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Ericsson Internal

DESCRIPTION 1 (3)
Prepared (Subject resp) No.

David McKechnie
Approved (Document resp) Checked Date Rev Reference

2013-03-05 PA1

PIM Calculator v2

1 Overview / Background
Passive Intermodulation (PIM) is a fault condition that can exist in any RF antenna chain. It
is typically caused by faults in passive components: antenna elements, connectors,
feeders or any other high-power carrying component with metal junctions – hence the
nickname “the rusty bolt effect”.

Two or more high power input frequencies (i.e.: co-located WCDMA and GSM DL signals
operating in different frequency bands) can produce harmonics and products outside the
expected transmission range. If the PIM product falls into the UL band either system (or a
third co-located system) it will bypass the input filter and has the potential to generate
significant UL noise.

For more information, see:

http://www.radio-electronics.com/info/rf-technology-design/passive-intermodulation-
pim/basics-tutorial.php

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rusty_bolt_effect

2 PIM Calculator
If this carriers for a given site configuration are known, it becomes possible to explore the
potential impact for various PIM scenarios. This allows:

 Proactive identification of potential problems

 Quick identification of unexpected UL noise rise root cause


Ericsson Internal
DESCRIPTION 2 (3)
Prepared (Subject resp) No.

David McKechnie
Approved (Document resp) Checked Date Rev Reference

2013-03-05 PA1

3 Using PIM Calculator

The screenshot above shows the input window for this tool. Right click any cell to add
rows. You must enter at least 2 systems, specifying a center frequency (in MHz),
bandwidth (in MHz) and whether the carrier is DL (source) or UL (victim). The fictional
example above has three downlink carriers in total and two uplink ranges.

Uplink ranges will not be included as inputs into PIM calculations. Instead, if any products
are found in these bands they will be automatically highlighted in the report.

Choose the min and max output range, and then click go. Save the report and open in
Firefox or Chrome (not Internet Explorer).

If you have a significant number of inputs (10+) it may take up to 5 minutes to complete.

The report contains a table and interactive chart of potential PIM products (2nd, 3rd and 5th
order). The table can be sorted by clicking on heading titles. If you have a large number of
results the chart may become unstable, especially when zooming. You can improve
performance by limiting the min / max frequency, and running again.

If you have defined UL bands, any products that fall into these ranges will be highlighted in
the table.
Ericsson Internal
DESCRIPTION 3 (3)
Prepared (Subject resp) No.

David McKechnie
Approved (Document resp) Checked Date Rev Reference

2013-03-05 PA1