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V V A furnace is an equipment to melt metals for casting or heat materials for
change of shape (rolling, forging etc.) or change of properties (heat treatment).
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Based on the method of generating heat, furnaces are broadly classified into two types namely
combustion type (using fuels) and electric type. In case of combustion type furnace, depending
upon the kind of combustion, it can be broadly classified as oil fired, coal fired or gas fired.
3p Based on the mode of charging of material furnaces can be classified as (i) Intermittent
or Batch type furnace or Periodical furnace and (ii) Continuous furnace.
3p Based on mode of waste heat recovery as recuperative and regenerative furnaces.
3p Another type of furnace classification is made based on mode of heat transfer, mode of
charging and mode of heat recovery as shown in the Figure 4.1 below.

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Thermal efficiency of process heating equipment, such as furnaces, ovens, heaters, and kilns is
the ratio of heat delivered to a material and heat supplied to the heating equipment.
The purpose of a heating process is to introduce a certain amount of thermal energy into a
product, raising it to a certain temperature to prepare it for additional processing or change its
properties. To carry this out, the product is heated in a furnace. This results in energy losses in
different areas and forms as shown in sankey diagram figure 4.10. For most heating equipment, a
large amount of the heat supplied is wasted in the form of exhaust gases.
These furnace losses include:
3p Œeat storage in the furnace structure
3p £osses from the furnace outside walls or structure
3p Œeat transported out of the furnace by the load conveyors, fixtures, trays, etc.
3p adiation losses from openings, hot exposed parts, etc.
3p Œeat carried by the cold air infiltration into the furnace
3p Œeat carried by the excess air used in the burners.

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The efficiency of a furnace is the ratio of useful output to heat input. The furnace efficiency can
be determined by both direct and indirect method.

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The following measurements are to be made for doing the energy balance in oil fired reheating
furnaces (e.g. Œeating Furnace)

I.p Weight of stock / Number of billets heated


II.p Temperature of furnace walls, roof etc.
III.p Flue gas temperature
IV.p Flue gas analysis
V.p Fuel Oil consumption

Instruments like infrared thermometer, fuel consumption monitor, surface thermocouple and
other measuring devices are required to measure the above parameters. eference manual should
be referred for data like specific heat, humidity etc.
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