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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 GENERAL BACKGROUND

A composite material can be defined as a combination of two or more materials that results in

better properties than those of the individual components used alone. In contrast to metallic

alloys, each material retains its separate chemical, physical, and mechanical properties.

The two constituents are a reinforcement and a matrix. The main advantages of composite

materials are their high strength and stiffness, combined with low density, when compared

with bulk materials, allowing for a weight reduction in the finished part.

The reinforcing phase provides the strength and stiffness. In most cases, the reinforcement is

harder, stronger, and stiffer than the matrix. The reinforcement is usually a fibre or a

particulate. Particulate composites have dimensions that are approximately equal in all

directions. They may be spherical, platelets, or any other regular or irregular geometry.

Particulate composites tend to be much weaker and less stiff than continuous fibre

composites, but they are usually much less expensive. Particulate reinforced composites

usually contain less reinforcement (up to 40 to 50 volume percent) due to processing

difficulties and brittleness.

A fibre has a length that is much greater than its diameter. The length-to-diameter (l/d) ratio is

known as the aspect ratio and can vary greatly. Continuous fibres have long aspect ratios,

while discontinuous fibres have short aspect ratios. Continuous-fibre composites normally

have a preferred orientation, while discontinuous fibres generally have a random orientation.

Examples of continuous reinforcements include unidirectional, woven cloth, and helical

winding, while examples of discontinuous reinforcements are chopped fibres and random

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mat. Continuous-fibre composites are often made into laminates by stacking single sheets of

continuous fibres in different orientations to obtain the desired strength and stiffness

properties with fibre volume.

Owing to their favourable performance characteristics composite materials have been gaining

wide use in commercial, military, and space applications. There is some concern, however,

that the mechanical properties of such materials may suffer when the material is exposed to

moisture for long periods of time. Therefore, in order to utilize the full potential of composite

materials their response to moist environments must be known.

A critical aspect of using epoxy matrix in composites materials is their performance in

moisture environments. It is well-known that the moisture has significant effects on their

physical and chemical properties of epoxy matrix as well as on their final performance of

composite structures especially in their long-term utilization. The absorbed water usually

depresses the glass-transition temperature Tg by plasticizing the polymer network and also

affects mechanical performance and long-term durability of high performance composites.

The incorporation of two or more types of fibre into a single matrix has led to the

development of hybrid composites. The performance of these hybrid composites are

determined by many factors, such as the matrix, length and shape of individual fibres, fibre–

matrix interface bonding, and volume fraction of the natural/ synthetic fibres. Previous

studies have studied the effect of varying the amount of fibre loading on the mechanical

properties of hybrid composites consisting of natural fibres and glass fibre. These include

bamboo/glass, sisal/glass, kenaf/glass, okra/glass and jute/glass hybrid composites. Mishra et

al. reported that the water uptake of hybrid composites is lower than that of un-hybridized

composites.

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Moisture absorption increases with increasing fibre loading. It was investigated the

relationship between the moisture absorption of pineapple-leaf fibre reinforced low density

polyethylene (LDPE) composites and the fibre loadings.

Fig.1.1 Carbon composite.

1.1.1 Carbon-Epoxy Composite

Carbon-epoxy composites are widely accepted for use as primary aerospace components and

in other structural applications due to their high performance characteristics. In service these

components are generally exposed to environments usually involving temperature and

humidity. Over the past few years, a great deal of experimental evidence has been collected to

demonstrate that both physical and mechanical properties of composite materials can be

strongly affected during hygrothermal ageing, affecting the composite performance. Carbon-

epoxy composites do absorb moisture by a diffusion process and it is necessary to understand

their behaviour under varied environmental conditions, of which the hygrothermal factor is of

vital importance.

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Because carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are being considered as structural materials

it is necessary to determine the extent to which their favourable properties are retained in

adverse natural environments. The good chemical resistance of carbon fibres has been

dem0nstrated.l Being relatively inert when compared to glass and other fibres they offer the

prospect of improved environmental performance. Quantitative information is necessary in

order to give confidence to the designer and user. It is also necessary to develop life

prediction techniques and an understanding of the degradation mechanisms. Investigations

izto the effect of water on carbon fibre reinforced plastics have indicated the strong

dependence of inter-laminar shear strength (ILSS) of the composite on the resin matrix and

the void content of the composite. During these studies water pick-up measurements were

made after immersion at elevated temperatures and in the present paper this data is analysed

in an attempt to develop an understanding of the absorption mechanism.

Long term exposures to moisture of carbon-epoxy laminates were conducted to determine

diffusion coefficients and have been reported. The use of accelerated moisture conditioning

of graphite-epoxy composite and the comparison with regular conditioning was discussed.

Although many investigators have studied epoxy systems reinforced with various types of

fibres and fillers, there exists the capacity for further investigations. The adhesive bonding

between fibre and matrix is very important as it controls the interface profile in terms of voids

and pores, which can greatly affect the absorption according to the mechanisms previously

discussed. Moreover, a wide scatter of Tg values for given epoxy systems is reported in the

literature. Frequently, the variation in Tg is explained by differences associated with the

material preparation. However, from experimental data in the literature, the effects of

hygrothermal history (i.e., exposure to moisture and temperature) on Tg are also quite

significant.

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1.1.2 Glass-Epoxy Composite

Glass-Epoxy composite is a type of fibre-reinforced plastic where the reinforcement fibre is

specifically glass fibre. The glass fibre may be randomly arranged, flattened into a sheet, or

woven into a fabric. The plastic matrix may be a thermoset polymer matrix – most often

based on thermosetting polymers such as epoxy, polyester resin, or vinyl ester - or

a thermoplastic. Fibre glass is unique in its strength and yet it is light weight.

The glass fibres are made of various types of glass depending upon the fibre glass use. These

glasses all contain silica or silicate, with varying amounts of oxides of calcium, magnesium,

and sometimes boron. To be used in fiberglass, glass fibres have to be made with very low

levels of defects.

Fibre glass is a strong lightweight material and is used for many products. Although it is not

as strong and stiff as composites based on carbon fibre, it is less brittle, and its raw materials

are much cheaper. Its bulk strength and weight are also better than many metals, and it can be

more readily moulded into complex shapes. Applications of fiberglass include aircraft, boats,

automobiles, bath tubs and enclosures, swimming pools, hot tubs, septic tanks, water tanks,

roofing, pipes, cladding, casts, surfboards, and external door skins.

Other common names for fiberglass are glass-reinforced plastic (GRP), glass-fibre reinforced

plastic (GFRP) or GFK. Because glass fibre itself is sometimes referred to as "fibre glass",

the composite is also called "fiberglass reinforced plastic." This article will adopt the

convention that "fiberglass" refers to the complete glass fibre reinforced composite material,

rather than only to the glass fibre within it.

.Unlike glass fibres used for insulation, for the final structure to be strong, the fibre's surfaces

must be almost entirely free of defects, as these permit the fibres to reach gigapascal tensile

strengths. If a bulk piece of glass were defect-free, it would be equally as strong as glass

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fibres; however, it is generally impractical to produce and maintain bulk material in a defect-

free state outside of laboratory conditions.

The process of manufacturing fiberglass is called pultrusion. The manufacturing process for

glass fibres suitable for reinforcement uses large furnaces to gradually melt

the silica sand, limestone, kaolin clay, fluorspar, colemanite, dolomite and other minerals to

liquid form. It is then extruded through bushings, which are bundles of very small orifices.

An individual structural glass fibre is both stiff and strong in tension and compression—that

is, along its axis. Although it might be assumed that the fibre is weak in compression, it is

actually only the long aspect ratio of the fibre which makes it seem so; i.e., because a typical

fibre is long and narrow, it buckles easily. On the other hand, the glass fibre is weak in shear

—that is, across its axis. Therefore, if a collection of fibres can be arranged permanently in a

preferred direction within a material, and if they can be prevented from buckling in

compression, the material will be preferentially strong in that direction.

Unidirectional glass reinforced polymer (GRP) composites have become a popular alternative

to porcelain in the manufacture of high voltage insulators. Their mechanical and electrical

properties are of great importance, and both these factors will greatly depend on the presence

of moisture in the composites.

1.1.3 Hybrid Composite

The use of two or more fibres in a polymeric matrix or the use of multiple matrix leads to

formation of hybrid polymeric matrix composites. Hybridization avoids complex lay-up

designs and provides better tuning compatibility to get desired properties in comparison with

their mono-fibre counterpart. This is expected as hybridisation provides additional degrees of

freedom to the designer in designing composite materials because of contrasting properties of

additional fibre. The characteristics of hybrid composites, where more than one type of fibre

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is employed, are governed by a more complex behaviour of the interfacial properties. The

present study is on carbon–glass epoxy hybridisation. These materials have the potential for

extensive use in space launch vehicles like inter-tank truss members, thermal

isolators/bridges, satellite solar panels, pressure vessels, etc.

1.1.4 Immersion Liquids

In this study mainly two immersion liquids are used for moisture absorption of the composite.

They are distilled water, acidic solution.

Distilled water is water that has had many of its impurities removed through distillation.

Distillation involves boiling the water and then condensing the steam into a clean container.

In chemical and biological laboratories, as well as in industry, cheaper alternatives such as

deionized water are preferred to distilled water. But if these alternatives are not pure enough,

distilled water is used. If exceptionally high purity water is required, double distilled water is

used.

Distilled water is also commonly used to top off lead acid batteries used in cars and trucks.

The presence of other ions commonly found in tap water will drastically reduce an

automobile battery’s lifespan.

Distilled water is preferable to tap water for use in automotive cooling systems. The minerals

and ions typically found in tap water can be corrosive to internal engine components, and can

cause a faster depletion of the anti-corrosion additives found in most antifreeze formulations..

This acidic solution is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water,

and other trace chemicals, which may include flavourings. The acetic acid is produced by the

fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. It is now mainly used as a cooking ingredient,

or in pickling. As the most easily manufactured mild acid, it has historically had a great

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variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses, some of which (such as its use as a general

household cleaner) are still commonly practiced today.

Commercially it is produced either by a fast or a slow fermentation processes. In general,

slow methods are used in traditional solutions where fermentation proceeds slowly over the

course of a few months or up to a year. The longer fermentation period allows for the

accumulation of a non-toxic slime composed of acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add

bacterial culture to the source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest

fermentation. In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced between 20 hours to

three days.

1.1.5 Applications Of Composites

Carbon fibre is most notably used to reinforce composite materials, particularly the class of

materials known as carbon fibre or graphite reinforced polymers. Non-polymer materials can

also be used as the matrix for carbon fibres. Due to the formation of

metal carbides and corrosion considerations, carbon has seen limited success in metal matrix

composite applications. Reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) consists of carbon fibre-reinforced

graphite, and is used structurally in high-temperature applications. The fibre also finds use

in filtration of high-temperature gases, as an electrode with high surface area and

impeccable corrosion resistance, and as an anti-static component. Moulding a thin layer of

carbon fibres significantly improves fire resistance of polymers or thermoset composites

because a dense, compact layer of carbon fibres efficiently reflects heat. Glass composite is

also used in the telecommunications industry for shrouding antennas, due to

its RF permeability and low signal attenuation properties. It may also be used to conceal other

equipment where no signal permeability is required, such as equipment cabinets

and steel support structures, due to the ease with which it can be moulded and painted to

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blend with existing structures and surfaces. Other uses include sheet-form electrical insulators

and structural components commonly found in power-industry products.

Fig.1.2. Carbon composite car hood.

1.2 OBJECTVES OF THE RESEARCH

The objectives of research are:

 To fabricate the composites.

 To find the amount of moisture absorbed by composites in liquid immersion

period.

 To find the tensile and flexural strength in dry and wet conditions.

 To compare the tensile and flexural strength in dry and wet conditions.
 To find the tensile and flexural strength reduction.

CHAPTER 2
9
LITERATURE REVIEW

There has been some study about moisture absorption and mechanical degradation of

composites in general.

Ridzuan et.al. reported that the effect of moisture absorption on the mechanical degradation

of hybrid Pennisetum purpureum/glass–epoxy composites. Following 50 h of water

immersion, the hybrid composite specimens were tested. The tensile and flexural properties

significantly degraded under wet conditions. Similar results were also observed for their

moduli. The tensile and flexural strength of the P. purpureum/glass–epoxy composites were

degraded in wet conditions. [8]

Londhe et.al. investigated that natural fibres are widely used in the area of composite material

applications because of their low density, low cost and acceptable specific mechanical

properties. However natural fibres have some disadvantages such as the poor water resistance

due to hydrophilic cellulose fibres resulting in poor mechanical properties. The effect of

coatings on reduction in moisture absorption for jute-epoxy composite is presented in this

current work. [2]

Stark et.al. reported that wood-plastic composites are being examined for a greater number of

structural- type applications that may be exposed to different environments, some of them

adverse. Tensile properties and notched impact strengths decreased only for

composites placed in a water bath. Decrease of tensile and flexural properties in the

most extreme case, the water soak. [11]

Pe´rez-Pacheco et.al. showed that carbon fibre/epoxy unidirectional laminated composite was

exposed to a humid environment and the effect of moisture absorption on the mechanical

properties and failure modes was investigated. The composites were exposed to three

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humidity conditions, at a constant temperature of 25 Degree Celsius. The carbon fibre–epoxy

laminated composites for two different carbon fibre surface treatments were used. The results

showed that the mechanical properties differ considerably for each fibre surface treatment. [7]

Loos et.al. examined that moisture absorption of graphite/epoxy composites immersed in

liquid and humid air. The amount of moisture absorbed by material immersed in distilled

water and in saturated salt water depends both on the immersion time and on temperature. [3]

Akbar et.al. investigated that Moisture diffusion studies were carried out on the carbon-epoxy

composite have been performed for three different cases with respect to different relative

humidity(RH), to find out moisture absorption as a function of relative humidity. Moisture

absorption was correlated to the fracture mode of the laminate demonstrating the deleterious

effect of moisture on the interface which leads to de-bonding between fibre and matrix. The

maximum moisture content increased with the increase in relative humidity. The diffusivity

remains practically the same for all hydrothermal conditions considered. [1]

Kumosa et.al. reported the composites were exposed to a moist environment with a relative

humidity at a certain temperature, and their resistance to moisture absorption in terms of the

rate of moisture absorption, maximum moisture content and apparent diffusivities was

determined. The modified polyester based composites exhibited the worst moisture

absorption performance. The epoxy-based materials had adequate rates of absorption,

however these materials did not reach equilibrium and kept slowly taking on more moisture

in a non-Fickian manner.[5]

Praveen et.al. investigated that hybridization avoids complex lay-up designs and provides

better tuning compatibility to get desired properties in comparison with their mono-fibre

counterpart. The characteristics of hybrid composites, where more than one type of fibre is

employed, are governed by a more complex behaviour of the interfacial properties.[6]

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Selzer et.al. examined that the effect of moisture on the mechanical properties and the failure

behaviour of fibre-reinforced polymer composites were investigated. Moisture was

introduced into the specimens by immersion in distilled water the distinct fall of the matrix-

and interface-based values due to moisture can be ascribed to the weakening of bonding

between fibre and matrix and softening of the matrix material. The epoxy matrix becomes

softer with moisture absorption, and the fibre-matrix adhesion poorer. [9]

In this study, the moisture absorption and mechanical degradation of carbon-epoxy

composites were examined. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a study has

been conducted on this specific composites and this study should provide new information to

the research community.

CHAPTER 3

MATERIALS USED

There are many materials used in completing this study. They are listed & explained below.

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3.1 CARBON FIBRE

Carbon fibre is most notably used to reinforce composite materials, particularly the class of

materials known as carbon fiber or graphite reinforced polymers. These were bought from

Hindoostan Composite Solutions. They are cut into length that is required according to

ASTM standards.

Fig.3.1. Carbon fibre fabric.

3.2 GLASS FIBRE

Glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) is a composite material or fibre-reinforced plastic made of

a plastic reinforced by fine glass fibres. These were bought from Hindoostan Composite

Solutions. They are cut into length that is required according to ASTM standards.

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Fig.3.2. Glass fibre fabric.

3.3 EPOXY AND HARDENER

Epoxies are used in producing fibre-reinforced or composite parts. The epoxy used are

Araldite standard epoxy resin and hardener.

3.4 BEAKERS

The composite after it is cut into required size they are immersed in the immersion liquids

inside beakers. There should be at least two beakers as there is two different immersion

liquids. They should be able to be tightly sealed to prevent leakage of the solution.

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3.5 HANDHELD CUTTER

The composite is needed to cut it into specific dimensions. This was achieved with the help of

hand held metal cutter. This helped cutting composite into the specific dimension and

required numbers of specimen.

3.6 IMMERSION SOLUTIONS

In this the composite is immersed in two different solutions. They are distilled water and

acidic solution. They are poured into beakers and the composite is immersed in the solution

and the beakers are tightly closed to prevent leaking.

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CHAPTER 4
METHODOLOGY

Review of literature

Selection of fibres

Carbon Glass

Fabrication

Cutting of composite according to ASTM


standards

Immersion of composite

Distilled water Acidic solution

16
A

Tensile Testing

Record results

Compare results

Conclusion

Literature review was conducted; various journals, review papers, and books were read. Then

fibres required to make the composite was selected. Carbon and glass were the selected

fibres. Then hand lapping was selected as fabrication method. Composites are fabricated.

Carbon, glass and hybrid composites. The composites are then cut according to ASTM

standards. Then the specimens are immersed in distilled water and acidic solution for 50

hours. They are taken out and tested for tensile strength in an UTM. Results are recorded and

compared. From the compared results conclusions are formed.

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CHAPTER 5

FABRICATION

It is a process that involves some form of moulding, to shape the resin and reinforcement.

The most basic fabrication method for composites is hand layup. This is the method that is

being used here. Firstly fibre is cut at 300x300x.50 mm. Mixture of epoxy resin and hardener

in the 10:1 ratio is taken. Then two tile pieces are taken, one is placed as a base. On top of it

paper is placed. On top of that one strip of fibre is taken and the adequate mixture is spread

upon it. Then next layer is taken and process is repeated until required thickness is achieved.

Fig.5.1 Epoxy resin being applied on hybrid composite.

Then another paper is placed on top of it and another tile is placed on top of it. Then on top of

the tiles a load is placed on it for compression process for composite to be set.

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Fig.5.2. Load being applied.

Fig.5.3. Fabricated carbon composite.

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The load is left on top of it for 24 hours. Composite fabricated is taken out from between the

tiles. Edges of the composite is trimmed to remove the dried up epoxy resin at edges. The

process is repeated to fabricate the required number and type of composites.

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CHAPTER 6

EXPERIMENTATION

Composites taken for testing is cut into specification required according to the ASTM

standards. It is cut into 250x25x3 mm. Several pieces of required specification are cut.

Fig.6.1. Composite test specimens.

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Specimens with 250x25x3 mm were immersed in liquids at room temperature for up to 50

hours. One specimen is immersed in distilled water and other is immersed in acidic solution.

The both dry and wet specimens are weighed after 50 hours using an using digital balance

and weights are recorded.

Composite specimens are tested by attaching them in universal testing machine. This helps in

determining the strength of the composite material subjected to a simple stretching operation

before moisture absorption and after moisture absorption. Tensile strength of composite in

each condition is recorded.

For bending test specimen is fixed at two points and a load is applied at the middle until

specimen breaks, the load applied is noted. This operation is done before and after moisture

absorption. Flexural strength of composites in each condition is recorded.

Fig.6.2. Tensile testing.

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Fig.6.3. Tensile tested specimen.

Fig.6.4. Flexural testing.

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Fig.6.5. Flexural tested specimen.

5.1 EQUATIONS USED

The mass change of the samples was recorded after 50 hours. The moisture uptake, expressed

as the percentage weight gain, is given as:

Where

M0 - Mass of dry sample

Mt - Mass of wet sample

Tensile strength reduction percentage is given as:

Tensile Strength Dry −Tensile Strength Wet


Tensile Strength Dry
x 100

24
Flexural strength reduction percentage is given as:

Flexural Strength Dry −Flexural Strength Wet


x 100
Flexural Strength Dry

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CHAPTER 7

RESULTS

7.1 MOISTURE ABSORPTION

7.1.1 Carbon Composite

Weight and moisture absorption percentage of specimens are recorded.

Table.7.1. Weight And Moisture Absorption Percentage Of Carbon Composites.

Conditions Weight (gm) Moisture Absorption (%)


Dry 53 0
Wet(Distilled Water) 56.2 6.03
Wet(Acidic Solution) 57.3 8.11

Object 7

Fig.7.1. Moisture absorption percentage of carbon composites

7.1.2 Glass Composite

Weight and moisture absorption percentage of specimens are recorded.

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Table.7.2. Weight And Moisture Absorption Percentage Of Glass Composites.

Condition Weight (gm) Moisture Absorption (%)


Dry 47 0
Wet(Distilled Water) 49.8 5.96
Wet(Acidic Solution) 50.8 8.08

Object 9

Fig.7.2. Moisture absorption percentage of glass composites

7.1.3 Hybrid Composite

Weight and moisture absorption percentage of specimens are recorded.

Table.7.3. Weight And Moisture Absorption Percentage Of Hybrid Composites.

Condition Weight (gm) Moisture Absorption (%)

27
Dry 51 0
Wet(Distilled Water) 54 5.88
Wet(Acidic Solution) 55.1 8.03

Object 11

Fig.7.3. Moisture absorption percentage of hybrid composites

7.2 TENSILE TESTING

Tensile testing for carbon, glass and hybrid composite specimen are done and results for the

same are recorded.

7.2.1 Tensile Strength Of Carbon Composite

Tensile strength of carbon composite in dry, distilled water and acidic solution conditions are

found out. It is done so by dividing ultimate or peak load by cross sectional area.

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Object 13

Fig.7.4. Tensile strength of carbon composite.

The tensile strength of carbon composite is maximum when it is in dry condition it is because

mechanical properties of the composite has not been impaired by the moisture. In wet

conditions it has been impaired.

7.2.2 Tensile Strength Of Glass Composite

Tensile strength of glass composite in dry, distilled water and acidic solution conditions are

found out. It is done so by dividing ultimate or peak load by cross sectional area.

29
Object 15

Fig.7.5. Tensile strength of glass composite.

The tensile strength of glass composite is maximum when it is in dry condition it is because

mechanical properties of the composite has not been impaired by the moisture. In wet

conditions it has been impaired.

7.2.3 Tensile Strength Of Hybrid Composite

Tensile strength of hybrid composite in dry, distilled water and acidic solution conditions are
found out. It is done so by dividing ultimate or peak load by cross sectional area.

30
Object 17

Fig.7.6. Tensile strength of hybrid composite.

The tensile strength of hybrid composite is maximum when it is in dry condition it is because

mechanical properties of the composite has not been impaired by the moisture. In wet

conditions it has been impaired.

7.2.4 Tensile Strength Comparison Between Composites

Tensile strength of the composite is the highest when it is in the dry condition.

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Object 20

Fig.7.7. Tensile strength comparison between composites


Tensile strength of carbon is higher than glass and hybrid due to its fibre having higher tensile

strength.

7.2.5 Tensile Strength Reduction In Carbon Composite

Tensile strength in carbon composite reduces with moisture absorption.

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Object 23

Fig.7.8. Tensile strength reduction in carbon composite.

Tensile strength reduces more in acidic solution when compared to distilled water because

more acidic solution was absorbed into the composite.

7.2.6 Tensile Strength Reduction In Glass Composite

Tensile strength in glass composite reduces with moisture absorption.

33
Object 25

Fig.7.9. Tensile strength reduction In glass composite.

Tensile strength reduces more in acidic solution when compared to distilled water because

more acidic solution was absorbed into the composite.

7.2.7 Tensile Strength Reduction In Hybrid Composite

Tensile strength in carbon composite reduces with moisture absorption.

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Object 27

Fig.7.10. Tensile strength reduction in hybrid composite.

Tensile strength reduces more in acidic solution when compared to distilled water because

more acidic solution was absorbed into the composite.

7.2.8 Tensile Strength Reduction Due To Distilled Water

Tensile strength reduction due to distilled water vary with each composite.

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Object 30

Fig.7.11. Tensile strength reduction due to distilled water.

Tensile strength reduction is not uniform across different composite. It is dependent upon the

material used for the composite.

7.2.9 Tensile Strength Reduction Due To Acidic Solution

Tensile strength reduction due to acidic solution vary with each composite.

36
Object 32

Fig.7.12. Tensile strength reduction due to acidic solution.

Tensile strength reduction is not uniform across different composite. It is dependent upon the

material used for the composite.

7.3 FLEXURAL TESTING

37
Flexural testing for carbon, glass and hybrid composite has been done. The results are

recorded.

7.3.1 Flexural Strength Of Carbon Composite

Flexural strength of carbon composite has been found out. It is done so from the load applied

and dimensions of the specimen used.

Object 34

Fig.7.13. Flexural strength of carbon composite.

The flexural strength of carbon composite is maximum when it is in dry condition it is

because mechanical properties of the composite has not been impaired by the moisture. In

wet conditions it has been impaired.

7.3.2 Flexural Strength Of Glass Composite

38
Flexural strength of glass composite has been found out. It is done so from the load applied

and dimensions of the specimen used.

Object 36

Fig.7.14. Flexural strength of glass composite.

The flexural strength of glass composite is maximum when it is in dry condition it is because

mechanical properties of the composite has not been impaired by the moisture. In wet

conditions it has been impaired.

7.3.3. Flexural Strength Of Hybrid Composite

39
Flexural strength of hybrid composite has been found out. It is done so from the load applied

and dimensions of the specimen used.

Object 38

Fig.7.15. Flexural strength of hybrid composite.

The flexural strength of hybrid composite is maximum when it is in dry condition it is

because mechanical properties of the composite has not been impaired by the moisture. In

wet conditions it has been impaired.

7.3.4. Flexural Strength Comparison Between Composites

40
Flexural strength of composites is highest when it is in dry condition.

Object 40

Fig.7.16. Flexural strength comparison between composites.

Flexural strength of carbon is higher than glass and hybrid due to its fibre having higher

flexural strength.

7.3.5 Flexural Strength Reduction In Carbon Composite

41
Flexural strength of carbon composite reduces with moisture absorption.

Object 42

Fig.7.17. Flexural strength reduction in carbon composite.

Flexural strength reduces more in acidic solution when compared to distilled water because

more acidic solution was absorbed into the composite.

7.3.6 Flexural Strength Reduction In Glass Composite

42
Flexural strength of glass composite reduces with moisture absorption.

Object 44

Fig.7.18. Flexural strength reduction in glass composite.

Flexural strength reduces more in acidic solution when compared to distilled water because

more acidic solution was absorbed into the composite.

7.3.7 Flexural Strength Reduction In Hybrid Composite

43
Flexural strength of hybrid composite reduces with moisture absorption.

Object 46

Fig.7.19. Flexural strength reduction in hybrid composite.

Flexural strength reduces more in acidic solution when compared to distilled water because

more acidic solution was absorbed into the composite.

7.3.8 Flexural Strength Reduction Due To Distilled Water

44
Flexural strength reduction due to distilled water vary with each composite.

Object 48

Fig.7.20. Flexural strength reduction due to distilled water.

Flexural strength reduction is not uniform across different composite. It is dependent upon

the material used for the composite.

7.3.9 Flexural Strength Reduction Due To Acidic Solution

45
Flexural strength reduction due to acidic solution vary with each composite.

Object 50

Fig.7.21. Flexural strength reduction due to acidic solution.

Flexural strength reduction is not uniform across different composite. It is dependent upon

the material used for the composite.

CHAPTER 8

46
CONCLUSIONS

The conclusions obtained from the study are as follows

 Carbon, glass and hybrid composites all absorb moisture in wet condition and they all

absorb more moisture when it is acidic solution compared to distilled water.


 Tensile and flexural strength becomes impaired under moisture absorption condition

and it is more under acidic solution than distilled water.


 Tensile and flexural strength is highest in dry condition for the composites and lowest

in acidic solution condition.


 Tensile and flexural strength is highest for carbon composite when compared to both

glass and hybrid, glass has lowest of three composites.


 Tensile and flexural strength reduction is more in acidic solution compared to distilled

water because more of acidic solution is absorbed by the composites. Tensile and

flexural reduction is not uniform in a medium, it varies with different composites.

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