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1/5/2018 Voltage in Power Electric Lines

Voltage in Power Electric Lines

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In generating station electrical power is generated at medium voltage level that ranges
from 11 kV to 25 kV. This generated power is sent to the generating step up transformer to
make the voltage level higher. From this point to the user end voltage level varies in
different levels. We can realize this voltage level variation step by step.
At 11 kV or more than that up to 25 kV voltage level is maintained at alternator stator
terminals to generate electrical power in the generating station.
This generated power is fed to the generating step up transformer to make this medium
voltage level to higher level, i.e. up to 33 kV.
Power at 33 kV is sent to the generating substation. There the transformer increases
the voltage level to 66 kV or 132 kV.
From this generating substation power is sent to the nearer substation to increase the
voltage level higher than previous. This level of voltage is increased at different
suitable levels, it may be at 400 kV or 765 kV or 1000 kV. This high voltage or extra
high voltage level is maintained to transmit the power to a long distant substation. It is
call primary transmission of power.
At the end point of primary transmission of power, in the substation, the step down
transformers are used to step down the voltage level to 132 kV. Secondary
transmission of power starts from this substation.
Power transformer at the end of the secondary transmission, just makes 132 kV
voltage level steps down to 33 kv or 11 kV as per requirement. From this point, primary
distribution of power starts to distribute power to different distribution stations.
At the end of primary distribution, the distribution stations receive this power and step
down this voltage level of 11 kV or 33 kV to 415 V (Line Voltage). From these
distribution stations to consumer ends, 415 V is kept to sustain for utilization purpose. 1/6
1/5/2018 Voltage in Power Electric Lines

Type of Power Lines

From the very beginning of power generation to the user end transmission lines are
broadly classified based on different voltage levels.

Why High Voltage is used for Long Transmission Line?

Generally long distant transmission lines are designed to operate at high voltage, extra
high or ultra high voltage level. It is because of line power loss reduction purpose.
Practically long distant transmission line resistance is comparatively more than medium
and short transmission line. Due to this higher valued transmission line resistance
considerable amount of power is lost. So we need to decrease the amount of current
through each conductor by making the operating voltage very high for same amount of
power transmission.
We know that the power in AC system to transmit is

Total power loss PLoss = 3IL2R considering three phases altogether.

R is the resistance in ohm per phase of the transmission line.
Now, rearranging Equation (1) we get,

So, 2/6
1/5/2018 Voltage in Power Electric Lines

Again in DC system, there is no phase difference between voltage and current, i.e. cosƟ =
1, and only two conductors (positive and negative) are used. So, in DC system transmitted
power P = VI, and power loss

From equation (2) and (3), it is clear that power loss in transmission line is inversely
proportional to the square of line voltage. The higher value of line voltage the lesser
amount of power loss occurs. Hence transmission line conductor is used with less
diameter, hence savings of conductor material.
Why HVAC is Used for Long Transmission Line?
Now-a-days electrical energy is generated, transmitted and distributed in AC form.
Especially for long distant transmission line high voltage AC is transmitted for several
reasons, they are:
1. AC voltage can be stepped up or down as per requirement easily by transformer.
2. Maintenance of AC substation is easy and cheaper.
3. Throughout electrical power system AC voltage is handled. So no extra hazard of
rectification or inversion like DC voltage transmission.
Why HVDC is Used for Long Transmission Line?
High Voltage DC is used at extra or ultra high voltage level. HVDC transmission is used at
fixed level of voltage in primary transmission only as it cannot be stepped up or down by
transformer. Only in long distant transmission line it is used only, because
1. Only two conductors (positive and negative) are required as compared to three of AC
2. Absence of inductance, capacitance and phase displacement power loss is very less.
Hence better voltage regulation.
3. Surge problem never occurs.
4. No skin effect.
5. Less insulation requires due to less potential stress.
6. Less corona effect, thus less power loss.
7. Highly stabilized and synchronized.
Why Low and Medium Voltage is Used in Distribution Line? 3/6
1/5/2018 Voltage in Power Electric Lines

In primary distribution, power is handled at 11 kV or 33 kV. As voltage level gets stepped

down from 132 kV to 11 kV or 33 kV, current level gets higher valued. But this high valued
current distributed among various local distribution stations (distribution transformers)
nearby. These distribution transformers again steps down the voltage to 415 V. It is
because; Power at 415 V is used at the user end. Distance between these distribution
transformers and the primary distribution stations is very short, hence conductor
resistance is not large. Very small amount of power is lost in this section.
Disadvantages of AC or HVAC Transmission
The main disadvantages of AC transmission are
1. AC lines require more conductor material than DC.
2. AC transmission line construction is more complicated than DC.
3. Effective resistance is increased due to skin effect, hence power loss.
4. Continuous power loss due to charging current because of line capacitance.
Disadvantages of DC or HVDC Transmission
The main disadvantages of DC transmission are
1. Electric power is not generated in HVDC form due to commutation problem. Only
HVDC is achieved for transmission from HVAC by rectification. So special arrangement
is required for this conversion.
2. DC voltage cannot be stepped up or down for transmission.
3. DC switches and circuit breakers are expensive and with certain limitations. 4/6