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Conjunctive adverbs can be grouped according to  John was tired after a long day at

function. This may help you understand them a bit better: school. Therefore, he immediately took a nap
when he got home.
 Sometimes their function is addition, and
examples of these would be: “in addition, next, still,
also, and again.” Conjunctive adverbs are words that join independent clauses into one
 Comparison is another way they work, such as sentence. A conjunctive adverb helps you create a shorter sentence.
words like “also, likewise, and similarly.”
When you use a conjunctive adverb, put a semicolon (;) before it and a
 Concession is sometimes made with words like
comma (,) after it.
“granted and of course.”
 Adverbs like “although, instead, in spite of, and
regardless”, show a contrast.  We have many different sizes of this shirt; however, it comes
in only one color.
 Sometimes emphasis is the function, with words
like “indeed, of course, and certainly.”
 Conjunctive adverbs can illustrate with words Some examples of conjunctive adverbs are: accordingly, also, besides,
consequently, finally, however, indeed, instead, likewise, meanwhile,
such as: “for example, namely, thus, and in
moreover, nevertheless, next, otherwise, still, therefore, then, etc.
 Words that summarize include: “all in all, that is,
in summary, and finally.”  The due date for the final paper has passed; therefore, I
could not submit mine on time.
 Time can be referred to with these words:
“before, meanwhile, furthermore, lately, now, since,
and thereafter.”  There are many history books; however, none of them may
 I wanted to see a scary movie; however, my be accurate.
friend wanted to see a comedy.
 You need to concentrate on your studies;  It rained hard; moreover, lightening flashed and thunder
otherwise, you will fail the class. boomed.
 The thunder and lightning were intense;
consequently, the crowd dispersed.  The baby fell asleep; then, the doorbell rang.
 He enjoyed getting a new tie; nevertheless, a
sports car would have been a better gift.  The law does not permit drinking and driving
 We really need to go to the mall; in addition, we anytime; otherwise, there would be many more accidents.
should see a movie.
 Conjunctive adverbs act like conjunctions; Conjunctive adverbs look like coordinating conjunctions (and, but, or,
however, they are adverbs. so, for, yet, nor) ; however, they are not as strong as coordinating
conjunctions and they are punctuated differently.
 What Are Conjunctive Adverbs?
A conjunctive adverb is also used in a single main clause. In this case,
a comma (,) is used to separate the conjunctive adverb from the
 Conjunctive adverbs function as conjunctions to sentence.
ease the transition between ideas in a sentence
or between sentences. They accomplish this  I woke up very late this morning. Nevertheless, I wasn't late
task by showing comparison, contrast, to school.
sequence, cause-effect or other relationships
between ideas.  She didn't take a bus to work today. Instead, she drove her
 When conjunctive adverbs are used to join two
main clauses, it acts as a coordinating  Jack wants a toy car for his birthday. Meanwhile, Jill wants a
conjunction by connecting two separate and dollhouse for her birthday.
complete ideas. To connect two clauses you use
a semicolon, not a comma. The pattern goes like  They returned home. Likewise, I went home.

 Main clause; conjunctive adverb, main clause [Quiz 27.1]

Choose the right conjunctive adverb for the sentence.

 Here is a sentence example:
1) Hurry up; , you will be late for the train.
 The heavy traffic on 5th street made Claire think 2) I studied hard for the exam; , I failed.
twice about stopping by the mall; moreover, she 3) Tom is a sportsman; , his brother Tom is athletic.
had a huge science paper due the next morning. 4) He didn't go to college. , he started his own business.
5) He is not good-looking. , he is popular among girls.
 If a conjunctive adverb is used at the beginning
of the sentence then use a comma immediately
afterwards. For example: A parenthetical expression is a word or words added to a
sentence without changing the meaning or grammar of the
original sentence. Parenthetical expressions give extra
information but are not essential. You can add and remove a
parenthetical and the sentence works just the same.
 Some foods, sugar for example, are not good for Common Parenthetical Expressions:
• after all • at any rate • as far as I know • consequently • for
 Timothy, who lives near Stonehenge, goes to example • for instance • generally speaking • I believe • in
church regularly. the first place • in fact • meanwhile • moreover •

 Tara, although she comes from a hot

climate, hates hot weather. • of course • on the contrary • on the other hand • perhaps •
that is • therefore

 Anthony, however, decided not to go.

 The planet closest to the sun (ie Mercury) has the

most extreme temperature variations.

 The 70th anniversary of the D-Day landings (6 June

1944) was attended by many world leaders.

 The cheetah—the world's fastest land animal—is

native to Africa.

 If they didn't understand you—a qualified teacher

—how will they ever understand me?
Parenthetical expressions are words, phrases, or clauses that
writers use to add extra information to a sentence.
Parenthetical expressions are also referred to
as nonessential since they are not needed to understand the
basic meaning of a sentence. Think of them as interrupters,
asides, and add-ons to a sentence. This lesson will introduce
you to the major types of parenthetical expressions and how
to punctuate them correctly.

Punctuating Parenthetical Expressions

All parenthetical expressions need to be set off or encased

by commas. The only difference is where the parenthetical
expression is located in the sentence.

Beginning: If it is located at the beginning of the sentence,

place a comma after the parenthetical.


 Of course, it is always necessary to proofread your


Middle: If the parenthetical appears in the middle of the

sentence, place a comma both before and after it.


 It is, of course, always necessary to proofread your


End: When the parenthetical appears at the end of the

sentence, place a comma before the parenthetical and the
appropriate end punctuation after the expression.


 It is always necessary to proofread your essays, of