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AENSI Journals

Journal home page: http://www.aensiweb.com/aeb.html

Ahmad Abbaszadeh, Barat Ghobadian, Gholamhassan Najafi, Ali Motevali

Article history: The on going demand for the improved impeller designs usually comes from the users

Received 25 October 2013 of industrial mixing equipment. Most of the industrial biodiesel reactors using blade

Received in revised form 14 agitator for mixing which creates a main flow in the reaction tank (reactor) with

January 2014 circulation on axial and tangential direction. In current study, design of mixing system

Accepted 20 January 2014 used in stirred tank reactor (STR) biodiesel production by analytical method and

Available online 1 March 2014 numerical one (finite element method) has been made. Designs have been done based

on a pitched blade turbine down flow with two inclined blades (45°) by assumption of

Key words: maximum working conditions (using caster oil as base fluid). The mixing power and

Mixing system, Finite element mechanical design of an agitator such as stress analysis by analytical method and

method, mixing power, critical speed, numerical one (finite element method) has been carried out. The operating limitations

Biodiesel. of mixing shaft deflection and critical speed during the biodiesel production process by

using both methods, has been calculated. The FEM results have displayed close values

with the results obtained from the analytical method. The critical rotational speed of the

mixing shaft obtained from the analytical and modal analysis show similar results

5778.26 and 7000 rpm respectively and found to be significantly higher than the

impeller maximum required mixing speed.

To Cite This Article: Ahmad Abbaszadeh, Barat Ghobadian, Gholamhassan Najafi, Ali Motevali., Analytical and FEM Design of Mixing

System in STR Biodiesel Production. Adv. Environ. Biol., 8(1), 325-334, 2014

INTRODUCTION

Biodiesel is renewable clean bioenergy as it can be produced from vegetable oils, animal fats and micro-

algal oil [1]. Biodiesel production takes place throughout an alcoholysis reaction known as transesterification,

where triglycerides with an alcohol and a catalyst react to generate esters of the alcohol called biodiesel, and

glycerol as a by-product [2]. Because vegetable oil and alcohol form two almost immiscible phases, no matter

what type of catalysis is selected, an intense mixing of the two reagents is required in order to break the alcohol

phase into small drops, thus providing sufficient interfacial area for the reaction. One of the difficulties faced in

the current technology for biodiesel production is the requirement for vigorous mixing of methanol with the

feedstock oil in the reactor [3]. Utilization of mixing system has limitation due to the immiscible state of those

substances. Long reaction time as caused by the low reaction rate is directly related to low collision frequency

among reactants. This collision frequency can be enhanced by better mixing mechanism during the process [3].

Most of industrial biodiesel reactors using blade agitator for mixing, which creates a main flow in the reaction

tank (reactor) with circulation on axial and tangential direction, and with little turbulence [4].

The on going demand for the improved impeller designs usually comes from the users of industrial mixing

equipment when the vessels are to be designed for new plants or improvement in the existing design is desired

for enhancing quality, capacity, process efficiency and energy efficiency [5]. It is clear that the kinetics of the

alcoholysis is greatly influenced by the stirring intensity of the reactants in the mixture since the process occurs

in a heterogeneous system of two immiscible phases [3].

In this study, the objective is to focus on the designing parameters of an agitator in a stirred tank reactor

used in biodiesel production process. The aim is to determine the power required turning the impeller in a

biodiesel production stirred tank reactor, mechanical design of an agitator such as stress analysis by analytical

method and numerical one (finite element method) and compare the result of both methods. The operating

limitations of shaft deflection and critical speed during the biodiesel production process by using both methods

has been calculated. Although this is arguably a basic requirement for agitator design, little guidance on it can

be found in the literature.

Corresponding Author: Barat Ghobadian, Tarbiat Modares University, Jalale-E-Aleahmad Highway, Tehran, Iran.

326 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

2.1.1. Mixing system:

Agitator design can be divided into those in which the axis of rotation is vertical and those in which it is

horizontal [6]. The research reported here was concerned with the first of these types of agitator, which

comprises an electrical motor as power supply and a centrally mounted impeller rotating about a vertical axis.

The agitator was mounted on a closed top tank, so it had a shaft seal (Fig. 1). Designs have been done based on

Turbine impeller. Turbines are multi-blade impellers with small blades that used at high speeds. Turbine

impellers, particularly the flat-bade designs are frequently used for mass-transfer operations, the curved type is

useful for suspension of fragile pulps, crystals and the pitched blade turbine more frequently for blending

liquids. Flow pattern of liquid from the turbine impeller is radial except for pitched-blade type, where it is axial

[7]. Considering the mentioned reasons, pitched blade turbine down flow with two inclined blades (45°) was

selected.

Mixing power:

The complex motion in a stirred tank reactor cannot be put into complete analytical form, but the equations

of motion can be described in terms of dimensionless groups as follows [7]:

−

L u ρ u 2 ∆Pg c =0

f , , (1)

µ L− g ρ u 2

The first of these groups is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces, the familiar Reynolds number. If the

−

characteristic length ( L ) is taken as di and the velocity proportional to the impeller-tip speed π Ndi when the

π is omitted, the group becomes the impeller Reynolds number that calculated by followed equation:

ρ nd 2i

Re = (2)

µ

327 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

The second group, the ratio of inertial to gravity forces, important when the liquid surface is wavy or

curved, as with a vortex, is the Froude number that defined as Fr = di N 2 / g . The third is the ratio of pressure

differences ( ∆P ) resulting in flow to inertial forces. This group of equation could be developed into a

dimensionless Power number as follows, therefore power required by the impeller was calculated by the

following equation:

Pg c

P0 = (3)

ρ N 3di 5

For geometrically similar stirred tanks, therefore, equation (1) can be written f ( R e , Fr , P ) = 0 , but in

non-vortexing stirred tanks (closed stirred tanks or tanks equipped with baffles) the froude number is no longer

important, so mentioned equation becomes f ( R , P ) = 0 .

The absorbed power of the impeller creates bending and torsional stresses on the mixing shaft. The bending

stress is due to the fluid hydraulic forces acting on the impeller and the torsional stress is due to the transmitted

torque.

In order to determine the pure bending stress in the shaft due only to unbalanced hydraulic forces acting on

the mixing impellers (ignoring tensional stress) it was a matter of determining the magnitude of these hydraulic

forces and where along the shaft they were acting (impeller location). The hydraulic forces, created by the action

between the fluid and the impeller, produce side loads on the shaft causing tensile or bending stress. Because the

fluid hydraulic force acting at an impeller is random in both direction and magnitude, therefore the maximum

possible hydraulic load must be calculated to determine the shaft stress. The hydraulic force loading at impeller

is given by following equation:

3.667 ( P )( CF )

FH = (4)

ndi

After the hydraulic force was found at the impeller, the total bending moment was calculated using the

following equation:

2 n

(5)

Finally the pure bending stress calculated by dividing the total bending moment by the shaft rectangular

section modulus:

M M

σ= b

=

Z π ds3

(6)

32

2.1.3.2. Pure torsional stress:

If a mixer shaft and impeller assembly had no fluid hydraulic forces acting at the impeller, it would only be

concerned with torsional stress which is the torque transmitted by the shaft divided by its polar section modulus.

The pure torsional stress is given by following equation:

P(9.55 ×10−3 )

T n

τ ='

= (7)

Z π di 3

16

328 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

When a mixer is operating, the shaft is experiencing both bending and torsional stresses, therefore the

maximum combined stresses in the shaft were found by the following equation:

τ=

max (σ2 )2 + (τ )2 (8)

(σ2 ) + (σ2 )2 + (τ )2

σ max = (9)

Caused by rotation of agitator in fluid, shaft and impeller begin to vibrate. The vibratory mode with the

lowest frequency is defined as the first natural frequency of the system, the next highest is the second natural

frequency and so on. Critical speed is defined as the agitator rotational speed (rpm) which coincides with its first

natural frequency.

Rotation of agitator near to critical speed leads to high vibrations. The vibration increases with increasing

amplitude until failure occurs. Therefore, determination of first natural frequency to avoid possibility of rotating

near critical speed is necessary. Amount of the first natural frequency based on a uniform shaft (Fig. 2) is given

by following equation:

13.33 × 106 (d s 2 Fm )

N C

= (10)

L We L + Sb

L1 3 L WL4

W e = W1 + W2 ( L

) + ... + WN ( N )3 +

L 4

(11)

Fig. 2: Mixing shaft without changing in diameter over the shaft (uniform shaft).

When an agitator is supplied with a shaft seal for closed stirred tank applications or when stirred tank

internals (heating coils, draft tube, limit ring, etc.) are relatively close proximity of the agitator wet end, it is

necessary to check the shaft deflection due to hydraulic forces at the impeller (Fig. 3). The following equation

was used to calculate maximum shaft deflection in the seal area at the bottom of a uniform solid shaft:

2

F HL

∆y max 3EI ( a + L )

= (12)

329 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

In order to perform stress and modal analysis of agitator in reactor, using the CAD software, the three

dimensional model of a whole set of agitator and mixing impeller was drawn that are shown in Figure 4,

separately.

Fig. 4: Three dimensional graphical model of a whole set of agitator and mixing impeller

For mesh generation, hyper mesh module of Altair Hyper Work 9.0 software was employed. One of the

important factors in appropriated meshing is choosing the correct type of element. Element type to the type of

structure, analyze, geometry shape, its advantages and desired finite element software is determined.

Considering that the impeller had curved surface hence, three-dimensional element as pyramidal form (Tetra)

second order has been chosen (fig. 5). As shown in Fig. 5, this pyramidal element consists of 10 nodes.

After mesh generation, 3D finite element model includes a total of 67558 element and 115795 nodal points.

Number and kind of elements and nods in each part of agitator is given in table 1. 3D finite element model of

whole set of agitator is shown in fig 6.

Table 1: Number, type and kind of element and nodes in each part of mixing system.

Axes Weld Screw 1 Screw 2 Impeller Compeleted model

Number of Node 15691 11084 9130 9130 70760 115795

Number of Elemnt 8348 5072 5622 5622 42894 67558

330 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

Results:

Results of Analytical design:

Calculation of mixing power:

The required mixing power calculation was carried out in maximum working conditions, so the caster oil

that has the highest viscosity and density in comparison with other vegetable oils was considered as basis oil.

Dynamic viscosity and density of caster oil are 0.650 (pa.s) and 958.7 ( Kg / m3 ), respectively [9]. According to

equation (2), Reynolds number related to the agitator by considering the maximum rotating speed of agitator

(1400 rpm) and assumption of a 0.1 m impeller diameter, was calculated 344.10. The selected impeller was

pitched blade turbine so, by taking into account that calculated reynolds number is 344.10, power number

obtained 1.5 from figure (7). Therefore, by using equation (3) the maximum required mixing power for each

blade of impeller was calculated 182.6 (W) so the total mixing power for a 2-blade impeller obtained 365.2 (W).

Fig .7: Power number for agitation impellers. (a) Marine impellers, (b) Flat-blade turbines, (c) Disk flat-blade

turbines, (d) Curved-blade turbines, (e) Pitched blade turbines and (g) Flat-blade turbines, no baffles, no

vortex.

331 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

Regarding to that in most of research, minimum suitable rotating speed of mixing in transesterification

reaction were considered 300 rpm. Therefore, to calculate maximum hydraulic force of fluid (mixture of oil and

alcohol), the mixing speed equals to 300 rpm was considered. Finally, by considering the impeller diameter

( di = o.1m ), the distance between impeller and bearing ( Li = o.4m ) and diameter axis ( d s = 0.015m ), by

using equations (4, 6 and 7) fluid hydraulic force, pure bending and torsional stress were calculated 61.12 N,

73.78 MPa and 14411.18 Pa, respectively. After determination of pure bending and torsional stress, maximum

bending and torsional stress imposed on the axis of agitator using by equations (8 and 9) were calculated as

follow:

( 2 ) + (τ ) =

6

=

max

σ 2 2 = 36.89 MPa

2

73.78 × 10

(σ2 ) + (σ2 )2 + (τ )2 =+ ( 73.78 ×10 )2 + (14411.18)2 = 73.78

6 6

σ max = 2 2

MPa

Therefore, maximum stress imposed to axis of agitator was obtained 73.78 MPa that regarding to the

material of axis (steel 316) that has an yield stress 170 MPa, safety factor is 2.3 that is acceptable amount.

In calculation of critical speed, material characteristic Coefficient ( Fm = 1 ), impeller weight

( We = 2.51 N ) and length of bearing ( Sb = 0.05 m ) were considered. By replacing these values in

equation (10), amount of critical speed was calculated as follow:

=NC = = 5778.26 rpm

L We L + Sb 0.4 × 2.51× 0.4 + 0.05

The critical speed (first natural frequency) of mixing shaft was calculated 5778.26 rpm that is higher than

maximum mixing rotating speed required for biodiesel production in a stirred tank reactor. It is evidence that

even a maximum mixing rotating speed of agitator (1400 rpm) does not leads to intense vibration or failure in

axis of agitator. By using equation (12), the value of maximum deflection ( ∆y ) of mixing shaft during the

max

mixing process was obtained 3.93 mm that is a low value. From the obtained results, selected impeller and

attributed dimensions is appropriate for using in a stirred tank reactor in biodiesel production.

Results of stress analysis of impeller:

After three-dimensional meshing, in order to stress analysis Abaqus software was employed. At first

material characteristics of impeller as table (2) and then boundary conditions consist of imposed loads, rotating

speed as centrifugal force and bearing condition introduce to the software. Loading condition for impeller as

extended force at the end edge of the impeller was considered. The value of extended force was considered

equal to amount that calculated in analytical section (61.12 N).

Property Value

Ultimate tensile strength 515 Mpa

Elasticity module 193 Gpa

Poisson ratio 0.3

Density 8000 Kg / m3

Figure 8 depicts von mises stress of impeller by using Abaqus safteware. According to the results of the

software, maximum imposed stress is where the impeller connected to the hub and its value is 47.53 MPa.

Regarding to the yield stress of steel 316 (170 MPa), safety factor 3.5 was obtained that is desired safety factor

in mechanical design. From the obtained results, the highest deflection of the end edge of impeller was 0.18 mm

that is negligible (Fig. 9).

332 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

In this research, in order to determinate the natural frequencies and deferent modes of agitator modal

analysis was used. Results of modal analysis include of motion of mode and frequency of them is shown in the

table (3).

Number of mode Motion of mode Frequency (Hz)

1 Rigid motion in the longitudinal direction 0

2 Rigid motion in the transverse direction 0

3 Rigid motion in the vertical direction 0

4 Rigid rotational motion around the longitudinal axis 2.23 × 10−3

5 Rigid rotational motion around the transverse axis 2.73 × 10−3

6 Rigid rotational motion around the vertical axis 2.83 × 10−3

7 Bending of axis in area connected to bearing 117.19

8 Bending of axis in area connected to bearing 117.21

9 Overall bendig with deformation in ZY plane 289.05

10 Overall bendig with torsion in ZY plane 289.35

From the obtained results, the six initial mode shapes are zero that could be result of rigid motion and

rotation around the three coordinate axes. After the sixth mode, next modes have higher natural frequency which

is related to the bending, torsion and the other combinations. Seventh natural frequency is related to the

probability of occurrence of the resonance phenomenon in the mixing shaft. Because of long length of mixing

shaft and imposed forces it could be concluded that first hazard in deformation of shaft could happen in seventh

frequency. Results of modal analysis show that critical speed of mixing shaft occurs in frequency 117.19 Hz

(~7000rpm) that lead to bending in mixing shaft. But regarding to the maximum rotating mixing speed of

agitator (1400 rpm), this condition does not occur. Figure 10 shows the Graphical view of first and seventh

mode, deflection and deformation related to the mixing shaft.

333 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

Mode 1 Mode 7

Fig. 10: Graphical view of first and seventh mode shapes related to the mixing shaft.

Conclusion:

The objective of this work was to design a mixing system in a stirred tank reactor used in biodiesel

production process. Designs have been done based on pitched blade turbine down flow with two inclined blades

(45°). By assumption of maximum working conditions (using caster oil as base fluid) the required mixing power

for each blade of impeller was calculated 182.6 (W) so the total mixing power for a 2-blade impeller obtained

365.2 (W). According to the results of stress analysis in analytical and finite element methods, basic dimensions

and material considered in the design of mixing systems were in an acceptable range. The critical rotational

speed of the mixing shaft obtained from the both analytical and modal analysis shows similar results 5778.26

and 7000 rpm respectively and found to be significantly higher than the impeller maximum required mixing

speed.

REFERENCE

[1] Abbaszaadeh, A., B. Ghobadian, M.R. Omidkhah and G. Najafi, 2012. Current biodiesel production

technologies: A comparative review. Energy Conversion and Management., 63: 138-148.

[2] Reyes, J.F., P.E. Malverde, P.S. Melin and J.P. DeBruijn, 2010. Biodiesel production in a jet flow stirred

reactor. Fuel., 89: 3093-3098.

[3] Alamsyah, R., A.H. Tambunan, Y.A. Purwanto and D. Kusdiana, 2010. Comparison of Static-Mixer and

Blade agitator Reactor in Biodesel Production. Agricultural Engineering International: the CIGR Ejournal.

Manuscript 1566, Volume XII.

[4] Paul, E., V.A.A. Obeng and S.M. dan Kresta, 2003. Handbook of Industrial Mixing. Wiley-Interscience,

New York.

[5] Kumaresan, T and J.B. Joshi, 2006. Effect of impeller design on the flow pattern and mixing in stirred

tanks. Chemical Engineering Journal, 115: 173-193.

[6] Knighta, P.C., J.P.K. Sevillea, B.A.B. Wellma and T. Instonec, 2001. Prediction of impeller torque in high

shear powder mixers. Chemical Engineering Science, 56: 4457-4471.

[7] Treybal, R.E., 1981. Mass-Transfer Operations. Third edition, McGraw-hill press.

[8] Shaft design. Section TG8. Available on the: http:/www.haywardgordon.com.2010.

[9] Akpan, U.G., A. Jimoh and A.D. Mohammed, 2006. Extraction, characterization and modification of caster

seed oil. Leonardo Journal of Sciences, 8: 43-52.

Nomenclature

−

characteristic length (m)

L

Pressure difference (Pa) ∆P

Reynolds number (-) Re

Density ( Kg / m3 ) ρ

Mixing speed (rpm) n

Impeller diameter (m) di

Dynamic viscosity (Pa.S) µ

Froude number (-) Fr

334 Barat Ghobadian et al, 2014

Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(1) January 2014, Pages: 325-334

Mixing power ( Kg .m / s) P

Hydraulic force (N) FHn

material characteristic Coefficient (-) CF

Bending moment (N.m) M

Distance between impellers and bearing (m) Ln

Pure bending Stress (Mpa) σb

Pure torsional Stress (Mpa) τ

Shaft diameter (m) ds

3 '

rectangular section modulus ( m ) Z

First natural frequency (rpm) NC

Impeller weight (Kg) We

Length of shaft (m) L

Bearing length (m) Sb

Distance between supporting bearings (m) a

Maximum deflection (m) ∆y maax

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