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Chapter One

Similarity and Congruence


1.1 Enlargement
When a figure is enlarged, what appears to Q'
be true about corresponding lengths, about
corresponding angles, about corresponding Q
perimeters?

The figure on the right can be enlarged or R R'


O
reduced by choosing a fixed point O, called
the centre of enlargement. If all of the P
sides in a figure are doubled, then we say
that the scale factor is 2. This is often P'
written as k = 2. The new figure resulting
from the enlargement is called the image.

When a figure PQR is enlarged or reduced by a factor of k,


the resulting image is P’Q’R’.

• If k> 1, then the figure will be enlarged. The scale factor in this case is an
enlargement factor.
• If 0< k < 1, then the figure will be reduced. The scale factor in this case is
reduction factor.

For example, if k = 3, the figure will be enlarged and all lengths on the image will be
1
the corresponding lengths on the original figure. If k = , then the figure will be
3
reduced and all lengths on the image will be of the corresponding lengths on the original
figure.

1.2 Similarities
Similar figures are figures that have the same shape
but not necessarily the same size. For example, S
when a picture is enlarged or reduced on a 10
photocopier, the pictures that result are similar to
the original. If one figure is an enlargement or Q 14
reduction of another, then the two figures are 5 80o
similar. 7
o
60 40o R T
P
Angles are not affected by the enlargement 8
transformation. Consider, for example, a triangle 16
with sides 5 cm, 7 cm and 8 cm. The angles in this
triangle are approximately 60°, 80° and 40°.
From the diagram it follows that:

• ∠ PST = ∠ PQR (Corresponding angles, QR // ST)


• ∠ PTS = ∠ PRQ (Corresponding angles, QR // ST)
• ∠ P is a common angle.
While the lengths of the sides have doubled, the sizes of the angles have not changed.
The angle sum of any triangle is 180°, no matter its shape or size. Therefore, the angle
sum cannot increase or decrease if the sides are extended to, say, twice their original
length. That is, doubling the lengths of the sides does not result in a doubling of the
individual angles in the triangle.

1. Properties for similarities


Two quadrilaterals are said to be similar if they satisfy the following two properties:
a. The corresponding angles are equal
b. The corresponding sides are proportional

2. Exploring the concept


1. Figure 1.1 is an enlargement of B

Figure 1.2. Use a ruler to find


B
the length of in each photo.
C
α
A C
α
A

Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2

Write the ratio of the length of AB in Figure 1 to the length of AB in Figure 2.


2. Use a protractor to find the measure of ∠α in each Figure.
3. Write the ratio of size of ∠α in Figure 1 to size of ∠α in Figure 2.
4. Continue finding the measurements in the figures. Find the ratio of the
measurements in Figure 1 to the measurements in Figure 2. Use the same units
throughout the activity. Record your results in a table similar to the one shown.

Measurement Figure 1 Figure 2 Ratio


AB ----- ----- -----

AC ----- ----- -----

BC ----- ----- -----

∠α ----- ----- -----

Perimeter of Figure ----- ----- -----

3. Drawing Conclusions
1. Suppose a segment in Figure 2 has a length of 5 centimeters. Estimate the length
of the corresponding segment in Figure 1.

2. Suppose an angle in Figure 1 has a measure of 35o. Estimate the measure of the
corresponding angle in Figure 2.
3. Make some general conclusions about how corresponding lengths,
corresponding angles, and corresponding perimeters are related when a figure is
enlarged.

C
The two polygons in Figure 1.3 below are similar.
Because there is a correspondence between two B
polygons such that their corresponding angles are equal
and the lengths of corresponding sides are proportional G
or ABCD is similar to EFGH. The symbol ~ is used to F

indicate similarity. So, ABCD~EFGH


A D E H
Figure 1.3
AB BC CD DA
= = =
EF FG GH EH

Example 1.1

Pentagons JKLMN and STUVW below


are similar. List all the pairs of
J S
congruent angles. Write the ratio of the K T
corresponding sides in a statement of
proportionality.
U
Answer: W
Because JKLM and STUVW are L V
similar, you can write
N
∠J ≅ ∠S , ∠K ≅ ∠T , ∠L ≅ ∠U , ∠M ≅ ∠V
and ∠N ≅ ∠W . You can write the
M
statement of proportionality as follow:

JK KL LM MN NJ
= = = =
ST TU UV VW WS

Exercise 1.1

1. The height of a photo is 6 cm, while its width is 6 cm. The photo is then enlarged so
that its height becomes 36 cm. What is its width after enlargement?

2. The height of a ship is 120 cm and the height of its pole is 15 m. If the length of the
ship in a model is 24 cm, determine the height of the pole

3. The length of the front side of a house is 12 m and its height is 4 m. If the house has
a width of 20 cm in a model, find the height of the house in the model.
4. A car has the length of 4.5 m and height of 1.2 m. If the car is designed in a model
with the height of 6 cm, find the length of the car in the model.
5. A war ship with the size of 200 m long and 40 m wide.
a. If the width of the ship in a model is 10 cm, calculate the length of the ship in
the model.
b. If the height of the ships pole in a model is 5 cm, how long is the actual height
of the ships pole?

6. A table with the size of 96 cm × 60 cm × 84 cm. For a children toy, a model of the
table is made with a length of 6 cm. Calculate:
a. The width and the height of the model.
b. The number of lines
c. The area of sides in the model and in reality,
d. The volume of the model and of the real table.

7. Which of the following shapes has a correspondence to a football field with the size
of 100 cm × 60 cm?
a. A square with the size of 10 m × 10 m
b. A rectangle with the size of 5 cm × 3 cm
c. A parallelogram with the size of 10 cm × 6 cm, and an angle of 88o

8. Which of the following shapes has a correspondence to a boxing ring with the size
of 5 cm × 5 cm?
a. A carpet with the size of 4 m × 4 m.
b. A rug with the size of 3 m × 3 m
c. A book page with the size of 20 cm × 15 cm.
8 cm
9. Which of the following quadrilaterals are B C
definitely similar? 7 cm
a. Two parallelograms F G
12 c
10 cm

b. Two kites
m

5 cm
6 cm

c. Two rhombuses
d. Two squares
e. Two isosceles triangles A D E H
14 cm 4 cm
f. Two equilateral triangles
g. Two hexagons

10. Given two trapeziums as shown on the right. Prove that trapezium ABCD and
EFGH are similar.

4. Properties for similarity of two triangles

R
F

A B D E P Q

Figure 1.5
Consider Figure 1.5 above.
∠A = ∠D (Corresponding angles)
∠B = ∠E (Corresponding angles)
∠C = ∠F (The other two angles are equal)
Therefore, the corresponding angles are equal.

Similarly,
AB : DE = 4 : 6 = 2 : 3
AC : DF = 4 : 6 = 2 : 3
BC : EF = 4 : 6 = 2 : 3

Therefore, the ratio of the corresponding sides is equal.

Now we can conclude that


If the corresponding angles of two triangles are equal in size the corresponding
sides are proportional or the ratio of the corresponding sides is equal. Hence if the
corresponding angles of the two triangles are equal then the two triangles are
similar.

By the similar method, we can prove that ∆ ABC and ∆ PQR above are similar.

Consider also the illustration below


R
C

A B P Q

∠A is corresponding to ∠P , ∠B is corresponding to ∠Q , ∠C is corresponding to


∠R and ∠A = ∠P , ∠B = ∠Q and ∠C = ∠R
Example 1.2

In ∆ ABC and ∆ DEF given that ∠BAC = 60 o , ∠ABC = 40o ∠FDE = 60 o , and
∠DEF = 60o . Explain why the two triangles are similar? Then mention the
sides which are proportional!
Answer:
Consider both triangles below: F
B
It is seen from the figure that
∠BAC = ∠EDF = 70 o 30o
∠ABC = ∠EFD = 30 o 70o A
∠ACB = ∠DEF = 80 o
Hence, ∆ ABC and ∆ DEF are similar,
C 70o 80o
since the corresponding angles are equal
D E
in size. The proportional sides are
AB BC AC
= =
DF EF DE

Example 1.3
In ∆ ABC and ∆ DEF given that ∠BAC = 60 o , ∠ABC = 40 o ∠FDE = 60o , and
∠DEF = 60o . Explain why the two triangles are similar? Then mention the sides
which are proportional!
Are ∆ ABC and ∆ PQR similar?
Answer: C P
3cm
AB 5 1
= = , B
PQ 15 3
12cm
4cm

BC 3 1
= =
15cm

and
QR 9 3 5cm
AC 4 1
= = R
PR 12 3 A
All sides are proportional, so ∆ ABC and 9cm
∆ PQR are similar. The corresponding Q
angles which are equal are
∠A = ∠P , ∠B = ∠Q , ∠C = ∠R .

Exercise 1.2

1. Which of the following figure is pairs of similar figures and explain why they are
similar
C M F 12cm E

9cm
15cm
70o 60o 60o 50o
B K L
A
D
U Z 8cm Y
R
50o

6cm
5cm

3cm
70o T 10cm
Q X
P 4cm
S

2. Given triangles ∆ ABC and ∆ PQR, where ∠A = 45 o ∠B = 65 o ∠P = 45 o and


∠R = 65 o
a. Are ∆ ABC and ∆ PQR similar?
b. Write down the pairs of corresponding sides which are proportional

3. Given triangles ∆ XYZ and ∆ UVW, where ∠X = 50 o ∠Y = 75 o ∠U = 50 o and


∠W = 55 o
a. Are ∆ ABC and ∆ PQR similar?
b. Write down the pairs of corresponding sides which are proportional

4. Check whether the following measures of triangles are similar to a triangles with
sides 5cm, 12 cm and 13 cm or not?
a. 4 cm, 7.5 cm, and 8.5 cm
b. 2 cm, 4.8 cm, and 5.4 cm
c. 15 cm, 36 cm, and 39 cm

5. Given triangles ∆ ABC and ∆ DEF ∠A = ∠D , ∠B = ∠E and ∠C = ∠F , line AP


and DQ are bisectors of angles ∠A and ∠D , respectively, such that they interest
BC at P and EF at Q. Prove that
a. ∆ ABC and ∆ DEF are similar
AP BC
b. =
DQ EF

5. Finding the unknown sides of similar triangles


We have known that if two triangles have pairs of corresponding angles then both
triangles are similar. This also means that the ratio of the corresponding angles is equal.
By using this property we can find the unknown length of a side using this ratio.
Example 1.4

Given triangles
R
C

cm
y

6c

18
x

m
A 8 cm B P 12 cm Q

a. Prove that ∆ ABC and ∆ PQR. are similar


b. Find the corresponding sides which are similar
c. Determine the value for x and y
Answer:
a. Since ∠A = ∠P , ∠B = ∠Q , ∠C = ∠R , then ∆ ABC and
∆ PQR. are similar
AB BC AC
b. = =
PQ QR PR
8 2
c. The scale factor is = , so x = the scale factor ×18
12 3
2
x = ×18 = 12 cm
3
3
Similarly, y = the scale factor × 12 ⇒ y = × 6 = 9 cm
2
Example 1.5

In the figure below, AB = 4 cm, AF = 5 cm, BF = 3 cm, and BC = 6 cm.


a. Prove that ∆ ABF and ∆ ADC.
b. Determine the corresponding sides which are proportional
c. Determine the length of AD and DC E
Answer:
a. Consider ∆ ABF and ∆ ADC.
∠ABF = ∠ADC = 90 o
∠BAF = ∠CAD (coincide)
D
∠AFB = ∠ACD (the other two angles are
equal)
F
cm

3 cm
Hence, ∆ ABF and ∆ ADC are similar. 5
AB BF AF
b. = =
AD DC AC A 4 cm B 6 cm C
AB AF 4 5
c. = ⇒ = ⇒ AD = 8 cm
AD AC AD 10
BF AF 3 5
= ⇒ = ⇒ DC = 6 cm
DC AC DC 10

Exercise 1.3

1. Calculate the length of the labeled sides in the following pairs of similar triangles.
a. b. c. 1.2
3

2 1.6
a
6 c
4

1 4.8
6 b

d. e. 5 f.
18
46 7
12
23
y 25
18
x
x 15