bD.

Side Face Reinforcement: Where the depth of the web in a beam exceeds 750 mm, side

face reinforcement shall be provided along the two faces. The total area of such

reinforcement shall not be less than 0.10 percent of the web area and shall be distributed

equally on two faces at a spacing not exceeding 300 mm or web thickness whichever is less.

2.3. Numerical Example

Problem definition:

Width = 300 mm

Depth = 600 mm

Length = 6 m

Solution:

= 298.08 kNm

/ (fck x d))

91.125 x 106 = 0.87 x 415 x Ast x 450(1-(Ast x 415/20 x300 x 600)) Ast = 895.84145 mm2

pt = 0.7963

CALCULATION OF NOMINAL MOMENT STREGTH OF THE

CIRCULAR SHELLS

The following are the calculations of different parameters in order to determine the moment

capacity of the hollow circular section with openings conforming to ACI 307-08 (Code

Requirements for Reinforced Concrete Chimneys).

Input Parameters:

fy = 500.00 MPa

r = 4.092 m

t = 0.606 m

ρt = 0.3%

n1 =1

Calculations:

= 400

= 0.06

x = r – rcosα

α = cos-1(1 – x/r)

= cos-1(1 – 0.1/4.092)

= cos-1(0.975562)

τ = cos-1(1 - β1(1-cosα))

= cos-1(1 – 0.85(1-0.97556))

= cos-1(0.979175)

= 11.710

= 0.2044 rad

= 0.2044 – 1x 0.314

= - 0.11 rad

cosΨ = cosα - (1 - cosα)/ εm*(fy/Es) ≥ -1.0 (Eqn: 5-13, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

εm = 0.07(1- cosα) / (1 + cosα) ≤ 0.003 (Eqn: 5-17, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.07(1-0.975562)/(1 +0.975562)

= 0.905 ≥ -1.0

Ψ = 25.1530

= 0.439 rad

cosμ = cosα + (1 - cosα)/ εm*(fy/Es) < 1.0 (Eqn: 5-14, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 1.046

cosμ = 1.0

μ = 00

= 0 + 0.439 – π

= -2.702 rad

Q1 = (sinΨ - sinμ - (Ψ - μ)cosα)/(1 - cosα) (Eqn: 5-10, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= (0.42503 – 0.4283)/0.024438

= -0.134

Q = (-0.488 + 0.076α) + (9.758 - 0.640α) (t/r) (Eqn: 5-22, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.4766 + 0.2424

= 0.719

Pu/rtfc' = K1 = 1.7Qλ + 2εmKeωtQ1 + 2ωtλ1 (Eqn: 5-6, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= -0.46398

Pu = K1rtfc'

= -0.46398x4092x606x25

= -28763.978 KN

= 0.42053 + 0 + 2.642

= 3.062

= 4x0.975562x(0.2197 + 0.425 - 0)

= 2.517

= 0.03096

𝑅̅ = sinτ - (τ -n1β)cosα - (n1/2)[sin(ϒ + β) - sin(ϒ - β)] (Eqn: 5-28, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

For n1 = 1, ϒ = 0

= 0.001

= 0.3693

Mu/Pur = K3 = cosα + K2/K1 (Eqn: 5-18, Sec- 5.5, ACI 307-08)

= 0.97556 + 0.3693/(-0.46398)

= 0.97556 – 0.7953

= 0.18

Mn = Pur K3

= -28763.978x4.092x0.18

= -21143.8 KNm

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