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Name: Angie Katherine Sanchez Garavito Commented [MAMF1]: Write your full name here,

there’s no need to write a cover page for this part of the task
Course: Qualitative and Quantitative Research Commented [S2R1]:
Tutor: Milly Muñoz
Date: July 08th, 2018

Theoretical Perspective Commented [MAMF3]: You can follow the script through
the lead sentences
The theory that I will use is “The Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development”, this is a Commented [MAMF4]: name the theory

general theory of cognitive development. Most of the original work was done in the context of

language learning in children. It was developed by Lev Semenovich Vygotsky in the early Commented [MAMF5]: identify the origin, source, or
developer of the theory
twentieth century, as an attempt to explain consciousness as the end product of socialization. For

example, in the learning of language, our first utterances with peers or adults are for the purpose

of communication but once mastered they become internalized and allow “inner speech”, and it

was used to study “Socio-cultural Factors in Second Language Learning: A Case Study of

Adventurous Adult Language Learners”. The sociocultural theory examines students as active

participants in the construction of learning processes and considers language learning as a social

practice. Peer interaction is very important in second language learning and active in reviews of

work involving peer support during oral activities. Private speech is another sociocultural factor.

There are two functions in speech: self-oriented and communicative. The overt, self-oriented

speech is denoted as private speech, which is different from communicative speech. Private

speech, according to Vygotsky (1981), is a type of speech that is addressed to oneself (self-

directed) though it is occasionally spoken loudly, as opposed to external speech, which provides

a social function and is intended to address other people. This theory indicates that the Commented [MAMF6]: identify the propositions or
hypothesis in the theory
cognitive development in complex activities is governed and influenced by several principles,

where children are entrenched in different sociocultural contexts and their cognitive development

is advanced through social interaction with more skilled individuals. “Every function in the

child’s cultural development appears twice: first, on the social level, and later, on the individual

level; first, between people (interpsychological) and then inside the child (intrapsychological).

This applies equally to voluntary attention, to logical memory, and to the formation of concepts.

All the higher functions originate as actual relationships between individuals.” (Vygotsky, p57,


A second aspect is the idea that the potential for cognitive development depends upon the

“zone of proximal development” (ZPD): a level of development attained when children engage

in social behavior. Full development of the ZPD depends upon full social interaction. The range

of skill that can be developed with adult guidance or peer collaboration exceeds what can be

attained alone. As applied to my study, this theory holds that I would expect my

independent variable(s) of the socio-cultural components and factors, particularly peer

interaction and feedback, private speech and self-efficacy, it is of immense importance and

contribution on the cognitive and psychosocial development to influence or explain the Commented [MAMF7]: state independent variables

dependent variable(s) of the organization of the new information received in the existing

mental schemas of the students where they are entrenched in a sociocultural backdrop, in which

social interaction with significant adults, such as the parents and teacher, plays a crucial factor

that affects their Second language learning because there are some crucial factors influencing the Commented [MAMF8]: state dependent variables
Commented [MAMF9]: provide a rationale based on the
success in language learning. logic of the theory

Some central concepts of sociocultural theory to determine their influences on the language

learning process, include peer interaction and feedback, private speech, and self-efficacy.

Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory of cognitive development has significant ramifications in

education and cognitive testing. Any person who possesses a higher skill level than the learner

with regard to a particular task or concept is called a More Knowledgeable Other or MKO. This

person may be a teacher, parent, an older adult, a coach or even a peer. As children are verbally

given instructions or shown how to perform certain tasks, they organize the new information

received in their existing mental schemas in order to assist them in the ultimate goal of

performing the task independently. This emphasis on the concept of Zone of Proximal

Development made by Vygotsky underscores his conviction that social influences, particularly

instruction, are of immense importance on the cognitive development. It is to some extent the

inner-defensive-tool of the language learners. The participants in the study view private speech

as a helpful tool in their language learning process.


Creswell, J. (2014). The Three Approaches to Research. In Research design: qualitative,

quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. (4th ed., pp. 32-33) [Audio post].

California: SAGE Publications, Inc. Retrieved



Culatta, R. (2018). Social Development Theory (Lev Vygotsky). Available at:

Ozfidan, B., Machtmes K. L. & Demir, H. (2014). Socio-cultural Factors in Second Language

Learning: A Case Study of Adventurous Adult Language Learners. Zirve University,

Gaziantep, Turkey 2 Ohio University, USA. Pages, 185-191. Available at:

PSYCHOLOGY NOTES HQ. (2018). Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive

Development. Available at: