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The

Netherlands East In dies

Val Divebomber

T h e Netherlands East In dies Val Divebomber January-March 1942 A Down in Flames Campaign

January-March 1942

A Down in Flames Campaign for ZERO!

By Roger Horky

Kate Torpedo Bomber

Campaign for ZERO! By Roger Horky Kate Torpedo Bomber Development Note: Of the many historical campaigns

Development Note: Of the many historical campaigns that were considered for inclusion in ZERO! but were rejected, for whatever reason , none was more difficult to omit than the Netherlands East Indies (NEI) campaign.

Indeed, it was the last eliminated during the selection process, and oddly, the decision was made almost by accident. As many of you are aware, the game was originally supposed to be called "Flying Tigers." One of the playtesters observed that it would be pretty silly to publish a game with that name if the AVG wasn't represented. Thus, the Burma campaign went into ZERO!, leaving the NEI for this issue of

C3i.

The Japanese attacked the Netherlan ds East Indies (NEI) primarily to secure i ts rich natural resources. The growi ng Japanese empire desperately neede d both rubber and oil, neither of whic h were produced in the home islands. T he 1941 Dutch embargo on petroleu m exports to Japan provided a suitab le reason for going to war.

The NEI was very vulnerable in 19414 2. Dutch regular troops numbered 25,000 , although an additional 45,000 poorly- trained territorial guardsmen could be called upon in an emergency. The smal l air force was equipped with an odd assortment of second- and third-class machines. The navy lacked capital ship s, operating just a handful of older submarines, destroyers and cruisers. N o additional forces could arrive from the mother country, as the Netherlands ha d been under German occupation since May 1940.

However, the Dutch East Indies were protected somewhat by geography. Bot h Malaya and the Philippines lay between Japan and the Dutch colony, so the Japanese could not attack directly. The y had to neutralize the two intervening territories before invading. Accordingly , the Japanese attacked both regions in early December 1941 in an attempt to

secure Malaya and the Philippines before the scheduled attack on the NEI in February 1942. However, the campaigns went so well that the Japanese were able to advance their timetable for invading the NEI by four weeks.

On January 11, 1942, Japanese forces based in the Philippines invaded both Celebes and Dutch Borneo (British possessions on Borneo had been under attack since December). Neither island was very well defended, although the Dutch, Australians and Americans all contributed air units to the fight for Borneo. Both islands fell to the Japanese in less than a month.

Shortly after taking Borneo and the Celebes, the Japanese conquered Malaya, which they then used as a base for the conquest of Sumatra. That island, most of it uninhabited, was even less well defended than Borneo and the Celebes. The Dutch had largely abandoned it, leaving the British refugee air force from Malaya to hold it. The fighting on Sumatra lasted but two weeks.

At the time of the Sumatra invasion, the Japanese attacked and occupied Amboina, Timor, Lombok, Bali and other islands in the eastern part of the NEI. They were then ready for their assault on Java, the central island of the archipelago. Although it was the best- defended and most- populous island in the NEI, its downfall seemed assured. The Japanese controlled the land, sea and skies in every other part of the region, and could attack Java from every direction except the south.

The defenders of Java gave a good account of themselves. The Japanese landed troops on both the eastern and western ends of the island on March 1, 1942. Caught between two

armie s, the Dutch and their British, Amer ican and Australian allies held out for ni ne days before surrendering. The capitu lation marked the end of the NEI camp aign.

THE AIR WAR

The N etherlands East Indies campaign is an esp ecially interesting subject for Down in Fla mes (DiF). The wide variety of aircra ft that participated in the campaign is par icularly noteworthy. In addition to the ai rcraft employed by the two main bellig erents, the NEI campaign also involv ed British, Australian and Amer ican airplanes (indeed, players will need almost every airplane card in ZER O! for this campaign).

The m ajority of the British and Amer ican aircraft that served in the NEI

came from Malaya or the Philippines. The J apanese captured thousands of allied soldiers and sailors during their conqu est of these territories, but a large numb er of British and American airmen

were

their

able to escape to the NEI with ircraft. The British, flying

able to escape to the NEI with ircraft. The British, flying

Lockh eed Hudsons, Bristol Blenheims, Hawk er Hurricanes and Brewster Buffa loes, fell back to Sumatra. The Amer icans, equipped with Curtiss P-40

Warh awks and Boeing B-17 Flying

Fortr

shipm ent of Douglas A-24's (the US Army variant of the SBD Dauntless), in Austr alia awaiting shipment to the

Philip pines, went instead to Java. All of these machines were combined with the

Dutch

air ar m of ABDA, the joint American-

Britis h-DutchAustralian command establ ished to defend the NEI.

Surpr isingly, the Dutch component of ABD AIR employed very few Dutch- built a ircraft. The NEI had been cut

sses, withdrew to Java. A

air force to create ABDAIR, the

employed very few Dutch- built a ircraft. The NEI had been cut sses, withdrew to Java.

Netherland East Indies: ZE

off from the mother country since the spring of 1940 and the ML-KNIL (Militaire Luchtvaart-Koniklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger, the aviation branch of the NEI Army) had to look elsewhere for equipment in the subsequent eighteen months. Great Britain, at the time was t he world's largest aircraft producer, had be en at war since 1939 and could spare few airplanes for foreign sales. The Dutch thus had to acquire most of their aircraf t from the United States. The two most common types of aircraft operated by t he ML-KNIL in early 1942 were the Brewster B339D fighter (an export version of the F2A Buffalo) and the Martin 139WH bomber (a variant of th e B-10/B-12 series). The Dutch had enough of both types to equip several squadrons of each. They also possessed one squadron of American-built Curtiss - Wright CW21B Demons, a rather disappointing fighter design, and a slightly smaller number of Curtiss H-75 A fighters, the export version of the P-36 Hawk. The NEI's naval air service, the MLDKNIL (Marine Luchtvaart Dienst- KNIL), was equipped with Consolidate d PBY Catalina and Dornier Do24K flyin g boats.

RO!

The Imperial Japanese Army Air Force (IJAAF) employed its usual assortment of aircraft in the NEI campaign. The agile Nakajima Ki-27 'Nate' was the primary IJAAF fighter, but its equally nimble successor, the Nakajima Ki-43 'Oscar,' also served in large numbers. The Mitsubishi Ki21 'Sally' and Kawasaki Ki- 48 'Lily' were the most common IJAAF bombers used in the NEI. The Mitsubishi Ki-46 'Dinah' reconnaissance aircraft also played a large role in the campaign.

not w ell coordinated and were usually under strength. The invaders were able to tak e Tarakan and controlled all of Borne o by the middle of February. This action is represented by Mission #12 in the NEI c ampaign.

On Ja nuary 19, 1942, the Japanese condu cted a large-scale air attack on the city o f Darwin (also called Port Darwin) in nor thern Australia. Aircraft from the carrie s Kaga, Akagi, Hiryu and Soryu (all four l ost at Midway the next June) struck the air field, a railyard, seaplanes at ancho r, the American destroyer Peary and most of the forty-seven other ships in the harbo r. Some seven merchant vessels were s unk, as was the Peary. All eleven of the A merican P-40 Warhawks defending the cit y were destroyed. Later that same day, a formation of Mitsubishi G4M 'Betty' bombers visited Darwin, their prima ry target being the various airfields in the area. Most of the facilities bombed in the two raids were heavily damaged. Casua lties were high, numbering some 243 ki lled and 330 wounded. These battles are rep resented by Mission B in the Java campai gn.

The e xodus from Singapore took place in the se cond week of February 1942. The Japan ese had pushed the British out of Malay a by the end of January and began prepa ring to invade Singapore, the island

fortre ss ("the Gibraltar of the Orient") at the so uthern tip of the peninsula, to which the British forces had withdrawn. The d esperate British began a hasty evacu ation of the city, employing merch ant ships, fishing vessels, coasters

y other seaworthy craft they could The Japanese high command, not

find.

wanti ng to make the same mistake the Germ ans had in May 1940, vowed that there will be no Dunkirk at Singapore. Any v essel entering the Straits of Malacca was su bjected to air attack. Japanese land- and sh ip-based aircraft sank as many as 70 ves sels of all sizes in the waters south of Sin gapore. Some two to five thousand peopl e, both service personnel and civilia ns, were killed. The evacuation ended when Singapore fell on February 15, 19 42. This action is represented by Mission 15 in t he NEI campaign.

The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) had, in essence, two separate air forces during World War
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN) had, in
essence, two separate air forces during
World War II (one land- based, one
carrier-based) and both saw action during
the NEI campaign. Carrier-borne aircraft
such as the Mitsubishi A6M2 'Zeke'
(Zero) fighter, the Aichi D3A 'Val' dive
bomber and Nakajima B5N 'Kate'
torpedo- /level-bomber were employed
primarily against naval targets (although
they were used against targets on land as
well). The IJN's land-based air arm,
equipped primarily with G4M 'Betty' and
G3M 'Nell' medium bombers (both
Mitsubishi designs) was used both for
attacks against targets on land and raids
against shipping.
and a

The IJN had a third air arm—its seaplane force. Most Japanese invasion fleets included a seaplane tender or two, especially when no aircraft carriers were available. These vessels carried such aircraft as the Aichi E13A 'Jake' and the Mitsubishi F1M2 'Pete' (both observation floatplanes), and served as a base of operations for the big Kawanishi H6K 'Mavis' flying boats. The highly- maneuverable 'Pete' saw a lot of action in the NEI campaign. They were even employed as fleet-defense fighters at times.

The NEI campaign had other features DiF players will enjoy besides the variety of aircraft. The first of these actions was the defense of Tarakan on the island of Borneo. The Japanese landing at Tarakan on January 11, 1942 signaled the beginning of the NEI campaign. Defenders on the ground were quickly overwhelmed. The Dutch, Australians and Americans had to rely on air power to repel the invaders. Sadly, their efforts were

The Australian contribution to ABDAI R was fairly small. The largest part of the Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) was in North Africa, supplementing British units in the struggle against the German s. So many Australian aircraft were committed to the fighting in the Mediterranean that when war came to t he Pacific, Australia was dangerously unpr o- tected. The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF)) took over much of th e responsibility for defending Australia.

Because they had so few aircraft to spare, the Australians provided but a handful of aircraft to the defense of the NEI. These amounted to a couple of squadrons of Lockheed Hudson bombers and Commonwealth CA-1 Wirraways. This last type, a locally- produced variant of the North America n T-6 Texan trainer, was originally intended for the army cooperation role. However, the situation in the NEI was so desperate that Wirraways were used as interceptors on occasion.

cooperation role. However, the situation in the NEI was so desperate that Wirraways were used as

Most of the vessels that escaped from Singapore went to Sumatra, which was itself invaded on February 14, 1942. Th e Japanese supported the invasion with a fairly large task force that included a couple of cruisers, the light carrier Ryuj o and a large number of destroyers. The British on Sumatra made several attempts to locate and bomb the Japanese fleet, but failed to damage any of the larger ships. They did, however, sink a couple of transports. These battles are represented by Mission 17 in the NEI campaign.

The ABDA flotilla sent to attack the Japanese invasion fleet and its support group met with a similar lack of success . The two naval bodies never made contact with one another. The ABDA fleet, however, suffered a number of air attacks while in the area of Banka Islan d. None of its ships were sunk but two destroyers were lightly damaged. These incidents are represented by Mission #16 in t he NEI campaign.

The only major naval battle of the NEI campaign was the Battle of Java Sea, which took place on February 27, 1942. It was a major defeat for the Allies, wh o lost two cruisers and three destroyers. Two other cruisers were damaged. The Japanese ships suffered only minor damage. The action delayed the invasio n of Java by twenty-four hours at most. Few aircraft were involved, so it is not represented in this game.

The day had not been a good one for Allied naval forces. The Japanese had sunk the USS Langley. Langley, the first American aircraft carrier (it had been reconfigured as a aircraft tender in 1937), was carrying a load of much- needed fighter aircraft to Java. The Allies had been sending aircraft from Australia to the NEI since January, and , though bombers could fly the route directly, shorter-ranged aircraft such as fighters had to stage in Timor for refueling. When the Japanese captured Timor in mid- February, the Langley, carrying a large number of P-40s to Burma, was diverted to Java to augmen t the island's defenses. She never got there. On February 26, 1942, a Japanes e patrol plane spotted the Langley about seventy-five miles

south of Tjilitjap. The captain radioed for help but no fighter aircraft were available. The Japanese lost contact when night fell but were able to relocate the vessel early the next day. At 0700 hours two formations of Mitsubishi G4M's began bombing the aircraft tender. The Langley survived the first wave but not the second. A small force of A6M2's strafed the ship while bombs rained down from the G4M's. The Langley was devastated. Her bridge was destroyed and her water mains crippled. When the P- 40's on her deck caught fire the ship was abandoned. An American destroyer rescued most of her crew, then sent her to the bottom with a torpedo. The Langley's sinking is represented by Mission A in the Java campaign.

On March 3, 1942, IJN aircraft made

another visit to Australia. On that day, a formation of A6M2's belonging to the 3rd Ku, based on a captured airfield on Timor, raided Broome, a small port city

in the Northern Territories. The raiders

attacked the local airfield and strafed seaplanes at anchor in the harbor. There were no interceptors based at Broome but one Zero was destroyed by antiaircraft fire. This incident is not represented in the campaign because the missions could not be balanced due to the lack of defending aircraft.

The IJN's only carrier raid against a target

in the NEI took place two days later,

when aircraft from the carrier Ryujo attacked Tjilitjap on the southern coast of

Java. The city was the last port on the island still under Dutch control and had

been attacked earlier in the week by IJN land-based bombers. The harbor was full

of ships loading and unloading

equipment and personnel. The carrier- based aircraft bombed the dock, seaplanes and freighters in the harbor and the city itself. Some 200 buildings were damaged and destroyed. This battle is represented by Mission C in the Java campaign.

A lucky handful of civilian and military

personnel managed to escape from Java before the island surrendered. Most went by sea but a few were able to

arrange for air transport. British, Australian and American service personnel were

evacu ated by B-17, B-24, PBY, LB-30 (a B-24 v ariant) and anything else that had the ra nge to reach Australia (some went westw ards, flying to India by way of Sumat ra—the Japanese had left some of the civ ilian airfields on that island intact) . Civilians had to rely on the comm ercial airlines—the DC-3s of KNIL M (the Dutch Indies branch of KLM) and the 'C'-class flying boats of QAN TAS (the Australian national carrier ) continued their regularly- sched uled flights between Australia and Java a lmost until the last minute.

The Ja panese air forces did not actively seek t o hinder the evacuation but,

inevit

fighte rs and Allied transports did occur. The Ja panese so completely controlled the air space over Java that any airplane ventu ing into the sky was at risk. Several militar y and civilian transports were shot down over the Indian Ocean. These inciden ts are represented by Mission 6 in the Java ca mpaign.

One o ther interesting feature of the NEI campa ign is the presence of so many ace

Although no Dutch airmen

pilots.

achiev ed ace status during the campaign, a nu mber of American, British and Japan ese fliers did. When I began writing this article I thought that I would have to create some new sk illed pilot counters to go with it. Imagine my sur prise to discover that the best aces of the

campaign were already included in

ZERO !. The funny thing is that the ace pilots

NEI

bly, encounters between Japanese

for ZE RO! were chosen only because they served in the campaigns in that game—how useful they

be in any other game or campaign was

never c onsidered.

might

RUL ES

Com ponents

This ca mpaign was designed to require only the compo nents included as inserts in this issue and from th e game ZERO! Players will need no target sheets, aircraft cards or pilot counters from any of the oth er DiF series games.

The M L-KNIL Brewster 339D was virtual ly identical to the RAF Brewster Buffal o I and USMC/USN Brewster

F2A,

conse quently no Dutch Brewster 339D aircra t cards have

both of which appear in ZERO!,

o I and USMC/USN Brewster F2A, conse quently no Dutch Brewster 339D aircra t cards have

Netherland East Indies: ZE RO!

been included with this campaign. Player s should use either the F2A or Buffalo I aircraft cards from ZERO! to represent their "Brewsters."

Mission #5 in the Java campaign actually requires four A-24 aircraft. The A-24 wa s the US Army variant of the Douglas SBD Dauntless. Use the SBD cards from ZERO! for these aircraft.

The campaign includes one new target type, the Light Carrier. This target was originally included in ZERO!, but was removed late in development. The other half of the target card contains the log for the campaigns, as well as charts for allocating planes for the two carrier strike missions. The log can be photocopied by players.

Special Rules

CARRIER STRIKES:

Java Missions B (Darwin) and C (Tjilitjap)

Procedures for the both the Tjilitjap and Darwin carrier strike missions are as follows:

1. The Japanese player secretly assigns eac h of his three waves (A, B and C) to attack a different target (1, 2, 3 or 4). He also secretly assigns each of his escort groups (D and E) to a different wave.

2. The Allied player secretly assigns each o f his interceptor groups (X and Y) to defend a different target.

3. Both players secretly assign initial altitudes for all waves, escorts and interceptors.

4. Both players reveal all of their assignments.

5. If the Allied player has assigned an interceptor group to a target that will n ot be attacked (one that did not have a wave assigned to it), he may re-assign that interceptor group to a target that will be attacked (one that did have a wave assigned to it). Only interceptor group may be assigned or reassigned to a single target.

6. Play the missions in the following order:

First play the mission involving interceptor group X.

Next play the mission involving interceptor group Y. Those missions to which an interceptor group was originally assigned have three (3) target-bound turns. Those missions to which an interceptor group was reassigned have two (2) target- bound turns. The number of target-

bound turns is NOT reduced by aircraft speed.

7. After the first two missions have been played, the Allied player may then employ any or all of his surviving interceptors to oppose the third and final Japanese wave. The surviving interceptors retain whatever damage they sustained in their earlier mission. Any surviving interceptor with a skilled pilot counter assigned to it retains that skilled pilot counter. All surviving interceptor leaders begin this third mission with a full hand of cards (contingent upon their current damage status). The interceptors may begin the third mission at any altitude (contingent upon type and damage status). The third mission has one (1) target- bound turn. This is NOT reduced by aircraft speed.

8. All missions have two (2) home-bound turns. Again, this is NOT reduced by aircraft speed.

9. Whatever resource the allied player chose when this mission was selected is not used but is considered expended.

10. Japanese aircraft carry bombs only.

expended. 10. Japanese aircraft carry bombs only. EVACUATION OF JAVA: Java Mission 6 1. The Allied

EVACUATION OF JAVA:

Java Mission 6

1. The Allied player receives one (1) PBY

and one (1) B-17E. 2.Using scratch paper, the Allied player secretly identifies which of his aircraft is carrying civilians and which is carrying military personnel.

3. The Evacuation mission has a six-turn duration.

4. Evacuation mission takes place at Medium Altitude.

5. Both the PBY and the B-17 are consid- ered "patrol aircraft" for the purposes of calculating Victory Points.

6. Allied player is awarded further VPs according to following schedule:

is awarded further VPs according to following schedule: EXODU S FROM SINGAPORE: NEI Mis sion 15
is awarded further VPs according to following schedule: EXODU S FROM SINGAPORE: NEI Mis sion 15

EXODU S FROM SINGAPORE:

NEI Mis

sion 15

The tar get for Mission 15 is always a freighte r (but the attacking aircraft vary). Each ti me that special Mission C is

selected , a

is neede d to determine the type(s) of aircraft assigned to the attack.

second random action card draw

assigned to the attack. second random action card draw If NEI Mission 15 is selected more

If NEI Mission 15 is selected more than one tim e during a campaign/phase, each attack i s considered to be against a different ship (da mage to any one target is not retained from on e attack to another). If a ship survives an attack, it is assumed to have reached its destination safely. The Allied player e arns 10 VPs for each ship that is attacked but not sunk.

FLEET ACTIONS:

NEIMis sions 16(ABDA fleet)and17(IJN fleet)

Procedu res for Fleet Actions are as follows:

Each ti me that Mission 16 or 17 is selected, a second random action card draw is needed to determi ne the specific combination of target and airc raft types involved. Draw card and refer to the Target Matrix tables (see page 33).

INVASI ON OF TARAKAN:

NEI Mi ssion 12

Each ti me that Mission 12 is selected, a second random action card draw is needed to deter mine the specific combination of target a nd aircraft types involved.

New Resources

ABDAI R Aces:

Draw on e action card to determine resource received :

of target a nd aircraft types involved. New Resources ABDAI R Aces: Draw on e action

ABDAIRfighter:

Draw one action card to determine resource

received:

Draw one action card to determine resource received: A6M2/F1M2: Japanese player receives one L/ W of

A6M2/F1M2: Japanese player receives one L/

W of A6M2 Zero fighters if attacking aircraft

are Japanese. Japanese player receives one L/W of HM2 Pete airplanes if attacking

aircraft are Allied and target is invasion forces, seaplane base, patrol (over water) or a freighter. Japanese player receives one element

of A6M2 Zero fighters if attacking aircraft are

Allied and target is ground forces, airfield, patrol (over land), small city, railyard or any type of naval target.

A6M2/Ki-43: Japanese player receives one L/

W of A6M2 fighters if attacking aircraft are

Japanese navy (G4M, G3M, B5N, D3A, Fl M2, and/or A6M2). Japanese player receives one L/ W of Ki-43 fighters if attacking aircraft are Japanese Army (Ki-21, Ki-30, and/or Ki-48). If attacking aircraft are allied, Japanese player may choose which type to play; subsequent uses of this resource will alternate Army and Navy aircraft.

A6M2/Ki-43 (Sakai/Kato): Japanese player receives one L/W of A6M2 fighters and skilled pilot Sakai if attacking aircraft are G4M, G3M,

B5N, D3A, F1M2 and/or A6M2. Japanese player receives one L/W of Ki-43 fighters and skilled pilot Kato if attacking aircraft are Ki-21, Ki-30 and/or Ki-48. If attacking aircraft are allied, draw one action card to determine resource received:

allied, draw one action card to determine resource received: Carrier Strike Darwin: Disregard mission drawn and

Carrier Strike Darwin: Disregard mission drawn and play Java Mission B, Carrier Strike Darwin, instead. Allied player does not receive the resource(s) he chose but they are considered to have been expended.

Carrier Strike Tjilitjap: Disregard mission drawn and play Java Mission C, Carrier Strike Tjilitjap, instead. Allied player does not receive the resource(s) he chose but they are considered to have been expended.

Crew Morale: May only be taken by the player who is bombing. That player receives an extra 5 VPs for each friendly bomber (Light or Medium) to have gone over the target and returned Undamaged. The opposing player receives an extra 5 VPs for each Bomber he Destroys.

Experienced Aircrews: Treat all non-Skilled Pilot counters as having a "P" Skill (this does not apply to Wingmen). All of your fighters may start the Mission carrying bombs if they are capable of doing so.

receives one L/W of Ki-43 Oscar fighters if attacking aircraft are Ki-21, Ki-30 and/or Ki- 48. Japan ese player receives one L/W of HM2 Pete airp lanes if attacking aircraft are G4M, G3M, B 5N, D3A, F1M2 and/or A6M2. Japanese player receives one L/W of HM2 Pete airp lanes if attacking aircraft are Allied a nd target is invasion forces, seaplane base, patrol (over water), freighter or any ty pe of naval target. Japanese player receives one element of Ki-43 Oscar fighters

if attacki ng aircraft are Allied and target is

ground

small cit y or railyard.

Mechani cal Problems: Draw one Action Card before th e start of the first Target-Bound turn. If a Red-bordered card is drawn the opposin g player must select one formation aircraft t o be removed from the mission. He may t hen reorganize formation. Neither player rec eives VPs for the removed aircraft.

Sneak A ttack: The opposing player may not adjust al titude, play cards respond or draw any car ds during the first turn of the

You may declare the altitude of

mission.

your air craft after viewing the opposing player's s tarting altitudes.

forces, airfield, patrol (over land),

USS La

ngley: This resource may not be

play the mission drawn; instead

used on the last mission of the campaign.

Do not

play Jav a Mission A (4x G4M, L/W A6M2 vs. CVL) . The A6M2's may carry bombs. If the CVL is sunk, no other action is necessar y. If the CVL survives the attack, the Allie d player receives one L/W of P-40E fighters a s a resource, to be used in any one later mis sion. These are in addition to the resource s listed on the campaign sheet.

Ki-43/F1M2: Japanese player
Ki-43/F1M2:
Japanese player
any one later mis sion. These are in addition to the resource s listed on the