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SCHOOL:

SCHOOL OF ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY (SET)

DEPARTMENT:

SURVEYING AND GEO – INFORMATICS

REPORT ON THE

TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY

OF

ATM STAND, GIDAN KWANO CAMPUS.

BY

IBRAHIM SANI AHMAD

MATRIC NO.: 2014/1/50509VL

APRIL, 2016.

1

ABSTRACT

of the new bus park area, gidan kwano campus. The practical was carried out using

the basic survey principles and methods. The major field survey operation includes

reconnaissance which involves field and office reconnaissance, followed by data

acquisition which involves third order theodolite traversing, perimeter leveling to

determine height of points, tacheometry for detailing and spot heightening and

Azimuth observation to determine the swing of the traverse line. All the Data

acquired from the field were deduced, computed and adjusted according to

specification and results were analyzed and found to be within the expected

accuracy. Finally, computed data were presented in graphical form both in digital

using AutoCAD software and the analogue and a comprehensive report on how the

whole operation was carried out.

2

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ………………………………………………………………… 1

ABSTRACT …………………………………………………………………... 2

TABLE OF CONTENTS ……………………………………………………... 3

CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION ………………………………………………………… 6

1.1 BACKGROUND OF STUDY …………………………………………… 6

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES ………………………………………………… 8

1.2.1 AIM ……………………………………………………………………... 8

1.2.2 OBJECTIVES …………………………………………………………... 8

1.3 SCOPE OF THE PRACTICAL …………………………………………… 8

1.4 STUDY AREA ……………………………………………………………. 8

1.5 PERSONNEL ……………………………………………………………... 9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………... 10

2.1 RECONNAISSANCE ……………………………………………………. 10

2.1.1 OFFICE RECONNAISSANCE ………………………………………. 10

2.1.2 FIELD RECONNAISSANCE …………………………………………. 10

2.1.3 SELECTION OF STATIONS …………………………………………. 11

2.1.4 MONUMENTATION …………………………………………………. 11

2.2.1 LIST OF EQUIPMENTS USED ………………………………………. 12

2.2.2 TEST OF INSTRUMENTS ……………………………………………. 12

2.2.3 THEODOLITE TEST …………………………………………………. 12

3

2.2.4 LEVEL INSTRUMENT TEST ………………………………………. 13

2.3 DATA ACQUISITION ………………………………………………… 13

2.3.1 CONTROL CHECKS ………………………………………………… 13

2.3.2 FIELD OPERATION …………………………………………………. 14

2.3.3 THEODOLITE TRAVERSING ……………………………………… 14

2.3.4 ANGULAR OBSERVATION ………………………………………... 15

2.3.5 LINEAR MEASUREMENT …………………………………………. 15

2.3.6 LEVELLING …………………………………………………………. 16

2.3.7 TACHEOMETRY ……………………………………………………. 16

2.3.8 SPOT HEIHTING ……………………………………………………. 16

2.3.9 DETAILING …………………………………………………………. 17

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 DATA PROCESSING …………………………………………………. 18

3.1 FIELD BOOK REDUCTION …………………………………………. 18

3.1.1 TRAVERSE FIELD BOOK REDUCTION ………………………… 18

3.1.2 HORIZONTAL ANGLE REDUCTION ……………………………. 18

3.1.3 VERTICAL ANGLE ………………………………………………… 19

3.1.4 LINEAR MEASUREMENT ………………………………………… 19

3.2 TRAVERSE COMPUTATION ………………………………………… 19

3.2.1 REDUCTION OF BEARING ………………………………………… 20

3.2.2 ANGULAR MISCLOSURE …………………………………………. 20

3.2.3 FORWARD BEARING ………………………………………………. 20

3.2.4 COMPUTATION OF COORDINATES OF TRAVERS POINTS …… 21

3.2.5 BACK COMPUTATION ……………………………………………… 21

4

3.2.6 LINEAR ACCURACY ………………………………………………… 22

3.2.7 AREA COMPUTATION ………………………………………………. 23

3.3 LEVEL COMPUTATION ………………………………………………...24

3.3.1 ACCURACY OF LEVELLING …………………………………………25

3.4 TACHEOMETRIC COMPUTATION …………………………………….25

3.5 PLAN PRODUCTION …………………………………………………….26

3.5.1 DIGITAL PLAN PRODUCTION ……………………………………….26

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 SUMMARY, PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED AND CONCLUSION ……. 27

4.1 SUMMARY ………………………………………………………………. 27

4.2 PROBLEM ENCOUNTERED …………………………………………….27

4.3 CONCLUSION …………………………………………………………… 27

5

CHAPTER ONE

1.0 INTRODUCTION

Brief history of surveying – the first people that analyzed the earthware the greeks (the greek

geometry) the first people that brought about boundaries.

Early civilizations assumed the earth to be flat surface, but it was deduced that the planet actually

curved in all directions because the earth’s circular shadow on the moon during the lunar eclipse

thus, introducing the notion of an earth disc encircled oceanus. The founder of the scientific

geodesy is Eratosthenes (276-195 BC) of Alexandria who under the assumption of a spherical

earth deduced from measurements a radius for the earth. Early greek thinkers developed the

science geometry been the term in greek (earth measurement) showing the relationship between

mathematics and survey.

Surveying is a profession with many definitions as applied to it over the years, changing

even as the duties of the surveyor had been dynamic over the years. Some years back surveying

was defined as the science and art of making reliable measurements of the relief position of features

above, on or beneath the earth surface and plotting of these measurements to some suitable scale

to form a map, plan or chart (Brinker, 1977).

Surveying is the art and science of determining a position or point in three dimensions with natural

or man – made features beneath the earth surface which can be represented in analogue form as a

contoured map, plan or chart.

CLASSES OF SURVEY

i. Plane survey – this is a class survey which assumes that the earth is flat and it is most

commonly practiced form of surveying because it is a survey with the reference base

of fieldwork and computations. Plane survey covers smaller areas of the earth surface

and any survey of area less than 100km square will have negligible effect of curvature

hence, the level surface can be regarded as horizontal.

6

ii. Geodetic survey – this is the survey of a large area of land in which corrections are

made to account for the curvature of the earth. It is the most accurate of all forms of

survey and its main objective is to provide accurately fixed points called controls,

whose positions cannot be questioned. These points are used as reference points in

lesser surveys using the most refined instruments and methods of observations are

employed.

PRINCIPLES OF SURVEYING

I. Working from whole to part – it is the most fundamental principle of survey. This

means for any particular survey operation, whether it is for an entire country or area of

a small extent, it must be connected to the main frame work of higher accuracy that

could be made once the work has been established.

II. Choosing the method of surveying – this is adopted in other to meet up the desired

and required accuracy which the more refined technique and instrument employed, the

greater the accuracy that will be obtained.

III. Provision of adequate check – it is an important aspect of surveying exercise as it will

show the possibility of deflecting error and how to handle it. Therefore, survey as well

involves stages such as planning data, acquisition, processing and information

presentation.

Topographical surveying was the focus of this project among the other branches of

Surveying. Topography means the shape or configuration of the earth’s surface.

(ii) Hydrography – i.e the water and drainage features.

(iii) Culture – i.e the man - made features.

Topographical surveying is the branch of surveying that determines the position of natural

or artificial features of a locality, both in plane and elevation to represent them by means of

conventional sign on a map known as topography. A typical topographical map is useful for the

planning and designing of construction project like roads, bridges, building etc. It is also essential

for professionals like military personnel, miners, engineers and agricultural practitioner’s e.t.c.

7

1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVES

1.2.1 AIM

The aim of the survey is borne out necessity and its aimed at carrying out the topographic

survey,levelling and tacheometry of the new bus park Gidan kwano Federal University of

Technology Minna

1.2.2 OBJECTIVES

The following objectives were pursued for the achievement of the aim of demarcation of

the boundary of the land of this practical work:

Reconnaissance: - It involves planning and visiting the site in so as to have a general view

of the project site.

Traversing: - This is a sequence of connected straight lines whose directions and distances

have been precisely measured.

Perimeter Leveling: - This is the process of determining difference in height between points

on the earth’s surface.

Detailing: - This is an act of fixing details such as buildings, roads, electric poles etc.

Spot heighting: - This is used to give heights, values of different points within the project

site.

detailing, spot heighting, computations and plan production as well as report writing.

1.4 STUDY AREA: new Bus Park, gidan kwano campus. Federal university of technology,

minna. Niger state.

8

1.5 PERSONNEL

The following student who were members of Group (10) participated in this project work.

1. WELL YAKUBU 2014/1/50558VL

2. EMEJE JOY 2014/1/50557VL

3. JULIUS JAMES 2014/1/50556VL

4. NJOKU DANIEL ONYX 2015/2/57558VL

5. BABLOLA JOSEPH AYODEJI 2014/1/50559VL

6. SANI IBRAHIM AHMAD 2014/1/50509VL

9

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 METHODOLOGY

Methodology is a guideline system for solving problem, with specific components such as

tasks, methods, techniques and tools.

2.1 RECONNAISSANCE

the subject matter as regard to a particular survey of an area of land. During reconnaissance, the

purpose, specification and required accuracy of the survey will be closely examined as these will

effects the choice of instruments and method of survey to be employed. The reconnaissance carried

out comprises of office planning and field planning.

This involves the planning carried out before visiting the project site. It involves acquiring

various information related to area of interest ,i.e the longitude and latitude of the place, the type

of instrument required to yield the expected accuracy, the acquisition of coordinate of available

control for orientation, consultation of previous executed project which covers the area of interest,

specification given and The purpose of the survey. This serves as the basis for our planning.

Table 2.1: Co-ordinates of control pillars available for the project sourced from SIWES.

GPS 10 1055018.7497 220211.8090 232.237

GPS 09 1055127.0843 220423.7878 232.521

GPS 01 1055093.62 220563.65 234.138

10

This involved a visit to the project site and to locate the controls to be used. The members

of the group (6) took a walk to the site to take a visible picture of the project site and the location

of the exact route along which the work is to be done. Necessary equipment’s like cutlass and tape

were used in selecting the stations and lines were cut thoroughly to permit intervisibility. Pegs

were finally used to mark the actual traverse points. And Recce diagram fig 3.1 was produced.

The boundaries as shown in the recce diagram were laid down by marking points on the

ground (station).

ii. Firmness of the ground at the selected point.

iii. Working convenience over the station.

iv. Points were passerby cannot disturb.

2.1.4 MONUMENTATION

Monumentation could be described as the art of defining any selected points on

the perimeter of the ground at each station point the iron rod was driven into the ground

at each station point with a length of 16cm, leaving 2cm on the surface of the ground.

2cm

Earth’s Surface

16cm

i. One (1) Theodolite and its tripod ET – 05 (South T68543)

11

ii. One (1) Level instrument and its tripod

iii. One (1) Leveling staff

iv. Two (2) Ranging pole

v. One (1) Plumb bobs and string

vi. One (1) Cutlass

vii. One (1) Field book

viii. One (1) Linear tape (50m)

Having collected the instruments to be used from the department, the following tests were

carried out on theodolite and level instrument so as ascertain the stability of the instrument.

This test was carried out after collection of the instrument in order to test for plate bubble

stability, horizontal and vertical collimation error. The theodolite was set on a point while all

necessary temporary adjustments were made (i.e. centering leveling and focusing). The

instrument was rotated clock-wisely through 360° several times. Then it was noticed that the

instrument was still leveled, which means that the plate bubble of the instrument was in good

condition. Thereafter, target set at another point was bisected on both faces and the horizontal

and vertical readings were observed, booked and computed.

STN SIGHT FACE H.C.R V.C.R DIFF. SUM OF

READING READING H.C.R V.C.R

A B L 19° 07’ 06’’ 88° 25’ 54’’

B R 199° 07’ 18’’ 271°34’ 18’’ 180° 00’ 12’’ 360° 00’ 12’’

= 00 00’ 12’’ / 2

12

= 00 00’ 06’’

ii. Vertical collimation error = 360 00’ 00’’ – 360 00’ 12’’

= 00 00’ 12’’ / 2

= 00 00’ 06’’

From the result obtained for both horizontal and vertical circle readings, it indicated

that the instrument was free of any collimation error.

The test known as two peg test was carried out to check the horizontal collimation of the

level instrument. The following were procedure involved. Two staves were held vertically at both

ends of 30m distances measured on the ground and the level instrument was set up at two different

points from the staves. Then, observations were made to the staves at both instrument set up. The

data obtained from the two observations were deduced and the result obtained was subtracted from

each other in order to know the discrepancy.

2.3.1 CONTROL CHECKS

The control check was carried out in order to ascertain if the control pillars were

still in their proper position. The theodolite was set on control GPS 09 and targets were set on GPS

10 and GPS 01 respectively. Then all temporary adjustment was performed on the instrument.

Thereafter, back sight and fore sight were made to control pillars GPS 10 and GPS 01 respectively.

Horizontal and vertical readings on both faces, left and right were observed and recorded into the

field book together with the measured distance from GPS 09 to GPS 01.

The data obtained was computed to get included angle, which was compared with the computed

angle obtained from back computation of the control values. The result is shown below.

Table 2.2: The readings and result obtained from control check observation

13

STN SIGHT FACE H.C.R REDUCED MEAN

ANGLE ANGLE

GPS 10 L1 16° 08’ 40’’

GPS 09 GPS 01 L2 236° 40’ 12’’ 220° 31’ 32’’

GPS 01 R2 56° 40’ 12’’ 220° 31’ 32’’

GPS 10 R1 196° 08’39’’ 220° 31’ 32.5’’

Check Angle = 220° 31’ 32.5’’

Stn

GPS10 62° 55’ 47.69’’ 238.057 108.335 211.978 1055127.084 220423.787 GPS 09

GPS 09 103° 27’ 21.1’ 143.809 -33.464 139.862 1055093.620 220563.650 GPS 01

2.3.2 FIELD OPERATION

These include the set of operations performed on the field in order to obtain the necessary data

required for the production of Topographical map of the project site. Listed below were the

operations involved.

This entails determining the bearing and distance of series of connected traverse lines from

known coordinated points to another known coordinated points so as to obtain the coordinates of

the newly established stations. The theodolite instrument was used to obtain the angular and

distance measurements respectively. This was carried out by running the traverse from control to

the boundary stations and closing back on the same control. This involves the measurement of

distance and angles. Angular observations were taken between the instrument stations and our

boundary peg, i.e the instrument was set on GPS 01, back sight GPS 09 and fore sight to Peg 1.

The angular measurement was observed and recorded at both face left and face right after then the

14

instrument was moved to the next station i.e Peg (1), back sight to GPS 01 and fore sight to Peg 2

both face left and face right observation were taken and recorded. This procedure was made at

every station and closing back to GPS 09.

Angular observations are based on two types namely; the horizontal and the vertical

angular observations. In the telescope, the vertical and horizontal graduation circle had been

graduated from 000 00’ 00” to 3600 00’ 000, whereby angular observations were taken on both

faces (left and right), and the angles were simply deduced and checked. To deduce the angles,

observed horizontal circle reading to the first station ‘A’ was subtracted from the observed

readings from the second station ‘B’; that is: LB-LA or RB-RA (where L and R indicated as

horizontal graduation circle readings on face left and face right respectively). Finally, the deduced

angles were meant to give the final angles measured. As for vertical angle determinations, these

were necessary to correct the measured linear distances for slope error. The observations and

readings were taken at the same time as the horizontal angular observations were done. They were

also deduced as explained below.

L2-900 or 900-L2 and 2700-R2 or R2-2700 (where L and R indicate angle on face left and

face right respectively).

As for this measurement, it could be carried out by various methods depending on the

accuracy expected and purpose of the job. These methods are:

But as for this project, Electronic Distance Measurement (Leica TC 600 total

station) was used to measure distances.

All measurements were recorded directly into the field book in ink so as to avoid

any gross error in booking.

15

2.3.6 LEVELLING

Level is the process by which variation in height between points on the surface of the earth

is determined.

Control pillar GPS 01 was chosen as the datum for the leveling exercise. The operation

started by taking back sight to GPS 09 whose height was known and fore sight to the first change

point. Whenever the instrument was shifted, back sight was taken to the last change point by

turning the staff before fore sight would be taken to the next point. This exercise continues until it

was closed back on control pillar GPS 01. All readings were recorded directly into the field book

at the end the height of every station was determined which was later used for tacheometry in

determining the spot height of the carved out area.

2.3.7 TACHEOMETRY

ground points are determined optically. It operates on the geometry of an isosceles triangle. It can

also be defined as the swift optical distance measurement process where theodolite and graduated

staff were used for obtaining distance, height and fixing of detail

U

Theodolite M

L Leveling staff

Earth’s surface

Where U = upper

M = middle

L = lower

The theodolite was used in conjunction with the leveling staff to execute this task

16

i. The theodolite was set up on point A with a known coordinate (x, y, z), all the

necessary temporary adjustment was made. The height of the instrument was

measured using steel tape (50m) and recorded.

ii. The telescope was directed to the target and bisected on point B for orientation.

iii. The telescope was turned clockwise to the leveling staff which have been placed at

the various points on the terrain.

iv. The upper, middle, and lower cross hair readings as well as horizontal vertical circle

reading were taken and booked accordingly and perfectly.

2.3.9 DETAILING

This stage involved fixing of the natural and artificial features that exist on ground into

record. Examples of such features include existing buildings, trees, well etc. The detailing

operation was executed by means of tacheometry method of observation. The instrument was set

up on a nearby station along the boundary lines. The staff was set to bisect the staff at the edge of

details, then the horizontal and vertical readings were taken as well as upper, middle, and lower

cross hair reading at the edge of each detail were also taken and recorded.

B3

B2

B1

Where B1 = First point of building

B2 = Second point of building

B3 = Third point of building

CHAPTER THREE

17

This is the process of preparing data acquired from the field by the way of reduction and

adjustment, which yields the final numerical value of the boundary point, direction, height, and

spot height.

The result obtained are useful for the preparation of maps, plans (Topographical plan) by

means of plotting. The processing of field data was done under the following

1. Angle deduction

2. Traverse computation

3. Area computation

4. Leveling computation

5. Tacheometry computation

6. Data presentation

3.1 FIELD BOOK REDUCTION

Every field book was reduced to generate the final data set to be used in the final

computations.

Deducted from the face left reading to the reading of the fore station to obtain the

angle between the lines on face right. The mean of those angles will be the angle at that

station for the horizontal circle reading while for the vertical circle reading, the sum of the

two reading on face left and face right will give reduced vertical circle reading at that

station. But if it is more than 360º you subtract it.

The first angular value was done by subtracting the first face left from the second face left

reading likewise for the face right. The result were mean in order to derive the horizontal angle at

each station

L2 – L1 = L

R2 – R1 = R

L+R

2

= H.C.R

18

3.1.3 VERTICAL ANGLE REDUCTION

The vertical angle of face left observation was subtracted from 90º and that of the face right

observation was subtracted from 270º. The result were mean in order to derive vertical angle.

90º – L = L

270º – R = R

L + R = V.C.R

2

The vertical angle is the slope angle and is applied to slope distance to obtain true horizontal

distance.

The measured distances were slope distances, which required to be corrected. The

slope correction was applied to each of the measurement to obtain corrected measurements.

The formula used for slope correction was:

S= -L (1-cos)

Where S= slope correction

L= measured distance

= mean slope angle

The computation involved is in two aspects, namely the Forward computation and

the backward computation. The adjusted bearing and horizontal distance were used to

compute the horizontal position of points. Final computed co-ordinates of back

computation were used to compute the final bearing and distance of traverse lines. As

Shown in appendix

Back computation was carried out to obtain the initial bearing of the controls (GPS 10,

GPS09, and GPS 01). The back bearing of GPS 09 to GPS 01 was added to observe external angle

of the first station the forward bearing. The bearing of the next line was obtained by subtracting /

adding 180 from forward bearing obtained above in order to derive the back bearing of the line.

19

The result was added to observed angle of the next line to obtain the forward bearing of that line.

The formulae for bearing reduction are:

Forward Bearing + 180 = Back Bearing

As shown in appendix

Since the angular measurement commenced from a known set of controls, the initial

bearing of the line and these two bearing must be the same but a minimal discrepancy is allowed

and the mis-closure was distributed cumulatively to the other observed bearing to obtain the final

corrected bearing.

Misclosure = 0° 0’ 17.6’’

= 0° 0’ 17.6’’

= 0° 0’ 2.51’’

The initial bearing (I.B) used for the reduction of the bearing was solved for from the

coordinates of the controls while the uncorrected forward bearing for each line was obtained from

the addition of observed angle and back bearing of closing controls gotten from their coordinates.

An angular misclosure was obtained and distributed cumulatively to the uncorrected forward

bearings to get the final corrected forward bearing. As shown in appendix.

To obtain the corrected co-ordinates of the traverse point, the partial northings, (N) and

partial Eastings (E) were computed first using the corrected horizontal distance and the corrected

forward bearing thus:

20

N = L cos

E = L cos

Where L = corrected horizontally distance

= corrected bearing

E = Eastings

N = Northings

= Difference in N1 and N2 or E1 and E2

The latitude and departure were applied to the co-ordinates of the initial control in

order to derive the provisional co-ordinates of the northing and easting.

The computed co-ordinates of the closing control was then compared with the

compared with the known co-ordinates of the control to obtain the linear misclosure.

This misclosure was distributed to all the provisional co-ordinates using the

formular below.

Total Northings misclosure x arithmetic sum of latitude of line

Total Arithmetic sum of latitude

CORRECTION TO EASTINGS CO-ORDINATES

Total Eastings misclosure x arithmetic sum of departure of line

Total Arithmetic sum of departure

Final co-ordinate = provisional co-ordinate + correction

3.2.5 BACK COMPUTATION

The corrected co-ordinates were used to generate data covering final latitude, departure,

distances and bearings. Latitude and departure = next co-ordinate preceding co-ordinate.

Bearing = tan-1 E

N

The sign of the latitude and departure of each line determine the quadrant and the

actual bearing of the line i.e

21

If N is + and E is +, then bearing is

If N is – and E is +, then bearing is 180 –

If N is – and E is -, then bearing is + 180

If N is + and E is - , then bearing is 360 –

STN (m) (m) (m) STN

1055081.426 220586.707 PEG 1

PEG 1 64° 35’ 33.84’’ 200.391 85.978 181.01 1055167.404 220767.717 PEG 2

PEG 2 140° 05’ 12’’ 149.611 -144.754 95.994 1055052.650 220863.711 PEG 3

PEG 3 245° 41’ 9.55’’ 208.954 -86.034 -190.470 1054960.617 220673.291 PEG 4

PEG 4 255° 24’ 19.5’’ 135.600 -34.168 -131.224 1054932.449 220542.067 PEG 5

PEG 5 16° 40’ 49.2 155.521 48.979 44.640 1055081.426 220586.707 PEG 1

Accuracy = 1

N2 + E2

D

Where N = Total co-ordinate misclosure in Northing

E = Total co-ordinate misclosure in Easting

L = Total distance covered on the traverse

N = 0.124

E = -0.041

Total distance = 850.077

22

1

(0.124)2 + (-0.041)2

850.077

0.015376 + (-0.001681)

850.077

0.017057

850.077

= 6508.890137

≈ 6000

= 1:6000

The area computation was done using cross – coordinate method.

1055081.426 220586.707 3031752.099

1055167.404 220767.717 3901097.124 3879005.300

1055052.650 220863.711 4463143.676 4289720.872

23

1054966.617 220673.291 3401903.771 3320973.520

1054932.449 220542.067 2692239.117 2754473.348

1055081.426 220586.707 2893902.355

Summation = 17352286.100 17275925.140

2A = 17352286.100 – 17275925.140

2A= 17360.96146

A = 17360.96146

2

A = 38180.48073 » 38180.48073 / 10,000

A = 3.818 hectares.

This was done so as to provide the height of all the boundary station, in this project

height of instrument was used

H.I = R/L + B/S

R.L = H.I – F/S

R/L = H.I ̶ I/S

Where

R/L = Reduced

H.I =Height of instrument

F/S = Fore sight

I/S = Intermediate sight

B/S = Back sight

The misclosure was checked using the formula I.R.L ̶ F.R.L

Where

I.R.L = Initial reduced level

F.R.L = Final reduced level

24

The difference in misclosure was distributed to all the stations

The formula, 24mm √ K is adopted to check the accuracy of all leveling operations where k is

the total distance in kilometer. This is the allowable misclosure for third order tilting leveling. A

quick check is usually done on the field by summing all the back sights and all the fore sight; the

sums must be the same or have a difference, which must be in decimals.

24mm √ K

K = 850.077m = 0.850km

0.024 0.850

= 0.022m

The formulae below were used to compute for spot heights and their relative distance from

the occupied station.

S=U–L

Do = KScos^2

V = ½ KS sin 2

(Where K is constant = 100)

HN = Hp + H.I V-M

Where,

Do= slope of distance measured

U = Upper stadia reading

M = middle stadia reading

L = Lower stadia intercept

S = staff intercept

H = Horizontal distance

25

= slope angle/vertical angle

V = Vertical compound

Hp = Reduced level of instrument station

H.I = Height of instrument

Hn = Height of new point

The final coordinates of the boundary pegs were used to plot the perimeter

graphically. The details and spot heights were also plotted using auto AutoCAD and the

contours were plotted with surfer. The plan showing the contour, details and also showing

the spot heights was produced.

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1 SUMMARY

This practical report contains the procedure by which the topographical survey of

part of NEW BUS PARK, GIDAN KWANO CAMPUS. FUTMINNA was carried out with

an area 3.818 Hectares of land was executed. Firstly, the reconnaissance was done i.e both

26

office and field reconnaissance which provide necessary basis for the executions of the

project. Traversing operation was carried out in order to determine the direction of the line

and distance was measured with the aid of Theodolite (ET - 05) instrument. The dumpy

leveling method was used for the perimeter level to determine the height of boundary

points. While the tacheometry observation was made in order to provide spot height for

contour generation and detailing. Finally, the plotting of the plan was done on a suitable

scale.

During the execution of the practical the problem encountered was Unfavorable weather

condition for tacheometric observation contributed to the delay in the completion of the fieldwork.

4.3 CONCLUSION

The result obtained, had obviously shown that the purpose and significance had been

achieved subjected to human and instrumental limitations. The result obtained from the

computation and analysis of data when compared with expectable accuracies, had also shown that

the practical was successfully executive according to the laid down rules and regulations.

27

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