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76 visualizzazioni25 pagineEvery year when result of SSC examination published, it has been observed that there is a huge difference between the result of government schools and non-government schools. The result of government schools satisfies the nation but not the result of non-government schools adequately. For example, the passing percentage of government schools is in average 65% in the year of 2006 in the SSC exam and in case of non-government schools the percentage is only 41% (Current news, august 2006).

Jul 05, 2008

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Every year when result of SSC examination published, it has been observed that there is a huge difference between the result of government schools and non-government schools. The result of government schools satisfies the nation but not the result of non-government schools adequately. For example, the passing percentage of government schools is in average 65% in the year of 2006 in the SSC exam and in case of non-government schools the percentage is only 41% (Current news, august 2006).

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Every year when result of SSC examination published, it has been observed that there is a huge difference between the result of government schools and non-government schools. The result of government schools satisfies the nation but not the result of non-government schools adequately. For example, the passing percentage of government schools is in average 65% in the year of 2006 in the SSC exam and in case of non-government schools the percentage is only 41% (Current news, august 2006).

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[GOVT SCHOOL VS NON‐

GOVT SCHOOL]

A study on the schools of KHULNA CITY, in Bangladesh

Student, Khulna University, Khulna.

E-mail: razib.urp06@yahoo.com

Cell phone: +8801717862265

Introduction

Back ground: Bangladesh is a small country with a vast population. But most of

our people are deprived from the light of education, where education is the back bone of

a nation and no nation can prosper without education. Like all the other countries the first

step or level of education in our country is schools. The educational life of a person starts

from the school level. School is the main educational institute which takes the

responsibility to create manpower for our nation.

In our country there is a great lack of educational institute like school comparing with the

number of student. It is necessary to set up more schools in our country to spread the light

of education. It is a good news for us that the number of educational institute like school

is increasing at a high rate. Not only by the government of Bangladesh ,but also by the

non-government sector a huge program for the establishment of the school has been

undertaken. For this reason now a days a big amount of Non-Govt. schools are found in

both urban and rural area of Bangladesh.

But, now a days a very common question has been arisen that, are these schools have

proper qualifications to meet our basic educational needs? Are the teachers properly

qualified of these schools? Are the educational systems of these schools adequate for our

nation?

Every year when result of SSC examination published, it has been observed that there is a

huge difference between the result of government schools and non-government schools.

The result of government schools satisfies the nation but not the result of non-

government schools adequately. For example, the passing percentage of government

schools is in average 65% in the year of 2006 in the SSC exam and in case of non-

government schools the percentage is only 41% (Current news, august 2006).

So it is very clear from the above example that, there is a great gap in the educational

system between the government schools and non-government schools. Through this study

it will be clear that, what types of parameters are responsible for this gap and in what

degree.

2

Objective of the study: The present study is aimed with the following two-

1. To test a hypothesis that will make a comparison

between government schools and non-government

school.

2. To develop some regression equation where

performance will be measured through some basic

parameters.

Limitation of the study: The present study has faced few limitation or

difficulties in the period of fieldwork. Among the different limitations educational unrest

of the schools is important one. The situation of the study area has made the informer

unhelpful and suspicion about the field visit team. Moreover, the respondents were not

friendly in giving information because of different limitation. Other limitations like lack

of fund, maintenance of time, lack of recommendation were very common.

The present study has been conducted only for academic purpose and due to time and

resources constrains the extent of the study may not be an in-depth one.

3

Methodology

Selection of the study area: For the present study Khulna city was choosed. That

mean all the schools within the Khulna City Corporation (KCC) area was treated as the

whole population size.

Sampling: In the study area there are about 5 government school and above 21 non-

government schools. For the advantage of comparison, from the 21 non-government

schools, 5 non-government schools was selected by simple random sampling. The name

of the schools are given bellow-

Government Established

1. Govt. Coronation Girls’ High School 1912

2. Khulna Zilla School 1885

3. Govt. Laboratory High School 1967

4. Platinum Secondary School. 1964

5. Khulna Govt. Girls’ High school 1958

Non-government Established

1. Fatima High School, Khulna 1959

2. Khulna public college 1986

3. Paioniar girls school 1956

4. Model High school 1937

5. Metro Polish line High school 1995

consultation with the staff and the teachers of these schools in order to inform them about

4

the study and to prepare them to gather the required information. It has also been made in

the study area to select educational indicator as well as to formulate an effective

questionnaire that might fit with the schools.

direct field survey. In the field, these data has been collected through structured

questionnaire. For this purpose, a questionnaire has been formulated. Then a

questionnaire survey has been conducted at school level for data collection. However, in

this process, the respondent have been requested to answer the question, carefully and

honestly.

required data, it has been processed and analyzed to extract and essence of the study. For

processing and analysis purpose, computer software – Ms word, Ms excel and SPSS has

been used. Descriptive statistics such as mean, frequency distribution, pie-chart, graphs

etc. have been used for data analysis and presentation.

all facts and findings is the final step of the study. Presentation of the study report has

been done in two phase-draft phase and final phase. A draft output has been prepared in

order to find out the missing and corrections in the study and to update them in final

report. Thus, the final report has been made.

5

Testing of hypothesis:

information. That mean it is a statistical statement which have to proof.

Our objective is to test a hypothesis that will make a comparison between government

schools and non-government school. It is very much well known that the qualification of

the teachers of a school affects the results of the students of that schools. We shall show

the relationship of these two parameters (results of the students and qualification of the

teachers) later in this report. But let us now take a hypothesis about the qualification of

the teachers of government and non-government schools. Achievement of B.Ed degree

can be a appropriate parameter to represent the qualification of the teachers.

Name of the school Total No of teacher No of teacher have Percentage

(N1) B.Ed degree (X1)

1. Govt. Coronation 53 48 90.5%

Girls’ High School

2.Khulna,Zilla 53 53 100%

School

3.Govt.Laboratory 26 20 77%

High School

4.Platinum 34 13 38%

Secondary School

5.Khulna,Govt. 26 24 92%

Girls’ High school

Total 192 158 82%

6

Number of B.Ed teacher of non-government schools-

Name of the school Total No of teacher No of teacher have Percentage

(N2) B.Ed degree (X2)

1. Fatima High 23 9 39%

school,khulna

college

3. Paioniar girls 14 9 64%

school

4. Model High 23 21 91%

school

5. Metro polish line 20 12 60%

High school.

Total 124 56 45%

qualification (achievement of B.Ed degree) of the teachers between the government and

non-government school.

Let P1 and P2 be the sample proportion obtained in large samples of sizes N1 and N2

drawn from respective population having proportion π1 and π2. We can test the null

hypothesis in 95% confidence level, that there is no difference between the population

proportion-

i.e, H0 : π1 = π2 [Business Statistics by Gupta and Gupta, Page-508]

Now, P1 = X1 / N1 = 158/192 =0.82

And, P2 = X2 / N2 = 56/124 =0.45

= ( X1 + X2 )/ (N1 + N2 )

= (158 + 56)/ (192 + 124)

= 0.678

7

The appropriate statistics to be used here is given by-

= (0.82-0.45) / √ [ 0.678 { 1-0.678}{ (1/192) + (1/124)}

= 6.88

Since the computed value of Z is greater than the critical value of Z=1.96 at 95%

confidence level. That mean, here Zcalculated > Zcritical. So the value of Z is in the rejection

area.

So, the hypothesis is rejected. Hence, there is a significant difference to the qualification

(achievement of B.Ed degree) of the teachers between the government and non-

government school.

8

Analysis of regression models

In the previous chapter it has been shown that there is a significant difference to the

qualification of the teachers of the government and non-government school which affects

the results of the students of the government and non-government school. In this chapter

the degree relationship between different variable will be shown.

1st model:

Independent variable (X) = Number of teacher has B.Ed degree

Dependent variable (Y) = Number of student passed in SSC examination (2006)

Serial

no of

the

school X Y x=(X-X1) y=(Y-Y1) x² y² xy

1

48 96 16.4 7 268.96 49 114.8

2

53 99 21.4 10 457.96 100 214

3

20 98 -11.6 9 134.56 81 -104.4

4

13 52 -18.6 -37 345.96 1369 688.2

5

24 100 -7.6 11 57.76 121 -83.6

And the mean of Y = Y1 = ∑Y / N = 445/5 = 89

9

r = Coefficient of correlation.

Again, the change in the value of one variable will effect in the value of another variable

if this two variables are correlated. The amount of change in one variable for the change

of another variable is denoted by r².

= 829 / √ 2176144

= .5619

And r² = .315

Scatter diagram from the above data can be drawn as follows-

110

100

90

80

70

Variable Y

60

50

10 20 30 40 50 60

Variable X

So it is very clear from the value of r, r² and from the diagram that there is a strong

relationship exists between the qualification of the teacher and the SSC result of the

students within the government schools. From the curve it is easily understood that if the

number of qualified teacher increases, the number of passing student will also increase.

10

Regression equation:

Serial no of X Y X² Y²

the school XY

1 48 96 2304 9216 4608

2 53 99 2809 9801 5247

3 20 98 400 9604 1960

4 13 52 169 2704 676

5 24 100 576 10000 2400

∑X=158 ∑Y=445 =14891

∑Y = 445 = Na + b∑X = 5a + 158b ………..( 1 )

∑XY = 14891 = a∑X + b∑X² = 158a + 6258b ………….( 2 )

Solving the equation ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) we get, a = 68.5 and b = 0.65

So the equation is- Y = 68.5 + 0.65X

11

For non-government schools-

Dependent variable (Y) = Number of student passed in SSC examination (2006)

Serial

no of

the

school X Y x=(X-X1) y=(Y-Y1) x² y² xy

1

9 97 -2.2 9.8 4.84 96.04 -21.56

2

5 100 -6.2 12.8 38.44 163.84 -79.36

3

9 87 -2.2 -0.2 4.84 0.04 0.44

4

21 62 9.8 -25.2 96.04 635.04 -246.96

5

12 90 0.8 2.8 0.64 7.84 2.24

And the mean of Y = Y1 = ∑Y / N = 436/5 = 87.2

Coefficient of correlation = r

Coefficient of determination = r²

= -345.2 / √ 130725.4

= - .95

and r²= .90

12

Scatter diagram from the above data can be drawn as follows-

110

100

90

80

70

Variable Y

60

0 10 20 30

Variable X

In the case of non-government schools the things are different. From the value of r, r² and

from the diagram it has been proved that a very much strong relationship is exist between

the qualification of the teacher and the SSC result of the students within the non-

government schools. But in this case the relationship is negative, that mean it represent

that the result of the SSC examination depends up to the qualification of the teachers but

the nature of dependency is negative. If the number of qualified teacher increases, still

there will be a decrease in the result of the SSC.

13

Regression equation

Serial no of X² Y² XY

the school X Y

1 81 9409 873

9 97

2 25 10000 500

5 100

3 81 7569 783

9 87

4 441 3844 1302

21 62

5 144 8100 900

12 90

∑X²=772 ∑Y²=38922 ∑XY=4358

∑Y = 436 = Na + b∑X = 5a + 56b ………..( 1 )

∑XY = 4358 = a∑X + b∑X² = 56a + 772b ………….( 2 )

Solving the equation ( 1 ) and ( 2 ) we get, a = -212 and b = 26.72

So the equation is- Y = 26.72X – 212.

14

Comparison through other variable

Government schools:

Total number of student = 8296

Class 3 to 10 = 8 class for each school.

Total number of class = 40

Descriptive Statistics

student student Deviation

3 to 10 40 79.00 392.00 207 84.23

14

12

10

4

Frequency

Mean = 207.4

0 N = 40.00

75.0 125.0 175.0 225.0 275.0 325.0 375.0

100.0 150.0 200.0 250.0 300.0 350.0 400.0

Student

15

Again highest GPA obtained in these classes are-

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

4.50 5.00 4.9238 .11151

500

400

300

Stduent

200

100

0

4.50 4.75 4.80 4.90 5.00

Highest GPA

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

3.40 4.63 4.1473 .34495

16

500

400

300

200

STUDENT

100

0

3.40 3.75 4.00 4.25 4.40 4.50 4.60

3.50 3.90 4.20 4.30 4.44 4.56 4.63

Average GPA

About 11 students fail from class 3 to 10 among the government schools.

The data are given bellow-

Descriptive Statistics

Minimum Maximum Mean Std.

Deviation

.00 59.00 11.1000 15.48167

Tuition fees:

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

.00 24.00 9.7750 6.95586

17

Non-government schools:

Total number of student = 2958

Class 3 to 10 = 8 class for each school.

Total number of class = 40

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

27.00 173.00 73.9500 34.32346

14

12

10

Frequency

Mean = 74.0

0 N = 40.00

20.0 60.0 100.0 140.0 180.0

40.0 80.0 120.0 160.0

Student

18

Again highest GPA obtained in these classes are-

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

4.00 5.00 4.6468 .30963

200

No of Student

100

0

4.00 4.50 4.60 4.64 4.70 4.75 4.78 4.80 5.00

Hight GPA

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

3.00 4.50 3.6235 .45715

19

200

No of student

100

0

3.00 3.50 3.60 3.75 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.25 4.30 4.34 4.50

Average GPA

About 6 students fail from class 3 to 10 among the non-government schools.

The data are given bellow-

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

.00 40.00 6.0250 8.83027

Tuition fees:

Descriptive Statistics

Deviation

45.00 680.00 189.3750 231.58370

20

Comparison through time series analysis:

Year No of A+ Average GPA

2003 24 3.91

2004 113 3.95

2005 258 4.0

2006 274 4.0

Year No of A+

(Y)

X XY X² Ye

2003 24

-1.5 -36 2.25 33

2004 113

-0.5 -56.5 0.25 122.5

2005 258

0.5 129 0.25 212

2006 274

1.5 411 2.25 301.5

N=4 ∑Y=669 ∑X =0 ∑XY=447.5 ∑ X²=5 ∑ Ye =669

a = ∑Y / N = 669/4 =167.25

b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = 447.5/5= 89.5

So Y2007 = 167.25 + (89.5*2.5) = 391

21

(2). Analysis of average GPA in the year 2007-

Year Average

GPA ( Y )

X XY X² Ye

2003 3.91

-1.5 -5.865 2.25 3.922

2004 3.95

-0.5 -1.975 0.25 3.954

2005 4

0.5 2 0.25 3.986

2006 4

1.5 6 2.25 4.018

∑ Ye

N=4 ∑Y=15.86 ∑X =0 ∑XY=0.16 ∑ X²=5 =15.88

a = ∑Y / N = 15.86/4 =3.97

b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = .16/5= .032

So Y2007 = 3.97 + (.032*2.5) = 4.05

From the above time series analysis it can be predict that this year(2007) about 391

student will get A+ in the SSC examination from the government school and average

GPA of the students will be 4.05 which represent the good result of the government

schools.

(1). Analysis the number of A+ in the year 2007-

Year No of A+

(Y)

X XY X² Ye

2003 19

-1.5 -28.5 2.25 19.8

2004 28

-0.5 -14 0.25 26.6

2005 33

0.5 16.5 0.25 33.4

2006 40

1.5 60 2.25 40.2

N=4 ∑Y=120 ∑X =0 ∑XY=34 ∑ X²=5 ∑ Ye =120

The equation of the straight line is, Ye = a + bX

22

a = ∑Y / N = 120/4 =30

b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = 34/5= 6.8

So Y2007 = 30 + (6.8*2.5) = 47

Year Average

GPA ( Y ) X XY X² Ye

2003 3.24 -1.5 -4.86 2.25 3.248

2004 3.4 -0.5 -1.7 0.25 3.954

2005 3.4 0.5 1.7 0.25 3.986

2006 3.6 1.5 5.4 2.25 4.018

∑ Ye

N=4 ∑Y=13.64 ∑X =0 ∑XY=0.54 ∑ X²=5 =15.206

a = ∑Y / N = 13.64/4 =3.41

b = ∑XY / ∑ X² = 0.54/5= .108

So Y2007 = 3.41 + (.108*2.5) = 3.64

From the above time series analysis it can be predict that this year(2007) only 47 students

will get A+ in the SSC examination from the non-government school and average GPA

of the students will be only 3.64 which represent not very good result of the non-

government schools.

23

Comparison through existing facilities:

It has been observed through field survey that from the view of existing facilities both

government and non-government schools are almost same. So a depth analysis of existing

facilities is not so necessary here. The data of the existing facilities are given below-

Government schools:

School (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk)

1. Govt. Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (40)

Coronation

Girls’ High

School (1912)

School (1885)

3. \Govt. Y(0) Y (0) Y (10) Y (0) Y (40)

Laboratory

High School

(1967)

Secondary

School (1964)

5.Khulna Govt. Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (0) Y (40)

Girls’ High

school (1958)

Non-government schools:

Facility Library Science lab Computer lab Drinking water Tiffin

(payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk) (payment in tk)

School

1. Fatima High Y (10) Y (50) N Y (0) N

school,khulna

(1959)

2.Khulna Y (7) Y (8) Y (85) Y (0) Y (60)

public college

(1986)

3. Paioniar Y (15) Y (15) Y (15) Y (0) Y (15)

girls school

(1956)

4. Model High Y (20) Y (15) Y (15) Y (0) Y (35)

school (1937)

5.Metro polish Y(25) Y (0) Y (50) Y (0) N

High school

(1995)

Y = Facility exist and N = Facility does not exist.

24

Conclusion: From the above analysis, a easy conclusion can be drawn that

government schools has created a better competition among the student and these

institution is very much success to make there student good results. There teachers are

well qualified and they are able to manage there student.

But the things are different in case of non-government schools. Though they have the

same facilities as the government schools, their results are not good as the government

schools. There teachers are not well qualified. The education cost in these schools is very

high but there is not so many possibilities for developing there results.

The number of non-government schools is increasing day by day but we should give

concentration to develop the quality of education of non-government school.

25

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