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2006 

[GOVT SCHOOL VS NON‐
GOVT SCHOOL] 
A study on the schools of KHULNA CITY, in Bangladesh 

Prepared by- S.M Waliuzzaman,


Student, Khulna University, Khulna.
E-mail: razib.urp06@yahoo.com
Cell phone: +8801717862265
Introduction

Back ground: Bangladesh is a small country with a vast population. But most of
our people are deprived from the light of education, where education is the back bone of
a nation and no nation can prosper without education. Like all the other countries the first
step or level of education in our country is schools. The educational life of a person starts
from the school level. School is the main educational institute which takes the
responsibility to create manpower for our nation.
In our country there is a great lack of educational institute like school comparing with the
number of student. It is necessary to set up more schools in our country to spread the light
of education. It is a good news for us that the number of educational institute like school
is increasing at a high rate. Not only by the government of Bangladesh ,but also by the
non-government sector a huge program for the establishment of the school has been
undertaken. For this reason now a days a big amount of Non-Govt. schools are found in
both urban and rural area of Bangladesh.
But, now a days a very common question has been arisen that, are these schools have
proper qualifications to meet our basic educational needs? Are the teachers properly
qualified of these schools? Are the educational systems of these schools adequate for our
nation?
Every year when result of SSC examination published, it has been observed that there is a
huge difference between the result of government schools and non-government schools.
The result of government schools satisfies the nation but not the result of non-
government schools adequately. For example, the passing percentage of government
schools is in average 65% in the year of 2006 in the SSC exam and in case of non-
government schools the percentage is only 41% (Current news, august 2006).

So it is very clear from the above example that, there is a great gap in the educational
system between the government schools and non-government schools. Through this study
it will be clear that, what types of parameters are responsible for this gap and in what
degree.

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Objective of the study: The present study is aimed with the following two-
1. To test a hypothesis that will make a comparison
between government schools and non-government
school.
2. To develop some regression equation where
performance will be measured through some basic
parameters.

Limitation of the study: The present study has faced few limitation or
difficulties in the period of fieldwork. Among the different limitations educational unrest
of the schools is important one. The situation of the study area has made the informer
unhelpful and suspicion about the field visit team. Moreover, the respondents were not
friendly in giving information because of different limitation. Other limitations like lack
of fund, maintenance of time, lack of recommendation were very common.
The present study has been conducted only for academic purpose and due to time and
resources constrains the extent of the study may not be an in-depth one.

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Methodology

Selection of the study area: For the present study Khulna city was choosed. That
mean all the schools within the Khulna City Corporation (KCC) area was treated as the
whole population size.

Sampling: In the study area there are about 5 government school and above 21 non-
government schools. For the advantage of comparison, from the 21 non-government
schools, 5 non-government schools was selected by simple random sampling. The name
of the schools are given bellow-

Government Established
1. Govt. Coronation Girls’ High School 1912
2. Khulna Zilla School 1885
3. Govt. Laboratory High School 1967
4. Platinum Secondary School. 1964
5. Khulna Govt. Girls’ High school 1958

Non-government Established
1. Fatima High School, Khulna 1959
2. Khulna public college 1986
3. Paioniar girls school 1956
4. Model High school 1937
5. Metro Polish line High school 1995

Reconnaissance survey: A preliminary survey has been under taken through


consultation with the staff and the teachers of these schools in order to inform them about

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the study and to prepare them to gather the required information. It has also been made in
the study area to select educational indicator as well as to formulate an effective
questionnaire that might fit with the schools.

Data collection: Information on selected parameters has been collected through


direct field survey. In the field, these data has been collected through structured
questionnaire. For this purpose, a questionnaire has been formulated. Then a
questionnaire survey has been conducted at school level for data collection. However, in
this process, the respondent have been requested to answer the question, carefully and
honestly.

Data processing, analysis and presentation: After collection of all


required data, it has been processed and analyzed to extract and essence of the study. For
processing and analysis purpose, computer software – Ms word, Ms excel and SPSS has
been used. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency distribution, pie-chart, graphs
etc. have been used for data analysis and presentation.

Presentation of draft and final report: presentation of a report containing


all facts and findings is the final step of the study. Presentation of the study report has
been done in two phase-draft phase and final phase. A draft output has been prepared in
order to find out the missing and corrections in the study and to update them in final
report. Thus, the final report has been made.

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Testing of hypothesis:

A hypothesis is an assumption about the population parameter to be tasted on sample


information. That mean it is a statistical statement which have to proof.

Our objective is to test a hypothesis that will make a comparison between government
schools and non-government school. It is very much well known that the qualification of
the teachers of a school affects the results of the students of that schools. We shall show
the relationship of these two parameters (results of the students and qualification of the
teachers) later in this report. But let us now take a hypothesis about the qualification of
the teachers of government and non-government schools. Achievement of B.Ed degree
can be a appropriate parameter to represent the qualification of the teachers.

Number of B.Ed teacher of government schools-


Name of the school Total No of teacher No of teacher have Percentage
(N1) B.Ed degree (X1)
1. Govt. Coronation 53 48 90.5%
Girls’ High School
2.Khulna,Zilla 53 53 100%
School
3.Govt.Laboratory 26 20 77%
High School
4.Platinum 34 13 38%
Secondary School
5.Khulna,Govt. 26 24 92%
Girls’ High school
Total 192 158 82%

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Number of B.Ed teacher of non-government schools-
Name of the school Total No of teacher No of teacher have Percentage
(N2) B.Ed degree (X2)
1. Fatima High 23 9 39%
school,khulna

2.Khulna public 44 5 11%


college
3. Paioniar girls 14 9 64%
school
4. Model High 23 21 91%
school
5. Metro polish line 20 12 60%
High school.
Total 124 56 45%

Now, we shall draw a hypothesis that, there is no significant difference to the


qualification (achievement of B.Ed degree) of the teachers between the government and
non-government school.
Let P1 and P2 be the sample proportion obtained in large samples of sizes N1 and N2
drawn from respective population having proportion π1 and π2. We can test the null
hypothesis in 95% confidence level, that there is no difference between the population
proportion-
i.e, H0 : π1 = π2 [Business Statistics by Gupta and Gupta, Page-508]
Now, P1 = X1 / N1 = 158/192 =0.82
And, P2 = X2 / N2 = 56/124 =0.45

P = (N1 P1 + N2 P2 )/(N1 + N2)


= ( X1 + X2 )/ (N1 + N2 )
= (158 + 56)/ (192 + 124)
= 0.678

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The appropriate statistics to be used here is given by-

Zcalculated = ( P1 - P2 ) / √ [ P { 1-P}{ (1/N1) + (1/N2)}


= (0.82-0.45) / √ [ 0.678 { 1-0.678}{ (1/192) + (1/124)}
= 6.88

Since the computed value of Z is greater than the critical value of Z=1.96 at 95%
confidence level. That mean, here Zcalculated > Zcritical. So the value of Z is in the rejection
area.

So, the hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference to the qualification
(achievement of B.Ed degree) of the teachers between the government and non-
government school.

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Analysis of regression models

In the previous chapter it has been shown that there is a significant difference to the
qualification of the teachers of the government and non-government school which affects
the results of the students of the government and non-government school. In this chapter
the degree relationship between different variable will be shown.

1st model:
Independent variable (X) = Number of teacher has B.Ed degree
Dependent variable (Y) = Number of student passed in SSC examination (2006)

For government schools-

Serial
no of
the
school X Y x=(X-X1) y=(Y-Y1) x² y² xy
1
48 96 16.4 7 268.96 49 114.8
2
53 99 21.4 10 457.96 100 214
3
20 98 -11.6 9 134.56 81 -104.4
4
13 52 -18.6 -37 345.96 1369 688.2
5
24 100 -7.6 11 57.76 121 -83.6

N=5 ∑X=158 ∑Y=445 ∑x=0 ∑y=0 ∑x²=1265.2 ∑y²=1720 ∑xy =829

Here the mean of X = X1 = ∑X / N = 158/5 = 31.6


And the mean of Y = Y1 = ∑Y / N = 445/5 = 89

The relationship between two variable is represented by r, where-

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r = Coefficient of correlation.
Again, the change in the value of one variable will effect in the value of another variable
if this two variables are correlated. The amount of change in one variable for the change
of another variable is denoted by r².

From the above data we get, r = ∑xy / √ (∑x²∑y²)


= 829 / √ 2176144
= .5619
And r² = .315
Scatter diagram from the above data can be drawn as follows-

110

100

90

80

70
Variable Y

60

50
10 20 30 40 50 60

Variable X

So it is very clear from the value of r, r² and from the diagram that there is a strong
relationship exists between the qualification of the teacher and the SSC result of the
students within the government schools. From the curve it is easily understood that if the
number of qualified teacher increases, the number of passing student will also increase.

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Regression equation:
Serial no of X Y X² Y²
the school XY
1 48 96 2304 9216 4608
2 53 99 2809 9801 5247
3 20 98 400 9604 1960
4 13 52 169 2704 676
5 24 100 576 10000 2400

N=5 ∑X²=6258 ∑Y²=41325 ∑XY


∑X=158 ∑Y=445 =14891

The regression equation of Y, on X will be- Y= a + bX


∑Y = 445 = Na + b∑X = 5a + 158b ………..( 1 )
∑XY = 14891 = a∑X + b∑X² = 158a + 6258b ………….( 2 )
Solving the equation ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) we get, a = 68.5 and b = 0.65
So the equation is- Y = 68.5 + 0.65X

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For non-government schools-

Independent variable (X) = Number of teacher has B.Ed degree


Dependent variable (Y) = Number of student passed in SSC examination (2006)

Serial
no of
the
school X Y x=(X-X1) y=(Y-Y1) x² y² xy
1
9 97 -2.2 9.8 4.84 96.04 -21.56
2
5 100 -6.2 12.8 38.44 163.84 -79.36
3
9 87 -2.2 -0.2 4.84 0.04 0.44
4
21 62 9.8 -25.2 96.04 635.04 -246.96
5
12 90 0.8 2.8 0.64 7.84 2.24

N=5 ∑X= 56 ∑Y=436 ∑x=0 ∑y=0 ∑x²=144.8 ∑y²=902.8 ∑xy= -345.2

Here the mean of X = X1 = ∑X / N = 56/5 = 11.2


And the mean of Y = Y1 = ∑Y / N = 436/5 = 87.2
Coefficient of correlation = r
Coefficient of determination = r²

So, r = ∑xy / √ (∑x²∑y²)


= -345.2 / √ 130725.4
= - .95
and r²= .90

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Scatter diagram from the above data can be drawn as follows-

110

100

90

80

70
Variable Y

60
0 10 20 30

Variable X

In the case of non-government schools the things are different. From the value of r, r² and
from the diagram it has been proved that a very much strong relationship is exist between
the qualification of the teacher and the SSC result of the students within the non-
government schools. But in this case the relationship is negative, that mean it represent
that the result of the SSC examination depends up to the qualification of the teachers but
the nature of dependency is negative. If the number of qualified teacher increases, still
there will be a decrease in the result of the SSC.

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Regression equation

Serial no of X² Y² XY
the school X Y
1 81 9409 873
9 97
2 25 10000 500
5 100
3 81 7569 783
9 87
4 441 3844 1302
21 62
5 144 8100 900
12 90
∑X²=772 ∑Y²=38922 ∑XY=4358

N=5 ∑X= 56 ∑Y=436

The regression equation of Y, on X will be- Y= a + bX


∑Y = 436 = Na + b∑X = 5a + 56b ………..( 1 )
∑XY = 4358 = a∑X + b∑X² = 56a + 772b ………….( 2 )
Solving the equation ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) we get, a = -212 and b = 26.72
So the equation is- Y = 26.72X – 212.

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Comparison through other variable

Government schools:

Number of government school = 5 (In the sample)


Total number of student = 8296
Class 3 to 10 = 8 class for each school.
Total number of class = 40
Descriptive Statistics

Class Number Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


student student Deviation
3 to 10 40 79.00 392.00 207 84.23

The distribution pattern are given as follows-

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12

10

4
Frequency

2 Std. Dev = 84.24


Mean = 207.4
0 N = 40.00
75.0 125.0 175.0 225.0 275.0 325.0 375.0
100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0

Student

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Again highest GPA obtained in these classes are-
Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
4.50 5.00 4.9238 .11151

500

400

300
Stduent

200

100

0
4.50 4.75 4.80 4.90 5.00

Highest GPA

Average GPA obtained in those classes are-

Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
3.40 4.63 4.1473 .34495

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500

400

300

200
STUDENT

100

0
3.40 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.40 4.50 4.60
3.50 3.90 4.20 4.30 4.44 4.56 4.63

Average GPA

Number of failed student :


About 11 students fail from class 3 to 10 among the government schools.
The data are given bellow-
Descriptive Statistics
Minimum Maximum Mean Std.
Deviation
.00 59.00 11.1000 15.48167

Tuition fees:
Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
.00 24.00 9.7750 6.95586

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Non-government schools:

Number of non-government school = 5 (In the sample)


Total number of student = 2958
Class 3 to 10 = 8 class for each school.
Total number of class = 40

Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
27.00 173.00 73.9500 34.32346

The distribution pattern are given as follows-


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12

10
Frequency

2 Std. Dev = 34.32


Mean = 74.0

0 N = 40.00
20.0 60.0 100.0 140.0 180.0
40.0 80.0 120.0 160.0

Student

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Again highest GPA obtained in these classes are-
Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
4.00 5.00 4.6468 .30963

200
No of Student

100

0
4.00 4.50 4.60 4.64 4.70 4.75 4.78 4.80 5.00

Hight GPA

Average GPA obtained in those classes are-


Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
3.00 4.50 3.6235 .45715

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200

No of student

100

0
3.00 3.50 3.60 3.75 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.34 4.50

Average GPA

Number of failed student :


About 6 students fail from class 3 to 10 among the non-government schools.
The data are given bellow-
Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
.00 40.00 6.0250 8.83027

Tuition fees:
Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.


Deviation
45.00 680.00 189.3750 231.58370

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Comparison through time series analysis:

For government school:

Year wise no of A+ and average GPA in the SSC examination:


Year No of A+ Average GPA
2003 24 3.91
2004 113 3.95
2005 258 4.0
2006 274 4.0

(1). Analysis of number of A+ in the year 2007-


Year No of A+
(Y)
X XY X² Ye
2003 24
-1.5 -36 2.25 33
2004 113
-0.5 -56.5 0.25 122.5
2005 258
0.5 129 0.25 212
2006 274
1.5 411 2.25 301.5
N=4 ∑Y=669 ∑X =0 ∑XY=447.5 ∑ X²=5 ∑ Ye =669

The equation of the straight line is, Ye = a + bX


a = ∑Y / N = 669/4 =167.25
b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = 447.5/5= 89.5
So Y2007 = 167.25 + (89.5*2.5) = 391

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(2). Analysis of average GPA in the year 2007-
Year Average
GPA ( Y )
X XY X² Ye
2003 3.91
-1.5 -5.865 2.25 3.922
2004 3.95
-0.5 -1.975 0.25 3.954
2005 4
0.5 2 0.25 3.986
2006 4
1.5 6 2.25 4.018
∑ Ye
N=4 ∑Y=15.86 ∑X =0 ∑XY=0.16 ∑ X²=5 =15.88

The equation of the straight line is, Ye = a + bX


a = ∑Y / N = 15.86/4 =3.97
b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = .16/5= .032
So Y2007 = 3.97 + (.032*2.5) = 4.05

From the above time series analysis it can be predict that this year(2007) about 391
student will get A+ in the SSC examination from the government school and average
GPA of the students will be 4.05 which represent the good result of the government
schools.

For non-government school:


(1). Analysis the number of A+ in the year 2007-
Year No of A+
(Y)
X XY X² Ye
2003 19
-1.5 -28.5 2.25 19.8
2004 28
-0.5 -14 0.25 26.6
2005 33
0.5 16.5 0.25 33.4
2006 40
1.5 60 2.25 40.2
N=4 ∑Y=120 ∑X =0 ∑XY=34 ∑ X²=5 ∑ Ye =120
The equation of the straight line is, Ye = a + bX

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a = ∑Y / N = 120/4 =30
b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = 34/5= 6.8
So Y2007 = 30 + (6.8*2.5) = 47

(2). Analysis of average GPA in the year 2007-

Year Average
GPA ( Y ) X XY X² Ye
2003 3.24 -1.5 -4.86 2.25 3.248
2004 3.4 -0.5 -1.7 0.25 3.954
2005 3.4 0.5 1.7 0.25 3.986
2006 3.6 1.5 5.4 2.25 4.018
∑ Ye
N=4 ∑Y=13.64 ∑X =0 ∑XY=0.54 ∑ X²=5 =15.206

The equation of the straight line is, Ye = a + bX


a = ∑Y / N = 13.64/4 =3.41
b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = 0.54/5= .108
So Y2007 = 3.41 + (.108*2.5) = 3.64

From the above time series analysis it can be predict that this year(2007) only 47 students
will get A+ in the SSC examination from the non-government school and average GPA
of the students will be only 3.64 which represent not very good result of the non-
government schools.

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Comparison through existing facilities:
It has been observed through field survey that from the view of existing facilities both
government and non-government schools are almost same. So a depth analysis of existing
facilities is not so necessary here. The data of the existing facilities are given below-
Government schools:

Facility Library Science lab Computer lab Drinking water Tiffin


School (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk)
1. Govt. Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (40)
Coronation
Girls’ High
School (1912)

2.Khulna Zilla N Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (40)


School (1885)
3. \Govt. Y(0) Y (0) Y (10) Y (0) Y (40)
Laboratory
High School
(1967)

4. Platinum Y (0) N N Y (0) N


Secondary
School (1964)
5.Khulna Govt. Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (40)
Girls’ High
school (1958)

Non-government schools:
Facility Library Science lab Computer lab Drinking water Tiffin
(payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk)

School
1. Fatima High Y (10) Y (50) N Y (0) N
school,khulna
(1959)
2.Khulna Y (7) Y (8) Y (85) Y (0) Y (60)
public college
(1986)
3. Paioniar Y (15) Y (15) Y (15) Y (0) Y (15)
girls school
(1956)
4. Model High Y (20) Y (15) Y (15) Y (0) Y (35)
school (1937)
5.Metro polish Y(25) Y (0) Y (50) Y (0) N
High school
(1995)
Y = Facility exist and N = Facility does not exist.

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Conclusion: From the above analysis, a easy conclusion can be drawn that
government schools has created a better competition among the student and these
institution is very much success to make there student good results. There teachers are
well qualified and they are able to manage there student.
But the things are different in case of non-government schools. Though they have the
same facilities as the government schools, their results are not good as the government
schools. There teachers are not well qualified. The education cost in these schools is very
high but there is not so many possibilities for developing there results.
The number of non-government schools is increasing day by day but we should give
concentration to develop the quality of education of non-government school.

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