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04FOUNDATION

TYPE-FUNCTIONS-SHALLOW FOUNDATION-DEEP FOUNDATION-PILES


Prepared By Saurav Shrestha
4. 1. FOUNDATION INTRO
BUILDING COMPONENT
Substructure : Below plinth level and direct
contact with ground
Superstructure : Above plinth level

FOUNDATION
Lowest part of substructure that provides base
for superstructure.
It does not provide support to structure itself but
allows transmission of load to the soil below.
Basic function of foundation is to safely sustain
and safely transmit combined load ( Live load,
dead load and Wind load.)
4.2. SUBSTRUCTURE ISSUES
4.2.1. SETTLEMENT
I. Foundation settlement is the Uniform Tipping Tipping
shifting of foundation into the soil . (Without Cracks) (With Cracks)

II. Areas with moist soils have more


foundation settlement than dry
areas.
Uniform Tipping Tipping
III. When different part of structure (Without Cracks) (With Cracks)

settle by different magnitude, the


settlement is called differential
settlement.
IV. Differential settlement must be
minimized depends on site soil
conditions and distribution of loads
on columns supporting the building No settlement Total settlement differential
4.2. SUBSTRUCTURE ISSUES
4.2.2. SUBSOIL MOVEMENT
I. Changes in volume when the subsoil
becomes wet or dry and occurs
near the upper surface of the soil.
II. Compact granular soils such as
gravel suffer very little movement
whereas cohesive soils such as clay
do suffer volume changes near the
upper surface.
III. Volume changes can occur due to
water held in the subsoil freezing
and expanding this is called frost
heave
4.2. SUBSTRUCTURE ISSUES
4.2.3. SHRINKAGE & HEAVE
I. Sub structural damage to buildings can
occur with direct physical contact by tree
roots.
II. More common is the indirect effect of
moisture shrinkage or heavy particularly
apparent in clay subsoils.
III. Shrinkage is most evident in longer periods
of dry weather, compounded by moisture
abstraction from vegetation.
IV. Heave is opposite, which occurs during wet
weather and is compounded by previous
removal of moisture dependent trees that
would otherwise effect some drainage and
balance to subsoil conditions
4. 3. GOOD FOUNDATION
CHARTERISTICS OF GOOD
FOUNDATION
I. Has to Sustain and Transmit load by
distribution of weight over its base
II. Has to be rigid to prevent unequal or
differential settlement
III. Has to be sufficiently deep to protect
building against damage and shrinkage
of subsoil.
IV. Has to be unaffected by unexpected
future influence like calamities.
4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF FOUNDATION
1. Distribution of loads
2. Stability against sliding and overturning
3. Minimize differential settlement
4. Safe against undermining
5. Provide level surface
6. Minimize distress against soil movement
4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF FOUNDATION
1. Distribution of loads

- Foundation distributes superimposed


loads evenly on subsoil (Even in non-
uniform soil).
- Intensity of load should not exceed
safe bearing capacity of soil.
4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF FOUNDATION
2. Stability against sliding and overturning

- Foundation provides lateral stability to the


superstructure by anchoring it to the
ground.
- Foundation increases stability against
sliding/Overturning due to horizontal
forces such as winds, earthquake etc.
4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF FOUNDATION
3. Minimize differential settlement
- Foundation prevent or avoid
unequal settlement of the
building.
- Foundation withstands all kinds
of settlements.

4. Safe against undermining


- Foundation provide safety
against undermining by flood or
burrowing animals.
4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF FOUNDATION
5. Provide level surface

- Foundation provides level surface


over which super structure can
be raised.
4. 4. FUNCTIONS OF FOUNDATION
6. Minimize distress against soil movement

- Distress or failure due to expansion or


contraction of the subsoil due to moisture
variation in clayey and black cotton soils
are minimized by the provision of special
type foundation
- Provides protection against soil movement
to the building
4. 5. SELECTIONS OF FOUNDATIONS
PRIMARY FACTORS
1. Sub-surface soil/Nature of Subsoil
2. Nature of ground and Ground water condition.
3. Type of Structural Requirement.

SECONDARY FACTORS
1. Construction, Access, Methods and Site Conditions.
2. Environmental Factors
3. Building Codes and Regulation
4. Impact on surrounding Structure
5. Construction Schedule
6. Construction Risks
4. 6. TYPES OF FOUNDATION
SHALLOW FOUNDATION
- Depth is equal to or less than its width
- Practicable for depth less than 5m.
- Most common

More than 5m
DEEP FOUNDATION
- Depth is more than its width
- Practicable for depth more than 5m. SHALLOW DEEP
- Purpose : to attain bearing deep inside
the ground in case of weak soil .
4. 7. SHALLOW FOUNDATION TYPES
STRIP
1. SPREAD
PAD
2. STRAP
GRILLAGE
3. COMBINED
INVERTER ARCH
4. MAT OR RAFT
ECCENTRICALLY
LOADED

SOLID SLAB BEAM SLAB CELLULAR


4. 7.1. SPREAD FOUNDATIONS
STRIP
1. SPREAD

PAD
 Spread foundation has wider
base to transmit load to the
soil.
GRILLAGE
 Spread footing supports either
wall or column.
 Most common and cheapest.
INVERTER ARCH

ECCENTRICALLY
LOADED
4. 7. SHALLOW FOUNDATION TYPES
1. STRIP
- Strip foundation has continuous
longitudinal bearing
- It is suitable for most subsoil and
light structure

2. PAD (ISOLATED)
- Spread footing with single column.
- Independent footing under column to
distribute concentrated load
uniformly to the soil below.
- Can be rectangular, circular,
square etc.
4. 7.1. SPREAD FOUNDATION TYPES

3. GRILLAGE
- Special type of isolated footing with
two layer of rolled steel joist I-
section.
- The depth of foundation should not be
less than 1m.
Timber grillage
- It transmits heavy superimposed load Steel grillage
to the soil.
- Types : Timber & Steel C
4. 7.1. SPREAD FOUNDATIONS TYPES
4. INVERTED ARCH FOUNDATION
- Consists of inverted arch as between the wall
- The load transmitted through inverted arch.
- Used for soft soil to reduce the depth of the
foundation.
- Used for bridges, water tank , multi storey building in
old times.

5. ECCENTRICALLY LOADED
- Used where it is not possible to place footing directly
below column or wall because of limitation in boundary.
- Footings are designed proportional so that centre of
gravity of load coincides with centre of gravity of the
base area , so that footing is subjected to the
concentrated loading
4. 7. SHALLOW FOUNDATION TYPES
2. STRAP FOUNDATION
- The independent footings of two columns are
connected by a beam.
- A strap beam is used when distance between two
column is large.
- A strap beam does not transfer any load but it
connected and withhold the two footings balancing the
turning effect.

3. COMBINED FOUNDATION
- The type of footing constructed with two or more
columns.
- When space between two individual columns will
overlap this type of footing is adopted.
- This way centre of gravity of load coincides with
centre of gravity of the footing.
4. 7. SHALLOW FOUNDATION TYPES
4. MAT/RAFT FOUNDATION
- Combined footing that covers the entire area beneath the structure supporting all columns
and the load of superstructure which are distributed over the whole floor area of the
building

Raft is preferred when


1. Individual isolated footing covers more than half of the area of building .
2. If superimposed loads are heavy and unequal distribution of forces.
3. If soil have high hydraulic uplift under ground water pressure.
4. If soil have expansive nature such as black cotton, soil and low-bearing capacity.
5. If land is situated in slope land having subsoil movement due to moisture.
6. If soil has different bearing capacities in same ground.
7. If basement floor is needed.
4. 7.2. RAFT FOUNDATION TYPES
1. SOLID SLAB RAFT
o Consists of solid slab of uniform thickness and
reinforcement bars are provided at the top and bottom
layers at both directions. (More economical )
2. BEAM SLAB RAFT
o If depth of solid slab raft foundation exceeds more than
300mm, it is economical to prefer Beam, Slab Raft.
o Beam and column run at both direction and column are
placed at intersection of the beam
3. CELLULAR RAFT
o If soil has very low bearing capacity and structural loads
are very heavy.
o If beam and slab raft becomes uneconomical
o This raft consists of two layer of slab at top and bottom in
such a way that voids are created between slabs.
REFERENCES
Building Construction Illustrated
by Francis DK Ching
Building Construction Handbook by
R.Chudley and R. Greeno
Page 193- 204
Building Construction Illustrated
by Francis DK Ching
Building Construction Illustrated
by Francis DK Ching
Building Construction Illustrated
by Francis DK Ching
Building Construction Illustrated
by Francis DK Ching