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BASIC SERVICE TRAINING

Cooling circuit R600a and R134a


Volker Lang
Team Manager
SCC
September 2000
Security advise for intervention
in cooling cycle
Intervention in cooling cycle must be done by authorised
and technically skilled engineers only.
It must be taken notice of country specific laws
and regulations.

All security advices related to refrigerants,


used in Whirlpool registrated cooling products have to be strictly followed.

Skilled engineers tools and equipment must be in perfect


condition components originated from work should be
disposed in regards of environmental protection.

Make sure to read the training material carefully.


Contents
• Refrigerant
• Cooling Cycle
• Characterization
• Tools
• Instruction for repair with R600a
• Instruction for repair with R134a
• Lokring- tube connection
REFRIGERANT
What does Isobutane mean ?

Isobutane (R600a) belongs to the group of the HC- refrigerants.


„HC“ is the abbreviation of the English „Hydro Carbon“,
Hydro Carbons are chemical mixtures which only consist
of hydrogen (H) and carbon (C).

The ozone depletion potential (ODP) and the global


warming potential (GWP) is with hydro-carbons equal „zero“.
The refrigerant isobutane (R600a) is non poisonous and
actually not harmful to the environment.
Attention

The refrigerant R600a is inflammable!


In connection with air, isobutane explodes with an isobutane
percentage of 1,8 to 8,5 Vol.% !
On intervention in the cooling circuit it is not allowed to work
with open flame (soldering).
Do not release the refrigerant R600a close to
basements, canalisation etc.
(isobutane is heavier than air).
The working room has to be aired.
All pipe connections have to be closed or connected with
Lokring joints.
Physical data:

chemical formula : C4 H10


chemical designation : ISOBUTAN
condensation temp. (1,013bar) : - 11,7 °C
specific volume : 0,415 l/g
critical temperature : 134,9 °C
critical pressure : 34,5 bar
ignition temperature : 462,0 °C
explosion limits : 1,8 - 8,5 Vol.%
• Ozone Depletion-Potential (ODP)
Global Warming -Potential (GWP)
reference value CFC - R11 = 1

CFC - R11

CFC - R12

HCFC - R22
ODP
GWP
CFC - R134a

HC - R290

HC - R600a

1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 0,5 1,0 1,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5
•Explosion limits of isobutane R600a
pressure (abs.) 1 bar ambient temperature: 25 °C
specific volume of isobutane: 0,415 l/g
280

lower
240
explosion limit:
1,8 Vol. %
volume area (liter)

200

160
upper
120 explosion limit:
8,5 Vol. %
80

40

0
0 10 20 30 40 50

quantity "R 600a" (g)


• Comparison of various refrigerants
pressure evaporating- evaporating- evaporating-
in (bar) temp. in (°C) temp. in (°C) temp. in (°C)
R600a R134a R12
-1
-0,9 -58 -66 -73
-0,8 -46 -56
-0,7 -39 -49,5 -54,5
-0,6 -33 -44,5
-0,5 -28 -40,5
-0,4 -24 -36,6 -41,3
-0,3 -21 -33,6
-0,2 -17 -31 -35
-0,1 -15 -28,5
0 -11,7 -26,5 -29,8
0,1 -10 -24 -27
0,2 -7 -22 -25
0,3 -5 -20 -23,7
0,4 -3 -18,7 -22
0,5 -1,5 -17 -20
0,6 0,45 -15,5 -18
0,7 2 -14
0,8 3,6 -12,5 -15
0,9 5,4 -11,1
1 7 -10 -12
• Comparison of various refrigerants
Evaporator Evaporator- Evaporator- pressure
temperature
R600a R134a R12
-10°C 1,08 bar 2,01 bar 2,18 bar
-20°C 0,71 bar 1,33 bar 1,51 bar
-30°C 0,45 bar 0,84 bar 1,00 bar
-40°C 0,28 bar 0,51 bar 0,64 bar

Condenser Condenser- Condensation- pressure


temperature
R600a R134a R12
40°C 5,34 bar 10,18 bar 9,60 bar
50°C 6,88 bar 13,19 bar 12,22 bar
60°C 8,72 bar 16,83 bar 15,25 bar
70°C 10,89 bar 21,17 bar 18,85 bar
COOLING CYCLE

Capillary
It is realised a thermo-
dynamic process, which
Liquid Liquid
consists of the three
phases of compression,
Condenser High pressure Low pressure Evaporator condensation and
decompression.
Gas Gas

Compressor
•Cooling cycle

Suction pressure Excess over pressure


•Function Diagram
High pressure Hot Low pressure
Vapor + liquid Warmth absorbed from the cooling
Liquid Liquid instant distance

Isolation Evaporator

Condenser

Suction
tube Capillary

Pressure tube Filter Dryer


Compressor Freezing cell

Gas leaves Compressor, temperature rises, hot gas goes to condenser loses temperature and
becomes liquid. Through capillary gas loses pressure. Then the gas condenses in evaporator
through the temperature inside of the cooling compartment. The gas will be soaked then from
evaporator to condenser, from there the hot vapor goes back to compressor.
•Pressure and Temperature

temperature

P = firmly

pressure

Pressure Cooling Condensation Liquid gets too cold

Hot vapor Spent warmth to the environment


Vapor + Liquid Warmth absorbed from the cooling compartment
Liquid Liquid instant distance
•Pressure and Temperature

temperature

pressure
P = firmly

Pressure Cooling Condensation Liquid gets too cold

From high to Low pressure


low pressure

Hot vapor Spent warmth to the environment


Vapor + Liquid Warmth absorbed from the cooling compartment
Liquid Liquid instant distance
• Evaporator

Entrance
Eintritt Evaporator
Verdampfer

Liquids + Vapor
Flüssigkeiten+ Dampf

Capillary
Kapillare

Overheated
Überhitzter Dampf
vapor
Capillary
Kapillare
Liquid accumulator Reverse
Tube
Rücklaufrohr
running
• Filter Dryer
Condenser Tube Running Tube

Grid

5 mm
Molecular Sieve
Direction of Refrigerant

optimal Capillary tube too short Capillary tube too long


Result: Result:
Partly constipation Partly constipation
Net

Capillary
• Under Filling
Result:
Refrigerant is condensed, before
the evaporator is cooled entirely.
So the surface of the evaporator
is only partly cooled.

Consequences:
Appliances do not stop running
anymore.

If appliance is under filled,


cooling compartment gets too
cold.

If appliance is heavily under


filled, cooling compartment gets
too warm.

Evaporator freezes at the


Hot vapor Spent warmth to the environment
beginning.
Vapor + Liquid Warmth absorbed from the cooling compartment
Liquid Liquid instant distance
• Over Filling
Result:
Refrigerant keeps being liquid at
the end of the evaporator.

Consequences:
Refrigerant condenses in
reversing tube.
Refrigerant freezes outside of
the cooling compartment.

Hot vapor Spent warmth to the environment


Vapor + Liquid Warmth absorbed from the cooling compartment
Liquid Liquid instant distance
• Sign curves
for example:
Evaporater
temperatur
Combi- appliance with mechanical
thermostat,
Condensation 1 compressor,
temperature
temperature are regulated with
thermostat at cooling compartment.
Temperature
freezer

Temperature
cooler

Suction tube
temperature
Ambiente
temperature

Voltage

gas
lequid
low optimal to much

Quantity of cooling agent


• Blocking of Capillary
Result:

Partly blocking compressor runs more


often or does not stop running at all.

Evaporator does not cool, probably the


beginning of evaporator got frosty.

Entire blocking
Compressor does not stop running
anymore.

Evaporator is not cooled.

Condenser does not get warm.


• Changes of the ambient temperature

If the ambient temperature rises, the condensation


temperatures will also rise.
Examples: 1. Attic flats in summer.
2. Insufficient air flow for built-in
appliances.
Climate- classifications:
SN +10 to +32 °C
N +19 to +32 °C
ST +18 to +38 °C
T +18 to +43 °C
CHARACTERIZATION

• Type character R600a


Bauknecht models - with Index ..../2
i.e. : KGC 2756/2
Whirlpool models - with Index..../H

• Type - character R134a


Bauknecht models - with Index ..../1
Whirlpool models- with Index..../G
i.e. : ART 836/G
• Refrigerant type and quantity
is indicated on the type signboard.

TYPE

quantity in g
• Compressor
is signed with a yellow label

Type
TOOLS
• Vacuum-Pump (Whirlpool/Refco)
Use for R600a und R134a

4819 817 29029

There exists the possibility to refill R12 appliances with the replacement refrigerant Isceon 49.
• Lokring Service Case
Use for “Whirlpool“

4819 817 28885


• Pliers and cutters Mini - tube cutter
3-16mm

Bruise pliers
Tube cutter
(„Lokring“)

Capillary cutter
Recycling and service
sting pliers
4812 817 18005
• Important service parts

Filter dryer
4819 526 48527

Compressor- Refilling tube


4819 526 43046
• Vacuum- Pump (accessories included)

1 red hose
1 blue hose
2 yellow hoses
1 Recovery valve
1 Digital scale

Technical Data:
Capacity Power : ca. 30l/min
Motor Power : 0,2 kW
Max. Vacuum : 50 Microns
Oil Content : 0,25l
Shell-Tellus 32
SP - Number 4819 390 11007
• Additional tools and spare parts

- 4812 390 98008 Gas- Bottle R600a


- 4812 390 98007 Gas- Bottle R134a
- 4819 390 88025 Gas- Bottle R413a, replace R12 and
Isceon 49(*)
- 4819 395 68013 MB 10 EVP for Lokring fitting- pliers
- 4819 395 68014 MB 8 EVP for Lokring fitting- pliers
- 4819 360 51141 Piercing valve, 5mm
- 4819 360 51142 Piercing valve, 6 mm
- 4819 395 98004 Recovery-Bottle holder
- 4812 395 98014 connecting tube
- 4812 121 65822 Leak detector sprey
(*) actual filling quantity minus 15%.
INSTRUCTION FOR REPAIR, R600a
• Refrigerant evacuation of cooling cycle
1. Connect the yellow recycling hose (5m) to the end of vacuum
pump (D). Put the end of the hose out of a window.
Connect the red hose to the recycling tong and the pump-
connection (C).

2. Pierce in the suction side with pierce valve or pierce-service pliers.


Connect the blue hose on suction side to pump connection (A).
3. Pierce in filter dryer with the recycling-service-pliers.

4. Open the following valves:


- Red valve (4) on manometer block.
- Yellow valve (2) on manometer block.
- Blue valve (1) on manometer block.

5. Switch on vacuum- pump, wait ca. 2 min. for recycling time.

6. Switch on compressor for 2 min., as R600a has to be released from


the bounded oil.
7. Put off main connection of the appliance, close the following
valves: red (4), yellow (2) and blue (1)

Remark: Cut tubes 2 cm after the soldering points on compressor


side and close it with Lokring service parts again.

Mount new compressor and service filter dryer after Lokring


mounting instruction. (See Training documents)

In Case, the cooling circuit was opened for a longer time , like a
damage of condenser or evaporator, please use a Rinsing
process, to bring the humidity outside of cycle.
• Evacuation and refilling of cooling cycle, R600a
• 1. Evacuation

Vacuum
R600a R134a

R600a Gas bottle

Digital-scale

5 1
2 4
3
1.1 Connect the charging station, valve (E) and valve (K)
with connection hose (black with nuts 1/4“).
1.2 Connect red pump valve (C) to connection filter dryer, red
hose. (elbow side connect to Schrader valve)
1.3 Connect blue pump valve (A) with charging end on
compressor side, blue hose.
(elbow side connect to Schrader valve)
1.4 Connect on the back side of pump (D) the yellow recycling
hose.

Remark: If you have found an open cooling cycle, before


service intervention it is necessary to have a
additional rinsing step, with a low quantity of
R600a (10-15g). To release any possible rest
humidity out of the system.
1.5 Open the following valves:
- Red valve (4) on manometer block.
- Yellow valve (2) on manometer block.
- Blue valve (1) on manometer block.
1.6 Switch on vacuum pump.
1.7 After evacuation time of 5 minutes close valve (1) and red
valve (4) on manometer block.
Switch on compressor for 1 minute in order to release
R600a from the bounded oil.

Remark: Please follow this instruction only if compressor


was not replaced by a new one!
1.8 Switch off compressor and open carefully the red valve.
1.9 If pressure manometers show less than 0 bar, open the
blue valve (1) and the black valve (5).
1.10 After an evacuation time of 15 min. close the yellow valve
(2) on manometer block.
If the vacuum-manometer shows increasing pressure,
open the yellow valve (2) again and increase evacuation
time.
1.11 If the vacuum manometer shows the maximum of vacuum,
close the yellow valve (2) again, and switch off the pump.
1.12 Close the following valves:
- blue valve (1)
- red valve (4)
- black valve (5)
1.13 Put off red hose on filter dryer side, then of pump side (A).
Close ends with enclosed special nuts (Pump and filter dryer
ends)
2. Charging Instruction
2.1 Put the gas bottle (R600a) in the middle of the digital scale,
open valve (E) and switch on the scale.
2.2 Switch on the compressor of the appliance. Open black valve
(3) and blue valve (1).
2.3 If the scale shows „0“ g, fill in the necessary quantity of R600a
on the suction side. Open evacuation valve (K), blue bullet
valves on pump side. The appropriate refrigerant quantity you
can see on type signboard inside of the appliance.
2.4 Close evacuation valve (E) and switch off the
digital scale.
2.5 Close the blue valve (1) and the black valve (3).
2.6 Check cooling function!
2.7 Put off the blue hose on compressor and then on pump side
(A).
E
K
D

C
A
INSTRUCTION FOR REPAIR, R134a
Physical Data:

chemical formula: : CH2F-CF3


chemical designation : Tetraflurethan
condensation temp. (1,013bar) : - 26,5 °C
critical temperature : 101,15 °C
critical pressure : 40,64 bar
• Refrigerant - Recycling from cooling cycle

1.0 Fix the piercing valve (F) on suction tube or on fill in end of
the compressor.
Remark: Fill end on compressor mostly cannot be used,
as this is often too short for further use of connections.
1.1 Connect the piercing valve (F) and the connection (C) to
manometer block with the red hose.
1.2 Connect Service-piercing pliers (F1) and connection (A) on
manometer block, blue hose.
1.3 Connect end (D) on vacuum pump and the valve (L) to
recovery bag (4812 817 18004) with the yellow hose.
1.4 Check that every valves (1-5) on manometer block are
closed.
1.5 Open pierce valve (F) and red valve (4) on manometer
block.
Open pierce valve (F1) and the blue valve (1). Open also
black valve (3). Switch on the vacuum pump.

1.6 Open slowly the yellow valve (2) on the manometer block.
1.7 If the pressure manometer shows less than 0 bar, open the
black valve (5) on vacuum manometer.
1.8 If the pressure manometer shows the maximum vacuum
possible, close the yellow valve (2).
1.9 If the pressure does not change, close the following valves:
- blue valve (1)
- yellow valve (2)
- red valve (4)
- black valve (5)
- black valve (3)
1.10 Switch off pump.
Remark: If the compressor is defective you can change it
now.
L

4819 360 53092


D

F1
C
F
A
• Evacuation and charging of the cooling cycle,
R134a
Attention: Whenever you pierce in the cooling cycle, the filter
dryer has always to be replaced.

It is obligatory to use filter with additional service-tube (2


entrances, 1 exit)

Evacuation on both sides (pressure and suction side) is


inevitable in order to achieve a faultless evacuation of
humidity inside of the cooling cycle.
1. Evacuation procedure

1.1 Connect valve (F) to suction tube (Lokring


connection to Schrader valve) or on fill end of the
compressor and the connection C on manometer
block with the red hose.
1.2 Connect the Schrader valves to filter dryer and the
connection (A) on manometer block with the blue
hose.
1.3 Connect the end (D) on the vacuum pump and the
valve (L) on the recovery bag with the yellow hose.
1.4 Connect the bullet valve (K) and evacuation valve (E) to the
charging machine.
1.5 Switch on the pump.
1.6 Open the following valves:
- blue valve (1) on manometer block.
- yellow valve (2) on manometer block.
- black valve (3) on manometer block.
- red valve (4) on manometer block.
1.7 If the pressure manometer shows less than 0 bar, open the
black valve on vacuum manometer.
1.8 If the vacuum manometer shows the maximum vacuum
possible, close the following valves:
- blue valve (1) on manometer block
- yellow valve (2) on manometer block
- red valve (4) on manometer block
- black valve (3) keeps open !
1.9 Switch off the pump.

Rinsing process:

S.1 Open the evacuation valve (E) on the refrigerant bottle


and put the bottle in the middle of the scale.
S.2 Switch on the digital-scale.
S.3 If the scale shows 0 g, open the red valve (4) on manometer
block and fill in 20 g through slow opening of bullet valve (K)
in the suction side (F).
S.4 Close bullet valve (F) and switch off the digital scale.
S.5 Switch on the compressor for 2 min. and then off again.
S.6 Close the red valve (4).
S.7 Switch on the vacuum pump again.
S.8 Open slowly the yellow valve (2) on manometer block and
recover the rest of refrigerant inside of the yellow fill in
hose, which will be recovered directly into the recovery bag.
The valves yellow (2) and black (3) keep on open.
S.9 Open slowly the blue valve (1) on manometer block.
(The vacuum pump is switched on)
The refrigerant for the rinsing process will be soaked up
from the pressure side and will directly be recycled to the
recovery bag.
S.10 If the left pressure manometer (R600a) shows less than 0
bar, open the red valve (4) on the manometer block.
S.11 If both pressure manometers show less than 0 bar, open
the black valve (5) on vacuum manometer.
2. Evacuation process (for end - vacuum)

2.1 After 10 minutes evacuation time, close the yellow valve (2)
on manometer block.
If the vacuum manometer shows increasing pressure, open
the yellow valve (2) again and extend evacuation time.
2.2 If the vacuum manometer shows the maximum vacuum
possible, close the yellow (2) valve and test vacuum for 1
minute.
During this time the pressure must not increase !
2.3 Close the following valves:
- blue valve (1) on manometer block
- yellow valve (2) on manometer block
- black valve (3) on manometer block
- red valve (4) on manometer block
- black valve (5) on vacuum manometer
2.4 Switch off the vacuum pump.
2.5 Put off the blue hose on filter dryer, close end of service
tube on filter dryer with special enclosed nut.
Filling procedure:
1. Open the black valve (3) and the red valve (4) on manometer
block. Open also evacuation valve (E) on the refrigerant bottle.
Put the bottle in the middle of the digital-scale.
2. Switch on the digital scale.
Bottle and scale must not be moved again !!
3. If the scale shows 0 g, open slowly the blue bullet valve (K).
4. Fill in the appropriate quantity of refrigerant (R134a) on the
suction side (F).
Switch on the compressor, as the refrigerant can be soaked
rightly inside.
5. If the right quantity is achieved, close the bullet valve (K).
Then close the evacuation valve (E), as well as the red valve
(4).
6. Switch off the digital scale.
7. Switch on the vacuum pump.
8. Open slowly the yellow valve (2) on manometer block and
recycle the remaining refrigerant from the filling hose.
The refrigerant will be recycled directly into the recovery bag.
9. Close the yellow valve (2) and the black valve (3) on manometer
block.
10. After checking the cooling function of the appliance,
remove the red hose. First on the appliance side, the from
side of the pump.
11. Switch off the vacuum pump.
12. Close the end of the suction of the filling side with the
appropriate nuts.
13. Remove the yellow hose on the recovery bag and close
the end with the nut. Then remove the hose from the side
of the pump.
LOKRING- TUBE CONNECTION
• Technique
The Lokring- coupling consists of two Lokrings and
one tubular joint for the acceptance of the two tube
endings.
tube Lokring joint Lokring
tube

In condition of delivery the Lokrings are pre- assembled on


the fitting, the bigger end of the conical bore is pressed onto
the outwards fit of the joint.
During assembly the tubes which are to be connected have to
be pushed into the fitting right to the end,
and after that the Lokrings are pushed over the fitting.
Due to the special inner profile of the Lokring the
diameter of the connection is reduced until it is in
absolute close contact with the outer surface of the
tube which is to be connected and pinches it tightly
by a tight reduction.

tube Lokring Lokring joint

Before the assembly After the assembly


• Function and range of Lokprep
Despite the high metal / metal-
pressure it is not always possible to seal
deep surface porosity and longitudinal
grooves completely.
In order to achieve more security the surface
of the endings are treated with Lokprep,
which is an anaerobic liquid. It settles in the
unevenness on the tube surface and
hardens there.
Advantage: the connection can be loaded
with pressure or vacuum shortly
after the assembly.
• Assembly

The tube ends have to be The tube ends have to be


cleaned with abrasive cleaned only in motion of
paper. axis rotation.

The tube ends have to be


moistened with Lokprep.

The tube ends have to be For better distribution of


inserted into the fitting until Lokprep has to be rotated
the stop. the connection at 360°

Lokring- assembly with the


hand assembly tool.
• Materials
• Diameter / Size

tube outside diameter Size of Lokring connectors


3/16" (4,76 mm) Lokring 5 NK Ms 00
1/ 4" (6,35 mm) Lokring 6 NK Ms 00
5/16" (7,93 mm) Lokring 8 NK Ms 00
1/ 2" (12,70 mm) Lokring 12,7 NK Ms 50
5/ 8" (16,00 mm) Lokring 16 NK Ms 50
3/ 4" (19,05 mm) Lokring 19 NK Ms 50
7/ 8" (22,20 mm) Lokring 22 NK Ms 50
• Assembly faults
Wrong:
Correct:
Lokring not
pushed up to
the stop.

Wrong:
Correct:
tube not inserted
to
to the stop.

Wrong:
Correct:
bending point too
close to the joint
ending