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Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07

Rice
Science
for a Better
W o rld
Annual Report of the
Director General, 2006-07

i
INTERNATIONAL RICE RESEARCH INSTITUTE
www.irri.org
The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) was
established in 1960 by the Ford and Rockefeller
Foundations with the help and approval of the
Government of the Philippines. Today, IRRI is one of the 15
nonprofit international research centers supported by the
Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research
(CGIAR – www.cgiar.org).
IRRI receives support from several CGIAR members,
including the World Bank, European Union, Asian
Development Bank, International Fund for Agricultural
Development, Rockefeller Foundation, Food and
Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, and
agencies of the following countries: Australia, Brazil,
Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, India, Iran, Japan,
Malaysia, Norway, People’s Republic of China, Republic of
Korea, Republic of the Philippines, Sweden, Switzerland,
Thailand, United Kingdom, United States, and Vietnam.
The responsibility for this publication rests with the
International Rice Research Institute.

Copyright International Rice Research Institute 2007

Mailing address: DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines


Phone: +63 (2) 580-5600
Fax: +63 (2) 580-5699
Email: irri@cgiar.org
Web site: www.irri.org.
Rice Knowledge Bank: www.knowledgebank.irri.org
Courier address: Suite 1009, Security Bank Center
6776 Ayala Avenue, Makati City, Philippines
Tel. +63 (2) 891-1236, 891-1303
Fax: +63 (2) 891-1174

Suggested citation:
IRRI (International Rice Research Institute). 2007. Annual
report of the director general, 2006-07. Vol. 17. Los Baños
(Philippines): International Rice Research Institute. 206 p.

Cover photo (by Gene Hettel): In the small village of Tatrav,


a few kilometers northeast of Angkor Wat in Cambodia,
Ms. Pao Ly, protector of some of the previous season’s rice
crop, prepares to distribute some of the precious grain
to her neighbors. Tatrav is one of six target villages in
this impoverished region of Siem Reap Province where a
new project called PROVIDE (Poverty Reduction Options
Validated in Drought Environments) is getting under way.
This collaborative initiative of the Cambodian Agricultural
Research and Development Institute (CARDI), the NGO Plan
International, and IRRI aims to improve the livelihoods of
Cambodian farmers through the application of drought
management technologies.

Production team
Writers: Adam Barclay, Gene Hettel
Editors: Tess Rola, Bill Hardy, Gene Hettel
Design and layout: Emmanuel Panisales

 Annual Report of the Director General, 2004–05


Annual Report of the
Director General, 2006-07
Volume 17, April 2007

An update from Robert Zeigler, 2 Program 3. Improving productivity and 38


Director General livelihood for fragile environments
Research progress in 2006 3 Genetic enhancement for improving 39
Funding 4 productivity and human health in
BOT membership changes 4 fragile environments
New flood-tolerant rice offers relief for world’s 4 Natural resource management for rainfed 43
poorest farmers lowland and upland rice ecosystems
MOU signed for establishing GMS office 4 Consortium for Unfavorable Rice 49
in Vientiane Environments (CURE)
ASEAN endorses important rice activities 5
for Southeast Asia Program 4. Strengthening linkages between 52
Climate change and rice planning workshop 5 research and development
IRRI and CIP establish the first CGIAR access grid link 5 Understanding rural livelihood systems for 53
RDA ships 25 tons of high-quality rice seed 6 rice research prioritization and impact
multiplied at IRRI assessment
CSWS becomes CESD 6 Facilitating rice research for impact 57
C4 rice workshop held in July at IRRI 6
Typhoon Milenyo raises havoc at IRRI and 6 Financial support and special-funded 61
in surrounding communities projects that started in 2006
2nd International Rice Congress (IRC) in New Delhi 7
Former staff members pass away 8 Memoranda of agreement: partner 63
Update on IRRI staffing 8 institutions IRRI entered into agreements
Awards and honors 9 with in 2006
Other notable activities and events since my last 11
update (March 2006) Honors, awards, and appointments 76
A keynote on climate change 13 for IRS, NRS, and BOT in 2006
Breaking bread with staff 13
Publications and seminars in 2006 78
Program highlights 2006 15
Staff changes in 2006 110
Program 1. Genetic resources conservation, 18
evaluation, and gene discovery Research support services 116
Germplasm conservation, characterization, 19
documentation, and exchange Degree and postdegree training in 2006 145
Functional genomics 22
Weather summary 147
Program 2. Enhancing productivity and 26
sustainability of favorable environments Board of Trustees (as of 1 April 2007) 150
Genetic enhancement for yield, grain 27
quality, and stress resistance Personnel (as of 31 December 2006) 152
Managing resources under intensive 30
rice-based systems Appendix 1. IRRI’s research partners 164
Enhancing water productivity in rice-based 33
production systems Appendix 2. Selected acronyms used 168
Irrigated Rice Research Consortium 36 throughout this publication

Appendix 3. Audited financial statements 170


 Annual Report of the Director General, 2004–05

An update from Robert Zeigler
director general

sustainability of the rice production


environment, through the use of
modern technology and the latest
communication tools, are at the heart of
IRRI’s exciting and innovative Plan.
Our new Plan maintains the
Institute’s traditional emphasis on food
security—a vital strategy to be sure—
but has for the first time put as its first
goal reducing poverty among rice
farmers and consumers. As I told the
IRC gathering, “If the world is serious
about achieving the first and most
important of the UN’s Millennium
Development Goals (MDGs) on poverty,

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n 9 October 2006, I publicly then we must focus on the livelihoods of
unveiled IRRI’s new Strategic Plan poor rice farmers and consumers
(2007-2015), Bringing Hope, because together they make up almost
Improving Lives, during the opening half the world’s population.”
day of the International Rice Congress Our four other goals focus on
(IRC) in New Delhi. It was the culmina- environmental sustainability, health
tion of a process that began 16 months and nutrition, access to information and
earlier on 31 May 2005. I am pleased knowledge, and laying the foundation
how this course of action has played out for the next generation to develop new
with the positive reactions to our Plan and improved rice varieties. All of these
from the CGIAR Science Council in are contributing both directly and
mid-2006 and its subsequent imple- indirectly to achieving the MDGs (see
mentation on 1 January 2007. figure opposite page), not to mention
The world has changed enormously having a close connection to the CGIAR
since IRRI developed its last strategic system priority areas for research.
plan a decade ago. Recent scientific We have set these five new strategic
discoveries—particularly in genetics goals by imagining a perfect world. We
and genomics—now open up new do not realistically believe that IRRI by
opportunities to achieve impact that itself can, for example, eliminate
would have been difficult if not impos- poverty and protect the environment.
sible as recently as the turn of the But, unless these are explicitly articu-
century. A reduction in poverty and lated as “goals,” it is unlikely that our

 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


efforts will make a meaningful impact establish a greater presence in these the engine of rice production, the plant’s
on poverty and the environment. rainfed areas. And, if we look at the photosynthetic system. We are deter-
As we tackle poverty issues as challenges, such as flooding and mined to continue to push the frontiers
spelled out in our first goal, the equation drought, that face farmers who grow of plant science in an effort to improve
must change to placing a new, major rice in rainfed areas, they are very the lives of poor rice farmers and
effort on improving farmers’ income in different from the challenges that face consumers. And we invite all our
unfavorable rainfed areas. Yields are farmers who grow rice in intensive partners around the world to join with
very low in the extremely large rice- production systems. We should also us in achieving these vitally important
producing areas of South Asia and also keep in mind that rainfed rice accounts goals. By doing so, we are confident we
the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) for 50% of the rice-growing area. So, by will ensure a brighter future for rice
where rice is grown under rainfed improving productivity in these farmers and consumers everywhere.
conditions. This is precisely why IRRI locations, not only do we improve As you can see in the balance of my
has opened a GMS regional office based people’s lives, we also contribute to food update below, it’s been a busy year of
in Vientiane, Lao PDR, which I inaugu- security. achievement and progress as we
rated on 12 January 2007. It will be a In addition to our goals, IRRI has completed the research agenda of our
hub for coordinating research in begun several ground-breaking past medium-term plan and set the
Cambodia. Myanmar, Laos, Thailand, scientific frontier projects that include mechanisms in place to begin our first
Vietnam, and two southern provinces of efforts to develop rice varieties that medium-term plan of our exciting new
China. This is where many poor Asians live. would help poor farmers cope better agenda. The details of our Strategic Plan
By focusing on poverty, we must with climate change and drought and to (2007-2015), Bringing Hope, Improv-
invest relatively more resources and completely reconfigure what’s known as ing Lives, can be accessed online at
www.irri.org/bringinghope/improv-
inglives.pdf and the targets of its first
Medium-Term Plan (2007-09) can be
found at www.irri.org/science/mtp/
pdfs/MTP2007-09.pdf.

RESEARCH PROGRESS IN 2006

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n 2006, IRRI completed work on 11
projects under four programs of the
previous strategic plan—Genetic
resources conservation, evaluation,
and gene discovery; Enhancing
productivity and sustainability of
favorable environments; Improving
productivity and livelihood for fragile
environments; and Strengthening
linkages between research and
development. Much of the work
continued to be guided by and imple-
mented through two research consor-
tia—the Irrigated Rice Research
Consortium (IRRC) and the Consor-

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 


tium for Unfavorable Rice Environ- (United Kingdom), M. Syeduzzaman
ments (CURE)—that bring together (Bangladesh), and Usha Barwale
IRRI scientists and their colleagues Zehr (India). Dr.
from the national agricultural research Lenné is currently a
and extension systems (NARES) of the consultant in
Institute’s partner countries. agricultural research
Both the IRRC and CURE have for development and
important roles in our new strategic visiting professor in
plan. This fact and the research agro-biodiversity, University of
progress and achievements in 2006 Greenwich, UK. Mr. Syeduzzaman is
confirm the reality that our new currently chairman
strategic plan has truly been built on the of several compa-
strengths of the recent past. A summary nies and institutions
in countries such as the United States,
of highlights begins on page 15 and the in Bangladesh. Dr.
where rice is seeded in flooded fields.
details begin on page 18. Zehr is the joint
Results of this study appear in a letter
director of research
FUNDING published in the 10 August issue of the
at the Maharashtra

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prestigious journal Nature. I am
n the financial front, I believe that Hybrid Seeds Company Limited, India.
pleased to say that this significant
IRRI’s situation is balanced in a We bade farewell to
achievement, in addition to being
very tough environment. On the Fazle Hasan Abed
published in Nature, was picked up
upside is the USAID decision not to cut of Bangladesh, who
heavily in the popular media, including
its support to IRRI and funding increas- served on the BOT
BBC, Bloomberg, Bangkok Post, Life
es from the UK’s Department for for two terms during
Style Extra, SciDevNet, Voice of
International Development (DFID) and 2001-06.
America, Sacramento Bee, Christian
Germany. On the downside are the
NEW FLOOD-TOLERANT RICE Science Monitor, FoodNavigator.Com,
already announced cuts from Japan and
OFFERS RELIEF FOR WORLD’S Truth About Trade and Technology,
the Netherlands. Of course, the inability
POOREST FARMERS Toronto Star, Earthtimes, U.S. Depart-
of the World Bank and the European

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ment of State, and Yahoo News.
Commission to reach agreement on how gene that enables rice to survive
funds should be handled has had complete submergence has been MOU SIGNED FOR ESTABLISHING
serious negative impact on all CGIAR identified by a team of research- GMS OFFICE IN VIENTIANE

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centers. I would like to emphasize that ers at IRRI led by PBGB head David
n 12 January 2007, the Lao
the Institute is no longer looking at only Mackill (pictured at top right) and at
Minister for Agriculture and
traditional donors. We are taking the University of California’s Davis and
Forestry Sitaheng Rasphone
specific steps to interest new potential Riverside campuses. The discovery
and I signed a memorandum of
donors and we are looking at innovative allows for the development of new rice
understanding for the establishment of
ways to tap into the new spirit of varieties that can withstand flooding,
philanthropy emerging in Asia. thus overcoming one of agriculture’s
A summary of financial support oldest challenges and offering relief to
begins on page 61. Appendix 3, begin- millions of poor rice farmers around the
ning on page 170, contains the audited world.
financial statements for 2006. Although rice thrives in standing
water, like all crops it will die if
BOT MEMBERSHIP CHANGES completely submerged for more than a

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RRI welcomed few days. The development and
three new cultivation of the new varieties are
members of the expected to increase food security for
Board of Trustees 70 million of the world’s poorest people,
for 2007-09. They and may reduce yield losses from weeds
are Jillian Lenné

 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


aimed at three major challenges
facing rice production in the
ASEAN:
• The environment. ASEAN has
endorsed the development of
a series of environmental
indicators for rice produc-
tion in the region focused
on production, biodiversity,
pollution, land degradation,
and water.
IRRI’s office for the Greater Mekong • Getting the latest knowledge (RCCC), which I have since been
Subregion (GMS) in Vientiane. The and information to rice promoting to prospective donors. The
IRRI GMS office is being headed by farmers. ASEAN has endorsed findings of our RCCC meeting were
Gary Jahn, IRRI’s representative and the further develment of documented in the highly influential
coordinator for the GMS. This MOU IRRI’s Rice Knowledge Bank for Stern Review on the Economics of
gives full cognizance to the existing rice farmers, Asia’s first digital Climate Change (www.hm-treasury.gov.
commitment of IRRI to rice research in extension service in agriculture. uk). In July, I had the opportunity to
the GMS. To this end, IRRI and the • Developing the next generation of meet with Sir Nicholas Stern in the
NARES of the six GMS nations (Cambo- rice farmers and scientists. Few UK.
dia, China, Lao PDR, Myanmar, young people in Asia today are
Thailand, and Vietnam) will formulate interested in rice production, IRRI AND CIP ESTABLISH THE FIRST
an agreed strategy for rice research despite its obvious importance to CGIAR ACCESS GRID LINK

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collaboration and technology transfer to the region, so ASEAN has endorsed n 7 April 2006, after successful
improve food security, reduce poverty, the development of rice camps for previous testing, IRRI and CIP
improve livelihoods, and protect the young Asians to encourage them to made some CGIAR history by
environment of the GMS. Coordinating consider a career in rice. becoming the first two CG centers to
our research efforts in these six nations have a video conference using the
will increase the pace and quality of CLIMATE CHANGE AND RICE Access Grid (AG). They were joined in
development as opportunities for PLANNING WORKSHOP the conference by the Advanced Science

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synergy and mutual gain emerge. n 20-24 March 2006, we conduct- and Technology Institute (ASTI) at U.P.
ed a Climate Change and Rice Diliman, Quezon City, IRRI’s partner in
ASEAN ENDORSES IMPORTANT Planning Workshop to describe using Access Grid technology (ASTI and
RICE ACTIVITIES FOR SOUTHEAST succinctly how climate affects rice. IRRI are the only Access Grid nodes in
ASIA Coordinated by CESD senior scientist the Philippines). The Access Grid is a

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ice production in Southeast Asia, John Sheehy, the workshop, which technology for enabling multiple
arguably the region’s most included technical sessions, field visits locations, even dozens, to participate
important industry, received a (photo at top right), group discussions, simultaneously in a video conference.
major boost with the endorsement of and group presentations and syntheses, Thanks to perseverance, Rolando
three new strategies by the agricultural also summarized the contribution of Navarro of CIP and Lino Suarez of
ministers of the 10-nation Association rice to climate change and the current IRRI’s IT Services finally succeeded in
of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), understanding of climate change establishing a working connection and
who met in research, with particular emphasis on the CGIAR entered a new era. Paul
Singapore on 16 crops. The end result of this landmark O’Nolan and other ITS staff were
November 2006. gathering of experts was the develop- joined by Graham McLaren and
Implemented and ment, a couple of months later, of IRRI’s Thomas Metz from the IRRI-
coordinated by Concept for Managing Rice and Rice CIMMYT Crop Research Informatics
IRRI, the new Systems in a Changing Climate—the Laboratory (CRIL), who had been
measures are Rice Climate Change Consortium keenly awaiting this moment as the

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 


as they celebrated their Boosting the photosynthetic efficiency
integration into the new Crop of rice by changing it from C3 to C4
and Environmental Sciences photosynthesis will be like adding a
Division (CESD). This was supercharger to a car’s engine. Accord-
part of an OU repositioning ing to John Sheehy, organizer of a
tied to implementation of the July workshop on Supercharging the
strategic plan. This new Rice Engine, C4 rice could be achieved
division epitomizes the new
strategic direction of IRRI—
an integration of disciplines
at a systems level with a
strong focus on the
environment. I was very pleased to see by exploiting the genetic resources of
technology will facilitate improved
the positive attitude of the staff in this wild rice types as well as those of C4
communication between IRRI and
merger, which will provide added plants such as maize and employing
CIMMYT on a regular basis, a vital link
strength to the growth of IRRI. CESD is genetic engineering. Until the advent of
for our Alliance. By December, such
composed of agronomy, crop ecology genetic engineering, the idea of
video conferences had indeed become
and modeling, soil science, water boosting photosynthesis seemed to be
commonplace as shown in the photo
science and engineering, plant/crop an intractable problem. Now, I believe
above, which depicts a trans-Pacific
physiology, weed science, insect and there are many reasons for being
discussion between IRRI and CIMMYT
plant ecology, nematology, rodent optimistic about finding a solution. This
staff during a workshop on Assessing
research, and ecological pest manage- imaginative approach was featured in
the potential of rice-maize systems in
ment. an article in the 9 December issue of
Asia.
The Economist.
C4 RICE WORKSHOP HELD IN JULY
RDA SHIPS 25 TONS OF HIGH-
AT IRRI TYPHOON MILENYO RAISES
QUALITY RICE SEED MULTIPLIED

F
eeding Asia in the 21st century and HAVOC AT IRRI AND IN SUR-
AT IRRI
ROUNDING COMMUNITIES

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preserving natural environments

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s part of the “New Rice Revolution”
requires a second “Green Revolu- owerful and rain-laden Typhoon
campaign of the Rural Develop-
tion.” This also requires increasing the Milenyo (international name:
ment Administration (RDA) in the
efficiency of photosynthesis in crops Xangsane) made a direct hit on
Republic of Korea, 25 tons of high-
such as rice (C3 photosynthesis) to IRRI on 28 September 2006, with the
quality rice seed were harvested at IRRI
resemble that of more efficient crops eye passing over in the late morning.
headquarters and then transported in a
such as maize (C4 photosynthesis).
fleet of trucks to the Manila airport on
31 March 2006 (photo right). The
precious cargo made its way to the
National Institute of Crop Science
(NICS), RDA in Korea, via an Asiana
Aircargo flight on 2 April. Korea’s
achievement in rice self-sufficiency
through the Green Revolution of the
1970s was made possible through
similar past memoranda of agreement
between IRRI and RDA.

CSWS BECOMES CESD

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t was a momentous occasion for Crop,
Soil, and Water Sciences (CSWS) and
entomology staff members on 5 June

 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


While this storm did not pack the winds everything we can to help our local
of Super Typhoon Rosing on 3 Novem- colleagues get through this difficult
ber 1995 (which many use as a bench- period. Genebanks are fundamental to
mark of recent times), it carried much a country’s ability to feed itself and
more rainfall, maintain its agricultural
productivity.
With climate change
certain to cause an
increase in extreme Man Mohan Singh for his recent call
weather events like for India to redouble its investments in
typhoons, more than 20 scientific research and challenged the
of which swept across other great nations of Asia to step
rice-producing Asia in forward and commit to supporting rice
2006, IRRI, in a report research to meet the world’s needs,
sent to the Ministry of much as Western nations did decades
Foreign Affairs of ago.
Japan (MOFA), has During the Congress, nine
urged that action is agriculture ministers representing
needed now to protect the international China, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, Paki-
which made it particularly destructive. rice industry. stan, the Philippines, Sri Lanka,
Widespread flooding and many Vietnam, and India made a historic
landslides occurred in and around IRRI 2nd INTERNATIONAL RICE Delhi Declaration in which they
in Laguna Province. Areas in Los Baños CONGRESS (IRC) IN NEW DELHI stressed the fostering of cooperation

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that had never experienced flooding in s I have already mentioned, I used among Asian countries to safeguard the
recent memory were inundated. Sadly, the occasion of the 2nd IRC to environment and food and nutritional
the flooding and landslides resulted in publicly unveil IRRI’s new security. They agreed to “establish a
at least 20 deaths, many people injured, strategic plan. I congratulate the Indian comprehensive partnership through
and more than 3,000 homes either Ministry of Agriculture and Indian strengthened dialogue on a regular
partially or totally destroyed. In the Council for Agricultural Research basis for strengthening rice research
neighboring town of Bay, 3 people were (ICAR) for hosting and organizing this and development efforts laying greater
killed and 20 injured, with more than important event, which attracted nearly emphasis on the social, cultural, and
16,000 homes affected. Fortunately, no 1,400 rice researchers, traders, rice human dimensions, and that IRRI
one in the IRRI community was killed millers, farmers, and agriculture would host a task force comprising
or seriously injured. However, many ministers (photo below right), including experts from all the countries and
staff members in the local community 400 delegates from 45 countries other centers of excellence in the region to
had their homes badly damaged. At the than India. The Congress came at a prepare a road map for that purpose.”
height of the storm, IRRI’s Emergency crucial time for the
Brigade led a dramatic rescue of international rice
neighbors on the brink of drowning. industry. In addition
In the wake of the storm, IRRI to major international
extended the facilities of the Interna- debates on genetically
tional Rice Genebank to the National modified rice and the
Plant Genetic Resources Laboratory future price of rice,
(NPGRL) at the Institute of Plant Breed- the industry faces
ing, University of the Philippines Los several common
Baños (IPB-UPLB), to temporarily store challenges—all of
its medium-term germplasm collections which we discussed
of major Philippine agricultural crops during the IRC. I
after the typhoon damaged its genebank saluted Indian
facilities. We are committed to doing Prime Minister

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 


FORMER STAFF MEMBERS PASS of extinction. This effort made IRRI’s
AWAY rice genebank holdings the largest

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everal past IRRI staff members, collection in the world for a single crop
who had made a significant impact plant. Desirable genes from this
in their respective professions, have invaluable resource continue today to
sadly passed away since my last update. sustain advances in global rice produc-
Te-Tzu (T.T.) Chang, 79, died of tion.”
a heart attack in Taiwan on 24 March Henry “Hank” Beachell (photo
2006. He was IRRI’s principal geneti- right), a rice breeding pioneer, passed
cist for more than 30 years and head of away at his home in Texas on 13
December 2006. Along with T.T. leaders are David Mackill for
Chang and Peter Jennings, he was Program 1, Raising productivity in
part of the research team behind the rainfed environments: attacking the
“miracle rice” IR8, which launched the roots of poverty (Dr. Mackill has
Asian Green Revolution 40 years ago. stepped down as the PBGB division
Less than 3 months previously, Dr. head); Achim Dobermann for
Beachell had celebrated his 100th Program 2, Sustaining productivity in
birthday on 21 September. After 32 intensive rice-based systems: rice and
years at the USDA, Dr. Beachell came to the environment, effective 1 September
IRRI, where he joined the research 2007 (David Johnson continues to
team. In 1996, he and former IRRI serve as the interim program leader
principal plant breeder Gurdev with full responsibility for the imple-
Khush received the World Food Prize, mentation of the program until the
the International Rice Germplasm known informally as the “Nobel Prize arrival of Dr. Dobermann); Joseph
Center when he retired in 1991. He was for Food and Agriculture.” Hank’s Rickman for Program 3, East and
considered a world authority on rice passing was a great loss not just for the southern Africa: rice for rural incomes
genetics and conservation. On 12-13 world of rice research, but also for his and an affordable urban staple;
March 2007, IRRI held a 2-day many friends and colleagues all over the Gerard Barry for Program 4, Rice
symposium The Application of Genetic world, and especially in Asia. Giving us and human health: overcoming the
Resources in Crop Improvement, in Dr. strength, however, is the wonderful consequences of poverty; Hei Leung
Chang’s memory attended by col- legacy that he left behind. for Program 5, Rice genetic diversity
leagues, family, and friends to coincide Jerry Pat Crill, a former IRRI and discovery: meeting the needs of
with the dedication of the Genetic plant pathologist (1978-81), passed away future generations for rice genetic
Resources Center in his name. on 17 January 2007 resources; Graham McLaren for
A plaque now mounted at the at his home on the Program 6, Information and communi-
entrance reads, in part: “Dedicated with Little Manatee River cation: convening a global rice
respect and affection, to a true giant in in Florida. Dr. Crill research community; and Sushil
the field of rice genetics and conserva- joined IRRI’s plant Pandey for Program 7, Rice policy
tion. His research on the evolution and pathology program, support and impact assessment for rice
variation of rice led to major advances replacing S.H. Ou, research.
in plant breeding, productivity, and in 1978, and headed the program for Heads of the six research OUs are
disease resistance, with a profound four years. Darshan Brar for Plant Breeding,
impact on agricultural productivity Genetics, and Biotechnology (PBGB);
throughout much of Asia, Africa, and UPDATE ON IRRI STAFFING To Phuc Tuong for the Crop and

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South America. His mobilization of n early January 2007, as the Institute Environmental Sciences Division
international and multiagency resources began implementing the new MTP (CESD); Mahabub Hossain for the
in Asian and African nations resulted in 2007-09, I announced appointments Social Sciences Division; Ruaraidh
enormous field collections of nearly within the research management Sackville Hamilton for the T.T.
40,000 specimens, many on the verge matrix. The seven research program Chang Genetic Resources Center (GRC);

 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Melissa Fitzgerald for the Grain 8 February 2007 after faithfully serving Reiner Wassmann; CESD interna-
Quality, Nutrition, and Postharvest the Institute for 23 years. He was head, tional research fellow Elizabeth
Center (GQNPC); Graham McLaren Human Resources Development (1984- Humphreys; PBGB postdoctoral
for the IRRI-CIMMYT Crop Research 91); secretary, Board of Trustees (in a fellow Dule Zhao; CESD postdoctoral
Informatics Laboratory (CRIL); and concurrent capacity, 1996-2000); and fellow Bhagirath Singh Chauhan;
Noel Magor for the Training Center senior legal counsel, Legal Services PBGB postdoctoral fellow Joong-
(TC). Julian Lapitan is the acting (1992-2007). Just before his departure, Hyuon Chin; HRS head Hector
head of the International Programs I recognized him for his wise and timely Hernandez; PBGB scientist Arvind
Management Office (IPMO). counsel, advice, and guidance, not only Kumar; CRIL postdoctoral fellow
Achim Dobermann is also the on what was legal but, more important- Ramil Mauleon; ITS head Marco
project leader for the IRRI-CIMMYT ly, on what was right. van den Berg; and part-time IRRI
Alliance Project on Intensive Produc- Also departing were Gary Atlin, liaison scientist for China Zhao Ming.
tion Systems in Asia (IPSA), effective 1 senior scientist, plant breeding (2000-
September 2007. Dr. Dobermann is 06); Vethaiya Balasubramanian, AWARDS AND HONORS

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serving as a consultant from 1 January soil scientist and team leader, Madagas- n 9 October 2006, the plenary
to 31 to August 2007 to provide car Project (1991-94); agronomist and session of the 2nd International
assistance and advice to the interim coordinator, Crop and Resource Rice Congress featured the presen-
project leader, Roland Buresh. Management Network (1994-2000); tation of the M.S. Swaminathan
The program leaders are respon- agronomist, Training and Technology Award for Leadership in Agriculture to
sible for the development and delivery Delivery and Impact (2000-05); and former IRRI principal plant breeder
of the research outputs to achieve the IRRI coordinator for Africa (2005-06); Gurdev Khush. Sponsored by the
goals of our strategic plan and are Jingsheng Zheng, postdoctoral fellow Trust for Advancement of Agricultural
appointed for a renewable 5-year term. (2004-06); Paul O’Nolan, ITS head Sciences, the award cited Dr. Khush for
The division and center (organizational (1999-2006); and Monina Escalada, his excellent leadership for global rice
unit) heads are responsible for provid- international research fellow—commu- improvement that has benefited
ing research infrastructure and a home nications specialist, IPMO (2002-06). millions of resource-poor rice growers
base for the scientists contributing to Arrivals in 2006-07 were SSD around the world. In the photo, Prime
the programs and the quality of international research fellow Zahirul Minister Man Mohan Singh
research. The division heads are Islam; SSD agricultural economist Kei presents the award to Dr. Khush, with
appointed to a 3-year term and can be Kajisa; CESD international research Dr. Swaminathan and me looking on.
renewed. Upon completion of this fellow Jill Cairns; head of Operations
appointment, they can be assigned to be Management Terry
full-time scientists or to other responsi- Jacobsen; Training
bilities at IRRI. Center head Noel Magor;
In February 2007, Xiaochun Lu, FoSHol project team leader
postdoctoral fellow in CESD, was and IRRI representative in
transferred to PBGB. Bangladesh M. Zainul
Departures and arrivals since the Abedin; PBGB postdoc-
last DG report. Attorney Walfrido E. toral fellow Hao Chen;
Gloria (photo) retired on PBGB project scientist
Daisuke Fujita; PBGB
postdoctoral fellow
Minu Joseph; PBGB
postdoctoral fellow
Susanna Polleti; CIO Asia, the magazine for
PBGB senior scientist and INGER information executives, officially
coordinator Edilberto Redoña; recognized IRRI as one of Asia’s top
CESD coordinator of the Rice and strategic users of IT. For having
Climate Change Consortium achieved excellence in strategic IT

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 


deployment, IRRI was named a CIO 100 place) in the Writing for Magazines Medal (below) to 11 individuals,
Honoree for 2006 and was placed on Category for the article Dreams beyond including former IRRI directors general
CIO Asia’s annual index of Asia’s top- drought, which appeared in the M.S. Swaminathan and
performing enterprise users of IT. A September 2005 issue of Rice Today, Ronald Cantrell. Dr.
certificate signifying this was presented from the Association for Communica- Swaminathan was one of
to Paul O’Nolan, ITS head. In a letter tion Excellence in June. Later, in the driving forces in the
to Mr. O’Nolan, Gerald Wee, executive December, the CGIAR Secretariat inception of the Cambo-
editor of CIO Asia, stated, “The CIO 100 announced that Mr. Barclay had been dian Agricultural Re-
are the crème de la crème of organiza- awarded 1st Prize in the 2006 CGIAR search and Development
tions across the region that have used Photo Competition for his image Direct Institute (CARDI) when,
IT strategically to deliver innovations, success, at below right. back in 1987, he proposed
strategic value, and high dollar returns National Scientist, eminent establishing the project
to their businesses, industries, sectors, sociologist, and IRRI consultant Gelia design team to prepare a
and societies. They are exemplars of IT T. Castillo was conferred with a plan to set up CARDI. Dr. Cantrell, who
deployment excellence, and role models Doctor of Science (Rural Sociology), was IRRI DG in 2000 when CARDI
for their counterparts and competitors honoris causa, by the De La Salle officially opened, was instrumental in
in the region.” University (DLSU) in Manila on 17 strengthening IRRI’s partnership with
On 8 April 2006, during an NRS June. DLSU recognized Dr. Castillo’s the fledgling institution.
awards ceremony at the conclusion of “outstanding contributions as a rural IRRI BOT member Ronald L.
the BOT meeting, I presented Floren- sociologist, and her being the first social Phillips of the University of Minnesota
cia “Flor” Palis, postdoctoral fellow scientist to raise the level of research as shared the 2006-07 Wolf Prize for
in EPPD, and the IRRI Emergency a tool for development studies.” Agriculture for his “groundbreaking
Brigade with, respectively, the On 23 August, Roland Buresh, discoveries in genetics and genomics,
Director General’s Award for Outstand- senior scientist, soil science, CESD, was laying the foundations for improve-
ing Scientific Achievement and the IRRI presented with a merit medal by the ments in crop and livestock breeding,
Award for Outstanding Support of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural and sparking important advances in
IRRI’s Mission. Dr. Palis, an anthro- Development (MARD) in a ceremony in plant and animal sciences.”
pologist and a widely published author Hanoi. He was recognized for his long- During the CGIAR-AGM in
of research publications, was chosen for term efforts in the support of Vietnam- Washington, D.C., in December, the
her independent ethnographic research ese agriculture and rural development. CGIAR genebank community received
that encompassed many community In recognition of their contribu- the CG’s Science Award for Outstanding
settings and IRRI projects, including tions to the revival of rice research and Partnership. The Genebank community,
her research for the advancement of development in the country, Prime which includes IRRI’s T.T. Chang
knowledge. The IRRI Emergency Minister Hun Sen presented the Royal Genetic Resources Center (GRC)
Brigade, a group of 63 volunteer Government of Cambodia’s Sahametrei led by Ruaraidh Sackville Hamil-
firefighters from various organizational
units, was chosen for unselfish devotion
of their personal time to protecting the
interests and property of the Institute.
In May, David Mackill, head of
PBGB, was named 2006 Honorary
Fellow of the Crop Science Society of the
Philippines for his contributions to the
rice varietal improvement programs in
the Philippines and other rice-growing
countries.
Adam Barclay, international
research fellow in CPS and Rice Today
managing editor, won a Gold Award (1st

10 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


ton, involves 11 CGIAR centers that Chinese minister of
collectively hold the world’s largest agriculture visits IRRI. The
collection of agrobiodiversity. The minister of agriculture from the
CGIAR genebanks hold plant genetic People’s Republic of China, Hon.
resources in trust for the world Qinglin Du, made an official
community. The genebanks, which visit to IRRI on 26 March 2006.
safeguard 600,000 accessions of crop, It was the first-ever visit to IRRI
forest, and agroforestry species—the by China’s minister of agriculture.
majority of which are stored as seeds— During his stay, DDG-R Ren
provide an insurance policy of sorts, Wang gave Minister Du an
underwriting food security and preserv- overview of IRRI’s research agenda.
ing genetic diversity well into the future. Seasonal flu vaccination week were TV reports on the rice camp
IRRI’s GRC currently holds nearly administered to IRRI staff. During the produced by Reuters Television, which
110,000 rice accessions. week of 17-21 April 2006, almost 2,000 were sent all over Asia and especially to
As in every year, numerous IRS staff and dependents received the Thailand, and by the BBC, which
and NRS received various awards and seasonal flu vaccination (photo above broadcast a 3-minute feature world-
honors. See the complete listing right) as part of the Institute’s program wide. But perhaps the most remarkable
beginning on page 76. to be prepared for pandemic flu, which outcome was that immediately upon
still poses a threat worldwide. their return to Thailand, the Thai
OTHER NOTABLE ACTIVITIES AND CPWF Project 7 (DPPC 2003-21) students walked straight into a press
EVENTS SINCE MY LAST UPDATE holds annual review and planning conference at Bangkok International
(MARCH 2006) meeting. During the 2nd Annual Airport that included several Thai TV

I
RRN celebrates 30th anniversary. Review and Planning Meeting of the stations wanting to report on their IRRI
Originally named the International project “Development of technologies to adventure.
Rice Research Newsletter (IRRN), harness the productivity potential of Launch of radio soap opera. IRRI,
the first issue in October 1976 men- salt-affected areas of the Indo-Gangetic, in collaboration with the Ministry of
tioned the need for a Mekong, and Nile river basins,” funded Agriculture and Rural Development
mechanism that would by the Challenge Program on Water and (MARD) of Vietnam and the World
facilitate communica- Food (CPWF), 25-27 April in Karnal, Bank, formally launched the Environ-
tion among scientists India, international scientists discussed mental Radio Soap Opera for Rural
working on rice. Three ongoing research efforts and future Vietnam (promotional poster below)
decades later, that plans to assist farming communities
important role remains, near the Indo-Gangetic, Mekong, and
as the International Nile river basins. IRRI and its partners
Rice Research Notes continues to fill a from Bangladesh, India, Vietnam, and
special niche in rice science publishing. Iran jointly tackled problems faced by
The 30th anniversary observation thousands of farmers in areas that have
included an IRRN Best Article competi- high salt content resulting in low land
tion in which manuscripts submitted and water productivity and predomi-
were evaluated according to a set of nance of poverty.
criteria (scientific content, originality, Rice campers graduate with better
relevance, and organization). I present- appreciation for rice. After working
ed individual winners (one winner from hard in the rice fields, listening to
each of the six discipline sections of various lectures, and participating in
IRRN) with a plaque and a $500 cash fun-filled learning activities, 19 students
prize during the 26th International Rice from Thailand and the Philippines
Research Conference, 9-13 October in graduated from the rice camp hosted by
New Delhi, India. IRRI, 24-28 April. Among the many
high points during a very successful

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 11


and announced an environmental most important nonresearch
initiative in conjunction with activities is organizing and holding
ASEAN. I announced both of these events such as seminars, workshops,
projects on 2 June, which was World symposia, and conferences. For
Environment Day, at MARD’s several years, the conveners of these
headquarters in Hanoi. events at IRRI have largely worked
Vietnam adopts “Three Reduc- alone with their own small organiza-
tions, Three Gains” as national tional teams. After careful consider-
policy. Also in June, the Vietnamese ation and considerable discussion,
government endorsed “Three management decided to centralize
Reductions, Three Gains” (locally the coordination and overall organi-
called “Ba Giam, Ba Tang”), initiated zation and management of these
as an IRRI project in 2002, as a events at IRRI in Visitors and
national agricultural policy. This was Information Services (VIS) starting
communicated in a letter from the 24 January 2007, when VIS was
minister of agriculture and rural renamed Events, Visitors, and
development, Dr. Cao Duc Phat, Information Services (EVIS).
who instructed the agricultural sector Ambassadors visit IRRI. Eight
to disseminate the system of technol- ambassadors to the Philippines visited
ogy and knowledge throughout the Africa, with at least 23 million ha (20% IRRI since my last update. IRRI staff
country. With government endorsement of rice area) potentially affected in Asia and I enjoyed giving them all an
and financial support, “Three Reduc- alone. Frequent droughts result in overview of IRRI’s work and we were
tions” practices now have the potential enormous economic losses and have impressed with their keen interest in
of reaching all rice farmers in Vietnam. long-term destabilizing socioeconomic rice. They were Muhammad Naeem
I believe this project represents a clear effects on resource-poor farmers and Khan, Islamic Republic of Pakistan (9
example of how research is directly communities. May 2006); W.M. Senevirathna,
linked to policy adoption and the CPWF Project 11 (DPPC 2003-23) Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri
importance of understanding farmer organizes training workshop. As part Lanka (6 June 2006); Peter Becking-
decisions and using a multistakeholder of the CPWF project “Rice landscape ham, United Kingdom of Great Britain
process in building quality partner- management in upper catchments,” and Northern Ireland (26 September
ships. Chiang Mai University, the World Agro- 2006); Manuel Perez Iturbe (in
Drought Frontier Project Planning Forestry Center, and IRRI’s Social photo below with DDG-OSS William
Workshop. A planning workshop on the Sciences Division organized a training Padolina), charge d’affaires, Bolivar-
Drought Frontier Project was held at workshop on “Upland-
IRRI on 2-4 October to assess the lowland interactions and
current status and future challenges approaches to participa-
facing rice cultivation in drought-prone tory land-use mapping”
environments; review the recent in Chiang Mai, 23-25
progress, breakthroughs, and potential January 2007. The
impact of drought research in rice and workshop helped develop
other tropical crops; identify priority analytical capacity of the
research areas and state-of-the-art project members from
methodologies and approaches to Laos and Vietnam to
address drought challenges; and apply various tools to
establish a research consortium and an study land-use changes at
integrated research strategy on drought the landscape level.
resistance in rice. Drought is the major Events, Visitors, and
constraint to rice production in rainfed Information Services.
areas across Asia and sub-Saharan One of the Institute’s

12 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


ian Republic of Venezuela (2 February A KEYNOTE ON CLIMATE CHANGE change, they are severely at risk.

I
2007); Gérard Chesnel, Republic of closed out Helping poor farmers adapt to climate
France (19 February 2007); Annika 2006 with a change will require a concerted
Markovic, Sweden (21 February keynote speech international effort to improve crops,
2007); George Rey Jimenez, on climate techniques of cultivation, and soil and
Republic of Cuba (5 March 2007): and change during water management. I think I struck the
Stale Torstein Risa, Norway (20 the Annual right chord with the CGIAR audience
March 2007). General Meeting and I am confident the CG centers will
IRRI Books for Africa and Asia. of the CGIAR in work together in a collaborative spirit to
With the imminent closing down of the Washington, D.C. come up with solutions to meet this
CPS book storage facility in Chandler We here at IRRI had been thinking threat, whether agriculture starts
Hall, about 38,450 IRRI books (with a about how to tackle this urgent chal- feeling the heat next year or a decade
retail value of more than US$384,000) lenge throughout the year as shown by from now.
were shipped via sea freight in February our Climate Change and Rice Planning
and March 2007. Soon, these books will Workshop in March and our subsequent BREAKING BREAD WITH STAFF

I
be arriving at IRRI’s East and Southern creation of the Rice Climate Change n December 2005, I initiated what
Africa Region office in Mozambique, Consortium (RCCC) with the hiring of became a monthly practice (or as near
WARDA’s office in Nigeria (where IRRI Reiner Wassmann to coordinate it. to this that my schedule would
rice breeder Glenn Gregorio [shown In my presentation on Climate change permit) of having an early-morning
making book selections in photo above] and agriculture in the tropics and breakfast with a cross section of
is currently based), and IRRI’s 11 subtropics: preparing for the worst nationally recruited staff (NRS). I
country offices in Asia. They will be with a winning approach, I pointed out believe that it is very important for me,
redistributed to needy NARES libraries that poor countries are overwhelmingly as director general, to get to know the
across these regions. New IRRI policies dependent on natural resources, and, staff, find out about their work, and talk
on publication press runs and printing given their limited financial or institu- with them about their jobs, IRRI, and
on demand negate the future need for a tional ability to adapt to profound special concerns.
book storage warehouse.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 13


Since my last report, I have had
eight more of these breakfasts with 179
NRS in total. I have come to look
forward to these informal bread-
breaking sessions in this relaxed and
cordial atmosphere. I have found
interacting directly with the staff from
the many different sectors of the
Institute to be enjoyable, interesting,
and instructive. These breakfasts have
reinforced one more thing that I already
knew, that IRRI staff members are truly
interested in the Institute community
and genuinely want to make it a better
place for themselves and colleagues.
During the last quarter of 2006, I
was very proud of the response of the
IRRI community to pitch in and try to
help as best it could those who were hit
with some terrible losses due to several family portrait taken during the our goal of “bringing hope and
typhoons that ravaged the region. This Institute’s Christmas party on 15 improving lives” throughout the
generosity from people who suffered December 2006. world.
losses themselves to those who suffered With such an involved, industrious,
even more is something that I carry and conscientious staff, I am confident
within me as I contemplate what it that we can do pretty much what we set
means to be a member of this excep- our minds to—including meeting the
tional community. It truly hit home as challenges that we have set for ourselves
Crissan, my daughters, and I posed with in our strategic plan. It is without a Robert S. Zeigler
more than 700 of the staff in a giant doubt, in my mind, that we will achieve Director General

14 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Program highlights 2006
Using contents of the genetic vault
center able to immediately comply with the Treaty by the

A
t the end of 2006, the International Rice Genebank deadline and therefore to continue germplasm exchange
(IRG) held 108,955 accessions, and total distribution without interruption. IRRI’s system has been demonstrated at
of germplasm reached a record high of nearly 95,000 international meetings as a model for others to follow.
seed packets for the year. Two key outputs supported the genetic resource sys-
A historic agreement, signed on 16 October 2006 tems of IRRI’s national partners. First, the establishment in
between IRRI and the Governing Body of the International 2006 (to be completed in 2007) of a rice biodiversity network
Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agricul- provides a mechanism for global rationalization of efforts to
ture, required IRRI to change its procedures for germplasm conserve rice genetic resources and will enhance germplasm
exchange by 14 January 2007, in particular to conform to the conservation and use around the world. Second, the improve-
requirements of a new Standard Material Transfer Agree- ment of the Lao PDR rice genebank will improve conserva-
ment. IRRI was the only international agricultural research tion and use of Lao germplasm. Samples of all remaining

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 15


Lao accessions conserved in IRRI were restored to the Lao National agricultural research and extension system
genebank for duplicate conservation there. (NARES) breeders from 20 countries used breeding lines
In 2006, IRRI developed and verified a novel high- from International Network for the Genetic Evaluation of Rice
throughput technique for genetic fingerprinting, which will nurseries (758 breeding lines used as parents in hybridiza-
allow tens of thousands of IRG samples to be characterized. tion, 879 used in further yield evaluation, 242 screened for
This knowledge will facilitate the identification of important resistance to insect pests and diseases and evaluated for
genes and allow better use of conserved germplasm samples salinity and cold tolerance, and 600 conserved in genebanks).
for breeding and research. In Uttar Pradesh, India, a study of the rice-wheat crop-
TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) ping system has shown that, using a no-till system for both
is now an established part of the research tool kit for finding crops, water use can be cut by 35–40% while maintaining
variation in potential drought-tolerance genes in the IRG. Re- productivity similar to that of the more commonly used trans-
searchers have characterized 10 candidate genes for drought planting of rice followed by dry-tilled direct-sown wheat.
tolerance in 1,536 accessions of cultivated rice (Oryza sativa), We determined shifts in weed species resulting from
five candidate genes in 190 accessions of African species O. the change from transplanting to direct seeding in India and
glaberrima, and five candidate genes in 152 accessions of Bangladesh. This information is helping to define manage-
wild rice species. ment strategies to respond to undesirable shifts in weed
Recessive mutations for resistance to rice tungro disease populations. Weed management options for direct-seeded
and the rice pest brown planthopper (BPH) were mapped to rice have been tested in farmers’ fields in the Indo-Gangetic
regions on rice chromosomes 4 and 6, respectively. Several Plains in more than 100 farmer field trials over a total of 975
candidate genes for each were identified. These results boost hectares. Direct-seeding options gave yields similar to those
researchers’ chances of successful marker-assisted selection of transplanting.
when breeding for resistance to both tungro and BPH. Geneti- In Indonesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, and Myan-
cally tagged germplasm for resistance to tungro, which can mar, postharvest management practices, improved storage
devastate crops, is rare and badly needed for controlling the technologies, market information, and quality-enhancing
disease. production technologies for reduced losses and improved
quality were made available for wide-scale delivery.
Improving rice production New tools were developed and implemented in rice qual-
In 2006, we developed 10 promising lines with a 15–20% ity evaluation. Protocols for chalkiness—a major problem in
yield advantage over check varieties and that possess im- the grain quality of hybrid rice—continue to be refined. Such
proved grain quality and multiple resistance to diseases and improved methodology for assessing grain quality will boost
insects. Two IRRI-bred superior rice lines were recommended efforts to improve hybrid grain quality.
for release in the Philippines as national rice varieties for
commercial cultivation by rice farmers. These varieties out- Easing scourges of flooding and drought
yielded the most popular check varieties by an average of 7.4% One major IRRI success in 2006 was the transfer of submer-
and 14.2%. Four hybrid rice varieties were identified with gence tolerance to three major rice varieties. Using marker-
yield (more than 8.3 tons per hectare in the dry-season trial) assisted selection, the Sub1 gene was bred into popular variet-
higher than that of popular commercial hybrid Mestizo 3, and ies Swarna, Samba Mahsuri, and IR64. When these varieties
a yield advantage of more than 15% over the inbred check. possess Sub1, they yield up to three times more than they do
Using wide crosses (crossing modern rice varieties without Sub1 after 10–14 days of submergence. Seed was sent
with their wild relatives), IRRI researchers developed elite to NARES in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, and
breeding lines resistant to BPH, bacterial blight, blast, and Myanmar, and promises greater productivity and more secure
tungro. We developed five breeding lines possessing the BPH livelihoods in areas subject to flash flooding.
resistance gene Bph18 in the genetic background of two high- With six NARES partners, IRRI tested elite salt-tolerant
yielding BPH-susceptible japonica cultivars, Jinbubyeo and lines at nine locations in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Iran, and
Junambyeo. These lines conferred strong resistance to BPH Vietnam, allowing the identification of better adapted and
biotypes of Korea and China. We also developed transgenic stable salt-tolerant lines for coastal and inland salinity. Re-
lines resistant to stem borer and bacterial blight. searchers developed and validated genetic markers associated
with the Saltol gene, which confers salt tolerance to rice. The

16 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


gene was fine-mapped and about 30 gene-specific markers Vinh Long, the series contributed toward a 30% reduction in
were identified in the Saltol region. insecticide sprays. In Lao PDR, 104 episodes were developed
IRRI researchers identified drought sensitivity at flower- and broadcast over National Lao Radio.
ing in 10 major Asian varieties. This offers improved efficien- New approaches to stabilize soil quality and increase the
cy in breeding for enhanced drought tolerance at flowering productivity of rice-based uplands were developed. We inves-
in popular varieties. Short-duration lines and hybrids were tigated the use of biochar—incompletely burned organic mat-
identified with yield at least 50% higher than that of popular ter such as charcoal, which is incorporated into soils—from
high-yielding variety IR64 under severe reproductive-stage rice residues for soil improvement in rice-based systems.
drought stress. These were distributed for adaptive testing Biochar is easily produced from rice residues and improves
and use as parents by NARES breeders in drought-prone crop productivity on poor soils.
areas.
A research monograph was compiled to improve un- Spreading the knowledge
derstanding of drought-coping mechanisms of rice farmers. Research on gender roles showed that persisting indifference
Published by IRRI in early 2007, the monograph shows the to rural women’s contribution to agriculture (especially to rice
increased relevance of technology and policy for drought production) and the constraints to women’s access to produc-
mitigation. The incidence and severity of poverty increase tive resources are impeding the achievement of food security
during drought years as people “fall back” into poverty and goals. The knowledge gained from these studies facilitates the
those who are already below the poverty line fall deeper into development of policies and research strategies that provide
poverty. men and women with equal access to technical knowledge,
We developed new approaches for site-specific crop and skills, and opportunities to enable their families to improve
natural resource management for rice-based drought-prone income and reduce drudgery for female rice farmers.
rainfed lowlands. One significant achievement was the basic Leaf color chart (LCC) use to manage nitrogen fertil-
outline of a novel framework for nutrient management in this izer applications in Nadia District of the Indian state of West
environment, which promotes flexible site- and system-spe- Bengal has led to an average savings of 900 rupees (US$20)
cific options over uniform recommendations. per hectare (11.2% of the average profit) and the environmen-
Participatory varietal selection enabled farmers to tal benefit from reduced nitrogen and insecticide use has been
evaluate promising lines tolerant of drought, submergence, considerable. LCC adopters reduced nitrogen application by
sodicity, and salinity, and resistant to blast in target rainfed about 19% (25 kg per hectare) and insecticide sprays by 50%
environments. We conducted 200 farmer participatory trials without affecting yields.
in the rice-wheat system of the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Nepal Hands-on postharvest management and grain qual-
and eastern India and evaluated integrated crop and resource ity training was conducted in Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myan-
management practices—such as land leveling, tillage and crop mar, Vietnam, and Cambodia. Laser-leveling training was
establishment, nutrient management, and pest management— conducted in Myanmar and private-sector contractors were
that enhance crop performance, resource-use efficiency, and taught how to provide laser-leveling services to farmers.
farmers’ income. The trials showed that the management Over 100 researchers and extension agents from Cambo-
strategies increased both yield and farmers’ benefit-cost ratio. dia, China, Laos, Myanmar, and Vietnam were trained on the
use of IRRI’s Rice Knowledge Bank (www.knowledgebank.
Reducing pesticide use and stabilizing irri.org). Around 40 researchers from Bangladesh, Burundi,
Indonesia, Iran, Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philippines,
soil quality Sri Lanka, and Vietnam received training on statistics and
The major recommendation from the Livelihood Improve-
experimental design at IRRI headquarters. Around 100
ment Through Ecology project in Bangladesh was that
researchers and extension workers received training on site-
insecticides (as currently used by farmers) should not be
specific nutrient management. Twenty-seven researchers and
applied, regardless of the type of crop in the neighboring field.
extension agents from Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indone-
Farmers spending the highest amounts on insecticides were
sia, Lao PDR, Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam
not gaining any benefit and therefore had reduced profits.
were trained on participatory approaches to research and
In Vietnam, 135 episodes of the “IPM soap opera”—with
extension, also at IRRI headquarters.
storylines designed to educate farmers on the best integrated
Read about IRRI’s 2006 research achievements in more
pest management (IPM) practices for reducing pesticides—
detail in the next section, pages 18-60.
were developed and broadcast over three radio stations. In

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 17


Program 1
Genetic resources
conservation, evaluation,
and gene discovery

I
RRI’s work to collect, conserve, generated from these genetic resources,
document, and exchange germplasm which includes an understanding of the
(plant seeds and tissues) is covered biological functions encoded in the rice
by Program 1. This work encompasses genes. Beneficiaries of this information
the crucial tasks of conserving and sus- are the international research commu-
taining biodiversity. Further, through nity, national research and extension
this program, IRRI aims to make public agencies, and any other interested
and freely available the knowledge party whose goal is improving rice

18 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


productivity and production, and reduc- collaboration among and between both
ing poverty for poor rice producers and developed and developing countries.
consumers. As such, the Institute is in a unique
As well as possessing an excellent position to undertake this program’s
capacity to produce genetic resources, important information generation
IRRI is a leader in the identification of and dissemination tasks on behalf of
important rice traits. This expertise is publicly funded rice researchers and the
combined with an extensive collabora- poor rice farmers and consumers they
tive research network that evaluates the serve.
behavior of newly found traits in diverse Program 1 comprises two projects.
environments and under a range of One deals with all aspects of maintain-
biotic stresses (such as pests and ing the germplasm and the other seeks
diseases) and abiotic stresses (such to understand the functioning of the
as drought and problem soils). IRRI rice genome.
occupies a key position as a center for

Project 1
Germplasm conservation, characterization, documentation,
and exchange
Since its foundation almost 50 years
ago, IRRI has led international efforts
to collect and conserve the genetic
resources of rice. The world’s largest
rice germplasm collection is held in
trust in the International Rice Gene-
bank at IRRI (along with a collection
of biofertilizer germplasm, including
Azolla, blue-green algae, and nitrogen-
fixing bacteria). Plant breeders and
researchers worldwide use these genetic
resources to develop new rice varieties,
which are also freely available to any
interested party—including farmers.
The germplasm held in the genebank
has also allowed the re-establishment
of traditional rice varieties thought lost
and even the restoration of an entire
rice industry—such as in the case of
Cambodia, where agriculture was
devastated after years of warfare and
civil strife. Effective use of germplasm evaluation (Output 2), and access to
requires characterization (Output 1), information (Output 3).

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 19


Output 1: Rice and biofertilizer additional gelatinization-temperature world. Second, the improvement of the
genetic resources conserved and haplotype, but more research is needed Lao PDR rice genebank will improve
characterized to confirm this. If there is another, this conservation and use of Lao germplasm
In 2006, IRRI developed and verified means that there are now five known as well as lower the cost and boost the
a novel high-throughput technique for haplotypes—linked genetic loci—that efficiency of the national rice genetic
genetic fingerprinting, which will ulti- define gelatinization temperature. We resource system in Lao PDR. Samples of
mately allow tens of thousands of acces- also found two polymorphisms in the all remaining Lao accessions conserved
sions to be characterized. The molecular amylose gene and rare combinations of in IRRI were restored to the Lao
characterization of the International genes not found in domesticated rice genebank for duplicate conservation there.
Rice Genebank (IRG) mini-core collec- that confer broader-than-usual qual- The total number of accessions at
tion of 1,536 accessions was partly com- ity traits (the range of gelatinization the end of 2006 was 108,955, of which
pleted, and will continue in 2007. The temperatures, for example, was 51–85 the core collection, a subset of samples
Generation Challenge Program (GCP) degrees Celsius versus the usual 60–75 representing the range of rice varieties
composite rice collection of 2,757 lines degrees Celsius seen in most domesti- and ecosystems, was about 10%. Reju-
was also genotyped and the population cated rice varieties). Starch structure venation, characterization, and viability
structure determined. This knowl- in some accessions indicates the starch monitoring continue as core activities.
edge will facilitate the identification of was synthesized by a combination of
important genes by the application of genes not usually found. This work of- Output 2: Rice germplasm ex-
association genetics, and hence will al- fers a better understanding and better changed and evaluated interna-
low better use of conserved germplasm documentation of characteristics of the tionally
accessions for breeding and research. rice held in the genebank. It also gives In 2006, 18 new nurseries—14 ecosys-
The Institute’s Grain Quality, breeders insight into quality traits for tem-based and four stress-oriented—
Nutrition, and Postharvest Center breeding and will help them add new were assembled for the International
characterized rice cooking quality in traits to domesticated rice. Network for the Genetic Evaluation of
the mini-core collection (comprising To better use and conserve wild Rice (INGER). These were distributed
cultivated and traditional varieties, and relatives, we authenticated the taxonom- to 30 countries. Outstanding materials
wild rice species) referred to above, ic identification of 50% of the accessions from these nurseries were identified,
which included representatives of of wild Oryza species held in the IRG. used in national breeding and testing
each germplasm class of rice. We also The newly obtained molecular, morpho- programs, and subsequently either
characterized grain quality in 50 variet- logical, chromosomal, and biosystematic released as varieties or used to develop
ies of black rice. Specifically, the 1,536 data have significantly improved the new varieties with better characteristics
mini-core accessions were character- overall classification of wild rice. for farmers’ use. Twelve regular nur-
ized for amylose content, gelatinization General IRG maintenance con- series and four special nursery sets were
temperature, a simple sequence repeat tinued, with all incoming samples also composed and dispatched to 38
(SSR) marker located on an amylose processed, subsamples of all acces- countries. The IRG sent a record high of
gene, and a single nucleotide polymor- sions placed in long-term storage and nearly 50,000 seed packets in response
phism on the starch synthase IIa gene in safety backup, and viability tests on to 225 requests from 32 countries. Com-
(which contributes to gelatinization 12,000 samples, and multiplication of bined with nearly 45,000 seed packets
temperature). The black rice variet- 5,000 accessions done. distributed by INGER and other IRRI
ies were tested for all possible traits Two key outputs in 2006 supported organizational units (12,000 packets
of physical, chemical, and nutritional the genetic resource systems of IRRI’s sent by INGER in response to 164 seed
quality, and for trait-specific and other national partners. First, the establish- requests from 38 countries; 33,000
SSR loci. We found that the mini-core ment in 2006 (to be completed in 2007) packets sent by both INGER and other
samples were not diverse geographi- of a rice biodiversity network provides IRRI organizational units to INGER
cally or in terms of cooking quality. a mechanism for global rationaliza- partners and other breeding collabora-
They were heavily skewed toward tion of efforts to conserve rice genetic tors), total distribution of germplasm
high amylose and high gelatinization resources and will enhance germplasm reached a record high of nearly 95,000
temperature. We found evidence for an conservation and use around the seed packets in 2006.

20 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Myanmar) in IPR issues associated with
genetic resources.

Output 3: International Rice Infor-


mation System (IRIS) developed
and used by rice breeders and
researchers
To improve management of information
in the IRG, a genetic resource infor-
mation management module for the
International Crop Information System
(ICIS) was completed and deployed as
part of IRIS. The resultant integration
and joint publication of genetic resource
and crop improvement information will
The 2006 users of the breeding agreement, signed between IRRI and benefit genetic resource specialists and
lines from 2003-05 INGER nurseries the Governing Body of the Treaty on 16 plant breeders working with rice and
are NARES breeders in Bangladesh, October 2006, required IRRI to change other crops, ultimately allowing ac-
China, DPR Korea, Egypt, India, Iran, its procedures for germplasm exchange celerated development of new, improved
Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, by 14 January 2007, in particular to varieties that exploit novel alleles from
Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Ko- conform to the requirements of a new genetic resource collections.
rea, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Surinam, Thai- Standard Material Transfer Agreement The development of an ICIS mod-
land, Turkey, and Vietnam, with 758 (SMTA). This involved an extensive ule for molecular characterization of
breeding lines used as parents in hy- exercise to classify the status of all germplasm will benefit biologists and
bridization; 879 breeding lines used in IRRI’s germplasm under the Treaty, genetic resource specialists working
further yield evaluation; 242 breeding record this information in the Interna- on biodiversity analysis, functional ge-
lines from 2003-05 INGER nurseries tional Rice Information System (IRIS), nomics, and allele mining. The module
screened for resistance to insect pests develop new software in IRIS to process integrates molecular characterization
and diseases and evaluated for salinity seed requests, create an SMTA for each from different projects with phenotypic
and cold tolerance; and 600 breeding seed request, and create a new Web site evaluation of germplasm used to iden-
lines from 2003-05 INGER nur- to publish data associated with each tify novel alleles from rice accessions.
series conserved in gene banks. NARES SMTA. IRRI was the only international This information resource will allow the
breeders in the countries listed above agricultural research center able to im- development of improved rice culti-
are using the germplasm developed in mediately comply with the Treaty by the vars with enhanced traits conferring
2003-05 in characterization and evalu- 14 January 2007 deadline and there- resistance or adaptation to intractable
ation research in the search for new fore to continue germplasm exchange environments. In 2006, the core data
traits or adaptation, and in local breed- without interruption, and IRRI’s system model and database were completed.
ing programs to increase the diversity of has been demonstrated at international Software development and data encod-
local gene pools for subsequent testing meetings as a model for others to follow. ing are continuing within the context
by the national testing authorities and The role of intellectual property of the GCP and within various other col-
ultimate release to, and use by, farmers. rights (IPR) in international agricul- laborative projects.
The Genetic Resources Center, tural research—in germplasm exchange,
Crop Research Informatics Laboratory, for example—is growing rapidly, and
Seed Health Unit, and Plant Breeding, it is vital that NARES breeders and
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division germplasm specialists increase their Project leader
worked together assiduously to prepare awareness in this area. In 2006, IRRI
Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, evolutionary biologist
IRRI for implementation of the Interna- provided two half-day training courses
and head, T.T. Chang Genetic Resources Center,
tional Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources (one at IRRI headquarters, one in r.hamilton@cgiar.org
for Food and Agriculture. A historic India) and one 5-day training course (in

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 21


Project 2
Functional genomics

Genomics, the science of deciphering


DNA sequence structure, variation,
and function, is now considered a key
discipline in the discovery of plant traits
that can improve crop production. As
such, it is a crucial tool in the campaign
to improve the livelihoods of millions of
resource-poor rice farmers. Ultimately,
genomics will allow researchers to
discover every rice gene, the functional
diversity of the various versions of these
genes among the myriad rice species
and varieties, and the relationship
between a rice variety’s DNA sequence
and its phenotype—the actual form the
plant takes in the field. This body of
knowledge is growing exponentially and
is already leading to new strategies for
genetic improvement that are helping
farmers grow rice more efficiently and
profitably.
Through the efforts of the Inter-
national Rice Genome Sequencing To discover which parts of the Output 1: Forward genetics to
Project and private-sector contribu- genome are responsible for traits of identify novel genetic variation
tions, the finalized sequence of the rice interest, scientists create novel genetic using specialized genetic stocks
genome was published in August 2005. resources such as mutants in which for intensive phenotypic screening
Scientists are using this information certain genes are disabled or activated. and characterization
to delve further and further into the Combining this with the genomic infor- Near-isogenic lines (NILs) and mutant
rice plant’s genetic secrets. Structural mation present within the rice germ- analysis enhanced our understanding
genomics—determining the sequence plasm and the plants’ behavior under of tungro resistance in 2006. NILs are
of the DNA and mapping the location different conditions allows research- almost genetically identical to each
of genes or relatively small regions of ers to link genotype and phenotype. other but one line possesses a small
the genome that influence phenotypic Genomic databases and resources are genetic component from a donor line,
traits—is catalyzing great advances in rapidly growing in size, number, and representing a special genetic resource
functional genomics—the discovery of quality. IRRI continues to play a key for assigning function to chromosomal
which biological functions belong to role as a creator, compiler, and dissemi- regions. A recessive mutation for tungro
specific DNA sequences (such as genes) nator of genomics tools and informa- resistance was mapped to a region
and how these work together to produce tion, and as a promoter of public access on rice chromosome 4 and several
and influence traits. to these invaluable resources. candidate genes were identified. The

22 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Lesions IN Genomes) is a technique
designed to detect small variations
(such as single-base mutations) in
gene sequences in natural germplasm
or mutant populations. These varia-
tions are known as single nucleotide
polymorphisms (SNPs). In 2005, IRRI
scientists converted the EcoTILLING
technique (a version of TILLING) to an
agarose-based approach, which made
it much easier and cheaper to perform
(recently published in Molecular Breed-
ing). TILLING is now well established
at IRRI, where researchers use the ap-
proach to screen genes of interest in the
rice germplasm pool and in mutants.
IRRI’s simplified TILLING method
has allowed the Institute to expand its
collaboration with other organizations.
With France’s Centre de coopération in-
ternationale en recherche agronomique
pour le développement (CIRAD), IRRI
candidate genes are being examined for (RDA), have successfully transferred is using TILLING to look for virus resis-
association with different phenotypes. rice brown planthopper (BPH) resis- tance genes important for Africa. TILL-
We also identified candidate genes for tance from an Australian wild rice spe- ING is now an established part of the
tungro resistance on chromosome 7 of cies (Oryza australiensis) to cultivated research tool kit for finding variation
Utri Merah, a traditional Indonesian rice. Many wild species are known to in potential drought tolerance genes in
variety. Screening for tungro resistance be insect-resistant and are therefore the germplasm bank. Researchers have
is notoriously difficult because of the a valuable reservoir of desirable traits characterized 10 candidate genes for
need for rearing a virus-bearing insect for modern varieties. The location of a drought tolerance in 1,536 accessions
vector. Genetically tagged germplasm gene for BPH has also been localized to of O. sativa, five candidate genes in 190
for resistance to tungro, which can a region on rice chromosome 6. As in accessions of African species O. glaber-
devastate crops, is rare to come by and the tagging of tungro resistance, tightly rima, and five candidate genes in 152
badly needed for controlling the dis- linked markers for BPH resistance have wild accessions.
ease. These results boost researchers’ been developed to help the selection in
chances of successful marker-assisted breeding. Output 3: Genomewide expres-
selection (MAS). A marker is a segment Similarly, work is continuing on sion analysis to determine causal
of DNA linked to an allele (a version mapping tolerance for flooding during relationships between genes and
of a gene) that controls an important germination. Genetic stocks (recom- phenotypes
trait and can easily be detected in the binant inbred lines) have been created In collaboration with the RDA and
lab; MAS involves linking a desired for this purpose, and will allow the Japan’s National Institute for Agrobio-
gene with a marker so that it can easily development of efficient markers for logical Sciences (NIAS), IRRI continued
be bred into a rice variety. Developing MAS and gene discovery. to develop whole-genome methodolo-
markers close to the tungro resistance gies for identifying and locating genes
gene will give breeders greater confi- Output 2: Reverse genetics to of interest. We have developed a general
dence when screening for resistance. identify allelic series in candidate method to align gene expression pat-
To combat insect problems, IRRI genes for stress tolerance, and terns with introgression segments
scientists, collaborating with Korea’s nutritional and grain quality in NILs. Whole-genome tools—such
Rural Development Administration TILLING (Targeting Induced Local as gene chips (small slides on which

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 23


samples of DNA of thousands of genes, trait that allows seed formation without
from across the whole genome, are fertilization. Achieving apomixis in
arranged in a grid)—can be used to see hybrids would allow farmers to reuse
where the NILs show different pat- hybrid seed rather than purchase new
terns of expression. This allows the seed each season. Hybrid rice has high-
introgressed segments to be localized. er yields than the best inbred varieties
Comparing the phenotypes of the plants but is often too expensive for poor farm-
when grown under certain conditions ers. IRRI aims to make the production
(e.g., disease or drought stress) then of hybrid rice cheaper and more flexible
allows researchers to locate genes in the through the development of a synthetic
genome responsible for certain traits. form of apomixis that prevents loss of
Because advanced backcross lines and hybrid vigor.
NILs are common genetic materials Although unknown in rice, apo-
used in breeding programs, we expect mixis is common in grasses, especially
that the new method will help research- in the form known as apospory. Apos-
ers to efficiently identify a short list of porous initials are ovule cells that avoid
genes responsible for desirable traits meiosis (cell division that scrambles
such as resistance to pests and diseases, the chromosomes) but in other respects
and tolerance for abiotic stresses. resemble so-called megaspore mother male-sterile. Since male sterility would
cells (MeMCs; cells that undergo meio- be an impediment to achieving our goal,
Output 4: Candidate gene identifi- sis). We hypothesized that apospory we have sought to disrupt the function
cation and functional verification may involve mutations affecting the of MSP1 in the ovule alone, by using a
for stress tolerance and nutritional formation of MeMCs. Indeed, rice technique known as RNA interference
quality mutants that switch off a gene called (RNAi) to silence a gene that encodes
Progress was made toward developing multiple sporocytes (MSP1) produce OsTDL1A, a protein that binds to MSP1.
apomictic hybrid rice. Apomixis is a multiple MeMCs in the ovule but are We have demonstrated that RNAi
silencing of the OsTDL1A gene produces
multiple MeMCs in the ovule without
affecting the anther or causing male
sterility. Our data suggest that targeted
disruption of this particular process in
sexual reproduction may be a starting
point for developing synthetic apospory.
Our next task is to bypass meiosis in the
additional MeMCs.
Work is continuing on the valida-
tion of candidate genes for salinity
tolerance (the Saltol gene). This will
allow researchers to develop more effi-
cient gene-specific markers for breeding
and better understand the molecular
and physiological pathways involved
in salt tolerance. In 2006, fine-map-
ping of the region of the rice genome
containing the Saltol gene was almost
completed, and genes in the region are
being annotated and studied. A short
list of candidate genes will be available
in 2007.

24 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Output 5: Bioinformatics research
and integration of convergent
data for the identification and vali-
dation of target candidate genes
and pathways
Work continued on the production of
the next-generation International Rice
Information System (IRIS) for local and
Web-based access to functional genom-
ics data integrated with crop germplasm
data and crop modeling. This activity
has been merged with the Generation
Challenge Program (GCP) crop infor-
mation platform development effort. As
part of the GCP-funded data analysis
and comparative stress-gene catalog
projects, tool kits have been developed
to enable integration of results from
multiple experiments and short-listing
of target genes for allele mining (finding
region from chromosome 3 revealed a Elite lines for breeding submergence-
the unknown valuable alleles in a germ-
total of more than 2,000 SNPs (one SNP tolerant varieties were produced using
plasm collection).
per 200 DNA base pairs on average) MAS and made available to NARES
Output 6: International Rice among 20 varieties, providing a glimpse breeders. Specifically, we developed
Functional Genomics Consortium: of the variation in the rice germplasm. and distributed lines in three genetic
public research platform to lever- In this collection of genotypes, we have backgrounds containing the Sub1 gene,
age national and international traditional and modern varieties that which allows survival of 10–14 days’
collaboration are known to exhibit tolerance for a submergence with minimal yield loss.
suite of stresses that adversely affect Sub1 lines with three additional back-
The International Rice Functional
rice productivity across many produc- grounds were scheduled for distribution
Genomics Consortium, coordinated
tion environments. These lines include in early 2007.
by IRRI, has led an effort to under-
valuable traits such as tolerance for IRRI’s Gene Array and Molecular
take genome-wide SNP discovery by
heat, submergence, drought, problem Marker Application (GAMMA) Labora-
re-sequencing diverse rice varieties.
soils, and diseases. Also included were tory and the Asian Rice Biotechnology
Preliminary results from a unique
varieties with high yield potential and Network Shuttle Research Laboratory
other attributes that are favored by continued to host researchers from the
farmers in a wide range of locations. Ge- NARES to conduct research and obtain
nome-wide genetic variation data from training on specific skills. In 2006,
the 20 diverse varieties are scheduled to 40 visiting researchers worked in the
be available in early 2007. This project facility. Key achievements included
enables IRRI to mobilize the research training on new chip-based genotyping
community to participate in pheno- techniques and contributions to the
typing of the diverse collection of development of low-cost markers.
varieties, thus establishing a foundation
for unlocking the genetic variation of
key rice germplasm. Project leader
Output 7: Asian Rice Biotechnol- Hei Leung, senior scientist, plant pathology,
ogy Network: dissemination of h.leung@cgiar.org
tools and training

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 25


Program 2
Enhancing productivity and
sustainability of favorable
environments
T
he adoption of improved rice lower food prices. Low food prices ben-
varieties and production tech- efit the urban laboring class as well as
nologies in the favorable irrigated the rural landless and marginal farmers
environment is a major factor in poverty who are net buyers of food and who
alleviation across Asia. The resultant often spend one-third or more of their
increased production in this ecosys- income on rice alone. Consequently, a
tem—which accounts for 55% of rice declining rice price is effectively a rise
harvested area and contributes to about in income and, as such, improves the
75% of total rice production—has led to food security of the poor.
a reduced unit cost of production and

26 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


The favorable irrigated environ- the example of water: increased compe- celerating demand for high-quality
ment will remain the major source of tition from the domestic and industrial rice. We need varieties with higher
rice supply to the rural landless and an sectors and the constant scourge of yield potential, multiple resistance to
expanding urban population. As popu- drought are threatening a water crisis. diseases and insects, and tolerance
lations increase and demand grows, we In many countries, therefore, we will for problem soils, and we need rice
need to sustain the high yields already not have the option to increase the with superior grain quality and higher
achieved in this ecosystem. Further, we area under high-yielding modern rice micronutrient content. In the past few
need to harness high-quality advanced varieties by further developing irriga- years, IRRI has expanded its activities
science to explore further increases in tion infrastructure. Farmers will need in the area of rice quality and nutrition.
yield potential. to grow more rice with less water and The Institute has a strong and grow-
In feeding more people, however, learn how to operate irrigation sys- ing capacity to develop rice germplasm
we need to ensure the health of the tems more efficiently. We also need to and management strategies that can
environment. As populations grow, continue our development of technolo- ultimately help eliminate micronutrient
the irrigated rice production system gies that help maintain soil fertility and deficiencies—especially of iron, zinc,
intensifies, placing increasing pressure manage pests. and vitamin A—for many of the millions
on limited natural resources—many of On top of all this, rising living of poor Asians who receive most of their
which are already overexploited. Take standards in most of Asia are ac- nutrition from rice.

Project 3
Genetic enhancement for yield, grain quality,
and stress resistance

As population growth continues to


boost demand for rice, production
growth in the irrigated ecosystem is
approaching a plateau. In this favor-
able ecosystem, which produces 75%
of the world’s rice, IRRI is continuing
its effort to increase and sustain rice
productivity. Meanwhile, the irrigated
rice area is shrinking, irrigation water is
being diverted for other uses, agricul-
tural labor is moving to industry, and
concern is rising about the misuse of
pesticides and inefficient use of fertil-
izers. Farmers across the rice-producing
world need to produce more rice using
less land, water, labor, and chemical
support. There is also a growing need
to improve grain quality and nutrition
and so alleviate the “hidden hunger” of
micronutrient deficiency that afflicts

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 27


millions of poor people across different
ecosystems.
IRRI researchers use both conven-
tional breeding and biotechnological
approaches to develop new improved
cultivars and rice hybrids with 15–20%
higher yield than existing high-yielding
varieties. The development of even high-
er yielding rice cultivars and hybrids is
also a key aim. We also develop suitable
agronomic management practices for
new plant types and hybrids to optimize
their performance in farmers’ fields.
Conventional breeding, marker-as-
sisted selection, and genetic engineer-
ing are all employed to improve rice
varieties’ pest and disease resistance which has grains similar to those of IR72 (one from IRRI, two from the
as well as to enhance the palatability basmati rice, was reported to yield Philippine Rice Research Institute) have
and nutrition of rice varieties, including more than 4 tons per hectare in Brunei, been field-tested at IRRI. These showed
higher content of micronutrients such where popular varieties commonly yield increased resistance to BB compared
as iron, zinc, and provitamin A. 1.5–2.5 tons per hectare. with untransformed IR72. When avail-
Thirty-one monogenic lines (lines able to farmers, varieties like these will
that are genetically identical, except for lead to reduced use of chemicals and
Output 1: Germplasm possessing one segment of the genome), repre- yield sustainability.
high yield, multiple resistance, senting 24 different blast resistance Using wide crosses (crossing
and superior grain quality genes, have been developed and shared modern rice varieties with their wild
developed with partners in NARES for enhanc- relatives), our researchers developed
In 2006, we developed 10 promising ing resistance to blast disease through elite breeding lines resistant to brown
lines with a 15–20% yield advantage methods such as gene pyramiding planthopper (BPH), BB, blast, and
over check varieties, and that possess (meaning several genes for blast resis- tungro. Specifically, there are seven
multiple resistance to diseases and tance are combined to confer a broader lines for BPH resistance (derived using
insects and improved grain quality. spectrum of resistance). Near-isogenic two wild species, Oryza minuta and
Two IRRI-bred superior rice lines lines (NILs) for yield-related traits in O. australiensis, and O. glaberrima),
were recommended by the Philippine the background of IR64 (that is, lines two blast-resistant lines (O. minuta and
National Rice Technical Working Group that are identical to IR64 apart from a O. australiensis), seven BB-resistant
to the National Seed Industry Council small section of the genome that confers lines (O. longistaminata, O. minuta,
for release as national rice varieties for a particular trait) have been developed and O. brachyantha), and three lines
commercial cultivation by rice farm- and characterized using molecular for tungro resistance (O. rufipogon).
ers. IR77186—the first new-plant-type markers. These lines offer new oppor- These have been shared with NARES
indica line—was released as NSIC Rc158 tunities to dissect and combine yield breeders. Broadening the rice gene pool
(Tubigan 12). IR71137—the first high- components for enhancing the yield in this way offers new sources of pest
yielding semidwarf aromatic line—was potential of rice cultivars. resistance and new cultivars derived
released as NSIC Rc144 (Mabango 2). Transgenic lines resistant to stem from these lines will lead to reduced use
Multilocational adaptive trials across borer and bacterial blight (BB) have of chemicals, environmental protection,
the Philippines showed that these been developed. Resistance to stem and yield sustainability.
varieties outyielded the most popular borer is conferred by a gene known as In 2006, we developed five ad-
check varieties by an average of 7.4% Bt; BB resistance is conferred by a gene vanced backcross progenies possessing
(IR77186) and 14.2% (IR71137). Another known as Xa21. Three BB-resistant the resistance gene Bph18 in the genetic
semidwarf aromatic line (IR67406), transgenic lines of high-yielding variety background of two high-yielding BPH-

28 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


of materials. We also set up several with a yield advantage of 6.7% over
japonica demonstration fields in Bohol, Mestizo 3 and 23.2% over PSB Rc82.
Philippines, using variety IRRI 142 These hybrids (and their parents), along
(registered as MS11 by the Philippine with protocols for higher hybrid seed
Seed Board), which showed good per- yield and improved grain quality, were
formance and higher yield capacity than shared with NARES. The efficiency of
local varieties. Notably, milled IRRI 142 nitrogen use of the hybrids was higher
grains were comparable with those of than that of the inbreds. The hybrids
popular varieties of japonica rice. There also had a higher harvest index (the
are therefore good prospects for IRRI ratio of grain yield to aboveground
142 to enter the premium rice market. total dry matter) than the inbreds. We
IRRI 142 cultivation is potentially determined agronomic management
another way of increasing the average practices and physiological attributes
income of rice farmers in Bohol as well for the new lines that allow their poten-
susceptible japonica cultivars, Jin- as tropics-based rice farmers in general. tial to be achieved. These lines are now
bubyeo and Junambyeo. These breeding High-throughput techniques for being used by breeders to develop new
lines conferred strong resistance to determining amylose content were cultivars that will increase productivity
BPH biotypes of Korea and China. The established by developing calibrations for farmers.
breeding lines also possess desirable ag- using artificial neural network technol- New tools were developed and
ronomic traits and grain characteristics ogy. The proportion of amylose (a linear implemented in the quality evaluation
of temperate japonica cultivars. Three starch) in the rice endosperm contrib- of both hybrids and inbreds. Protocols
BB resistance genes, Xa4, xa5, and utes to all traits of cooking and sensory for chalkiness—a major problem in the
Xa21, have been bred into the genetic quality. The calibrations, which have grain quality of hybrid rice—continue to
background of an elite japonica cultivar, been developed for small samples of be refined. Such improved methodology
Mangeumbyeo, using molecular breed- polished and unpolished rice, for assessing grain quality of hybrids
ing approaches. Five advanced breeding enable amylose to be measured 16 times will increase the efficiency with which
lines possessing Xa4+xa5+Xa21 genes faster than previously. Being able to we can improve hybrid grain quality.
have broad-spectrum resistance to four use unpolished rice further speeds the Hybrid vigor at an early stage,
races (K1, K2, K3, and K3a) of BB in process by removing the bottleneck that commonly reported as contributing to
Korea. K3a is a new race that is cur- polishing introduces. Researchers also the higher performance of hybrid rice,
rently the most virulent in Korea. These employed marker-assisted selection for was not observed in the wet season
breeding lines have been shared with amylose and fragrance, allowing more for hybrid rice and elite lines with the
NARES in Korea, Japan, and China efficient screening of high-quality grain same crop duration and crop manage-
where temperate japonica rice is widely with desirable cooking and eating traits. ment. The higher grain yield observed
cultivated. Markers for gelatinization temperature in hybrid rice was instead due to greater
In our work with elite japonica are being developed. dry matter accumulation during grain
breeding lines that are adapted to the filling and higher harvest index, with
tropics, we conducted yield trials and Output 2: Rice hybrids possessing regard to genotypes. Higher harvest
blast- and cold-screening nurseries stronger heterosis, improved grain index was commonly observed for the
in temperate regions (high latitude) quality, and multiple resistance to Mestizo hybrid compared with variety
and tropical regions (high altitude) to diseases and insects developed IR72 in both the wet and dry seasons,
select lines that have broad-spectrum Four hybrids were identified with yield and was correlated with higher stem
adaptability. We identified several higher than commercial hybrid Mestizo elongation rate.
highly adaptable lines with considerable 3, and a yield advantage of more than
resistance to blast and tolerance for cold 15% over PSB Rc82 (the inbred check).
in either tropical or temperate regions. All of these hybrids yielded more than Project leader
These lines, as well as additional elite 8.3 tons per hectare in the dry-season Darshan Brar, head, Plant Breeding, Genetics, and
lines, will be continuously evaluated in yield trial. Specifically, IR82386H Biotechnology Division, d.brar@cgiar.org
2007 to further widen the genetic pool produced 8.9 tons per hectare of grain,

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 29


Project 4
Managing resources under intensive rice-based systems

The highly productive favorable bined with postharvest losses. Further, Environmentally sound, socially
irrigated environment produces nearly as laborers continue to move away from appropriate technologies and machin-
three-quarters of the world’s rice. farms to find jobs in the cities, farmers ery can help increase farmers’ income
Increased production due to improved will face worsening labor shortages and and livelihood as well as enhance or
rice varieties, expanded irrigation, a consequent increase in labor costs. At sustain the productivity of favorable
improved management, reduced losses the same time, shortages of irrigation environments. In addition to integrat-
due to pests, and higher rates of fertil- water and misuse of agrochemicals are ing management of soil, water, weeds,
izer use in the two major intensive rice causing environmental concern. pests, and diseases, such technologies
production systems—double cropping of Current irrigated rice yields in rice- must also conserve biodiversity and
rice and the rice-wheat rotation—have rice and rice-wheat systems average 5 environmental health. Fully developing
resulted in Asia’s rice production tons per hectare. This is well below the these technologies requires research on
doubling over the past three decades. estimated potential yield of 8 tons per crop physiology, nutrient cycling, pest
Yield growth in recent years, how- hectare of popular rice varieties. With- ecology, the rice crop in its environs,
ever, has stagnated. If this stagnation out new knowledge, techniques, and and mechanization systems—all within
continues, producing enough rice to sat- practices, it will be difficult for farm- the context of farmers’ management
isfy a growing population of urban poor ers to bridge this gap and achieve both approaches and limitations.
and rural landless will become increas- increased profitability and minimal
ingly difficult, especially when com- environmental impact.

Output 1: Crop and soil manage-


ment practices and strategies
developed and deployed for
sustaining productivity, enhanc-
ing profitability, and minimizing
environmental impact in intensive
systems
In 2006, we established principles and
approaches for site-specific nutrient
management (SSNM) that are now
being used for locally adapted nutrient
management recommendations and
practices in seven countries: Bangla-
desh, China, India, Indonesia, Myan-
mar, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
This included the revision of fertilizer
recommendations of NARES, nongov-
ernment organizations, and the private
sector. This process has also enhanced

30 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


partnerships between NARES and the Matatag 9 and IR64 at a ratio of 3:1 can countries (India and Bangladesh). Over
private sector. Environmental benefits be recommended in tungro-endemic four cropping cycles of direct seed-
are being seen through the production areas to achieve yields in conditions of ing, there were increases in the annual
of more rice per unit of nitrogen lost high disease pressure that are similar grasses Ischaemum rugosum and Lep-
(as a greenhouse gas or nutrient) from to those of IR64 grown under low or tochloa chinensis and the annual sedge
rice fields. Farm-level productivity and no tungro pressure. Interplanting one Fimbristylis miliacea with wet seeding
profitability of rice production have row of high-quality glutinous rice in while the perennial sedge Cyperus
increased in several major rice-growing every four to six rows of high-yielding rotundus increased in dry-seeded rice.
areas of Asia. In addition, we developed hybrid rice continues to be adopted in The establishment method for wheat,
an SSNM Web site that contains locally Yunnan Province and has expanded to grown in rotation with rice, also had
adapted recommendations for the same Sichuan and other provinces in China. an effect on the weeds in rice. Zero-till-
seven countries, including multiple Interplanting for rice blast control has age for wheat encouraged C. rotundus
areas for some countries. extended to a total area of 1.6 million while the annual grass Echinochloa
Principles and practices were hectares in Yunnan, Sichuan, and other colona declined. Equivalent studies
developed for integrated management provinces since 2000. Based on survey began in Indonesia and the Philippines.
of crop residues with nutrients, water, results from 202 counties, efficiency This information is helping to define
and tillage for optimal nutrient supply of blast control has reached 70% and management strategies to respond to
and input-use efficiency, and minimal fungicide application has been reduced undesirable shifts in weed populations,
greenhouse gas emissions. This includ- by almost 60%, resulting in improved and assist with the development of
ed new recommendations for nitrogen farmers’ income through increased integrated measures.
management with straw incorporation yield and reduced costs. In Yunnan, In Vietnam, 135 episodes of the
and new recommendations for mini- the diversification concept has been “IPM soap opera”—with storylines
mizing greenhouse gas emissions. extended to control diseases and insect designed to educate farmers on the best
pests of other major crops, such as integrated pest management (IPM)
Output 2: Improved pest manage- wheat, barley, and broad bean. In a span practices for reducing pesticides—were
ment practices developed and of 4 years, the area grown with such developed and broadcast over radio sta-
deployed to increase productivity crop mixtures in Yunnan has reached tions Voice of Ho Chi Minh City, Voice
and conserve and enhance the more than 470,000 hectares. of Vinh Long, and Voice of Cantho.
environment We determined shifts in weed In Vinh Long, the series contributed
IRRI researchers measured stem species resulting from the change from toward a 30% reduction in insecticide
borer abundance under different field transplanting to direct seeding in two sprays. In Lao PDR, 104 episodes were
conditions and identified germplasm
with variation in resistance to this
pest during the booting phase, when
damage leads to the greatest yield loss.
A farmer participatory study in the
Philippines was begun to determine the
environmental and management factors
associated with stem borer damage.
Evaluations of varietal mixtures and in-
terplanting for tungro and blast control
were completed and made available to
NARES and advanced research institute
scientists. A management strategy for
tungro was developed and presented
to a farmers’ discussion forum and is
now being evaluated on-farm. Variety
mixtures were evaluated for suppres-
sion of tungro in fields and the green-
house. The seed mixture of varieties

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 31


developed and broadcast over National low-cost farm-level dryer. Commercial
Lao Radio. Overall, improved disease prototypes of a labor-saving rice hull
management due to mixed planting, re- furnace for use with the flat-bed dryer
fined focus for the development of weed were installed in Vietnam at farmers’
management, and host-plant resistance cooperatives for long-term evaluation.
to stem borers advanced knowledge that Laser-assisted land leveling, a technol-
is leading to improved management op- ogy for more accurate leveling of rice
tions. Through the use of mass media, fields for water savings and more even
IPM information became more widely maturing of the crop, was introduced
available to farmers. to Myanmar through operator train-
ing and field demonstrations. Together,
Output 3: Mechanization systems these advances offer options for re-
that improve the efficiency and source-saving plant establishment and
sustainability of rice production informed decisionmaking for reduced
developed postharvest losses, improved rice qual-
Postharvest management practices, ity, and increased profitability.
improved storage technologies, market
information, and quality-enhancing Output 4: Resource-use efficiency
production technologies for reduced in rice-wheat systems increased
losses and improved quality were made In 2006, we designed integrated crop
available for wide-scale delivery in In- and weed management options—parti-
donesia, Cambodia, Lao PDR, Vietnam, cularly for minimum-till and direct- progress was made in perfecting the
and Myanmar. Specifically, market seeded systems—that are efficient in double-zero-till system (drill-seeded
information was posted on village price labor, water, energy, and agrochemi- rice and after zero-tillage wheat) and its
boards in four villages in Vietnam and cal use. These were evaluated with benefits in terms of yield, income, and
eight villages in Cambodia on a monthly farmers in four areas in Bangladesh, water savings were quantified. A study
basis; farmer field trials were conducted India, Nepal, and Pakistan. Significant at Modipuram in the Indian state of
on a hermetic storage bag—known Uttar Pradesh has shown that it is pos-
widely as the “superbag,” and which sible to cut water use by 35–40% with a
allows cereal grains to be safely stored double-no-till system while maintain-
for extended periods—in Indonesia, ing productivity similar to that of the
Vietnam, Lao PDR, and Cambodia; more commonly used transplanting of
superbag production was established rice followed by dry-tilled direct-sown
in Indonesia and planning for produc- wheat. More than 1,000 on-farm trials
tion began in Vietnam; manufacture of and technology demonstrations were
the cheaply produced IRRI moisture conducted in Bangladesh, India, Nepal,
meter was established in the Philip- and Pakistan for refining resource-
pines and Vietnam; and promotion of conserving technologies’ potential to
laser leveling continued in Vietnam and improve productivity, increase income,
Myanmar. and minimize adverse environmental
The transfer of appropriate drying impact. The enhanced technologies
systems from Vietnam to neighboring include zero-till drills, double-disc
countries with similar climatic condi- drills, and rotary-disc drills. These have
tions continued and manufacturers in been modified for multicrop seeding
Lao PDR, Myanmar, and Cambodia and simultaneous seed and fertilizer
started producing flat-bed dryers with a application with residue mulch.
4-ton daily capacity for the commercial Finally, weed management options
sector and farmers’ group usage. In Lao for direct-seeded rice have been tested
PDR, a manufacturer made 30 units of a in farmers’ fields in the Indo-Gangetic

32 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Plains (in the Indian states of Utta-
ranchal, Uttar Pradesh, and Bihar) in
more than 100 farmer field trials over
a total of 975 hectares. Direct-seeding
options gave yields similar to those of
transplanting but achieving good crop
establishment and effective weed man-
agement requires that farmers acquire
new knowledge. Increased efforts will
be made to make more information
available to farmers.

Project leader

David Johnson, senior scientist, weed science,


d.johnson@cgiar.org

Project 5
Enhancing water productivity in rice-based production systems

In many rice-growing regions, supplies


of irrigation water are declining. Not
only are water quality and availability
decreasing, but farmers are also facing
increasingly fierce competition from
growing industrial, urban, and domes-
tic sectors. Making better, more efficient
use of water in irrigated rice production
systems is now a crucial issue. Frequent
and widespread drought compounds the
problem. Further, as supplies diminish,
the price of water is rising, either via
direct costs or through the power outlay
for pumping groundwater.
Asia is highly dependent on ir-
rigated rice for food security. Irrigated
agriculture in Asia uses 90% of total
diverted fresh water, and about half
of that is used for rice. Irrigated rice

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 33


varieties, grown in continuously flooded a more detailed and scientific version of income, and food security of
paddies, require substantially more the chapters was published in Advances poor rice growers—both men and
water to produce a given amount of food in Agronomy. women.
than does any other major crop. Key CA findings were that • Because of the hydrological
If we are to avoid a widespread • Keeping rice prices low, while connectedness of rice fields
water crisis, we must offer a range of reducing production costs, is and because of the unique role
new crop management strategies, such crucial for poverty reduction in rice cultivation plays in many
as alternate wetting and drying, and we rice-growing and -consuming cultures, solutions need to be
need to continue to develop aerobic rice, areas. developed with communities.
which produces good yields in soils far • Rice systems provide not only Advances in the development of
too dry for conventional modern rice food but also ecosystem services— water-saving irrigation technologies
varieties. such as flood mitigation, ground- were synthesized, enabling researchers
As we strive to develop socially water recharge, erosion control, to better prioritize follow-up research.
acceptable and economically viable and habitats for birds, fish, and This information also ensures more
irrigated rice-based systems that save other animals—which need to be efficient use of research resources and
water, we also need to look beyond recognized and protected. improved targeting of best-bet options.
the individual field level at system- or
basin-wide scales. Knowledge of the be-
havior of water within whole irrigation
systems will help us to optimize water
use across entire farming regions.

Output 1: Strategies for enhanc-


ing water productivity at the farm
level developed
In 2006, we completed a review—Rice:
feeding the billions—that was published
as a synthesis chapter in the Compre-
hensive Assessment of Water Manage-
ment in Agriculture (CA). The CA is
aimed at policymakers at various levels
along with organizations such as the
Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations, the Ramsar Con-
vention on Wetlands, other Consultative
Group on International Agricultural Re- • To keep up with the food needs of The synthesis was partly included in the
search centers, NARES, and advanced the world’s increasing popula- CA chapter and in 15 published papers
research institutes. The publication tion, rice cultivation will have to on technologies such as aerobic rice,
ensures that researchers and policy- adapt to water scarcity, drought, alternate wetting and drying, raised
makers are aware of the complex flooding, salinity, and climate seedbeds, direct seeding, rainfed rice
issues of water use in rice production, change. Greater investment in versus supplementary irrigation, and
and have an idea of potential response research and extension is needed using crop modeling to support experi-
options. This knowledge promotes im- to meet these challenges. mental data analysis.
proved and better informed policies and • Solutions need to be tailored to
decisions on investments in agricultural the specific physical and socio- Output 2: Interactions among the
water management and research in economic context and evalu- hierarchical scales of irrigation
rice-based cropping systems. A four- ated in terms of impacts on the systems investigated and strate-
page policy brief was also produced, and environment and on the health, gies for translating water savings

34 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


at the farm scale into savings at
the scale of irrigation systems
identified
Irrigated rice receives at the field level
two to three times more water than
other cereals and is a major target
for the development of water-saving
irrigation technologies. Between 25%
and 85% of all water inputs to rice fields
leave the field as percolation. Though
percolation flows are losses at the field
level, they can be captured and reused
downstream and do not necessarily lead
to true water depletion at the irriga-
tion system level. It has been argued
that the efficiency of water use and the
water productivity of rice increase with
spatial scale. To test this hypothesis,
a multiscale water balance and water
accounting study was undertaken in
the rice-based Upper Pampanga River
Integrated Irrigation System (UPRIIS)
in Central Luzon, Philippines.
The amount of net surface water
input (rainfall plus irrigation) decreased
and the water productivity and amounts
of water reuse increased with increasing
spatial scale. About 57% of all available
surface water was reused by internal
check dams and 17% through pumping
by farmers. The efficiency of water use
in the area can be increased by reducing
any “uncommitted outflow” (flow that is
not committed for other users down-
stream of UPRIIS), by further increas-
ing the internal reuse of drainage and
percolation water (more check dams,
more pumping), or by adopting water-
saving technologies such as alternate
wetting and drying (that keep more
surface water in the system).

Project leader

Bas Bouman, senior scientist, water science,


b.bouman@cgiar.org

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 35


Project 6
Irrigated Rice Research Consortium

More than 2 billion Asian rice farmers tates and strengthens NARES research based on national research priorities,
and consumers depend on the produc- and technology delivery and includes facilitate activities designed to solve
tivity of irrigated rice systems for their on its steering committee policymakers, farmers’ production problems in the
livelihoods and/or food security. Three- senior scientists, and communication irrigated and favorable rainfed rice
quarters of all rice is produced with ir- specialists from Bangladesh, China, ecosystem. Each activity is designed to
rigation, making the irrigated rice agri- India, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philip- have high impact for the collaborating
cultural ecosystem—which produces the pines, and Vietnam. The IRRC also site at which it is undertaken and, most
most food to feed the most people—the seeks partnerships with nongovernment importantly, for the region. The work
most important in Asia. Despite rice’s organizations and the private sector to groups—Productivity and Sustainabil-
enormous importance, however, many identify and help solve farmers’ prob- ity, Water Saving, Postproduction (Post-
rice farmers remain poor. lems. harvest), and Labor Productivity—are
The Irrigated Rice Research Con- Phase III of the IRRC, which began linked to an overarching Coordination
sortium (IRRC) provides a framework in 2005, will continue until 2008. Unit, which provides farmer participa-
for partnership that combines IRRI The Consortium comprises four work tory appraisals, facilitates outreach
and national agricultural research and groups composed of interdisciplinary programs, and monitors and evaluates
extension systems (NARES). The Con- teams of research and extension work- the adoption and impact of improved
sortium, which is active in nine Asian ers within each of the sites at which the technologies.
countries that grow irrigated rice, facili- Consortium operates. The work groups,

Output: Regional and NARES- operations include extension agencies,


driven multidisciplinary research postproduction-sector users, private-
and extension partnerships sector users, nongovernment organiza-
strengthened and new technolo- tions, policymakers, contract service
gies for irrigated rice adopted providers, farmers, and processors.
In 2006, the IRRC set up mechanisms National meetings were held with
and processes in 11 countries (Bangla- scientists, extension staff, and policy
desh, Cambodia, China, India, Indone- advisers on key IRRC technologies in
sia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Vietnam, Indonesia, the Philippines,
Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam) and Myanmar. These technologies in-
for large-scale dissemination and cluded water conservation, site-specific
uptake of relevant rice technologies nutrient management (SSNM), crop
through partnerships at national or establishment, postharvest processing,
provincial levels. These achievements and ecologically based pest manage-
promote enhanced integration of NA- ment (weeds and rodents). In China,
RES and IRRI research, and enhanced meetings were held on SSNM only. At
relevance and efficiency in the dis- the meetings in Indonesia, Myanmar, meetings in Indonesia and China also
semination of rice technologies and the Philippines, and Vietnam, policy provided policy recommendations for
methodologies by NARES. Apart from advisers and key politicians were made the respective ministers of agriculture.
NARES scientists, beneficiaries of these aware of IRRC outreach activities. The In Indonesia, this advice provided the

36 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


platform for a national policy on fertil- December 2006 the
izer management in favorable lowland newsletter had a print
rice crops that was rolled out in April run of 3,000.
2006. Many extension
The strength of the science was and training materi-
underlined by the publication of 15 als were produced,
peer-reviewed papers, two peer-re- including posters,
viewed book chapters, and 15 proceed- brochures, and flip
ings of conferences. A majority were charts. A brochure on
co-authored with NARES partners. weedy rice—describ-
Capacity building, communica- ing weedy rice’s traits, the problems it to farmers and the private sector were
tion activities, and strengthening of causes, and its preventive measures and instigated in Myanmar and the Philip-
interactions among consortia countries control—attracted much interest. Other pines. These have resulted in demon-
remained strong in 2006. The IRRC major extension activities included stration sites being established in five
conducted 15 training workshops (four • A glossy brochure on the IRRC divisions in Myanmar and five regions
at a national level and covering all entitled Improving farmer in the Philippines. Baseline household
work groups). These were conducted in livelihoods in Asia: knowledge- surveys that captured the knowledge,
Myanmar and the Philippines on each intensive crop management for attitudes, and practices of farmers and
of the key technologies listed above; irrigated rice; their economic inputs and outputs were
in Vietnam on postproduction, water • A poster on the IRRC displayed completed in these countries in 2006.
saving, and nutrient management tech- at the 2006 International Rice Follow-up surveys are planned for
nologies; and in Indonesia on SSNM Congress; 2008.
and postproduction. One highlight was • Major improvements to the IRRC Direct-seeded rice proved to
the development of the Postharvest Web site (www.irri.org/irrc); be successful in northern India and
e-learning training course (the develop- • A new Web site on SSNM (www. Bangladesh, with extension activities
ment of which was funded by the Asian irri.org/irrc/ssnm) that presents strengthening in 2006 and impact
Development Bank, with verification SSNM principles and practices surveys planned for 2007. A national
and optimization funded by IRRC and that are relevant for rice in all program on nutrient management was
the Swiss Agency for Development and irrigated and favorable rainfed rolled out in Indonesia based on recom-
Cooperation), which is now available on systems, as well as specific recom- mendations from the IRRC. There was
the Rice Knowledge Bank. In addition, mendations at a country level; strong interest in adopting alternate
19 NARES partners were sponsored by • Translation of English-language wetting and drying (water conservation)
IRRC to attend international work- postproduction training materials in new regions in the Philippines and
shops: Bangladesh (1), Cambodia (1), into Khmer (all postharvest opera- Vietnam. Collection of baseline surveys
China (1), India (1), Indonesia (3), Lao tions), Vietnamese (grain and seed on postproduction technologies in eight
PDR (1), the Philippines (4), Myanmar quality, moisture meter, superbag), villages in Cambodia and at four sites in
(2), Sri Lanka (1), and Vietnam (4). Myanma (quality, drying, storage), Vietnam were completed. In addition,
The IRRC newsletter, RIPPLE and Bahasa Indonesia (superbag, pilot sites were established and baseline
(Rice Research for Intensified Produc- moisture meter, hermetic storage); household surveys conducted in two
tion and Prosperity in Lowland Ecosys- and regions in both Indonesia and Vietnam
tems), was launched in 2006 to foster • Publication and broadcast of 24 for sustainable implementation of eco-
better communication at a regional level news items in magazines, on elec- logical rodent management at a village
and among practitioners from different tronic media, and on Web sites. level.
disciplines. Initially, 400 copies were Work continued to promote the
distributed across 25 countries. The adoption of IRRC technologies and
newsletter generated so much inter- baseline studies for impact assessment Project leader
est that since October 2006 it has also were carried out. Two national outreach Grant Singleton, coordinator, Irrigated Rice Research
been distributed as an insert in IRRI’s programs that focused on the extension Consortium, g.singleton@cgiar.org
quarterly magazine Rice Today and in of a collection of IRRC technologies

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 37


Program 3
Improving productivity
and livelihood for fragile
environments

M
any diverse rice-farming envi- linity, and other soil-related problems.
ronments are unfavorable for Rice farmers working in these ecosys-
high levels of production—in- tems suffer from low farm income and
fertile uplands, rainfed lowlands subject high incidence of poverty. In addition to
to frequent droughts and submergence, the farmers, more than 700 million of
and deepwater and coastal areas that Asia’s poor depend on rice grown in un-
suffer from flooding, strong winds, sa- favorable environments. Many of these

38 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


people receive 50–80% of their calories unfavorable ecosystems has also been
from rice alone. As well as accounting boosted. The diverse nature and wide
for more than half of the land used to geographical spread of these environ-
grow rice, fragile ecosystems are home ments make local knowledge essential
to the majority of Asia’s rural poor. for this sort of research to succeed. It
Farmers in these fragile ecosys- must therefore be undertaken in part-
tems tend to be resource-poor and, con- nership with NARES, and must draw on
sequently, risk-averse. Farmers subject local scientific expertise and farmers’
to major environmental constraints are indigenous knowledge.
unwilling to invest adequately in inputs IRRI coordinates the Consortium
such as fertilizer. Yields in unfavor- for Unfavorable Rice Environments
able areas therefore average less than 2 (CURE, Project 9) to develop and imple-
tons per hectare, compared with more ment the research agenda to tackle
than 5.5 tons per hectare in favorable problems in unfavorable rice environ-
irrigated lowlands. New higher yielding ments. The Consortium emphasizes the
varieties are a part of the solution, but development and delivery of technolo-
they must possess cooking and eat- gies and knowledge to farmers, and
ing qualities comparable with those of equity, and can help increase both yield works with them to adapt these tech-
traditional varieties. If combined with and farm income. nologies to specific needs, conditions,
appropriate and efficient crop manage- The past few years have seen and livelihood strategies. The research
ment practices, modern varieties— advances in the identification, mark- and related activities of Program 3 are
which need to be tolerant of drought, ing, and characterization of genes, grouped into three projects, which focus
submergence, and problem soils—can and transfer of genes between species. on genetic enhancement, natural re-
help reduce the risk in rice cultivation Consequently, the ability to develop source management, and the activities
that contributes to socioeconomic in- high-yielding rice varieties suitable for of CURE.

Project 7
Genetic enhancement for improving productivity
and human health in fragile environments

Important gains in food security, hu- aluminum toxicity, and deficiency of such as enhanced seedling vigor, greater
man nutrition, poverty reduction, and phosphorus and other plant nutrients. It tolerance for drought and submergence,
environmental protection are emerging is crucial that we tailor rice varieties for improved ability to grow in problem
from rice breeding activities for fragile these unfavorable ecosystems by select- soils, and strengthened resistance to
environments. These are the cropping ing them under conditions resembling pests and diseases. Molecular tools
areas that serve the majority of the the target environments. Such varieties are already being deployed to enhance
rural poor and they are characterized should continue to provide the con- tolerance for submergence, salinity, alu-
by reliance on rainfall rather than ir- sumer-preferred grain type of tradi- minum toxicity, and acid sulfate soils,
rigation and by dependence on problem tional varieties but combine that with and new advances in drought tolerance
soils affected by flooding, salinity, higher and more stable yields and traits are emerging.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 39


Higher, more reliable yields will across both the globe and the scientific linkages with the International Network
offer more calories, but there is also po- spectrum—from industrialized coun- for Genetic Evaluation of Rice (Project
tential to improve poor consumers’ diets tries’ advanced research institutes and 1) and the Consortium for Unfavor-
beyond simply increasing food con- private sectors to developing countries’ able Rice Environments (Project 9).
sumption. As the dominant staple in the NARES. In this way, we can use the best The outputs of the breeding programs
Asian diet, rice often provides between of both worlds to create varieties for for the irrigated ecosystem and hybrid
half and three-quarters of people’s calo- rice farmers in highly diverse rainfed rice (Project 3) can also be valuable if
ries. Improving the nutritional status of ecosystems. screened under unfavorable conditions.
rice can therefore benefit huge numbers The impact of Project 7 is further The Asian Rice Biotechnology Network
of malnourished people. Consequently, boosted by gene discovery using (Project 2), which facilitates the devel-
IRRI is developing improved rice functional genomics (Project 2); opment and dissemination to NARES
varieties that contain increased levels of NARES-IRRI breeding networks, of germplasm and databases, ensures
provitamin A, lysine, iron, and zinc. farmer participatory selection that that NARES scientists are trained in
IRRI is a focal point for inter- recognizes the central role of women, new breeding, selection, and evaluation
national rice research. The Institute new crop management protocols for techniques.
alone can consolidate research from unfavorable ecosystems (Project 8); and

Output 1: Superior germplasm flowering stage, when insufficient water At least five lines and hybrids yielding
developed for rainfed lowlands can devastate an entire crop. We also 3 tons per hectare under lowland stress
One significant IRRI success in 2006 established and tested a high-through- (in trials in which IR64 and IR72 yield
was the transfer of submergence put phenotyping protocol for drought less than 2 tons per hectare) have been
tolerance to three major rice varieties. based on controlled irrigation, remote distributed to collaborators, who re-
Submergence tolerance in the genetic sensing (infrared thermal imaging), and corded improved yields in recent severe
background of two major varieties was carbon isotope discrimination. Further, drought events. The lines will be further
developed by introgressing the Sub1 researchers conducted field pheno- distributed in India via the IRRI-India
gene through marker-assisted selection typing of 50 parents of mapping popula- Drought Breeding Network, leading to
into popular varieties Swarna, Samba tions (which have been extensively used higher yields in severe drought years
Mahsuri, and IR64. The addition of to identify quantitative trait loci in the stress-prone upper and middle
Sub1 allows survival of 10–14 days of [QTLs] associated with performance terraces of river valleys in eastern and
submergence with up to three times the under drought stress) and rice mega- southern India.
yield of the same genotypes lacking the varieties under drought stress for
Sub1 gene. Seed of these varieties was reproductive-stage processes.
sent to NARES in Bangladesh, India, IRRI identified
Indonesia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar, and short-duration lines
promises greater productivity and more and hybrids with yield
secure livelihoods in areas subject to at least 50% higher
flash flooding. than that of popular
As part of our efforts to develop high-yielding variety
drought-tolerant rice, IRRI research- IR64 under severe re-
ers identified drought sensitivity at productive-stage stress.
flowering in 10 major Asian varieties. These were distributed
This offers improved focus for gene for adaptive testing
discovery—and therefore improved and use as parents by
efficiency in breeding—for enhanced NARES breeders in
drought tolerance at flowering in popu- drought-prone areas
lar varieties. Rice plants are particu- and farmers are likely
larly sensitive to drought stress at the to use some in the field.

40 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


In 2006, IRRI began development and food security in fragile salt-affected In an effort to improve productivity
of new genotypes with tolerance for environments. and food security in zinc-deficient rice-
delayed transplanting and stagnant Researchers developed and growing ecologies, germplasm tolerant
water to depths of 0.5 meter. These validated genetic markers associated of zinc deficiency was supplied to and
new lines will combine tolerance for with the Saltol gene, which confers salt tested by NARES. Elite lines for sodicity
submergence, transplanting delay, and tolerance to rice. These markers allow tolerance, along with 12 recombinant
stagnation, and will be distributed to faster breeding of salt-tolerant variet- inbred lines (RILs), were also tested. In
NARES for adaptation testing. Screen- ies, which can improve and stabilize addition to the elite lines, two RILs de-
ing protocols are already in place both productivity in salt-affected areas. The veloped from a cross between varieties
at IRRI and with NARES, and the first Saltol gene was fine-mapped and about IR74 and Jalmagna were highly tolerant
set of lines was screened at the Cuttack 30 simple sequence repeats (SSRs; a of zinc deficiency and sodicity. Good
Rice Research Institute (India) and the form of marker) and other gene-specific progress was made in understanding
Bangladesh Rice Research Institute markers were identified in the Saltol the physiology of tolerance and four
during the 2006 wet season. Eventually, region. More than 140 background reasonably large QTLs—areas of the
these lines will offer greater productiv- markers were also developed. Crosses genome that increase or decrease a trait,
ity and more secure livelihoods to farm were made using selected popular va- such as drought tolerance, to a particu-
communities in poorly drained areas. rieties, and advanced through marker- lar degree (compared with simply turn-
Promising hybrid lines were assisted breeding. Three SSR markers ing something on or off)—were mapped.
identified for drought-prone rainfed were identified as the most closely
lowlands. NARES are using the parental linked markers for the Saltol region of Output 3: Superior germplasm
lines to breed hybrid rice varieties with rice chromosome 1. developed for infertile uplands
increased rice yield in rainfed lowlands. Several new breeding lines with With NARES, we tested early- to
Two hybrids were identified as drought new sources of stress tolerance were medium-duration breeding lines with
tolerant, yielding more than 3 tons per developed and shared with NARES. drought tolerance and weed competi-
hectare or almost triple the yield of an These are being used to breed varieties tiveness. Outstanding materials are now
inbred variety under the same condi- tolerant of acidity (one line), aluminum being used in national breeding and
tions. Experiments showed that hybrid and iron toxicity (four lines), and phos- testing programs to develop varieties
rice generally outyielded inbred variet- phorus deficiency (two lines), allowing that offer stable yield under unfavorable
ies in a drought-stress environment. greater productivity under toxic soil upland conditions. Specifically, a major
conditions. QTL affecting upland drought tolerance
Output 2: Superior germplasm
developed for flood-prone and
infertile lowlands
With six NARES partners, IRRI tested
elite salt-tolerant lines at nine locations
in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Iran, and
Vietnam, allowing the identification of
better adapted and stable salt-tolerant
lines for coastal and inland salinity.
A special nursery for salt stress was
subsequently developed, comprising
three modules: for coastal saline areas,
for inland saline and sodic soils, and
for specific plant-type requests from
NARES. Twenty-seven sets, each com-
prising 40 genotypes, were distributed
to 23 NARES in 17 Asian and African
countries. The overall result of this
activity will be improved productivity

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 41


was confirmed on chromosome 12 and
four highly drought-tolerant upland
genotypes have been developed and are
being evaluated in the Indian Upland
Rice Shuttle Breeding Network.

Output 4: Aerobic rice germplasm


developed for water-scarce
tropical environments
IRRI researchers are developing a
new generation of aerobic-adapted
rice cultivars with improved quality
and yield in dry soils, which have been tiveness. This will be used routinely in particularly popular. Seeds of these va-
distributed to national programs for the IRRI breeding program and will rieties were distributed to 80 men and
evaluation. Aerobic rice can grow in be extended to NARES. Further, this women farmers in 10 villages. In the
conditions too dry for commonly grown practical selection tool permits breeders flood-prone district of Siddharthnagar
modern varieties and this is useful to incorporate weed competitiveness in Uttar Pradesh, PVS results revealed
when rice fields cannot be flooded at as a selection criterion in aerobic rice that four varieties could survive three
all. High-yield aerobic varieties will cultivar development. spells of submergence of 1–2 weeks and
increase yields and reduce drought risk still produce yields of 2.9–5.0 tons per
in drought-prone rainfed uplands and Output 5: Micronutrient-enriched hectare. In Faizabad, which is prone to
lowlands. In 2006, we developed three rice developed to combat malnu- both drought and flooding, two variet-
lines with high yield in dry soil, one of trition in fragile environments ies performed well. In 2006, 75 farmers
which had a yield potential of 5 tons per Diverse germplasm was evaluated for in Siddharthnagar and Faizabad tested
hectare and tolerance for soil health high iron and zinc content in the a range of lines, including popular
problems. These have already been polished grain. We identified four variety Swarna and its IRRI-developed
distributed to national programs. On promising donor parental lines, which submergence-tolerant counterpart,
the technical side, major QTLs affect- NARES and IRRI breeders can use in SwarnaSub1. In drought-prone areas
ing aerobic adaptation were confirmed systematic breeding to improve rice’s in the state of Chhattis, farmers tested
in a mapping population derived from nutritional quality. three promising varieties. In Lampung,
a cross between popular varieties Apo Indonesia, four varieties met with farm-
and IR64 on chromosomes 1, 4, 8, and Output 6: NARES-IRRI partner- ers’ approval.
9. In addition, a single large-effect ships in rice breeding enhanced Low-cost PVS methods have been
QTL, accounting for 50% of phenotypic Participatory varietal selection (PVS) documented and distilled into training
variation under aerobic management, enabled male and female farmers to materials suitable for integration into
was identified in a mapping population evaluate new promising lines tolerant rainfed breeding programs. This is lead-
derived from a cross between Apo and of drought, submergence, sodicity, and ing to faster identification and deploy-
Swarna. Several hybrid lines that show salinity, and resistant to blast in target ment of improved rainfed varieties. In
good potential for the development of rainfed environments. Involving the this light, a CD on the Rice breeding for
aerobic rice were also developed and are farmers themselves is crucial to ensur- impact training course, which includes
scheduled for testing in 2007. ing that new varieties are acceptable practical methods for PVS and working
To help breeders developing in terms of criteria ranging from yield with farmers, is ready for distribution.
cultivars for dry direct-seeded systems, to cooking and eating quality. Breed- Further, a draft of a practical guide
we developed and validated a low-cost ing strategies are subsequently refined on participatory research in vari-
selection index, based on easily scored based on farmers’ preferences. In etal improvement and crop resource
vegetative traits for weed competitive- sodic fields in Faizabad and Sultanpur management and gender analysis was
ness. For example, selection for early districts of the Indian state of Uttar completed.
vegetative vigor was validated as a Pradesh, two bold-grained varieties IRRI developed a scheme for mixed
method for improving weed competi- and one fine-grained variety proved planting of traditional and improved

42 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


varieties, with the aim of increasing Cirata (highly susceptible) and Wayra- Replication of the Shuttle Breeding
yield and income, reducing pesticide rem (moderately susceptible). The effect Network model is already increasing
use, and promoting in situ conserva- of the planting ratio varied according the impact and efficiency of rainfed rice
tion of traditional germplasm. In the to cultivar. Interplanting two rows of breeding.
Philippines, rice diversification and Wayrarem with one row of Sirendah
mixed cropping practices were scaled resulted in significantly lower neck blast
up for traditional variety Dinorado and incidence than planting Wayrarem only.
modern variety UPL Ri5. Thirty-two In 2006, we assessed the impact
farmers adopted these practices in their of the Eastern India Rainfed Lowland Project leader
fields. In Indonesia, the modern variety Shuttle Breeding Network in order to John Bennett, senior scientist, molecular biology,
Sirendah (moderately resistant to blast) formally document a successful model j.bennett@cgiar.org
was interplanted with modern varieties for serving unfavorable rainfed systems.

Project 8
Natural resource management for rainfed lowland
and upland rice ecosystems

Rice yields in unfavorable ecosystems minorities and their plight is often


are generally low and unstable. Farmers compounded through social and politi-
in these environments are completely cal marginalization. By offering easily
reliant on rain. If rains bring insuf- and cheaply adopted solutions based
ficient or too much water, or are poorly on improved crop and natural resource
timed, the resultant crop suffers accord- management (CNRM) practices, and
ingly. The farm families who live and finding innovative and effective ways
work in unfavorable ecosystems—80 to communicate these solutions to the
million of them in Asia alone, who people who need them most, Project
farm a total of 60 million hectares—are 8 seeks to help resource-poor farmers
among the world’s poorest. This poverty improve their CNRM practices and
makes farmers unable or unwilling overcome the problems faced by farm
to invest in improved rice production families in unfavorable environments.
and resource management strategies, Project 8 also applies ecoregional
thereby entrenching inappropriate approaches at selected sites to dem-
farm practices that degrade natural onstrate the use of systems models for
resources. Poor farm families, living improving rural livelihoods through ef-
a hand-to-mouth existence, are in a ficient management of natural resources
precarious position. A season or two of and aims to improve rural livelihoods
poor conditions can drag people deeper by enhancing the sustainability of
into poverty. Many of the people living supporting ecosystems. This systems
in unfavorable areas belong to ethnic approach draws on diverse expertise

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 43


to integrate the many dimensions of
CNRM across disciplines, geography,
time, and the research-development-
policy continuum, and to generate
integrated CNRM knowledge as well as
the tools with which to use such knowl-
edge. Successful integrated CNRM
allows stakeholders at all levels to make
informed resource management choices
through an improved ability to articu-
late objectives, to negotiate demands,
and, subsequently, to better use the
resources themselves. The research is
conducted in pilot regions representing
the various agroecosystems where rice
is a major crop, with emphasis on less
productive fragile environments.

Output 1: Crop and natural re- economic cost of drought is substantial, thus help reduce the household-level
source management practices for with production losses during drought impact of drought. An invited paper was
improved livelihood in rainfed years in eastern India as high as 40% of presented on this important topic at the
lowlands developed and evaluated the value of output. The total economic 26th conference of the International As-
In 2006, we completed a comparative cost of drought in the three states of sociation of Agricultural Economists in
study of livelihoods in the saline and eastern India studied (Chhattisgarh, Gold Coast, Australia, on 12-18 August
nonsaline ecosystems in coastal Bangla- Jharkhand, and Orissa, which account 2006.
desh, leading to improved understand- for about 10 million hectares of rice) Through analysis of relevant
ing of the effect of expansion of shrimp is around US$400 million per year. literature and on-farm and on-sta-
farming on poverty and the environ- Farmers’ coping mechanisms are gener- tion data from nutrient experiments
ment in this region. ally inadequate to prevent a shortfall in rainfed lowland rice, we developed
To gain an understanding of the in consumption during drought years. new approaches for site-specific CNRM
context of livelihood systems in regions The incidence and severity of poverty for rice-based drought-prone rainfed
for which improved rice technologies increase during drought years as people lowlands. One achievement was the
are being developed, IRRI scientists “fall back” into poverty and those who basic outline of a novel framework for
reported on changes in agriculture and are already below the poverty line fall nutrient management in this environ-
livelihoods in the unfavorable ecosys- deeper into poverty. In the three states ment, which promotes flexible site- and
tems in Bangladesh. This report was of eastern India alone, as many as 13 system-specific nutrient management
based on analysis of data generated million people fall back into poverty options over uniform recommenda-
from surveys of 62 villages (including 16 during drought years. The poverty tions. The concept was applied and
coastal villages) in 2004, and is sched- impact of drought mitigation could tested at key sites and in key systems.
uled for publication in 2007. hence be substantial. Household-level The resultant increased knowledge and
A research monograph was consequences of drought depend on understanding of how to address the
compiled to improve understanding the structure of the production system variability of soil and water resources
of drought-coping mechanisms of rice and dominant livelihood strategies. in rainfed systems open the way for
farmers within different socioeconomic The immediate impact of drought is higher nutrient-use efficiency and
contexts. The monograph, which was less when agriculture is diversified and system productivity in this environ-
published by IRRI in early 2007, shows market-oriented, and rural incomes are ment. The most important conclusion
the increased relevance of technology diversified. Technologies and policies from this work was that fertilizer use
and policy for drought mitigation. The that promote income diversification in rainfed systems (including those in

44 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


drought-prone areas) can be almost as
beneficial as in irrigated environments
provided that site- and even field-spe-
cific adjustments are practiced. Further
insight into the interaction of water and
nutrient resources on crop growth and
grain yield is expected from simulation
approaches using IRRI’s ORYZA2000
model. We evaluated the model for rain-
fed lowland conditions and explored a
range of management scenarios. This
technique can also be used to extrapo-
late results beyond experiment sites and
we are continuing work on estimating
water-limited attainable rice yields in
Asia’s rainfed lowlands.
We also investigated the possibility
of using nutrient management technolo-
gies developed for irrigated environ-
ments in rainfed lowland systems. A
successful tool for this purpose is the
leaf color chart (LCC), which helps
rice farmers to optimize their nitrogen
management (the LCC allows estima-
tion of N levels in the rice plant). The Promising results were achieved poor soils but no or little effect on good
target environments for this tool are with biochar technology, a completely soils. In Thailand, yield increased from
the favorable to moderately unfavorable new approach to improving the produc- 2.3 to 2.8 tons per hectare (without fer-
rainfed lowlands, which are frequently tivity of rainfed rice, especially on poor tilizer, using fresh residue and biochar,
affected by various abiotic stresses soils. Biochar—incompletely burned respectively) and from 2.9 to 3.3 tons
that may interfere with LCC use. The organic matter such as charcoal, which per hectare (with fertilizer, using fresh
effects of drought, salinity, phosphorus is incorporated into soils—can easily residue and biochar, respectively).
deficiency, and sulfur deficiency on leaf be produced from rice residues and has The effects on soil characteris-
N estimates by the LCC and soil plant been shown to improve soil physical tics were more consistent and major
analysis diagnostic (SPAD) readings, and chemical properties in other crops. effects included an increase in cation
which measure chlorophyll levels, were On-station experiments with three exchange capacity, a decrease in soil
tested in a greenhouse experiment. residue treatments (no application, bulk density, and a stable increase in
Linear relations between chlorophyll fresh residues, and charred residues) soil organic carbon (biochar is not, or is
concentration and leaf N concentration, and two inorganic fertilizer treatments very slowly, decomposed in soils). Incu-
and leaf-thickness-adjusted LCC scores (no and medium—that is, lower than the bation experiments confirmed the high
and leaf N concentration were con- generally high to very high rates used in stability of biochar, and carbon dioxide
firmed for all treatments and varieties irrigated environments—inorganic fer- and methane emissions of the control
used. We concluded that LCC readings tilizer rate) were established in a variety treatment (no residue application) and
are not greatly affected by frequent of rice-growing environments includ- the biochar treatment were identical.
abiotic stresses, and therefore can be ing irrigated lowlands, rainfed uplands Therefore, the biochar technology can
used for real-time N management in the (both in the Philippines), rainfed be used to improve the productivity of
target domain. The LCC and SPAD are lowlands (northeastern Thailand), and rice-based systems in regions domi-
therefore potentially useful tools for im- the rice-wheat system (India). Results nated by poor soils. Biochar could also
proved, more efficient N management in showed a considerable yield increase be used to sequester carbon and reduce
moderately unfavorable rice systems. resulting from biochar application on the emission of greenhouse gases from

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 45


rice-based systems in general. It is leveling the land; applying adequate promoting exchange of experience and
readily available, especially in the form mineral fertilizer (application rates knowledge among farmers and research
of rice residue, although at present depend on soil characteristics); thor- and development workers.
much residue is otherwise used. Biochar ough weeding of the field before panicle In Bangladesh and eastern India,
production from rice husks can already initiation; preparing thick bunds to crop establishment and weed manage-
be achieved with an improved rice husk prevent water leakage; and not allowing ment methods have been evaluated as
furnace, which produces carbonized the field to dry out completely before alternatives to the traditional practices
rice husks as a byproduct of the paddy adding supplemental water. of transplanting and biasi systems.
drying process. We conducted 200 farmer partici- Biasi, a traditional method of weed
The major recommendation from patory trials in the rice-wheat system of control, involves farmers running a nar-
the Livelihood Improvement Through the Indo-Gangetic Plains of Nepal and row plow through the mix of crop and
Ecology (LITE) project in Bangladesh eastern India and evaluated integrated weeds around 30–50 days after sowing.
was that insecticides (as currently used crop and resource management prac- It is heavily dependent on sufficient rain
by farmers) should not be applied, tices—such as land leveling, tillage and to impound about 10–15 cm of water at
regardless of the type of crop in the crop establishment, nutrient manage- the right time. Although disruptive for
neighboring field. The type of neighbor- ment, and pest management—that seedlings, biasi keeps weeds under con-
ing crop had an effect on the diversity of enhance crop performance, resource- trol, and allows farmers to redistribute
pests, but this did not translate into an use efficiency, and farmers’ income. seedlings and fill any gaps. The studies
effect on yield. There was no evidence The trials showed that the management completed in 2006, however, have indi-
of farmers’ sprays increasing yields strategies did indeed increase both cated potential advantages (improved
or profits. On the contrary, there was yield and farmers’ benefit-cost ratio. farm labor productivity and timing, for
evidence that farmers spending the Large-scale adoption is anticipated in example) for farmers adopting the alter-
highest amounts on insecticides were the coming years and can increase rice- native options of row seeding followed
not gaining any benefit and therefore wheat productivity by 0.5–1.0 ton per by either interrow cultivation or the use
had reduced profits. The improved hectare. To facilitate adoption, we orga- of herbicides.
understanding of the ability of farmers nized cross-site visits across networks Researchers substantially com-
to maintain yields without insecticides of on-farm demonstrations aimed at pleted a study of livelihood strategies
has led to a reduced use of insecticides
in rice in Bangladesh.
The Fish and Rice Management
System to Enable Agricultural Di-
versification (FARMSTEAD) project
in Cambodia examined the effects of
rice intensification on crop loss. These
studies were completed in 2006 and
showed that intensification of rice
production in rainfed environments
resulted in greater measurable crop loss
due to insect pests. Despite this, yields,
profits, and production from intensified
systems surpassed farmers’ previous
results, leading to recommendations
for intensifying rainfed rice produc-
tion. This also improves the potential
for crop diversification. Recommenda-
tions included growing Paka Romdul, a
medium-duration variety that matured
faster and had higher yields and higher
market value than the farmers’ variety;

46 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


(including gender roles) and farming ing of a nonrice sequence crop allow farmers to grow stronger seed-
practices in drought-, submergence-, in drought-prone lowlands. This lings that are better able to survive
and sodic-prone rice environments in package includes modern varieties and recover from submerged condi-
eastern India. Reports on the baseline and improved weed and nutrient tions after transplanting in the main
socioeconomic surveys in sodic- and management, which farmers can field, and consequently enhance
salinity-affected areas in eastern Uttar adapt according to their socioeco- yield. The practices are lower seed-
Pradesh, Lucknow, and Cuttack were nomic situation and the biophysical ing rate, nutrient management in
completed. Reports on the baseline requirements of local ecosystems. the nursery, and nutrient manage-
socioeconomic study in drought- and For drought-prone uplands, we ment in the main field. Further-
drought-/submergence-prone villages developed several direct-seeding more, after the first year’s tests in
in eastern Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, practices that improve upon the farmers’ fields, the new variety,
Jharkhand, Cuttack, and Assam were traditional tewai establishment sys- SwarnaSub1, was optimized and
also completed. The study has resulted tem of Jharkhand State, India. The proved better able to cope in flooded
in improved understanding of farm practices—seeding behind the plow conditions.
households’ livelihood strategies and and broadcast seeding into furrows, • Salt-affected environments. In Fai-
the identification of technology options depending on farmers’ preference— zabad, Uttar Pradesh, India, where
to improve and stabilize crop produc- allow earlier rice establishment and sodic soils are a problem, the use
tivity, as well as the identification of better weed control, and optimize of Sesbania as green manure and
improved CNRM options on the basis of the performance of new early-dura- pressmud (a combination of straw,
farmers’ needs and resources. Some of tion germplasm developed for this cow dung, and sugarcane residue
these options follow. ecosystem. Earlier rice establish- from sugar mills, which is used as a
• Drought-prone environment. In ment allows farmers to harvest ear- manure) were tested by farmers in
collaboration with NARES partners, lier and take advantage of residual their fields. These simple improved
we developed a package of site-spe- soil moisture to plant a sequenced practices enhanced soil fertility, im-
cific crop management practices nonrice crop, which diversifies the proved rice yields, and are accept-
that can improve rice performance cropping system. able for poor farming households. In
under drought stress and permits • Submergence-prone lowlands. Orissa, India, where coastal salinity
an earlier harvest for timely sow- New nursery management practices is a problem, farmers can now inten-
sify their cropping system for year-
round production with a package of
new crop management practices for
coastal saline ecosystems. Wet-sea-
son practices include nursery nutri-
ent management and transplanting
older seedlings closer together in the
main field. For the dry season, farm-
ers can avoid seasonal intrusion of
saltwater by early transplanting (be-
fore mid-January). Combining these
practices with new germplasm,
farmers can optimize yield potential
for this difficult environment. New
nutrient management practices
involve Sesbania green manure and
Azolla biofertilizer, which can be
adopted at very little expense. At
both sites, men and women farmers
were trained on seed selection and
proper processing and storage, after

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 47


which the seeds they produced were
sold to other farmers.
Current advances and recent
activities involving CNRM practices in
unfavorable environments were pre-
sented and discussed after the CURE
Steering Committee meeting in Dhaka,
Bangladesh (8-9 March 2006). A total
of 19 presentations covering work in
the various unfavorable environments
represented in the six CURE working
groups were made and will be published
in 2007 in a proceedings.

Output 2: Crop and natural


resource management practices
for improved livelihood in upland participatory rural appraisal of liveli- storage methods, while follow-up moni-
rice ecosystems developed and hood strategies (including gender roles toring evaluates their compliance. The
evaluated and farming practices) in the uplands outcome is a reliable supply of good-
New approaches to stabilize soil qual- in Lampung. These studies have led quality seed available to local growers.
ity and increase the productivity of to improved understanding of farm Studies were undertaken to
rice-based uplands were developed. We households’ livelihood strategies and determine the impact on weed growth
investigated the options to use biochar the identification of technology options and species composition of improved
from rice residues for soil improvement to improve and stabilize crop produc- fallows and alternative crop manage-
in rice-based systems. Important pre- tivity, as well as the identification of ment practices in the uplands of Lao
liminary results are that biochar can be improved CNRM options on the basis PDR and across a toposequence (a
easily produced from rice residues and of farmers’ needs and resources. For descending series of adjacent rice pad-
can improve crop productivity on poor example, crop diversification practices dies that drain into each other) in Java,
soils. Therefore, it can be used as a soil were developed, which include inter- Indonesia. The studies showed that,
amendment and contribute to increased planting two rice varieties to manage in the Lao uplands, the establishment
productivity, especially in poor environ- disease and mixed cropping of rice with of pigeon pea as a crop to succeed rice
ments. nonrice crops to enhance food security could reduce weed growth, but this was
IRRI researchers conducted an and household livelihood. In Lampung, not enough to prevent a decline in rice
economic analysis of patterns of change interplanting a susceptible improved yields due to intensified cultivation.
in upland systems of China’s Yunnan variety with a resistant traditional Soil pests, including soil aphids and
Province, leading to more effective variety can reduce blast damage. In the nematodes, are thought to be contribut-
strategies for upland development. PhD Arakan Valley, a rice-mungbean pattern ing to this decline. In Java, the weed
research on this topic was successfully allows harvesting mungbean to provide flora after farmer weeding was diverse,
completed. A scientific research report is food when shortages occur 1 month with more than 100 plants per square
now under preparation. before rice harvest, and the legume’s ni- meter being recorded at some sites.
Studies of livelihood strategies (in- trogen fixation improves soil conditions. Species composition was affected by
cluding gender roles) and farming prac- Other options include rice-peanut and soil properties (pH and cation exchange
tices at key sites in Lampung, Indonesia, rice-maize. Seed health management capacity). Farmers were achieving good
and the Arakan Valley, Mindanao, in practices have been institutionalized weed control through hand weeding
southern Philippines, were completed. into a farmers’ network of seed produc- and gains through additional weeding
Two specific reports were completed: ers known as a community seed bank were small. No simple relationship was
on the participatory rural appraisal and (CSB) in Arakan Valley and Lampung. found between toposequence position
baseline socioeconomic surveys in the Men and women farmers are trained in and yield.
uplands in the Arakan Valley and on the proper seed selection, processing, and

48 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Output 3: Ecological sustain- at brackish water as a resource rather Delta, Vietnam, and Bangladesh.
ability enhanced and livelihoods than a constraint to production. IRRI Surveys of smallholders (Bangladesh)
improved through ecoregional researchers have therefore started to and farming systems (both Bangladesh
approaches to integrated natural carry out farm surveys with a view and Vietnam) were completed in 2006.
resource management to developing credible information
In recent years, extension workers and and knowledge explaining the impact Project leader
land-use planners have changed their of regional- and farm-level resource Kong Luen Heong, senior scientist, entomology/ IPM,
perceptions from single-commodity management on the livelihood of farm- k.heong@cgiar.org
to diversified farming and are looking ers in the coastal zones of the Mekong

Project 9
Consortium for Unfavorable Rice Environments (CURE)

Low and unstable yields are a feature reliance on unpredictable rains have Hence, productivity gains have been
of rice farming in rainfed unfavorable meant that, in the past, farmers have incremental and small. It is essential,
environments, which are also charac- been averse to risk and either unwill- if we are to meet the challenges posed
terized by poverty and high popula- ing to grow modern high-yielding rice by unfavorable ecosystems, to develop
tion density in both rural and urban varieties or unwilling to use sufficient a well-structured strategic research
areas. Difficult conditions and heavy inputs if they do try modern varieties. approach to address key constraints.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 49


The Consortium for Unfavorable Rice
Environments (CURE) offers a strong
framework within which researchers,
extension workers, policymakers, and
farmers can tackle key problems.
Increasing and stabilizing rice
productivity in unfavorable rice envi-
ronments will help reduce risk in rice
cultivation for risk-averse subsistence
farmers. The flow-on effects of im-
proved productivity include improved
household food security and livelihood
without harming the environment or
depleting available natural resources.
Throughout the highly diverse unfavor-
able environments, CURE’s strategy
involves on-site work with our NARES
partners and a multidisciplinary ap-
proach to technology development and
dissemination.
CURE fosters cooperation in
research and development between 2006 work plans, and made strategic Salt-affected environments.
NARES and IRRI, who jointly identify decisions regarding future research in Through CURE’s efforts, saline coastal
strategic problems through collabora- rainfed ecosystems. communities in India have access to
tive research at NARES sites. CURE Drought-prone lowlands. CURE improved varieties developed decades
was created in 2002 following the has developed a package of site-specific ago for this ecosystem. Farmers can
restructuring and consolidation of the crop management practices that can im- now intensify their cropping system for
Rainfed Lowland Rice Research Con- prove rice performance under drought year-round production by employing
sortium and the Upland Rice Research stress and that permits an earlier these varieties in a package of new crop
Consortium into a single entity. NARES harvest for a timely sowing of a nonrice management practices for coastal saline
membership in the Consortium involves sequence crop. This package includes ecosystems. These varieties consider-
10 countries: Bangladesh, Cambodia, modern varieties and improved weed ably improve rice productivity in both
India, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Myanmar, and nutrient management, which farm- wet and dry seasons, leading to better
Nepal, the Philippines, Thailand, and ers can adapt according to their socio- food security for communities in coastal
Vietnam. The research activities are economic situations and the biophysical saline areas.
described in projects 7 and 8. requirements of the local ecosystems. Shifting rotational upland
Submergence-prone lowlands. systems. Promising rice varieties for
Output 1: A planning and man- The submergence-tolerant variety upland conditions have been identified
agement network to prioritize SwarnaSub1 demonstrated its survival through participatory varietal selec-
research needs and to implement ability and yield performance under tion trials in remote areas of the five
interdisciplinary research in part- flash-flood conditions in on-station and northern provinces of Lao PDR. The
nership with NARES nurtured and on-farm tests at CURE sites. New crop seeds have been further distributed to
sustained management practices can optimize local agricultural officers for scaling out
The fifth annual meeting of the CURE SwarnaSub1’s performance and further to resource-poor households through
Steering Committee, held in Dhaka, enhance its ability to cope with uncer- an IFAD investment loan program for
Bangladesh, 6-7 March 2006, reviewed tainties of flood-prone environments. Lao PDR. These varieties are suited for
research reports given by its six sub- Other popular varieties have been either the rotational cropping systems
ecosystem-based working groups. The introgressed with the submergence-tol- on sloping lands whose fallow has been
Steering Committee appraised the prog- erance Sub1 gene and will be tested for reduced by population pressure, or
ress of the working groups, approved performance and farmer acceptability. lowland paddy where improved rice

50 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Mindanao, in southern Philippines, and
is also being adapted to CURE’s key site
in Lampung, Indonesia. Local govern-
ment units in Arakan Valley have also
adopted the CSB model, which will in-
stitutionalize this organization beyond
CURE sites.
A training course on commu-
nity-based participatory research for
technology validation and upscaling
was organized for NARES partners
and held at IRRI headquarters on 7-18
August 2006. Eight staff members
from seven of CURE’s nine key sites
successfully completed the course,
entitled Participatory approaches to
agricultural research and extension.
Including the staff participating in the
2005 workshop, all key sites have at
least one person, if not more, trained in
participatory research methods, result-
ing in strengthened capacity of national
programs for linking research with
development.
We held an international workshop,
Natural resource management for
poverty reduction and environmental
sustainability in fragile rice-based
systems, to review past achievements in
natural resource management research
in NARES participating in CURE. The
workshop was conducted on 8-9 March
2006, in conjunction with the annual
CURE Steering Committee meeting
in Dhaka, Bangladesh, and plans are
under way to publish the proceedings in
2007. The 35 participants from CURE’s
10 host countries and IRRI are now
production could relieve pressure of organizations to disseminate the new able to refine NARES plans for natural
growing crops in sloping fields. variety across six northern districts of resource management research under
Drought-prone plateau uplands. A Jharkhand. CURE.
moderate drought-tolerant variety with Intensive uplands with long grow-
good blast resistance, Anjali, is gaining ing season. A community seed bank
farmer acceptability for upland fields (CSB) is a network of farmers who have
in Jharkhand State, India. The shorter been trained in seed health manage-
duration allows farmers to establish ment practices in order to produce a Project leader
a postrice sequence crop to inten- reliable supply of good-quality seed for
Mahabub Hossain, economist and head, Social
sify system productivity. The working rural householders. A CSB has been suc- Sciences Division, m.hossain@cgiar.org
group has engaged 20 nongovernment cessfully established in Arakan Valley,

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 51


Program 4
Strengthening linkages
between research and
development

I
RRI understands the need to involve edge. This, in turn, improves the proba-
all levels of the rice production bility of research success. This approach
system, from farmers to policymakers, also helps to improve efficiency in the
in research planning and prioritiza- allocation of research resources, thus
tion. An inclusive interactive approach reducing the chance of technologies and
helps to improve our understanding of scientific outputs remaining unused or
farmers’ and consumers’ needs and how used only for academic purposes. In this
farmers evaluate scientific knowledge in context, one of IRRI’s key responsibili-
the context of their traditional knowl- ties beyond research is to help national

52 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


and international agencies engaged in program includes two projects. The first technologies through farmer participa-
socioeconomic development to dissemi- deals with research prioritization and tory research conducted in partnership
nate new knowledge and technologies. impact assessment based on under- with nongovernment organizations,
Program 4 incorporates some of standing farmers’ needs and livelihood the private sector, and other extension
the ongoing socioeconomic research strategies, and interactions among agencies. This requires assessments
on understanding rural livelihoods, technologies, infrastructure, and insti- of needs and opportunities along with
assessing technology needs of farmers, tutions. The second aims to understand innovative approaches to information
and validating technologies through the pathways of technology dissemina- dissemination and knowledge manage-
farmer participatory experiments. This tion, and validate and adapt promising ment.

Project 10
Understanding rural livelihood systems for rice research
prioritization and impact assessment

To effectively plan and prioritize rice technologies in different agroecosys- ing the factors that drive decisions at
research, it is essential to have a com- tems, how components of farming sys- the household level and the patterns
prehensive understanding of the socio- tems and livelihood strategies interact, that operate on larger geographic and
economic factors that influence rice pro- and how farmers evaluate scientific time scales—such as trends in produc-
ducers’ and consumers’ circumstances knowledge. Through this understand- tion, pricing, and trade—can shed light
and drive their decisions. Access to and ing, we can help develop improved on emerging rice supply-and-demand
use of resources—natural, physical, fi- research strategies and policies. balances, competition for resources
nancial, human, and social—are key fac- To meaningfully assess progress by alternative economic activities, and
tors determining people’s actions. The toward meeting
main focus of Project 10 is to develop the objectives
and refine this understanding of rural of rice research,
livelihood systems. it is crucial
To design and implement a suc- that research
cessful research program, we also need managers and
to comprehend the influence and role policymak-
of institutions that can affect people’s ers know how
lives, such as government agencies, policies and
nongovernment organizations, and technologies
international research institutions and affect vari-
our national agricultural research and ous socioeco-
extension partners. If IRRI is to develop nomic groups,
strategies and technologies that can poverty rates,
improve people’s livelihoods, we must and natural
understand farmers’ current practices, resource use.
constraints to the adoption of improved Understand-

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 53


constraints to improvements in rice
production.

Output 1: Rice-sector analysis


conducted and rice statistics data-
base maintained and shared with
NARES
In 2006, we updated the electronic
version of the Rice Statistics Data-
base, which includes basic data on rice
production, yield, and area at subna-
tional levels. The database is useful for
promoting improved understanding of
developments in the rice sector and thus
facilitating more effective planning of
rice research and the design of agricul-
tural development policies. India, the Philippines, Thailand, and Output 2: Rural livelihood systems
We compiled subnational-level Vietnam from selected rice-growing vil- studied and the interaction among
poverty maps for rice-producing lages. Among the countries where rice is technology, infrastructure, and
countries in Asia and East Africa. The the major crop, female labor participa- institutions analyzed
underlying data will be used to better tion is highest in eastern India, which Researchers collected baseline infor-
understand spatial variation in poverty has vast rainfed rice environments mation on the occurrence and extent
and the implications for rice research. prone to abiotic stresses, where poverty of male out-migration and off-farm
This work has helped us to illustrate the is pervasive, and where the majority of work in major rice- and mixed-crop-
relationships among rainfed lowland females have not attended school. In ping production environments in the
rice, drought stress, and poverty in contrast, female labor participation in Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.
eastern India. In the Lao PDR and rice production is lowest in the Philip- Australia was also included in this study
Vietnam, high poverty incidence is pines due to higher literacy rates, great- because it provides the perspective of
associated with mountainous areas and er mobility, and more opportunities for a country with a strong agricultural
upland rice production. nonfarm employment for women. They sector that has undergone changes in
To facilitate gender-responsive have greater decision-making authority labor patterns, and where strong global
policies and technologies, we compiled in household- and agriculture-related competition in agricultural markets is
a macro database on gender-related matters compared with rural women pushing a change in the ways farms are
indicators in Southeast and South Asia in eastern India. The overall analysis being managed. Just as in developing
and related them to poverty and female indicates that persisting indifference to countries, economic pressures—espe-
participation in agriculture. Countries rural women’s contribution to agricul- cially in the light of severe drought in
with low and medium achievements in ture (especially to rice production) and recent years—push members of farm
human development and gender devel- the constraints to women’s access to households, who normally work on the
opment indices tend to be low-income productive resources can impede the farm, to seek off-farm work, leaving one
food-deficit countries, and have a larger achievement of food-security goals. The partner to look after the farm. Reports
share of women in agriculture. These knowledge gained from these studies fa- on village-level surveys to establish
countries also have a large proportion of cilitates the development of policies and the incidence and patterns of labor
rainfed agriculture. research strategies that provide men out-migration were completed, as were
We collected micro data (includ- and women with equal access to techni- surveys of 800 farming households with
ing male and female literacy rates, cal knowledge, skills, and opportuni- and without migrants in Australia, the
gender-differentiated labor use in rice ties to enable their families to improve Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam.
operations, and male and female par- income and reduce drudgery for female Results from the Philippines, Thai-
ticipation in decisionmaking) in eastern rice farmers. land, and Vietnam indicate that, aside

54 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


workers’ wages at large enterprises
were not much affected by personal
networks but were largely determined
by schooling years and work experience.
Although personal networks were still
important for the livelihood of rural
people, the recent development of large-
scale enterprises in the Philippines
showed the diminishing importance of
personal networks in unskilled labor
markets. This study emphasizes the
growing importance of education with
economic and social modernization.
If poor people have limited access to
higher education—as is generally the
case—poverty alleviation will occur
from their traditional roles as unpaid the book will increase knowledge on slowly at best. There is therefore a need
family workers, women have additional factors influencing recent changes in for policies that facilitate better educa-
responsibilities, including hiring and the Bangladeshi rural economy and tional opportunities for rice-farming
supervising laborers, and managing the improve understanding of the opera- communities.
farm. However, without new knowledge tion of the Bangladeshi rural economy We examined income dynamics in
on improved rice varieties and associ- and the context of poverty. Survey data Tamil Nadu, India, in 1971-2003, con-
ated crop management technologies, for 2004 were analyzed, and eight out centrating on the changing roles of land
they are less able than men—who tend of 15 chapters of the draft report were and human capital. The results show
to have better access to information—to updated and revised. One chapter of the that income growth from the 1970s until
make sound decisions on agriculture- book was presented at the 26th confer- the early 1990s can be attributed to the
related matters. Women often receive ence of the International Association of rice Green Revolution and the associ-
advice from neighbors, friends, and in- Agricultural Economists in Gold Coast, ated development of the nonrice farm
put salespeople, but rarely from exten- Australia, on 12-18 August 2006. This sector. Rice income grew by about 35%
sion workers. These findings highlight was accepted for publication in the during this period. A moderate level
the need to provide technical knowledge journal Agricultural Economics and is of human capital was important in the
and skills to female farmers to enable scheduled for publication in 2007. early 1970s to take advantage of Green
them to make sound farm management We undertook a case study of a Revolution technologies. However, once
decisions. Such a strategy is expected Philippine farming village to analyze the new technologies became stan-
to contribute toward improvements in the effects of personal networks on dard among farmers in the 1980s, the
labor productivity and income, and a re- rural villagers’ access to nonagricultural contribution of human capital declined.
duction in drudgery for women farmers. occupations and the terms of employ- Meanwhile, the contribution of physical
The preliminary findings were present- ment given to them, using data from capital (access to irrigation) increased
ed at the Women Unite conference in a village that has been surveyed by throughout the Green Revolution
Perth, Australia, on 25-27 August 2006. IRRI over three decades. A key finding period until the 1990s. Human capital
A synthesis paper was also presented at was that the role of personal networks has again become important in recent
the International Rice Congress (IRC) is changing along with economic and years as farm management has become
on 9-13 October 2006 in New Delhi, social modernization. We found that, more knowledge-intensive in the face of
India. This paper will be published by when villagers are employed in un- increasing scarcity of labor and water.
IRRI in the IRC proceedings. skilled work in small enterprises, those This study stresses the importance
Progress continued on a book on who are employed by, or gain employ- of education for income growth not
changes in the livelihood systems in ment via referral from, a family member only during the initial period of the
Bangladesh. Aimed at development receive higher wages. Contrary to the rice Green Revolution, but also more
practitioners in Bangladesh and abroad, case of small enterprises, unskilled recently. The policy implication here is

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 55


that increased investment in providing pact pathway approach
education to rice-farming communities will be refined and im-
will accelerate poverty alleviation. plemented using IRRI’s
site-specific nutrient
Output 3: Constraints to the adop- management research as
tion of improved rice technologies a case study.
assessed In 2001-02, IRRI
Analysis of constraints to the adoption invested in demonstra-
of improved rice technologies in rainfed tion trials, with around
environments of eastern India was 950 farmers, of Three
completed and the farm-level impacts Reductions, Three Gains
of technologies assessed. Biophysical (locally called Ba Giam,
factors such as land type and irrigation Ba Tang) technology
availability are important determinants across 11 provinces of
of farmers’ decisions to adopt modern the Mekong Delta region.
improved varieties. Adoption rate was The Ba Giam, Ba Tang
found to be higher in fields with access campaign advised farmers, via a range August 2006. Twenty participants came
to reliable irrigation and in villages of communication methods, to reduce from NARES in Bangladesh, Cambodia,
with proportionately more lowland their nitrogen-fertilizer rates, seed China, India, Indonesia, Laos, Nepal, the
fields. Rice varieties with superior grain rates, and pesticide applications. Imme- Philippines, Thailand, Uzbekistan, and
quality, such as Mahsuri, were found diately after these trials, the local gov- Vietnam. In addition, five IRRI national
to substantially boost farmers’ income ernment in the target provinces adopted staff attended the workshop, which
due to their higher prices. This overall the program by training extension and focused on providing participants with
finding is expected to contribute toward technical staff, who in turn introduced the knowledge and skills necessary to
changes in policy and technology design the technology to rice farmers in their undertake ex ante and ex post economic
to facilitate wider adoption of improved areas of jurisdiction. In June 2006, this impact assessments of agricultural re-
technologies by rainfed farmers. A program was launched nationally. The search and development, and to become
paper and poster on this topic were aim of the impact assessment being proficient in the use of an impact assess-
presented at the IRC. undertaken during 2006 and 2007 is ment software package called DREAM
to measure the economic returns of the (Dynamic Research EvaluAtion for
Output 4: Impact of rice research research project and subsequent dis- Managers). Priority setting and within-
on poverty alleviation and sus- semination activities of this technology project evaluation were also covered,
tainable management of natural in the Mekong Delta region. Specifi- highlighting the importance of orienting
resources assessed cally, the analysis will assess the levels and designing impact-focused research
We developed a research-to-impact and rates of adoption, on-farm cost proposals, and planning for monitoring
pathway framework that allows for reductions, yield gains, and changes in and evaluation activities from the start
some of the complexities inherent in farmer profits, and quantify the flow of the project. The main outputs were
assessing the outcomes and impacts of and distribution of benefits using the increased capacity of the participants to
natural resource management (NRM) concept of consumer surplus. During undertake qualitative and quantitative
research. The purpose of the research- 2006, around 400 farming households impact assessment, a comprehensive
to-impact pathway framework is to were surveyed in Can Tho and An Giang set of resource materials, and a detailed
enhance the operational processes and provinces. In 2007, a further 200 farm- workshop report.
procedures for ex post assessment of the ers will be surveyed in Soc Trang or
impact of rice research on the sustain- Dong Thap provinces.
able management of natural resources A research evaluation and impact Project leader
and poverty reduction. This is also assessment training workshop entitled
Sushil Pandey, senior scientist, agricultural
expected to help improve the process Concepts and tools for agricultural
economics, Social Sciences Division,
of priority setting and allocation of research evaluation and impact as-
sushil.pandey@cgiar.org
research resources. The research-to-im- sessment was held at IRRI on 24 July–4

56 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Project 11
Facilitating rice research for impact

Farmer feedback and participation in sustainable, more profitable, and less play an essential role in this process.
identifying, validating, adapting, and tedious for poor farmers. Our NARES partners have invaluable,
promoting potentially useful technolo- Hundreds of millions of rice farm- local on-the-ground knowledge and are
gies is crucial. New technologies and ers across the world stand to benefit at the point of transfer of new technolo-
information aimed at farmers need from improved technologies. How can gies to farmers. IRRI’s partnerships
to be packaged for easy and effective we reach the greatest number possible? with nongovernment organizations and
implementation. To achieve this, the Project 11 meets this challenge by exam- private-sector specialists further boost
farmers themselves must contribute to ining fundamental issues of informa- our dissemination efforts. It is crucial
the process from the very beginning. tion and technology dissemination: the that NARES maintain the capabilities
An institute can develop the best rice problems and opportunities faced by needed to develop, distill, and deliver
technologies in the world—from new farmers and researchers, and the best research products. IRRI therefore runs
varieties for cultivation through to bet- way to package and present necessary strong training programs for NARES
ter ways to manage a crop—but unless and relevant messages. By understand- partners on research and delivery
they can be and are adopted by farmers, ing key communication and extension methodologies. In this way, we ensure
their value is unlikely to be realized. Re- issues, IRRI’s research remains focused that new improved technologies are
search and development are thus only on what is truly relevant and helpful. appropriately disseminated and used
part of the job of making rice farming The national agricultural research by the people who really need them: the
more productive, more environmentally and extension systems (NARES) also farmers.

Output 1: Delivery strategies and


devices developed
In 2006, enhanced communication
strategies, including delivery method-
ologies and case studies, were collated
for uploading to IRRI’s Rice Knowledge
Bank (RKB, www.knowledgebank.irri.
org)—a comprehensive digital service
containing information on rice pro-
duction and associated training and
extension methodologies. An e-learn-
ing course covering postharvest issues
was developed and tested in Myanmar
and Lao PDR. Additional needs-based
information for improving extension
capacity in meeting farmers’ needs
was updated, translated, and uploaded
to the RKB. This is now available
online through the RKB and on a CD.
Policymakers have been approached to

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 57


provide more computers and training
for improving extension capacity. An
online version, outlining 10 successful
technology scaling-up case studies, was
assembled and will be completed in
2007.
Enhanced communication strate-
gies for technology validation and
scaling up were tried. Good examples
include drum seeder imports and local
manufacturing, and up-scaling for
direct wet seeding of rice, in Bangla-
desh. The involvement of policymakers
and media right from the validation
stages led to appropriate policy support.
Dialogues among research teams, the
extension system, and state govern-
ment policymakers in the Indian states
of Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and West
Bengal fostered greater political will 12 sites across Bangladesh (two sites), Direct wet seeding of rice by plas-
to support wider scale validation and India (nine sites), and Nepal (one site). tic drum seeder. Currently, Bangladeshi
uptake of technologies. IRRI is implementing activities at manufacturers are making plastic drum
In Vietnam, simple messages were seven rice-rice and rice-legume sites, seeders and the technology is becoming
disseminated through the Ba Giam, Ba the International Maize and Wheat mainstream. About 10,000 drum seed-
Tang project, which teaches farmers to Improvement Center (CIMMYT) at four ers are in the field and, in the 2006-07
reduce their nitrogen-fertilizer rates, rice-wheat system sites, and the World boro (dry) season, more than 70,000
seed rates, and pesticide applications Agroforestry Center (ICRAF) at one farmers adopted direct wet seeding of
via various communication methods hill slope agricultural site. Based on the rice technology covering about 20,000
(such as entertainment-education) farmers’ needs assessment, one to three hectares. In the Indian state of West
following dialogues with policymakers. potential technologies per site were Bengal in 2006, demonstrations were
The Ministry of Agriculture’s exten- selected from and validated through conducted in the kharif (wet) season
sion budget allocated US$230,000 for participatory farmer-managed trials in three districts (Nadia, Hooghly, and
Ba Giam, Ba Tang. In April 2006, the over 2 years starting in 2004. In 2006, Burdwan). However, in the current boro
minister of agriculture issued a policy the project began scaling up activi- season, the Department of Panchayat
letter to the agricultural sector to adopt ties on several technologies, including and Rural Development is validating
Ba Giam, Ba Tang as a national policy. crop establishment methods (direct the technology in four districts (Pu-
Provincial committees were established wet seeding of rice by plastic drum luria, Malda, Dashin Dinajpur, and
to provide training and report their seeder, zero-tillage wheat in rice-wheat Murshidabad) through 85 demonstra-
progress to the ministry. In September system); farming systems (rice-chick- tion-cum-validation trials. There are
2006, a Ba Giam, Ba Tang implementa- pea system for rainfed environments, 200 Vietnamese-made plastic drum
tion committee was formed with the quality protein maize hybrid intercrop- seeders in the state and a Kerala-based
vice-minister as chair. ping with improved potato varieties); company has started manufacturing
crop management (real-time nitrogen and marketing plastic drum seeders
Output 2: Promising technologies management in rice, biofertilizer-based in India. A few validation trials were
evaluated by farmers integrated nutrient management in conducted in the 2006 kharif season in
The IRRI project Accelerating technol- dry-season rice); superior rice varieties; India’s Jharkhand State. The perfor-
ogy adoption to improve rural liveli- and supplementary livelihood support mance of direct wet seeding of rice cre-
hoods in the rainfed eastern Gangetic systems (cultivating mushrooms, culti- ated enthusiasm among research and
Plains, funded by IFAD, operated in vating elephant-foot yams). extension officials and local farmers.

58 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Currently, there are 50 drum seeders biofertilizer-based integrated nutrient department in seed production and
with Birsa Agricultural University at management (Azospirillum and phos- extension is lacking or limited); Durga
Ranchi and large-scale validation in the phate-solubilizing bacteria) was 9,800 and Gayatri (high-yielding varieties
aus (summer) rice season is in progress. rupees ($220) per hectare over the released to replace low-yielding tradi-
Rice-chickpea system for rainfed farmers’ practice and 700 rupees ($16) tional varieties in the submergence-
environments. This system—line-sown per hectare over recommended fertil- prone rainfed lowlands of Orissa, India;
short-duration rice followed by chick- izer management. However, availability adoption is increasing through farmer-
pea—has shown great potential to boost and promotion of biofertilizer have not to-farmer seed exchange but effective
yields and income in rainfed environ- progressed sufficiently for adoption by research and extension—governmental
ments of Chhattisgarh, India. In 2006- farmers. and nongovernmental—linkage and
07, line-sown rice covered 480 hectares Superior rice varieties. Work policy support for adoption beyond the
in two intervention villages (where on scaling up the adoption of supe- intervention villages appears lacking);
potential technology was validated rior varieties continued in 2006. The and Joymati, Joytiprasad, Kanaklata,
through farmer participatory, farmer- varieties promoted were BRRI dhan 44 Basudev, and Padmanath (adoption of
managed research) and approximately (used in tidal wetlands of Bangladesh; modern boro varieties Joymati, Joytip-
390 hectares in adjoining noninterven- superior to the currently grown rice rasad, and Kanaklata, and improved
tion villages. To extend the technology varieties in terms of yield, grain type, deepwater varieties Basudev and Pad-
in the state, dynamic leadership, linkage and market price; being used by several manath, is increasing through farmer-
between governmental and nongovern- hundred farmers of at least 50 villages); to-farmer seed exchange but effective
mental sectors, and appropriate policy Anjali (short-duration variety devel- research and extension linkage and
support for extension and creation of oped for fragile rainfed bunded uplands policy support for adoption are needed).
service providers for line seeding will of Jharkhand; scaling up adoption of In 2006, we identified farmers’
be needed. Validation of the rice-chick- Anjali through farmer-to-farmer seed needs in several target countries, and
pea system using a short-duration rice exchange and through nongovern- tested appropriate technologies that
variety in Jharkhand did not succeed ment organizations is in progress, but had potential to address high-priority
mainly because chickpea failed to ger- involvement of the state agricultural needs. Needs assessments and baseline
minate in extreme drought conditions.
Real-time nitrogen management
in rice. Leaf color chart (LCC) use to
manage nitrogen fertilizer applica-
tions in Nadia District of West Bengal
has led to an average savings of 900
rupees (US$20) per hectare (11.2% of
the average profit) and the environmen-
tal benefit from reduced nitrogen and
insecticide use has been enormous. In
trials up to 2006, LCC adopters reduced
nitrogen application by about 19% (25
kg per hectare) and insecticide sprays
by 50% without affecting yields. LCCs
are now being produced and marketed
by a Chennai-based company at 25
rupees ($0.56) per piece. Proper promo-
tion and availability of the LCC at the
grassroots level are necessary for wider
adoption.
Biofertilizer-based integrated
nutrient management in dry-season
rice. Additional income generated by

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 59


studies were conducted in four villages
in the Vietnamese provinces of Long
An and Nam Dinh, and in eight villages
in the Cambodian provinces of Bat-
tambang and Prey Veng. Postharvest
needs assessments were also conducted
in Myanmar. The results of the studies
guided the development of curricula for
farmers’ training, the selection of im-
proved postharvest technology options
for target villages, and the participatory
verification of hermetic storage systems,
rice dryers, and quality evaluation tools
in the target villages.
We began field testing of hermetic
storage systems (the superbag) for
farmers, seed producers, and millers in
Myanmar, Indonesia, Lao PDR, Cambo-
dia, and Vietnam. Use of the superbag
results in higher income through better districts. The Indonesian government were taught how to provide laser-as-
quality seeds and reduced losses, and ordered more than 60,000 LCC, which sisted leveling services to farmers.
also increases milling quality. were to be distributed in early 2007. Over 100 researchers and exten-
In Myanmar, Cambodia, and Lao The government plans to order another sion agents from Myanmar, Laos, Cam-
PDR, evaluations of drying systems 50,000 in 2007. bodia, Vietnam, and China were trained
were ongoing. Preliminary results on the use of the RKB (online and
indicated farmers could achieve higher Output 3: Human capital on CD). Around 40 researchers from
income through better quality grain, developed Bangladesh, Burundi, Indonesia, Iran,
fewer losses due to improper sun-dry- Several hundred researchers and exten- Japan, Myanmar, Nepal, the Philip-
ing, and reduced weather risk. sion officers were trained in priority pines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam received
Laser leveling of rice fields was topics using appropriate educational training on statistics and experimental
demonstrated in Vietnam and Myan- methodologies. Following this, RKB design at IRRI headquarters. Around
mar. Field trials have indicated that this country sites were established and 100 researchers and extension work-
technology is contributing to higher increasingly used. English versions of ers received training on site-specific
income from higher yields due to better postharvest training materials (fact nutrient management. Twenty-seven
water control and more even ripening of sheets, reference manuals, and Power- researchers and extension agents
the crop. In Vietnam, the promotion of Point presentations) were completed. from Bangladesh, Cambodia, India,
laser leveling was included in a govern- Farmer intermediaries are accessing Indonesia, Lao PDR, Nepal, the Philip-
ment program in An Giang Province. these through the RKB (online and on pines, Thailand, and Vietnam were
A number of promising rice CD). Hands-on postharvest manage- trained on participatory approaches to
lines, including an iron-rich line, ment and grain quality training for research and extension, also at IRRI
were prepared for release (scheduled farmer intermediaries was conducted headquarters.
for early 2007) due to their excellent in Indonesia (35 participants), Lao PDR
performance in farmers’ fields. In (18 participants), Myanmar (23 partici-
2006, integrated crop management was pants), Vietnam (25 participants), and Project leader
implemented on 500,000 hectares in Cambodia (28 farmer intermediaries
Indonesia, covering 130 districts of 22 and 691 farmers). Laser-leveling train- Thelma Paris, senior scientist, gender specialist,
provinces. In 2007, this is set to expand ing was conducted in Myanmar (12 par- Social Sciences Division, t.paris@cgiar.org
to 1.0 million hectares covering 135 ticipants) and private-sector contractors

60 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Financial Support and Special-funded Projects
that Started in 2006

 Agriculture Network Information Center


Summary of financial support to IRRI research agenda, 2006
 Enabling open access to IRRI-assisted theses and
(in US $’000).a
dissertations (DPPC2006-72), 2006/09/30 -
Asian Development Bank 1,133 2007/09/30
Australia 1,006
Canada 996
 Asian Development Bank
Challenge Programs
Generation 1,585  Development and dissemination of water-saving
Harvest Plus 594
Water and Food 2,480 rice technologies in South Asia (DPPC2005-38),
China 140 2006/01/01 - 2009/05/31
Denmark 481
European Commission 210  Australian Centre for International Agricultural
Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 10
France 483 Research
Germany  Implementation of rodent management in intensive
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development 381
Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development 861 irrigated rice production systems in Indonesia and
/German Agency for Technical Cooperation Vietnam (DPPC2005-67), 2006/04/01 - 2009/09/30
Global Crop Diversity Trust 217  Training workshop on Evaluation Training for
Grain Biotech Australia 20
Grand Challenges in Global Health through Albert-Ludwigs 167 Agricultural Research Projects for Papua New
University of Friedburg Guinea researchers and officials responsible for
India 450
International Fertilizer Industry Association, International Plant planning, implementing and evaluating research
Nutrition Institute, and International Potash Institute 198 programs in Papua New Guinea (DPPC2006-49),
International Fund for Agricultural Development 681
Iran 62 2006/04/24 - 2006/06/01
Japan 2,430  Training Workshop on Application of Participatory
Korea 843
Malaysia 32 Approaches to Agricultural Research and Extension
Mexico 10 (DPPC2006-74), 2006/07/20 - 2006/09/18
Monsanto Fund 6
 Workshop on Leadership for Asian Women in
Netherlands 410
Norway 323 Agriculture R & D and Extension (DPPC2006-119),
Nunhems B.V. 32 2006/11/27 - 2007/01/08
Philippines 145
Rockefeller Foundation 477
Sweden 478  Bureau of Agricultural Research–Philippines
Switzerland 1,806  Improving knowledge exchange and decision
Thailand 40
United Kingdom 2,268 making among rice stakeholders through ICT-based
United States of America technology promotion and delivery systems
United States Agency for International Development 3,679 (DPPC2005-27), 2006/01/01 - 2008/12/31
United States Department of Agriculture 94
Vietnam 15
World Bank 2,626  Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension
Others 41 Services
Total 27,910
 Major characteristics evaluation of early maturing
a
See Appendix 3 for audited financial statements.
japonica rice (DPPC2006-136), 2006/12/26 -
2007/11/30

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 61


 Generation Challenge Program: Cultivating  Japan International Cooperation Agency
Plant Diversity for the Resource-Poor  Training course on Upland Rice Variety Selection
 Creation of institutional bioinformatics capacity Techniques for African Countries (DPPC2006-83),
(DPPC2006-07), 2006/01/01 - 2006/12/31 2006/09/15 - 2006/11/30
 Developing strategies for allele mining within large
 Malaysian Agricultural Research and Develop-
collections (DPPC2005-87), 2006/01/01 -
ment Institute
2007/12/31
 Genetic enhancement for high-quality rice
 Development of an integrated GCP information
(DPPC2005-64), 2006/01/01 - 2008/12/30
platform (DPPC2005-88), 2006/01/01 - 2006/12/31
 A dataset on allele diversity at orthologous  Nunhems B.V.
candidate genes in GCP crops (ADOC)  Further development of ICIS in collaboration with
(DPPC2006-17), 2006/01/01 - 2006/12/31 Nunhems -Phase II (DPPC2006-35), 2006/04/01 -
 GenerationCP data quality improvement and 2010/03/31
assurance (DPPC2005-89), 2006/01/01 -
 Plan International
2007/12/31
 Poverty reduction options validated in drought
 SNP analysis of the genetic diversity along the rice
environments (DPPC2005-30), 2006/09/01 -
genome (HAPLORYZA) (DPPC2005-91),
2007/03/31
2006/01/01 - 2007/12/31
 Data analysis support for existing projects in SP2  Rural Development Administration
with emphasis on integrating results across gene  RDA-IRRI cooperative research projects (2006-
expression and QTL mapping experiments 2007) (DPPC2006-64), 2006/01/01 - 2007/12/31
(DPPC2006-77), 2006/08/01 - 2007/07/31  RDA-IRRI special collaborative research projects
(1. Functional genomics approach to identification of
 Global Crop Diversity Trust
broad-spectrum resistance genes against rice blast
 Development of a global strategy for the ex situ
disease in Korean germplasm; 2. Broadening gene
conservation of rice (DPPC2006-21), 2006/04/01 -
pool of rice: Wild species introgression and marker
2007/03/31
(DPPC2006-67), 2006/09/01 - 2009/08/31
 Long-term funding of the ex-situ collection of rice
germplasm held by the International Rice Research  Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation
Institute (DPPC2006-115), 2006/11/01 –  Lao PDR -IRRI Rice Research and Training Project
(LIRRTP) transition phase (DPPC2006-100),
 International Atomic Energy Agency
2006/10/01 - 2007/09/30
 Dissecting drought tolerance mechanisms in rice
through gain-of-function deletion mutants  University of California-Berkeley
(DPPC2006-42), 2006/06/15 - 2007/06/14  BioGeomancer project (collaboration of
biodiversity and geospatial data experts
 International Plant Nutrition Institute (formerly
(DPPC2006-36), 2006/05/15 - 2007/03/01
Potash and Phosphate Institute/Potash and
Phosphate Institute of Canada)  United States Department of Agriculture
 Reaching toward optimal productivity in intensive,  Cold stress response gene regulon in rice
irrigated rice systems: the development, evaluation, (DPPC2005-32), 2006/06/01 - 2009/05/31
and delivery of site-specific nutrient management in
 Value Added Wheat CRC
Myanmar (activities for 2006) (DPPC2005-94),
 Further development of ICIS by collaboration of
2006/01/01 - 2006/12/31
lRRI with Value Added Wheat (DPPC2006-58),
2006/07/01 - 2008/06/30

62 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Memoranda of agreement: Partner institutions
IRRI entered into agreements with in 2006

Australia
• Australian Centre for International Agricultural Application of Participatory Approaches to Agricultural
Research (ACIAR). Variation No. 1 relating to Project No. Research and Extension (DPPC2006-74). 20 Jul 2006
PLIA/2000/039 Impact of migration and/or on-farm • Australian Centre for International Agricultural
employment on roles of women and appropriate Research (ACIAR). Contract (No. L2005109) between
technologies in Asian and Australian mixed farming ACIAR and IRRI re: Publication of Rice in Laos
systems, extending the project until 31 December 2007 (DPPC2006-75). 28 Jun 2006
(DPPC2001-06). 10 Feb 2006 • BCM Software Tools PTY Ltd. Software License-Services
• Australian Centre for International Agricultural Agreement between BCM Software Tools PTY Ltd. and
Research (ACIAR). Deed of Agreement between ACIAR IRRI relative to the Shadow Planner Business Continuity
and IRRI for the project Implementation of rodent Software for the project ICT-KM Project on Security and
management in intensive irrigated rice production Business Continuity (DPPC2005-31). 13 Nov 2006
systems in Indonesia and Vietnam (DPPC2005-67). 01 • Charles Sturt University (CSU). Memorandum of
Apr 2006 – 30 Sep 2009 Agreement between the Charles Sturt University and
• Australian Centre for International Agricultural IRRI for the supervision of Doctor of Philosophy
Research (ACIAR). Contract (No. C2006/058) between students. 27 Jan 2006 – 26 Jan 2009
ACIAR and IRRI for the project Workshop on Leader- • The Cooperative Research Centre for Value Added Wheat
ship for Asian Women in Agriculture R & D and (Value Added Wheat CRC). Project agreement between
Extension (DPPC2006-119). 10 Oct 2006 Value Added Wheat CRC and IRRI for the collaborative
• Australian Centre for International Agricultural project Further development of ICIS (DPPC2006-58). 01
Research (ACIAR). Contract (No. C2005/147) between Jul 2006 – 30 Jun 2008
ACIAR and IRRI for the project Training workshop on • New South Wales Department of Primary Industries for
Evaluation Training for Agricultural Research Projects and in behalf of the State of New South Wales (NSW
for Papua New Guinea researchers and officials DPI). Memorandum of Understanding between the New
responsible for planning, implementing, and evaluating South Wales Department of Primary Industries and
research programs in Papua New Guinea (DPPC2006- IRRI to further strengthen cooperation in relevant areas
49). 24 Apr 2006 of collaboration among IRRI and NSW DPI scientists and
• Australian Centre for International Agricultural professional and technical staff, and in the training of
Research (ACIAR). Contract (No. C2005/222) between graduate students. 10 Apr 2006 – 09 Apr 2011
ACIAR and IRRI for the project Training Workshop on

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 63


Austria Benin
• International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Renewal of • Africa Rice Center (WARDA). Memorandum of Under-
Technical Contract No. 13099/R0 between IAEA and standing between IRRI and WARDA to strengthen
IRRI for the project Selection for greater agronomic collaboration in order to help resolve high-priority rice
water-use efficiency in wheat and rice using carbon research problems in Africa. 27 Mar 2006
isotope discrimination (DPPC2002-51). 15 Dec 2006 –
14 Dec 2007 Cambodia
• International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Technical • Battambang Provincial Department of Agriculture
Contract No. 13776 between IAEA and IRRI for the (BBPDA). Letter of Agreement between BBPDA
project Dissecting drought tolerance mechanisms in rice (AEU:9:2006:C) and IRRI for the project Improving
through gain of function deletion mutants (DPPC2006- poor farmers’ livelihoods through post-harvest technol-
42). 15 Jun 2006 – 14 Jun 2007 ogy (DPPC2002-37). 13 Jul 2006
• Battambang Provincial Department of Agriculture
Bangladesh (BBPDA). Letter of Agreement between BBPDA
• Agricultural Advisory Society (AAS). Letter of Agree- (AEU:7:2006:C) and IRRI for the project Improving
ment between AAS and IRRI for the collaborative project poor farmers’ livelihoods through postharvest technol-
Experimentation on ways of using the Bangladesh Rice ogy (DPPC2002-37). 04 Apr 2006
Knowledge Bank (BRKB) (DPPC2006-61). 09 Jun 2006 • Cambodia Agricultural Research and Development
• Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI). Letter of Institute (CARDI), Royal University of Agriculture
Agreement between BRRI and IRRI for the purpose of (RUA), Prek Leap National School of Agriculture (PNSA),
implementing the research activities of the project and the Department of Agricultural Extension (DAExt).
Development of rice with elevated iron and zinc in the Memorandum of Agreement among IRRI, CARDI, RUA,
polished grain: Phase 1 – understand and exploit G × E PNSA, and DAExt on the Implementation of linking
interactions for high iron/zinc in the polished grain, a extension and research needs through information
subproject of the HarvestPlus Challenge Program- technology (LEARN-IT) project in Cambodia
funded project Micronutrient-dense rice to reduce (DPPC2002-36). 13 Jun 2006
malnutrition (DPPC2003-70). 22 Sep 2006 • Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development
• Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI). Letter of Institute (CARDI). Letter of Agreement between CARDI
Agreement between BRRI and IRRI for the ADB-funded and IRRI for the purpose of implementing research with
project Development and dissemination of water-saving the Consortium for Unfavorable Rice Environments
rice technologies in South Asia (DPPC2005-38). 20 Sep (CURE). 28 Mar 2006 – 27 Mar 2009
2006 • Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development
• Bangladesh Rice Research Institute (BRRI). Letter of Institute (CARDI). Letter of Agreement between CARDI
Agreement between BRRI and IRRI for the collaborative and IRRI extending the Memorandum of Agreement for
project Improved nutrient management options in Scientific and Technical Collaboration in Rice and Rice-
drought-prone rainfed rice in northwest Bangladesh based Farming Research and Training signed on 27 Jun
(DPPC2006-81). 28 Jul 2006 2001. 20 Jun 2006 – 19 Jun 2011
• Rural Development Academy (RDA), Bogra. Letter of • Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development
Agreement between RDA, Bogra and IRRI for the ADB- Institute (CARDI). Letter of Agreement between CARDI
funded project Development and dissemination of and IRRI for the project Improving poor farmers’
water-saving rice technologies in South Asia livelihoods through rice information technology
(DPPC2005-38). 27 Sep 2006 (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). 28 Aug 2006
• Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development
Belgium Institute (CARDI). Letter of Agreement between CARDI
• Bayer Bioscience, N.V. (BAYER). Agreement between (AEU:11:2006:C) and IRRI for the project Improving
BAYER and IRRI for the project Development of ICIS in poor farmers’ livelihoods through postharvest technol-
collaboration with Bayer-Phase 1 (DPPC2006-45). 26 ogy (DPPC2002-37). 13 Jun 2006
Dec 2006 • Cambodian Agricultural Research and Development
Institute (CARDI). Letter of Agreement between CARDI

64 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


for the collaborative project Socioeconomic analysis on project Managing crop residues for healthy soils in rice
impact of social capital to solve conflicts for water usage ecosystems (DPPC2001-11). 01 Sep 2006
groups in different modes of irrigation systems in • Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GAAS).
Cambodia (DPPC2006-98). 06 Oct 2006 Letter of Agreement between GAAS and IRRI for the
• Crenn and Associates. Letter of Agreement between collaborative project Site-specific nutrient and crop
Crenn and Associates (AEU:5:2006:C) and IRRI for the management for achieving healthy rice, a project under
project Improving poor farmers’ livelihoods through the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium-Phase III -
postharvest technology (DPPC2002-37). 04 Apr 2006 Productivity Workgroup (DPPC2005-02). 01 Dec 2006 –
• Department of Agricultural Extension (DAE). Letter of 31 Dec 2007
Agreement between DAE-Cambodia and IRRI for the • Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GAAS).
project Improving poor farmers’ livelihoods through Memorandum of Agreement between Guangxi Academy
rice information technology (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002- of Agricultural Sciences and IRRI on Studying the insect
36). 28 Aug 2006 ecology of wild rice in southern China. 11 Apr 2006 – 10
• Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) Apr 2011
of the Kingdom of Cambodia. Letter of Agreement • Huazhong Agricultural University (HAU). Letter of
extending the Memorandum of Understanding for Agreement between HAU and IRRI for the project
Scientific and Technical Collaboration in Research and Managing crop residues for healthy soils in rice
Training on Rice and Rice-based Farming systems ecosystems (DPPC2001-11). 01 Sep 2006
between MAFF and IRRI. 13 Sep 2006 – 12 Sep 2011 • Hunan Agricultural University (HAU). Letter of Agree-
• Plan International. Memorandum of Understanding ment between HAU and IRRI for the project Managing
between Plant International and IRRI to improve the crop residues for healthy soils in rice ecosystems
livelihood of the population of the rice-growing countries (DPPC2001-11). 01 Sep 2006
in Asia. 26 Jan 2006 – 25 Jan 2011 • Hunan Agricultural University (HAU). Letter of Agree-
• Plan International. Service Agreement between Plan ment between HAU and IRRI for the collaborative
International and IRRI for the project Poverty reduction project Site-specific nutrient and crop management for
options validated in drought environments (PROVIDE) achieving healthy rice, a project under the Irrigated Rice
(DPPC2005-30). 2006 Sep – 2007 Mar Research Consortium-Phase III - Productivity Work-
• Prek Leap National School of Agriculture (PNSA). Letter group (DPPC2005-02). 01 Dec 2006 – 31 Dec 2007
of Agreement between PNSA and IRRI for the project • Northeast Agricultural University (NEAU). Letter of
Improving poor farmers’ livelihoods through rice Agreement between NEAU and IRRI for the collabora-
information technology (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). tive project Developing a site-specific nutrient manage-
28 Aug 2006 ment (SSNM) recommendation for rice in Heilongjiang
• Prey Veng Provincial Department of Agriculture province, China, a project under the Irrigated Rice
(PVPDA). Letter of Agreement between PVPDA Research Consortium-Phase III - Productivity Work-
(AEU:13:2006:C) and IRRI for the project Improving group (DPPC2005-02). 31 Aug 2006
poor farmers’ livelihoods through postharvest technol- • Wuhan University (WU). Letter of Agreement between
ogy (DPPC2002-37). 31 Aug 2006 WU and IRRI for the project The role of water institu-
• Royal University of Agriculture (RUA). Letter of Agree- tions and policies for efficient water use in China
ment between RUA and IRRI for the project Improving (DPPC2006-129). 04 Dec 2006
poor farmers’ livelihoods through rice information • Yangzhou University (YU). Letter of Agreement between
technology (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). 28 Aug 2006 YU and IRRI for the BMZ-funded project Managing
• Srer Khmer. Letter of Agreement between Srer Khmer crop residues for healthy soils in rice ecosystems
and IRRI for the project Improving poor farmers’ (DPPC2001-11). 01 Sep 2006
livelihoods through rice information technology • Yangzhou University (YU). Letter of Agreement between
(LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). 28 Aug 2006 YU and IRRI for the collaborative project Site-specific
nutrient and crop management for achieving healthy
China rice, a project under the Irrigated Rice Research
• Guangdong Academy of Agricultural Sciences (GAAS). Consortium-Phase III - Productivity Workgroup
Letter of Agreement between GAAS and IRRI for the (DPPC2005-02). 01 Dec 2006 – 31 Dec 2007

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 65


• Yunnan Agricultural University (YAU). Letter of behalf of the HarvestPlus Challenge Program. Amend-
Agreement between YAU and IRRI for the collaborative ment No. 4 to HarvestPlus Contract #7007 relative to the
project Field performance evaluation and selection of extension of the project end date to 31 December 2006 of
GUVA elite lines in the tropics (DPPC2006-39). 12 Oct the project Assessing the potential of biofortification to
2006 address micronutrient malnutrition in rice-based
• Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences (ZAAS). cropping systems of South and Southeast Asia
Letter of Agreement between ZAAS and IRRI for the (DPPC2004-16). 19 Oct 2006
SIF-funded project Induced plant responses: a potential • Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT).
approach for managing insect pests (DPPC2004-98). Amendment No. 1 to Contract #-071-05 on the extension
27 Jun 2006 of the project Developing biofortified iron-dense rice for
• Zhongnan University of Economics and Law. Letter of India (in collaboration with the HarvestPlus Challenge
Agreement between Zhongnan University of Economics Program) with no additional cost (DPPC2004-43). 01 Jul
and Law and IRRI for the project Study on upland rice 2006 – 31 Dec 2006
systems and farmer livelihoods in China (DPPC2006-
127). 27 Nov 2006 Egypt
• Rice Research and Training Center (RRTC). Letter of
Colombia Agreement between RRTC and IRRI for the CPWF-
• Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). funded project Development of technologies to harness
Memorandum of Agreement between CIAT and IRRI on the productivity potential of salt-affected areas of the
scientific and training collaboration in the development Indo-Gangetic, Mekong, and Nile River basins
of a core INGER germplasm pool for Latin America and (DPPC203-21). 04 Jul 2006
the Caribbean and the development of an initial Spanish-
language version of the Rice Knowledge Bank. 03 Aug France
2006 – 02 Aug 2011 • Centre de coopération internationale en recherche
• Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) and agronomique pour le développement (CIRAD). Protocol
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on of Agreement between CIRAD and IRRI for the services
behalf of the HarvestPlus Challenge Program. Amend- of Dr. Damien Jourdain to participate in the CPWF-
ment No. 3 to HarvestPlus Contract #5007 relative to the funded project Rice landscape management for raising
extension of the project end date to 31 December 2006 of water productivity, conserving resources, and improv-
the project Micronutrient-dense rice to reduce malnutri- ing livelihoods in upper catchments of the Mekong and
tion (DPPC2003-70). 22 Feb 2006 Red River basins (DPPC2003-23). 26 Apr 2006 – 25 Apr
• Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) and 2009
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on • L’Institut de recherche pour le développement (IRD).
behalf of the HarvestPlus Challenge Program. Amend- Amendment No. 5 for the year 2006 to the Protocol of
ment No. 4 to HarvestPlus Contract #5007 relative to the Agreement between IRD and IRRI to pursue the
increase in the contract value of the project Micronutri- activities of Dr. Georges Reversat to develop a joint IRD-
ent-dense rice to reduce malnutrition (DPPC2003-70). IRRI shuttle project (in English and French versions).
02 Jun 2006 09 Feb 2006 – 08 Feb 2007
• Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) and
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on Germany
behalf of the HarvestPlus Challenge Program. Amend- • Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH. Memorandum of
ment No. 3 to HarvestPlus Contract #7007 relative to the Agreement between Forschungszentrum and IRRI for
extension of the project end date to 30 June 2006 of the research collaboration in the area of sustaining produc-
project Assessing the potential of biofortification to tivity in intensive rice systems: rice and environment
address micronutrient malnutrition in rice-based (appointment of Dr. Reiner Wassman as Rice and
cropping systems of South and Southeast Asia Climate Change Consortium [RCCC] coordinator).
(DPPC2004-16). 10 Feb 2006 01 Oct 2006 – 30 Sep 2009
• Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT) and • University of Hamburg. Letter of Agreement between the
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) on University of Hamburg and IRRI for the project Carbon-

66 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


ized organic matter as soil amendment and for carbon drought-prone environments in India (DPPC2004-32).
sequestration in rainfed lowland rice (DPPC2005-76). 14 Jun 2006
01 Aug 2006 • Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI). Letter of
• UFZ Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig-Halle Agreement between CRRI and IRRI for the RF/GCP-
GmbH. Amendment to the Research Agreement between funded project Developing and disseminating resilient
UFZ and IRRI for the project Managing crop residues and productive rice varieties for drought-prone
for healthy soils in rice ecosystems (DPPC2001-11). 26 environments in India (DPPC2004-32). 10 Jan 2006
Apr 2006 • Central Rice Research Institute (CRRI). Letter of
Agreement between CRRI and IRRI for the project 2006
India Program of the Eastern Indian Rainfed Lowland Rice
• Anand Agricultural University (AAU). Letter of Agree- Shuttle Breeding Network (EIRLSBN) (DPPC2006-133).
ment between AAU and IRRI for the BMZ-funded 13 Nov 2006
project Applying genetic diversity and genomic tools to • Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and
benefit rice farmers at risk from drought (DPPC2003- Technology (GBPUAT). Amendment No. 1 to the Letter of
41). 27 Nov 2006 Agreement between GBPUAT and IRRI for the collabora-
• Anand Agricultural University (AAU). Letter of Agree- tive project Dissemination of SSNM in rice-wheat
ment between AAU and IRRI for the RF/GCP-funded systems in northern India, a project under Irrigated Rice
project Developing and disseminating resilient and Research Consortium-Phase III - Productivity Work-
productive rice varieties for drought-prone environ- group (DPPC2005-02). 21 Jun 2006
ments in India (DPPC2004-32). 27 Nov 2006 • Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agriculture and
• Assam Agricultural University (AAU). Letter of Agree- Technology (GBPUAT). Letter of Agreement between
ment between AAU and IRRI for the project Managing GBPUAT and IRRI for the project Impact of male labor
rice landscapes in marginal uplands for household food out-migration on rice household economy and changes
security and environmental sustainability (DPPC2003- in gender role in Uttaranchal, India and Seed health
08). 17 Jul 2006 improvement for women farmers in Uttaranchal, India
• Assam Agricultural University (AAU). Letter of Agree- (DPPC2006-38). 14 Mar 2006
ment between AAU and IRRI for the project 2006 • ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region. Letter of
Program of the Eastern Indian Rainfed Lowland Rice Agreement between ICAR Research Complex for NEH
Shuttle Breeding Network (EIRLSBN) (DPPC2006-133). Region and IRRI for the RF/GCP-funded project
13 Nov 2006 Developing and disseminating resilient and productive
• Birsa Agricultural University (BAU). Letter of Agreement rice varieties for drought-prone environments in India
between BAU and IRRI for the BMZ-funded project (DPPC2004-32). 27 Nov 2006
Applying genetic diversity and genomic tools to benefit • The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). Letter of
rice farmers at risk from drought (DPPC2003-41). 27 Agreement between TERI and IRRI for the BMZ-funded
Nov 2006 project Managing crop residues for healthy soils in rice
• Birsa Agricultural University (BAU). Letter of Agreement ecosystems (DPPC2001-11). 23 Feb 2006
between BAU and IRRI for the RF/GCP-funded project • The Energy and Resources Institute (TERI). Letter of
Developing and disseminating resilient and productive Agreement between TERI and IRRI for the project
rice varieties for drought-prone environments in India Collaborative research on soil quality in rice-based
(DPPC2004-32). 27 Nov 2006 system (DPPC2006-126). 09 Nov 2006
• Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station • International Center for Research in the Semi-arid
(CRURRS). Letter of Agreement between CRURRS and Tropics (ICRISAT). Letter of Agreement between
IRRI for the BMZ-funded project Applying genetic ICRISAT and IRRI for the 2006 GCP-commissioned
diversity and genomic tools to benefit rice farmers at research project GenerationCP data quality improve-
risk from drought (DPPC2003-41). 27 Nov 2006 ment and assurance (DPPC2005-89). 31 Aug 2006
• Central Rainfed Upland Rice Research Station • Indira Gandhi Agricultural University (IGAU). Letter of
(CRURRS). Letter of Agreement between CRURRS and Agreement between IGAU and IRRI for the RF/GCP-
IRRI for the RF/GCP-funded project Developing and funded project Developing and disseminating resilient
disseminating resilient and productive rice varieties for

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 67


and productive rice varieties for drought-prone Memorandum of Understanding between IAARD and
environments in India (DPPC2004-32). 27 Nov 2006 IRRI for scientific and technical collaboration in rice
• Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vidwavidyalaya (JNKVV). research and training. 04 Sep 2006 – 03 Sep 2011
Letter of Agreement between JNKVV and IRRI for the • Indonesian Center for Agricultural Post Harvest
BMZ-funded project Applying genetic diversity and Research and Development (ICAPRD). Letter of
genomic tools to benefit rice farmers at risk from Agreement between ICAPRD and IRRI for the purpose
drought (DPPC2003-41). 27 Nov 2006 of implementing the research activities of research
• Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vidwavidyalaya (JNKVV). project Rice post harvest systems development, a project
Letter of Agreement between JNKVV and IRRI for the under the SDC-funded project Irrigated Rice Research
RF/GCP-funded project Developing and disseminating Consortium (IRRC), Phase 3: Postproduction Tech-
resilient and productive rice varieties for drought-prone niques and Diverse Rice Markets Workgroup
environments in India (DPPC2004-32). (DPPC2004-30). 07 Mar 2006
27 Nov 2006 • Indonesian Center for Agricultural Post Harvest
• Narendra Deva University of Agriculture and Technology Research and Development (ICAPRD). Letter of
(NDUAT). Letter of Agreement between NDUAT and Agreement extending the collaboration between ICAPRD
IRRI for the project 2006 Program of the Eastern Indian and IRRI for the purpose of implementing the research
Rainfed Lowland Rice Shuttle Breeding Network activities of research project Rice post harvest systems
(EIRLSBN) (DPPC2006-133). 13 Nov 2006 development, a project under the SDC-funded project
• Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology (OUAT). Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC), Phase 3:
Letter of Agreement between OUAT and IRRI for the Postproduction Techniques and Diverse Rice Markets
project 2006 Program of the Eastern Indian Rainfed Workgroup (DPPC2004-30). 18 Aug 2006
Lowland Rice Shuttle Breeding Network (EIRLSBN) • Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR). Letter of
(DPPC2006-133). 13 Nov 2006 Agreement between ICRR and IRRI for the collaborative
• Punjab Agricultural University (PAU). Letter of Agree- project Evaluation of the effects of crop establishment
ment between PAU and IRRI for the collaborative project practices on crop performance and weed infestation, a
Developing and disseminating site-specific nutrient project under the SDC-funded project Irrigated Rice
management (SSNM) for intensive rice-wheat systems, Research Consortium (IRRC), Phase 3 – Weed Ecology
a project under the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium- Working Group (DPPC2004-30). 13 Nov 2006
Phase III - Productivity Workgroup (DPPC2005-02). • Indonesia Institute for Rice Research (IIRR). Letter of
01 Dec 2006 – 31 Dec 2008 Agreement between IIRR and IRRI for the project
• SAMRUDHI. Letter of Agreement between SAMRUDHI Breeding for iron-dense rice: a low-cost, sustainable
and IRRI for the HP-funded project Assessing the approach to reduce anemia in Asia (DPPC2005-25). 16
potential of biofortification to address micronutrient Jan 2006
malnutrition in rice-based cropping systems of South
and Southeast Asia (DPPC2004-16). 23 May 2006 Italy
• SAMRUDHI. Letter of Agreement between SAMRUDHI • Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT). Memorandum of
and IRRI for the study on Institutional systems for rice Agreement between GCDT and IRRI for the project
seed production and distribution in Orissa (DPPC2006- Long-term funding of the ex-situ collection of rice
120). 02 Nov 2006. germplasm held by the International Rice Research
• University of Agricultural Sciences (UAS). Letter of Institute (DPPC2006-115). 01 Nov 2006
Agreement between UAS and IRRI for the project • Global Crop Diversity Trust (GCDT). Letter of Agreement
Collaborative on-farm adoptive research-cum-demon- between GCDT and IRRI for the project Development of
stration on resource conservation technologies to a global strategy for the ex situ conservation of rice
improve DSR productivity (DPPC2006-125). 09 Nov (DPPC2006-21). 17 May 2006
2006
Japan
Indonesia • Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA).
• Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Memorandum of Agreement between JICA (Philippine
Development (IAARD), Ministry of Agriculture. office) and IRRI re: Training course on upland rice

68 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


variety selection techniques- for African countries (held • Rural Development Administration (RDA). Letter of
at IRRI Training Center) (DPPC2006-83). 15 Sep 2006 – Agreement between RDA and IRRI on extension of
30 Nov 2006 special collaborative projects (1. Functional genomics
• Japan International Research Center for Agricultural approach to identification of broad-spectrum resistance
Sciences (JIRCAS). Letter of Agreement between JIRCAS genes against rice blast disease in Korean germplasm;
and IRRI for the Generation Challenge Program (GCP)- 2: Broadening gene pool of rice: Wild species introgres-
funded project Revitalizing marginal lands: discovery sion and marker-assisted selection) (DPPC2006-67).
of genes for tolerance of saline and phosphorus deficient Sep 2006 – Aug 2009
soils to enhance and sustain productivity (DPPC2004-
26). 30 May 2006 Lao PDR
• Japan International Research Center for Agricultural • Letter of Agreement between IRRI and Mr. Phil Gibson
Sciences (JIRCAS). Letter of Agreement between JIRCAS to write original, graded, and illustrated English
and IRRI for the Generation Challenge Program (GCP)- language curriculum. 13 Dec 2006
funded project Evaluation and deployment of transgenic • National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute
drought-tolerant varieties (DPPC2006-10). 12 Jul 2006 (NAFRI). Letter of Agreement between NAFRI and IRRI
• Overseas Agricultural Development Association (OADA). for the CPWF-funded project Rice landscape manage-
Letter of Agreement between OADA and IRRI for the ment for raising water productivity, conserving
project Carbonized organic matter as soil amendment resources, and improving livelihoods in upper catch-
and for carbon sequestration in rainfed lowland rice ments of the Mekong and Red River basins (DPPC2003-
(DPPC2005-76). 02 Aug 2006 23). 27 Mar 2006

Kenya Mexico
• International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI). Letter • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
of Agreement between ILRI and IRRI for the project ICT- (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
KM Project on Security and Business Continuity the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
(DPPC2005-31). 26 Oct 2006 2006 GCP-commissioned research project Development
• World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF). Letter of Agreement of GenerationCP domain models (DPPC2005-85). 14 Feb
between ICRAF and IRRI for the CPWF-funded project 2006
Rice landscape management for raising water produc- • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
tivity, conserving resources, and improving livelihoods (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
in upper catchments of the Mekong and Red River the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
basins (DPPC2003-23). 12 May 2006 2006 GCP-commissioned research project Application
and development of Web services technology
Korea (DPPC2005-86). 14 Feb 2006
• Gangwon Agricultural Research and Extension Services • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
(GARES). Memorandum of Agreement between GARES (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
and IRRI for the project Major characteristics evalua- the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
tion of early maturing japonica rice (MEJR) 2006 GCP-commissioned research project Developing
(DPPC2006-139). Dec 2006 – Nov 2007 strategies for allele mining within large collections
• National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), Rural (DPPC2005-87). 14 Feb 2006
Development Administration (RDA). Letter of Agree- • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
ment extending the Memorandum of Agreement for (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
Scientific and Technical Collaboration in Research and the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
Training on Temperate Rice between NICS, RDA and 2006 GCP-commissioned Research project Development
IRRI. 20 Sep 2006 – 21 Sep 2011 of an integrated GCP information platform (DPPC2005-
• Rural Development Administration (RDA). Cooperative 88). 14 Feb 2006
Agreement between RDA and IRRI on Germplasm • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
multiplication of rice genetic resources. 11 May 2006 – (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
10 May 2009 the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
2006 GCP-commissioned research project Generation-

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 69


CP data quality improvement and assurance of low-cost gene-based trait assay technologies in
(DPPC2005-89). 14 Feb 2006 cereals (DPPC2006-11). 14 Feb 2006
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI (for the the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
JIRCAS portion) for the 2006 GCP-commissioned 2006 GCP-commissioned research project A dataset on
research project GenerationCP data quality improve- allele diversity at orthologous candidate genes in GCP
ment and assurance (DPPC2005-89). 22 May 2006 crops (DPPC2006-17). 14 Feb 2006
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
2006 GCP-commissioned research project Generation- 2006 GCP-commissioned research project Systematic
CP software engineering and collaboration platform evaluation of rice mutant collections for conditional
(DPPC2005-90). 14 Feb 2006 phenotypes with emphasis on stress tolerance
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (DPPC2006-18). 14 Feb 2006
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
2006 GCP-commissioned research project SNP analysis the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
of the genetic diversity along the rice genome (HAPLO- 2006 GCP-commissioned research project Implementa-
RYZA) (DPPC2005-91). 14 Feb 2006 tion of web services technology in Generation CP
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo Consortium (DPPC2006-19). 14 Feb 2006
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the (CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of
2006 GCP-commissioned research project Creation of the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the
institutional bioinformatics capacity (DPPC2006-07). 2006 GCP-commissioned research project Development
14 Feb 2006 of an integrated decision support system for MAS and
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo MAB (DPPC2006-20). 14 Feb 2006
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the (CIMMYT). Amendment to the Letter of Agreement to
2006 GCP-commissioned research project Development fund GCP 2006-commissioned research for the project
of ortholog-function display tools (DPPC2006-09). 14 Integration of the high-performance computing (HPC)-
Feb 2006 facilities in the GenerationCP toolbox
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo (DPPC2006-65). 14 Jun 2006
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of • Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the (CIMMYT). Amendment to the Letter of Agreement to
2006 GCP-commissioned research project Evaluation fund GCP 2006-commissioned research for the project
and deployment of transgenic drought-tolerant Data analysis support for existing projects in SP2 with
varieties (DPPC2006-10). 14 Feb 2006 emphasis on integrating results across gene expression
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo and QTL mapping experiments (DPPC2006-77). 12 Jul
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of 2006
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI (for the
JIRCAS portion) for the 2006 GCP-commissioned Mozambique
research project Evaluation and deployment of trans- • Memorandum of Agreement between IRRI and the
genic drought-tolerant varieties (DPPC2006-10). 22 Government of the Republic of Mozambique to promote
May 2006 and accelerate research on rice and rice-based farming
• Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo systems and strengthen natural resource management
(CIMMYT). Award letter between CIMMYT (on behalf of research programs (in English and Portuguese versions).
the Generation Challenge Program) and IRRI for the 13 Jan 2006 – 12 Jan 2011
2006 GCP-commissioned research project Development

70 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Myanmar • Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). Letter of
• Department of Agricultural Research (DAR), Ministry of Agreement between NARC and IRRI for the project
Agriculture and Irrigation. Letter of Agreement between Managing rice landscapes in marginal uplands for
IRRI and the DAR for the purpose of implementing household food security and environmental sustainabil-
research with the Consortium for Unfavorable Rice ity (DPPC2003-08). 27 Jun 2006
Environments (CURE). 15 Jun 2006 – 14 Jun 2009 • Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). Letter of
• Myanma Agriculture Service (MAS). Letter of Agree- Agreement extending the collaboration between NARC
ment between MAS and IRRI for the collaborative and IRRI until 30 Sep 2008 for the project Managing
project Development of options to improve labor rice landscapes in marginal uplands for household food
productivity through crop establishment and weed security and environmental sustainability (DPPC2003-
management in Myanmar, a research activity in 08). 17 Jul 2006
support of the Irrigated Rice Consortium Country • Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). Letter of
Outreach Program (ICOP) - Myanmar (DPPC2004-30). Agreement between NARC and IRRI for the ADB-funded
16 Dec 2006 project Development and dissemination of water-saving
• Myanma Agriculture Service (MAS). Memorandum of rice technologies in South Asia (DPPC2005-38). 11 Jul
Agreement between MAS and IRRI for collaboration on 2006
Development and promotion of the Irrigated Rice • Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). Letter of
Research Consortium (IRRC) technologies in rice Agreement between NARC and IRRI for the project
production (DPPC2004-30). 29 Jun 2006 – 31 Dec 2008 Long-term experiment on evaluation of alternative
• Myanma Agriculture Service (MAS). Letter of Agree- tillage and crop establishment methods on productivity,
ment between MAS and IRRI for the collaborative water use, and economics of rice-wheat system in
project Development and promotion of the Irrigated Bhairahawa, Nepal (DPPC2006-123). 07 Nov 2006
Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) technologies in rice
production, a research activity in support of the Netherlands
Irrigated Rice Research Consortium Country Outreach • Nunhems B.V. Project Agreement between Nunhems B.V.
Program (ICOP)- Myanmar (DPPC2004-30). 10 Mar and IRRI for the project Further development of ICIS in
2006 collaboration with Nunhems -Phase II (DPPC2006-35).
14 Mar 2006
Nepal • Nunhems B.V. Restricted Area Access Letter between
• Institute of Agricultural and Animal Science (IAAS), Nunhems B.V. and IRRI for the project Further develop-
Tribhuvan University (TU). Letter of Agreement between ment of ICIS in collaboration with Nunhems -Phase II
IAAS and IRRI for the project Managing rice land- (DPPC2006-35). 13 Dec 2006
scapes in marginal uplands for household food security
and environmental sustainability (DPPC2003-08). 27 Pakistan
Jun 2006 • Pakistan Agricultural Research Council (PARC). Letter
• Institute of Agricultural and Animal Science (IAAS), of Agreement between PARC and IRRI for the ADB-
Tribhuvan University (TU). Letter of Agreement funded project Development and dissemination of
extending the collaboration between IAAS and IRRI water-saving rice technologies in South Asia
until 30 Sep 2008 for the project Managing rice (DPPC2005-38). 13 Jun 2006
landscapes in marginal uplands for household food
security and environmental sustainability (DPPC2003- Peru
08). 17 Jul 2006 • International Potato Center (CIP). Letter of Agreement
• Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). Letter of between CIP and IRRI for the 2006 GCP-commissioned
Agreement extending the MOU for Scientific and research project GenerationCP data quality improve-
Technical Cooperation in Research and Training on Rice ment and assurance (DPPC2005-89). 08 Sep 2006
between NARC and IRRI. 10 Mar 2006 – 09 Mar 2011
• Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC). Executive Philippines
Agreement between NARC and IRRI for the Nepal-IRRI • Asian Development Bank (ADB). Technical Assistance
Workplan for 2006-2008. 10 Mar 2006 – 31 Dec 2008 Agreement between ADB and IRRI for the project

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 71


Development and dissemination of water-saving rice of GUVA elite lines in the tropics (DPPC2006-39). 28
technologies in South Asia (DPPC2005-38). 01 Jan 2006 Mar 2006
– 31 Dec 2008 • Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). Memoran-
• Bureau of Agricultural Research (BAR), Department of dum of Agreement between PhilRice and IRRI for the
Agriculture (DA) and Philippine Rice Research Institute collaborative project Marker-based approaches for the
(PhilRice). Memorandum of Agreement among BAR-DA, improvement of resistance to rice blast disease in elite
PhilRice and IRRI relative to the project Improving lines for transplanted irrigated lowland, direct seeded
knowledge exchange and decisionmaking among rice and rainfed lowland areas, a project under the frame-
stakeholders through ICT-based technology promotion work of Asian Rice Biotechnology Network, with the
and delivery systems (DPPC2005-27). 29 Dec 2005 primary objective of applying biotechnology research to
• Diliman Computer Science Foundation, Inc. (DCSFI). produce cultivars and elite lines useful to farmers
Letter of Agreement between DCSFI and IRRI 2006 (DPPC2006-54). 05 Jun 2006 – 04 Jun 2009
GCP-commissioned research project Development of • Philippine Rice Production Consortium (PRPC).
GenerationCP domain models (DPPC2005-85). 24 Apr Memorandum of Agreement between PRPC and IRRI to
2006 collaborate in the area of postproduction research and
• Diliman Computer Science Foundation, Inc. (DCSFI). development, training, and extension to enhance the
Letter of Agreement between DCSFI and IRRI 2006 development of the Philippine rice postproduction
GCP-commissioned research project Application and industry. 19 Jul 2006 – 18 Jul 2011
development of Web services technology (DPPC2005- • Provincial Government of Laguna (PGL). Memorandum
86). 24 Apr 2006 of Agreement between PGL and IRRI for the DA/BAR-
• Infanta Integrated Community Development Assistance, funded project Improving knowledge exchange and
Inc. (ICDAI). Memorandum of Agreement between decisionmaking among rice stakeholders through ICT-
ICDAI and IRRI for the DA/BAR-funded project based technology promotion and delivery systems
Improving knowledge exchange and decisionmaking (DPPC2005-27). 05 May 2006
among rice stakeholders through ICT-based technology • Southeast Asian Regional Center for Graduate Study and
promotion and delivery systems (DPPC2005-27). 05 Research in Agriculture (SEARCA). Memorandum of Un-
May 2006 derstanding for institutional cooperation between
• Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). Memoran- SEARCA and IRRI. 06 Dec 2006 – 05 Dec 2011
dum of Agreement between PhilRice and IRRI for • University of the Philippines Los Baños Foundation, Inc.
continuing the collaboration under the framework of the (UPLBFI). Amendment No. 2 to the Memorandum of
Asian Rice Biotechnology Network, with the primary Agreement between UPLBFI and IRRI extending the
objective of applying biotechnology research to produce project Enhanced ASL LIMS development package until
cultivars and elite lines useful to farmers. 05 Jun 2006 – 31 July 2006 (DPPC2005-61).
04 Jun 2009 • University of Southern Mindanao (USM). Letter of
• Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). Letter of Agreement between USM and IRRI for the project
Agreement between PhilRice and IRRI regarding Ecologically based participatory IPM for Southeast Asia
additional funds for the wrap-up activities of the project (DPPC2005-73). 26 May 2006
Assessing the impact of potential trade liberalization of
the Philippine rice sector (DPPC2001-48). 22 Aug 2006 Sri Lanka
• Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). Letter of • International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
Agreement between PhilRice and IRRI for the collabora- Letter of Agreement between IWMI and IRRI for the
tive project Development and promotion of the Irrigated provision of funds for the implementation of the activity
Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) technologies in rice titled Theme 1 Leadership to be carried out under the
production, a research activity in support of the Challenge Program on Water and Food 2006 (Year 3)
Irrigated Rice Research Consortium Country Outreach (DPPC2003-87). 01 Jan 2006 – 31 Dec 2006
Program (ICOP) (DPPC2004-30). 09 May 2006 • International Water Management Institute (IWMI).
• Philippine Rice Research Institute (PhilRice). Letter of Letter of Agreement between IWMI and IRRI for the
Agreement between PhilRice and IRRI for the collabora- ICT-KM Project on Security and Business Continuity
tive project Field performance evaluation and selection (DPPC2005-31). 15 May 2006

72 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


• International Water Management Institute (IWMI). Sub- information technology (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36).
contract Agreement between IWMI and IRRI for the 09 May 2006
ADB-funded project Development and dissemination of • Rice Research Institute (RRI), Khon Kaen University
water-saving rice technologies in South Asia (KKU), and Chamnien Saranaga Foundation (CSF).
(DPPC2005-38). 02 Aug 2006 Memorandum of Agreement among IRRI, RRI, KKU,
• Rice Research and Development Institute (RRDI). Letter and CSF on the implementation of Linking extension and
of Agreement between RRDI and IRRI for the collabora- research needs through information technology
tive project Development of direct seeding and weed (LEARN-IT) project in Thailand (DPPC2002-36). 04
management options, a project under the Irrigated Rice May 2006
Research Consortium, Phase 3 – Weed Ecology Working • Ubon Ratchathani Rice Research Center (URRRC).
Group (DPPC2004-30). 13 Nov 2006 Letter of Agreement between URRRC and IRRI for the
CPWF-funded project Developing a system of temperate
Switzerland and tropical aerobic rice (STAR) (DPPC2003-24). 04
• Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). Sep 2006
Amendment to the Agreement between SDC and IRRI • Ubon Ratchathani Rice Research Center (URRRC).
extending the period of the project Lao PDR Rice Letter of Agreement between URRRC and IRRI for the
Biodiversity Project, Phase 2 until 30 Sep 2006 project Carbonized organic matter as soil amendment
(DPPC2002-12). 20 Mar 2006 and for carbon sequestration in rainfed lowland rice
• Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). (DPPC2005-76). 20 Dec 2006
Amendment to the Agreement between SDC and IRRI
extending the period of the project Lao PDR-IRRI Rice USA
Research and Training Project, Phase V until 30 Sep • Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF). Indemnifi-
2006 (DPPC2003-06). 27 Mar 2006 cation Agreement between IRRI and BMFG relative to
• Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC). the Grand Challenges in Global Health Project entitled
Agreement between the Government of Switzerland and Engineering rice for high beta-carotene, vitamin E and
IRRI concerning Lao PDR-IRRI Rice Research and enhanced iron and zinc bioavailability. 19 Jan 2006
Training Project (LIRRTP), transition phase • Clemson University. Subaward Modification No. 1
(DPPC2006-100). 01 Oct 2006 – 30 Sep 2007 between Clemson University and IRRI for the project
Ecologically based participatory IPM for Southeast Asia
Thailand (DPPC2005-73) extending the award until 30 Sep 2007
• Chamnien Saranaga Foundation (CSF). Letter of and increasing the award amount.
Agreement between CSF and IRRI for the ADB-funded • Pennsylvania State University (PSU). Letter of Agree-
project Improving poor farmers’ livelihoods through ment between PSU and IRRI extending the collaboration
rice information technology (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002- on the project Functional analysis of drought-associated
36). 09 May 2006 regulatory genes and high-throughput RNA interference
• Chiang Mai University (CMU). Letter of Agreement in rice, a project under the USAID Linkage Program
between CMU and IRRI for the CPWF-funded project (DPPC2004-56). 01 Jun 2006 – 31 May 2007
Rice landscape management for raising water produc- • Perlegen Sciences, Inc. (PSI). Agreement between PSI
tivity, conserving resources, and improving livelihoods and IRRI extending the collaborative project Sequencing
in upper catchments of the Mekong and Red River multiple and diverse rice varieties: connecting whole-
basins (DPPC2003-23). 08 Feb 2006 genome variation with phenotype (under GCP subpro-
• Department of Rice, Thailand. Letter of Agreement grams 1, 2, and 3) until 31 Dec 2007 (DPPC2005-15). 01
between the Department of Rice, Thailand and IRRI for Aug 2006
the ADB-funded project Improving poor farmers’ • Regents of the University of California, Riverside (UCR).
livelihoods through rice information technology Letter of Agreement between UCR and IRRI extending
(LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). 09 May 2006 the collaboration on the project Genomic comparisons
• Khon Kaen University (KKU). Letter of Agreement between barley and rice in relation to salt adaptation
between KKU and IRRI for the ADB-funded project and heritable salt tolerance, a project under the USAID
Improving poor farmers’ livelihoods through rice Linkage Program (DPPC2004-55). 01 Jun 2006 – 31 May
2007

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 73


• Research Corporation of the University of Hawaii • Hanoi Agricultural University (HAU). Letter of Agree-
(RCUH). Subgrant Amendment No. 4 between RCUH ment between IRRI and HAU for the project Improving
and IRRI relative to the increase in the funding level of poor farmers’ livelihoods through rice information
the USAID-funded project Testing, comparing, and technology (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). 21 Jun 2006
adapting NuMass: the nutrient management support • Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
system (DPPC2003-72). 25 Oct 2006 (MARD)-Vietnam Academy of Agricultural Sciences
• University of California. Subagreement No. SA5244 (VAAS), An Giang University (AGU), Hanoi Agricultural
between the Regents of the University of California, University (HAU), World Vision-Vietnam (WV-V), and
Berkeley and IRRI for the BioGeomancer (BG) project the National Agricultural Extension Center (NAEC).
(collaboration of biodiversity and geospatial data Memorandum of Agreement among IRRI, MARD-VAAS,
experts) (DPPC2006-36). 15 May 2006 – 01 Mar 2007 AGU, HAU, WV-V, and NAEC on the implementation of
• University of Maine (UMaine). Memorandum of Linking extension and research needs through informa-
Agreement between the University of Maine acting on tion technology (LEARN-IT) project in Vietnam
behalf of the University of Maine System (UMS) and (DPPC2002-36). 01 Aug 2006 – 30 Sep 2009
IRRI for the USDA-funded project Cold stress response • National Agricultural Extension Center (NAEC). Letter
gene regulon in rice (DPPC2005-32). 01 Jun 2006 – 31 of Agreement between IRRI and NAEC for the project
May 2009 Improving poor farmers’ livelihoods through rice
• University of Washington. Modification No. 1 to the information technology (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36).
University of Washington subcontract no. 847484 on the 21 Jun 2006
new termination date of the subcontract which is 31 Aug • Nong-Lam University (NLU). Letter of Agreement
2006 for the USDA-funded project Tilling and ecotilling extending the collaboration between NLU and IRRI for
resources for japonica and indica rice (DPPC2003-50). the purpose of implementing the research activities of
• United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). the project Rice postharvest systems development, a
Specific Cooperative Agreement between USDA and project under the Irrigated Rice Research Consortium
IRRI for the project Enabling open access to IRRI- (IRRC) Phase 3 (DPPC2004-30). 01 Sep 2006
assisted theses and dissertations (DPPC2006-72). 13 • Plant Protection Department (PPD), Ministry of
Sep 2006 Agriculture and Rural Development. Letter of Agreement
between IRRI and PPD for the project Using entertain-
Vietnam ment-education (EE) approach to motivate rice farmers
• An Giang University (AGU). Letter of Agreement to reduce pesticide use in the Mekong Basin
between IRRI and AGU for the project Improving poor (DPPC2002-30). 06 Apr 2006
farmers’ livelihoods through rice information technol- • Plant Protection Department (PPD). Memorandum of
ogy (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). 21 Jun 2006 Agreement between PPD and IRRI for cooperation on
• An Giang University (AGU). Letter of Agreement water management research, training, and extension
between IRRI and AGU for the project Economic impact (DPPC2004-30). 11 Oct 2006 – 31 Dec 2008
assessment of the Three Reductions-Three Gains project • Plant Protection Department (PPD). Letter of Agreement
in South Vietnam (DPPC2006-66). 27 Jun 2006 between PPD and IRRI for the collaborative project
• Bac Lieu Department of Agricultural and Rural Develop- Environmental radio soap opera for rural Vietnam
ment (BLDARD). Letter of Agreement between BLDARD (DPPC2005-18). 01 Jan 2006 – 31 Dec 2008
and IRRI for the collaborative project Rice postharvest • Plant Protection Department (PPD). Letter of Agreement
systems development, Vietnam, a project under the between PPD and IRRI for the collaborative project
Irrigated Rice Research Consortium (IRRC) Phase 3 Evaluating the adoption of “Three Reductions, Three
(DPPC2004-30). 08 Sep 2006 Gains” practices in the Mekong Basin (DPPC2006-102).
• Cuu Long Delta Rice Research Institute (CLRRI). Letter 06 Oct 2006
of Agreement between IRRI and CLRRI for the project • Southern Plant Protection Center (SPPC). Letter of
Breeding for iron-dense rice: a low-cost, sustainable Agreement between SPPC and IRRI for the collaborative
approach to reduce anemia in Asia (DPPC2005-25). 05 project Environmental radio soap opera for rural
Jan 2006 Vietnam (DPPC2005-18). 01 Jan 2006 – 31 Dec 2008

74 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


• Thai Nguyen University of Economics and Business (AEU:5:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’
Administration (TUEBA). Letter of Agreement between livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002-
TUEBA and IRRI for the CPWF-funded project Rice 37). 04 Apr 2006
landscape management for raising water productivity, • Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post
conserving resources, and improving livelihoods in Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP
upper catchments of the Mekong and Red River basins and IRRI to collaborate with Mr. Nguyen The Truong
(DPPC2003-23). 03 Mar 2006 (AEU:4:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’
• Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002-
Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP 37). 04 Apr 2006
and IRRI to collaborate with Mr. Nguyen Van Con • Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post
(AEU:9:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’ Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP
livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002- and IRRI to collaborate with Mr. Vu Cong Khanh
37). 04 Apr 2006 (AEU:3:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’
• Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002-
Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP 37). 04 Apr 2006
and IRRI to collaborate with Ms. Hoang Thi Tuat • Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post
(AEU:1:2006-V) on the project Improving poor farmers’ Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP
livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002- and IRRI to collaborate with Mr. Tran Phuong Nga
37). 04 Apr 2006 (AEU:2:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’
• Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002-
Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP 37). 04 Apr 2006
and IRRI to collaborate with Mr. Nguyen The Truong • Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute (VASI). Letter of
(AEU:8:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’ Agreement between VASI and IRRI for the project
livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002- Managing rice landscapes in marginal uplands for
37). 04 Apr 2006 household food security and environmental sustainabil-
• Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post ity (DPPC2003-08). 10 Jul 2006
Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP • Vietnamese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (VAAS),
and IRRI to collaborate with Mr. Vu Cong Khanh Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development
(AEU:7:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’ (MARD). Letter of Agreement between IRRI and VAAS-
livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002- MARD for the project Improving poor farmers’ liveli-
37). 04 Apr 2006 hoods through rice information technology (LEARN-IT)
• Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post (DPPC2002-36). 21 Jun 2006
Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP • Voice of Ho Chi Minh (VOH). Letter of Agreement
and IRRI to collaborate with Dr. Tran Thi Mai between VOH and IRRI for the collaborative project
(AEU:6:2006:V) on the project Improving poor farmers’ Environmental radio soap opera for rural Vietnam
livelihoods through postharvest technology (DPPC2002- (DPPC2005-18). 27 Mar 2006
37). 04 Apr 2006 • World Vision-Vietnam (WVV). Letter of Agreement
• Vietnam Institute of Agricultural Engineering and Post between IRRI and WVV for the project Improving poor
Harvest (VIAEP). Letter of Agreement between VIAEP farmers’ livelihoods through rice information technol-
and IRRI to collaborate with Mr. Nguyen Van Con ogy (LEARN-IT) (DPPC2002-36). 21 Jun 2006

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 75


Honors, awards, and appointments
for IRS, NRS, and BOT in 2006

Adelaida A. Alcantara, Roniela H. Prantilla, Ma. • Received an Achievement Award for his notable achieve-
Corina Habito, Flora de Guzman, Thomas Metz, ments in research on soil and nutrient management and
and Nigel Ruaraidh Sackville Hamilton, PBGB in actively collaborating with soil scientists from Asian
• Won the Best Poster Extension (Education Category), and African countries, particularly the Philippines, 9th
Management of the world’s largest rice collection Annual Meeting and Scientific Symposium, Philippine
through information technology, 36th Conference, Crop Society of Soil Science and Technology, June.
Science Society of the Philippines Palawan, May.
Maria Gay C. Carillo, PhD research scholar, PBGB
Adam Barclay, international research fellow, CPS • Awarded as one of five student speakers, 6th I. E. Melhus
• Won a Gold Award (1st place) in writing (Magazine Graduate Student Symposium. She presented Integrat-
Category), Dreams beyond drought, Association for ing phenotypic, molecular, and in silico approaches for
Communications Excellence Annual International quantitative resistance to rice blast, 98th Annual
Meeting, Quebec, Canada, June. Meeting, American Phytopathological Society, Quebec
City, Canada, July.
• Won first prize, Direct success, 2006 CGIAR photo
competition, Washington, D.C., USA, December. Gelia T. Castillo, national scientist/IRRI consultant
• Conferred with a Doctor of Science (Rural Sociology,
L.M. Borines (Leyte State University), S.A. Ordoñez
honoris causa) for outstanding contributions as a rural
(PhilRice), M.P. Natural (UPLB), B.W. Porter
sociologist and first social scientist to raise the level of
(Kansas State University), F. White (KSU), C.M.
research as a tool for development studies, De La Salle
Vera Cruz (IRRI), H. Leung (IRRI), and E.D.
University, Manila, June.
Redoña (PhilRice)
• Won the Best Paper Award (Upstream Category), K.L. Heong, deputy division head, CESD
Development of bacterial blight-resistant hybrid rice • Appointed adjunct professor, Fujian Agriculture and
parental lines through bi-directional marker-aided Forestry University, China, August.
selection, 36th Conference, Crop Science Society of the • Named recipient of the Third World Academy of Science
Philippines, Palawan, May. (TWAS) Prize in Agricultural Sciences 2006, TWAS 10th
General Conference, Brazil, September.
Darshan Brar, senior scientist, PBGB
• Named Fellow and Honorary Fellow of the National IRRI
Academy of Agricultural Sciences and Punjab Academy • Named among CIO 100 Honorees for 2006 as one of
of Sciences, India, 9th Punjab Science Congress, Suman, Asia’s top strategic users of IT, CIO Asia, April.
India, February.
IRRI Emergency Brigade
Roland Buresh, soil scientist, CESD • Received a commendation for quick response to a
• Presented with a merit medal for his long-term efforts in dormitory fire on 5 February, Municipal Government of
support of Vietnamese agriculture and rural develop- Los Baños, Laguna, Philippines, March.
ment, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, • Received the IRRI Award for Outstanding Support of
Vietnam, August. IRRI’s Mission, NRS Awards Ceremony, April.

76 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Ariel Javellana, officer-photography, CPS scientific paper, Rice biofortification as a viable ap-
• Won third prize, Reflection of a farmer transplanting proach towards improved human nutrition, July.
HYVs on a paddy field, 2006 CGIAR photo competition,
William G. Padolina, deputy director general for
Washington, D.C., USA, December
Operations and Support Services
Gurdev Khush, former principal plant breeder • Named editor-in-chief of the Philippine Journal of
• Conferred an honorary degree of Doctor of Science Science, a technical journal on natural sciences,
(honoris causa), Ohio State University, USA, March. engineering, mathematics, and social sciences accredited
by the Institute for Scientific Information and managed
Tanguy Lafarge, Crisanta S. Bueno, and Estela
by the Science and Technology Information Institute of
Pasuquin, CESD
the Philippine Department of Science and Technology,
• Won the Best Poster Award in the Plant Traits and
July.
Physiology of Crop Adaptation Session, International
Workshop on Gene-Plant-Crop Relations, Scale, and Florencia Palis, postdoctoral fellow, EPPD
Complexity in Plant Systems Research, Wageningen • Received the Director General’s Award for Outstanding
University, The Netherlands, April. Scientific Achievement for her independent ethnographic
research that encompassed many community settings
Jan E. Leach, IRRI adjunct scientist, Colorado State
and IRRI projects, including her research for the
University
advancement of knowledge, April.
• Took over as president of the American Phytopathologi-
• Received the Best Paper Award for The social and
cal Society for 2006-07, July.
cultural dimensions of rodent pest management, 3rd
Hei Leung, senior scientist, EPPD International Conference on Rodent Biology and
• Recognized as Fellow of the American Association for the Management, Vietnam, August.
Advancement of Science (AAAS), Fellows Forum, Annual
Mirasol Pampolino, Roland Buresh, and Efren
Meeting of the AAAS, St. Louis, USA, February.
Laureles (IRRI), and H.C. Gines (PhilRice)
David Mackill, head, PBGB • Received the Best Paper Award, Long-term dynamics of
• Named Honorary Fellow, Crop Science Society of the soil carbon and nitrogen in lowland rice cropping
Philippines (CSSP), for his contributions to the rice systems, 9th Annual Meeting and Scientific Symposium,
varietal improvement programs in the Philippines and Philippine Society of Soil Science and Technology, June.
other rice-growing countries, 36th Conference, Crop
Mila Ramos, head, LDS
Science Society of the Philippines, Palawan, May.
• Received the Outstanding Academic/Research Librarian
of the Year Award for 2005, 33rd Annual General
A. Colin McClung (former associate director, IRRI)
Assembly, Philippine Association of Academic and
• Received the 2006 World Food Prize for his contribution
Research Librarians, Manila, January.
to the significant increase in the quality, quantity, or
availability of food in the world, U.S. State Department, Guo-Liang Wang, former IRRI scholar
June. • Received the Syngenta Award for outstanding contribu-
tion to teaching, research, or extension in plant pathol-
Angelita M. del Mundo and Angelina dR. Felix
ogy, 98th Annual Meeting of the American Phytopatho-
(UPLB), Glenn B. Gregorio, Dante L. Adorada, and
logical Society, Quebec City, Canada, July.
Cristina B. Sison (IRRI), Jere D. Haas (Cornell
University), and John L. Beard and Laura Negussie Shoatatek Zenna, PhD scholar, EPPD
E. Murray Kolb (Pennsylvania State University, USA) • Conferred lifetime membership by the Gamma Sigma
• Won the Philippine Agriculture and Resources Research Delta Honor Society of Agriculture for his outstanding
Foundation, Inc. R&D Award under the 2006 Los Baños academic achievement and his continued interest in
Science Community Foundation, Inc. R&D Award for advancing agriculture and allied disciplines, University
Agriculture and Forestry (research category) for the of the Philippines, March.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 77


Publications and seminars in 2006

Journal articles (refereed)


Alam MJ, Saha SB, Islam ML, Tuong TP. 2006. Potential of Arumugam K, Lafitte HR, Chen J, Mansueto L, Bruskiewich
rice-fish integration in south-west coastal environment R, Bennett J. 2006. Gene expression microarrays and
of Bangladesh. Progr. Agric. 17(1):189-199. their application in drought stress research. Field Crops
Alam MM, Ladha JK, Foyjunnessa S, Rahman Khan S, Res. 97:101-110.
Harun-ur-Rashid, Khan AH, Buresh RJ. 2006. Nutrient Atlin GN, Lafitte HR, Tao D, Laza M, Amante M, Courtois B.
management for increased productivity of rice-wheat 2006. Developing rice cultivars for high-fertility upland
cropping system in Bangladesh. Field Crops Res. 96:374-386. systems in the Asian tropics. Field Crops Res. 97:43-55.
Ali AJ, Xu JL, Ismail AM, Fu BY, Vijaykumar CHM, Gao Baisakh N, Rehana S, Rai M, Oliva N, Tan J, Mackill DJ,
YM, Domingo J, Maghirang R, Yu SB, Gregorio GB, Khush GS, Datta K, Datta SK. 2006. Marker-free
Yanagihara S, Cohen M. 2006. Hidden diversity for transgenic (MFT) near-isogenic introgression lines
abiotic and biotic stress tolerances in the primary gene (NIILs) of ‘golden’ indica rice (cv. IR64) with accumula-
pool of rice revealed by a large backcross breeding tion of provitamin A in the endosperm tissue. Plant
program. Field Crops Res. 97:66-76. Biotechnol. J. 4:467-475.
Ali MA, Ladha JK, Rickman J, Lales JS. 2006. Comparison Banik P, Midya A, Fajardo S, Kam SP. 2006. Natural
of different methods of rice establishment and nitrogen resource inventory of Luppi Village, Eastern Plateau of
management strategies for lowland rice. J. Crop Improv. India: implications for sustainable agricultural develop-
16:171-187. ment. J. Sustainable Agric. 28:85-100.
Ammiraju JSS, Luo N, Coicoechea JL, Wang W, Kudrna D, Bhandari H, Pandey S. 2006. Economics of groundwater
Mueller C, Talag J, Kim H, Sisneros NB, Blackmon B, irrigation in Nepal: some farm-level evidences. J. Agric.
Fang E, Tomkins J, Brar DS, Mackill DJ, McCouch S, Appl. Econ. 38(1):185-199.
Kurata N, Lambert G, Galbraith DW, Arumuganathan K, Bonman JM, Bockelman HE, Goates BJ, Obert DE, McGuire
Rao K, Walling JG, Gill N, Yu Y, San Miguel P, Soderlund PE, Qualset CO, Hijmans RJ. 2006. Geographic distribu-
C, Jackson S, Wing RA. 2006. The Oryza bacterial tion of common and dwarf bunt resistance in landraces
artificial chromosome library resource: construction and of Triticum aestivum subsp. aestivum. Crop Sci. 46:
analysis of 12 deep-coverage large-insect BAC libraries 1622-1629.
that represent the 10 genome types of the genus Oryza. Bouman BAM, van Laar HH. 2006. Description and
Genome Res. 16:140-147. evaluation of the rice growth model ORYZA2000 under
Andrade D, Ghislain M, Rodriguez F, Hijmans RJ, Spooner nitrogen-limited conditions. Agric. Syst. 87:249-273.
DM. 2006. Genetic analysis of the cultivated potato Bouman BAM, Yang Xiaoguang, Wang Huaqi, Wang Zhimin,
Solanum tuberosum L. Phureja Group using RAPDs and Zhao Junfang, Chen Bin. 2006. Performance of aerobic
nuclear SSRs. Theor. Appl. Genet. 113: 1515-1527. rice varieties under irrigated conditions in North China.
Angeles OR, Johnson SE, Buresh RJ. 2006. Soil solution Field Crops Res. 97:53-65.
sampling method comparison for organic acid studies in Brown PR, Tuan NP, Singleton GR, Ha PTT, Hao PT, Tan TQ,
rice paddy soils. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:48-56. Tuat NV, Jacobs J, Müller WJ. 2006. Ecologically based
management of rodents in the real world: applied to a

78 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


mixed agroecosystem in Vietnam. Ecol. Appl. 16:2000- Crossa J, Burgueño J, Cornelius PL, McLaren G, Trethowan
2010. R, Krishnamachari A. 2006. Modeling genotype ×
Bruskiewich R, Davenport G, Hazekamp T, Metz T, Ruiz M, environment interaction using additive genetic covari-
Simon R, Takeya M, Lee J, Senger M, McLaren G, Van ances of relatives for predicting breeding values of wheat
Hintum T. 2006. The Generation Challenge Programme genotypes. Crop Sci. 46:1722-1733.
(GCP)-standards for crop data. OMICS J. Integr. Biol. Datta K, Rai M, Parkhi V, Oliva N, Tan J, Datta SK. 2006.
10(2):215-219. Improved ‘golden’ indica rice and post-transgeneration
Castillo EG, Tuong TP, Sing U, Inubushi K, Padilla J. 2006. enhancement of metabolic target products of carotenoids
Drought response of dry-seeded rice to water stress (ß carotene) in transgenic elite cultivars (IR64 and
timing, N fertilizer rates, and source. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. BR29). Curr. Sci. 91(7):935-939.
52:496-508. Dela Paz MAG, Goodwin PH, Raymundo AK, Ardales EY,
Chaitra J, Vinod MS, Sharma N, Hittalmani S, Shashidhar Vera Cruz CM. 2006. Phylogenetic analysis based on ITS
HE. 2006. Validation of markers linked to maximum sequences and conditions affecting the type of conidial
root length in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Curr. Sci. 90:835-838. germination of Bipolaris oryzae. Plant Pathol. 55:756-765.
Chancellor TCB, Holt J, Villareal S, Tiongco ER. Venn J. El Kaoua M, Serraj R, Benichou M, Hsissou D. 2006.
2006. Spread of plant virus disease to new plantings: a Comparative sensitivity of two Moroccan wheat varieties
case study of rice tungro disease. Adv. Virus Res. 66:1-29. to water stress: the relationship between fatty acids and
Chen M, Ye GY, Liu ZC, Yao HW, Chen XX, Shen SZ, Hu C, proline accumulation. Bot. Stud. 47(1):51-60.
Datta SK. 2006. Field assessment of the effects of Ella ES, Ismail AM. 2006. Seedling nutrient status before
transgenic rice expressing a fused gene of cry1Ab and submergence affects survival after submergence in rice.
cry1Ac from Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner on nontarget Crop Sci 46:1673-1681.
planthopper and leafhopper populations. Environ. Feng Yue-hua, Zou Ying-bin, Buresh RJ, Li He-song, Gao Yu,
Entomol. 35(1):127-134. Zu Gui-ling, Wang Shu-hong, Ao He-jun. 2006. Effects of
Chen YH, Romena A. 2006. Feeding patterns of Scirpopha- different tillage system on the root properties and the
ga incertulas (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) on wild and yield in hybrid rice [in Chinese]. Sci. Agric. Sin. 39
cultivated rice during the booting stage. Environ. (4):693-701.
Entomol. 35(4):1094-1102. Feng Yue-hua, Zou Ying-bin, Buresh RJ, Xu Gui-ling, Ao He-
Choi HC, Kim YG, Hong HC, Hwang HG, Ahn SN, Han SS, jun, Wang Shu-hong. 2006. Effects of no-tillage and
Ryu JD, Moon HP. 2006. Development of blast-resistant direct broadcasting on soil physical and chemical proper-
rice multiline cultivars and their stability to blast ties and growth and yield formation in hybrid rice [in
resistance and yield performance. Korean J. Breed. Chinese]. Acta Agron. Sin. 32 (11):1728-1736.
38(2):83-89. Fukuta Y, Yanoria MJT, Ohsawa R, Kobayashi N. 2006.
Chu ZH, Fu BY, Yang H, Xu CG, Li ZK, Sanchez A, Park YJ, Diversity of blast resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Bennetzen JL, Zhang QF, Wang SP. 2006. Targeting Breed. Res. 8(1):241.
xa13, a recessive gene for bacterial blight resistance in Fukuta Y, Yanoria MJT, Ohsawa R, Kobayashi N. 2006.
rice. Theor. Appl. Genet. 112(3):455-461. Geographical differentiation of resistance to blast
Chu ZH, Yuan M, Yao J, Ge X, Yuan B, Xu C, Li X, Fu B, Li Z, disease (Pyricularia grisea Sacc.) in rice (Oryza sativa
Bennetzen JL, Zhang Q, Wang S. 2006. Promoter L.). Jpn. J. Trop. Agric. 50(1):27-28.
mutations of an essential gene for pollen development Guralnick RP, Wieczorek J, Beaman R, Hijmans RJ. 2006.
result in disease resistance in rice. Genes Dev. 20:1250- BioGeomancer: automated georeferencing to map the
1255. world’s biodiversity data. PLoS Biol. 4:1908-1909.
Collard BCY, Thomson MJ, Penarubia M, Lu X, Heuer S, Haefele SM, Naklang K, Harnpichitvitaya D, Jearakongman
Wissuwa M, Mackill DJ, Ismail AM. 2006. SSR analysis S, Skulkhu E, Romyen P, Phasopa S, Tabtim S, Suriya-
of rice near-isogenic lines (NILs) for P-deficiency arunroj D, Khunthasuvon S, Kraisorakul D, Youngsuk P,
tolerance. SABRAO J. Breed. Genet. 38:131-138. Amarante ST, Wade LJ. 2006. Factors affecting rice yield
Conn PB, Arthur AD, Bailey LL, Singleton GR. 2006. and fertilizer response in rainfed lowlands of northeast
Estimating the abundance of mouse populations of Thailand. Field Crops Res. 98:39-51.
known size: promises and pitfalls of new methods. Ecol. Harimansis A, Yanoria MJT, Kobayashi N, Fukuta Y. 2006.
Appl. 16(2):829-837. Chromosome components of universal differential

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 79


varieties for rice blast resistance bred in IRRI. Breed. Jian-Long Xu, Ye-Qing Sun, Jun-Ming Wang, Li-Jun Wei,
Res. 8(2):258. Zhi-Kang Li. 2006. Heavy genetic load associated with
Hijmans RJ, Graham CH. 2006. Testing the ability of the subspecific differentiation of japonica rice (Oryza
climate envelope models to predict the effect of climate sativa ssp. japonica L.). J. Exp. Bot. 57:2815-2824.
change on species distributions. Global Change Biol. Jin H, Tan G, Brar DS, Tang M, Li G, Zhu L, He G. 2006.
12:2272-2282. Molecular and cytogenetic characterization of an Oryza
Ho NH, Baisakh N, Oliva N, Datta K, Frutos R, Datta SK. officinalis - O. sativa chromosome 4 addition line and its
2006. Translational fusion hybrid Bt genes confer progenies. Plant Mol. Biol. 62:769-777.
resistance against yellow stem borer in transgenic elite Johnson SE, Angeles OR, Brar DS, Buresh RJ. 2006. Faster
Vietnamese rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars. Crop Sci. anaerobic decomposition of a brittle straw rice mutant:
46(2):781-789. implications for residue management. Soil Biol. Biochem.
Hoffland E, Wei CZ, Wissuwa M. 2006. Organic anion 38:1880-1892.
exudation by lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) at zinc and Joshi G, Pandey S. 2006. Farmers’ perceptions and adoption
phosphorus deficiency. Plant Soil 283(1/2):155-162. of modern rice varieties in Nepal. Q. J. Int. Agric. 45:171-
Hossain M, Bose ML, Mustafi BAA. 2006. Adoption and 186.
productivity impact of modern rice varieties in Bangla- Kajisa K, Palanichamy NV. 2006. Income dynamics in Tamil
desh. Dev. Econ. 44(2):149-166. Nadu, India from 1971 to 2003: changing roles of land
Ishikawa R, Chiba Y, Kawasaki K, Kobayashi N, Fukuta Y. and human capital. Agric. Econ. 35:437-448.
2006. Genetic analysis of mutable indica strains Kashiwagi JW, Krishnamurthy L, Crouch JH, Serraj R.
originated from IR24: a new mutant derivative for root 2006. Variability of root length density and its contribu-
formation. Breed. Res. 8(2):135. tions to seed yield in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) under
Ishikawa R, Yamanaka S, Fukuta Y, Chitrakon S, Boun- terminal drought stress. Field Crops Res. 95:171-181.
phanausay C, Kanyavong K, Tang L-H, Nakamura I, Sato Kathiresan A, Lafitte R, Chen J, Mansueto L, Bruskiewich R,
T, Sato Y-I. 2006. Genetic erosion from modern varieties Bennett J. 2006. Gene expression microarrays and their
into traditional upland rice cultivars (Oryza sativa L.) in application in drought stress research. Field Crops Res.
northern Thailand. Genet. Resour. Crop Evol. 53: 245- 97:101-110.
252. Kawano N, Kobayashi N, Fukuta Y, Sakagami JI. 2006.
Janaiah A, Hossain M, Otsuka K. 2006. Productivity impact Flash flooding resistance of Oryza sativa L., O. glaber-
of the modern varieties of rice in India. Dev. Econ. rima Steud. and interspecific hybridization progeny. Jpn.
44(2):190-207. J. Crop Sci. 75(1):206-207.
Jena KK, Jeung JU, Lee JH, Choi HC, Brar DS. 2006. High- Kawas EA, Senger M, Wilkinson, MD. 2006. BioMoby
resolution mapping of a new brown planthopper (BPH) extensions to the Taverna workflow management and
resistance gene, Bph18(t) and marker-assisted selection enactment software. BMC Bioinformatics 7:523.
for BPH resistance in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Theor. Appl. doi:10.1186/1471-2105-7-523
Genet.118:288-297. Khamphoukeo K, Brown PR, Douangboupha B, Aplin KP,
Jeong EG, Ahn SN, Yea JD, Cho YC, Kwon SJ, Suh JP, Son Singleton GR. 2006. Population dynamics of rodent pest
JR, Brar DS, Hwang HG. 2006. Analysis of quantitative species in upland farming systems of Lao PDR. Lao J.
trait loci related to cold tolerance in rice. Korean J. Agric. For. 12:109-121.
Breed. 38(5):375-381. Kobayashi N. 2006. Perspective for rice improvement at
Jeong EG, Kim KJ, Cheon AR, Lee CK, Kim SL, Brar DS, IRRI. Jpn. J. Crop Sci. 75(1):434-435.
Son JR. 2006. Characterization of grain quality under Kobayashi N. 2006. Adaptability of rice to water-saving
lodging time and grade at ripening. Korean J. Crop Sci. cultivation in Asia. Agric. Hortic. 81(1):218-222.
51(5):440-444. Kobayashi S, Araki E, Osaki M, Khush GS, Fukuta Y. 2006.
Jeung JU, Heu SG, Shin MS, Vera Cruz CM, Jena KK. 2006. Localization, validation and characterization of plant-
Dynamics of Xanthomonas oryzae pv oryzae (Xoo) type QTLS on chromosomes 4 and 6 in rice (Oryza
population in Korea and its relationship to known sativa L.). Field Crops Res. 96(1): 106-112.
resistance genes toward identification of effective Kumar P, Sarawgi AK, Ramos C, Amarante ST, Ismail AM,
resistance to bacterial blight in rice. Phytopathology Wade LJ. 2006. Partitioning of dry matter during
96:867-875.

80 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


drought stress in rainfed lowland rice. Field Crops Res. Litsinger JA, Bandong JP, Canapi BL, Dela Cruz CG, Pantua
96:455-465. PC, Alviola AL, Batay-An EH III. 2006. Evaluation of
Kwon SJ, Lee JK, Hong SW, Park YJ, McNally KL, Kim NS. action thresholds for chronic rice insect pests in the
2006. Genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship in Philippines: II. Whorl maggot and defoliators. Int. J. Pest
AA Oryza species as revealed by Rim2/Hipa CACTA Manage. 52:167-180.
transposon display. Genes Genet. Syst. 81:93-101. Liu JX, Liao, DQ, Oane R, Estenor L, Yang XE, Li ZC,
Lafitte RH, Bennett J, Tuong TP, editors. 2006. Preparing Bennett J. 2006. Genetic variation in the sensitivity of
rice for a water-limited future: from molecular to anther dehiscence to drought stress in rice. Field Crops
regional scale. Field Crops Res. 97(1):1-2. Res. 97:87-100.
Lafitte RH, Ismail AM, Bennett J. 2006. Abiotic stress McNally KL, Bruskiewich R, Mackill D, Buell CR, Leach JE,
tolerance in tropical rice: progress and the future. Oryza Leung H. 2006. Sequencing multiple and diverse rice
43:171-186. varieties. Connecting whole-genome variation with
Lafitte RH, Li ZK, Vijayakumar CHM, Gao YM, Shi Y, Xu JL, phenotypes. Plant Physiol. 141(1):26-31.
Fu BY, Ali AJ, Domingo J, Maghirang R, Torres R, Mei HW, JL Xu, ZK Li, XQ Yu, LB Guo, YP Wang, CS Ying,
Mackill D. 2006. Improvement of rice drought tolerance LJ Luo. 2006. QTLs influencing panicle size detected in
through backcross breeding: evaluation of donors and two reciprocal introgressive line (IL) populations in rice
selection in drought nurseries. Field Crops Res. 97:77-86. (Oryza sativa L.). Theor. Appl. Genet. 112:648-656.
Lan Anh Hoang, Castella JC, Novosad P. 2006. Social Misra SC, Randive R, Rao VS, Sheshshayee MS, Serraj R,
networks and information access: implications for Monneveux P. 2006. Relationship between carbon
agricultural extension in a rice farming community in isotope discrimination, ash content and grain yield in
northern Vietnam. Agric. Hum. Values 23(4): 513-527. wheat in the peninsular zone of India. J. Agron. Crop Sci.
Laza MR, Kondo M, Ideta O, Barlaan E, Imbe T. 2006. 192:352-362.
Identification of quantitative trait loci for d13c and Mitchell PL, Sheehy JE. 2006. Supercharging rice photosyn-
productivity in irrigated lowland rice. Crop Sci. 46(2): thesis to increase yield. New Phytol. 171:688-693.
763-773. Mushtaq S, Dawe D, Lin Hong, Moya P. 2006. An assess-
Lemaire G, van Oosterom E, Sheehy JE, Jeuffroy MH, ment of the role of ponds in the adoption of water-saving
Massignam A, Rossato L. 2006. Is crop N demand more irrigation practices in the Zhanghe Irrigation system,
closely related to dry matter accumulation or leaf area China. Agric. Water Manage. (83):100-110.
expansion during vegetation growth? Field Crops Res. Mussgnug F, Becker M, Son TT, Buresh RJ, Vlek PLG. 2006.
100:91-106. Yield gaps and nutrient balances in intensive, rice-based
Litsinger JA, Alviola AL, Dela Cruz CG, Canapi BL, Batay-An cropping systems on degraded soils in the Red River
EH III, Barrion AT. 2006. Rice white stem borer Delta of Vietnam. Field Crops Res. 98:127-140.
Scirpophaga innotata (Walker) in southern Mindanao, Naklang K, Harnpichitvitaya D, Amarante ST, Wade LJ,
Philippines. I. Supplantation of yellow stem borer Haefele SM. 2006. Internal efficiency, nutrient uptake,
S. incertulas (Walker) and pest status. Int. J. Pest and the relation to field water resources in rainfed
Manage. 52(1):11-21. lowland rice of northeast Thailand. Plant Soil 286:193-208.
Litsinger JA, Alviola AL, Dela Cruz CG, Canapi BL, Batay-An Nargis N, Hossain M. 2006. Income dynamics and pathways
EH III, Barrion AT. 2006. Rice white stem borer out of rural poverty in Bangladesh, 1988-2004. Agric.
Scirpophaga innotata (Walker) in southern Mindanao, Econ. 35 (suppl.):425-435.
Philippines. II. Synchrony of planting and natural Nozoe T, Rodriguez R, Agbisit R. 2006. Growth inhibition of
enemies. Int. J. Pest Manage. 52(1):23-37. rice by water drainage during fallow at IRRI. Jpn. Agric.
Litsinger JAL, Bandong JP, Canapi BL, Dela Cruz CG, Res. Q. 40(4):361-367.
Pantua PC, Alviola AL, Batay-An EH III. 2006. Evalua- Padre-Tirol A, Ladha JK. 2006. Integrating rice and wheat
tion of action thresholds for chronic rice insect pests in productivity trends using the SAS mixed-procedure and
the Philippines. III. Leaffolders. Int. J. Pest Manage. 52:181- meta-analysis. Field Crops Res. 95:75-88.
194. Palis FG. 2006. The role of culture in farmer learning and
Litsinger JA, Bandong JP, Canapi BL, Dela Cruz CG, Pantua technology adoption: a case study of farmer field schools
PC, Alviola AL, Batay-An EH III. 2006. Evaluation of among rice farmers in Central Luzon, Philippines. Agric.
action thresholds for chronic rice insect pests in the Hum. Values 23(4).
Philippines. IV. Stem borers. Int. J. Pest Manage. 52:195-207.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 81


Palis FG, Flor RJ, Warburton H, Hossain M. 2006. Our Qiu FL, Wang HH, Chen J, Zhuang JY, Leung H, Cheng SH,
farmers at risk: behaviour and belief system in pesticide Wu JL. 2006. A rapid DNA miniprep extraction method
safety. J. Public Health 28(1):43-48. for large-scale rice mutant screening. Chin. J. Rice Sci.
Pan YJ, Fan JJ, Fu BY, Wang J, Xu JL, Chen H M, Li Z K, 20(3):329-332.
Zhou YL. 2006. Genetic diversity of Ustilaginoidea Ramos M, Saul CDL, Castro RV. 2006. PhilAgriNet: linking
virens revealed by AFLP I: genetic structure of the Philippine agricultural knowledge with scientists
pathogen in field. Acta Phytopathol. Sin. 30(4):337-341. worldwide. IAALD Q. Bull. 50(3/4):91-95.
Pathak H, Li C, Wassman R, Ladha JK. 2006. Simulation of Sacks EJ, Dhanapala MP, Tao DY, Sta. Cruz MT, Sallan R.
nitrogen balance in rice-wheat systems of the Indo- 2006. Breeding for perennial growth and fertility in an
Gangetic Plains. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 70:1612-1622. Oryza sativa/O. longistaminata population. Field Crops
Peng N, Wang KR, Buresh RJ, Wang KF, Xie KL. 2006. Res. 95(1):39-48.
Effect of rice straw incorporation on concentration of Sacks EJ, Schmit V, McNally KL, Sta. Cruz MT. 2006.
organic acids and available phosphorus in soil under Fertility in an interspecific rice population and its effect
different water regimes. Acta Pedol. Sin. 43(2):347-351. on selection for rhizome length. Field Crops Res. 95:30-38.
Peng S, Bouman BAM, Visperas RM, Castañeda AR, Nie L, Saito K, Linquist B, Atlin GN, Phanthaboon K, Shiraiwa T,
Park H-K. 2006. Comparison between aerobic and Horie T. 2006. Response of traditional and improved
flooded rice in the tropics: agronomic performance in an upland rice cultivars to N and P fertilizer in northern
eight-season experiment. Field Crops Res. 96:252-259. Laos. Field Crops Res. 96(2/3):216-223.
Peng S, Buresh RJ, Huang J, Yang J, Zou Y, Zhong X, Wang Sarkar RK, Reddy JN, Sharma SG, Ismail AM. 2006.
G, Zhang F. 2006. Strategies for overcoming low Physiological basis of submergence tolerance in rice and
agronomic nitrogen use efficiency in irrigated rice implications for crop improvement. Curr. Sci. 91:899-906.
systems in China. Field Crops Res. 96:37-47. Sheehy JE, Mitchell PL, Allen LH, Ferrer AB. 2006.
Pérez de Vida FB, Laca EA, Mackill DJ, Fernández G, Mathematical consequences of using various empirical
Fischer AJ. 2006. Relating rice traits to weed competi- expressions of crop yield as a function of temperature.
tiveness and yield: a path analysis. Weed Sci. 54:1122- Field Crops Res. 98:216-221.
1131. Sheehy JE, Mitchell PL, Ferrer AB. 2006. Decline in rice
Perry P, Fitzgerald, MA, Gilbert RG, 2006. Fluorescence grain yields with temperature: models and correlations
recovery after photobleaching as a probe of diffusion in can give different estimates. Field Crops Res. 98:151-156.
starch system. Biomacromolecules 7:521-530. Shrestha RK, Ladha JK, Gami SK. 2006. Total and organic
Philpot K, Martin M, Butardo V, Willoughby D, Fitzgerald carbon in cropping systems of Nepal. Nutr. Cycl.
M. 2006. Environmental factors that affect the ability of Agroecosyst. 75:257-269.
amylose to contribute to retrogradation in gels made Shu XL, Jiao GA, Fitzgerald MA, Yang CZ, Shu QY, Wu DX.
from rice flour. J. Agric. Food Chem. 54(14):5182-5190. 2006. Starch structure and digestibility of rice high in
Piegu B, Guyot R, Picault N, Roulin A, Saniyal A, Kim H, resistant starch. Starch/Starke 58(8):411-417.
Collura K, Brar DS, Jackson S, Wing RA, Panaud O. Singh RK, Mishra B. 2006. CSR30. First basmati rice
2006. Doubling genome size without polyploidization: variety for sodicity stress. Indian Farming 56(1):3-6.
dynamics of retrotransposition-driven genomic expan- Singh S, Bhushan L, Ladha JK, Gupta RK, Rao AN, Siv-
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Genome Res. 16: 1262-1269. (Oryza sativa) cultivated in the furrow-irrigated raised-
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Conference and workshop posters production. Poster presented at the 9th Annual Meeting
Alam MM, Buresh RJ, Ladha JK, Foyjunnessa S. 2006. and Symposium of the Philippine Society of Soil Science
Optimization of phosphorus and potassium management and Technology, 1-2 Jun 2006, Central Luzon State
in lowland rice in Bangladesh through site-specific University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
nutrient management approach. Poster presented at the Buresh RJ, Witt C, Pampolino MF. 2006. SSNM: an
18th World Congress of Soil Science, 9-15 Jul 2006, approach for optimizing nutrient use in intensive rice
Philadelphia, USA. production. Poster presented at the IFA Agriculture
Alam MM, Ladha JK, Buresh RJ, Rashid H, Khan AH. Conference, 27 Feb-2 Mar 2006, Kunming, China.
2006. Nitrogen management in lowland rice by the use of Carrillo G, Ona I, Lestari P, Qui F, Goodwin P, Variar M,
leaf color chart through farmer participatory approach in Bustamam M, Leach J, Nelson R, Leung H, Vera Cruz C.
Bangladesh. Poster presented at the 18th World Congress 2006. QTLs meet genomics: targeting superior disease
of Soil Science, 9-15 Jul 2006, Philadelphia, USA. QTL alleles in the rice genome. Poster presented at the
Amante M, Virk PS, Toledo R, Virmani SS, Atlin G. 2006. 2006 Generation Challenge Program Annual Review
Rice hybrids exhibit high level of tolerance for drought Meeting, 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil.
and delayed transplanting. Poster presented at the 2nd Cho YC, Choi IS, Kwon SW, Jeung JU, Roh JH, Oh MK, Choi
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, IB, Jena KK, Kim YG, Yang SJ. 2006. Haplotype diversity
India. and durability for resistance genes to blast in Japonica
Angaji SA, Mackill DJ, Ismail AM. 2006. Mapping QTLs for rice. Poster presented at the 2nd International Rice
tolerance to flooding during germination in rice. Poster Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
presented at the Genetics Conference, France. Das A, Virk P, Khush G, Bergman C, Lopena V, Evangelista
Atlin G, Bernier J, Venuprasad R, Kumar A, Lafitte R, Cairns A. 2006. Molecular and chemical characterization of
JE, Serraj R. 2006. Two QTLs with large effects on yield IRRI-bred elite aromatic lines. Poster presented at the
under drought stress in rice.Poster presented at the ASA- 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
CSSA-SSSA International Annual Meeting, 12-16 Nov Delhi, India.
2006, Indianapolis, USA. Diep Chan Ben, Phan Van Liem, Nguyen Tam Dao, Gummert
Banu SP, Meah B, Ali A, Brar D, Vera Cruz CM. 2006. New M, Rickman JF. 2006. Effect of hermetic storage in the
sources identified for resistance to brown spot disease super bag on seed quality and milled rice quality of
(Bipolaris oryzae) in rice. Poster presented at the 2nd different varieties in Bac Lieu, Vietnam. Poster presented
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, at the 2nd International Rice Congress 2006, 9-13 Oct
India. p 265-266. 2006, New Delhi, India.
Bennett J. 2006. Evaluation and deployment of transgenic Droc G, Billot C, Courtois B, Brunel D, Lathrop M, McNally
drought-tolerant varieties. Poster presented at the KL. 2006. SNP analysis of the genetic diversity along the
Annual General Meeting, Generation Challenge Pro- rice genome (HAPLORYZA). Poster presented at the
gram, 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil. Generation Challenge Program Annual Review Meeting,
Bennett J. 2006. Identifying genes responsible for failure of 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil.
grain formation in rice and wheat under drought. Poster Edwards JD, Gaikwad AB, Janda J, Scwab S, Liu B, Leung
presented at the Annual Review Meeting, Generation H, Galbraith D. 2006. Microarray- based genotyping in
Challenge Program, 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil. rice. Poster presented at the Plant & Animal Genome
Buresh RJ, Larazo WM, Laureles EV, Samson MI, Pampo- XIV. International Conference on the Status of Plant &
lino MF. 2006. Sustainable soil management in lowland Animal Genome Research, 14-18 Jan 2006, San Diego,
rice ecosystems: experiences from long-term experi- USA.
ments. Poster presented at the World Congress of Soil Ferrer AB, Sheehy JE, Mitchell PL. 2006. Decline in rice
Science, 9-15 Jul 2006, Philadelphia, USA. grain yields with temperature: models and correlations
Buresh RJ, Larazo WM, Pampolino MF, Samson MI. 2006. can give different estimates. Poster presented at the 36th
Diversification from continuous intensive rice cropping Crop Science Society of the Philippines Scientific
to a rice-maize rotation affects soil organic matter and Conference, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City,
soil fertility. Poster presented at the 2nd International Palawan, Philippines.
Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Fitzgerald MA, Stewart CA, Roferos LT. 2006. Resistant
Buresh RJ, Witt C, Pampolino MF. 2006. SSNM: an starch in rice–wild types and mutants. Poster presented
approach for optimizing nutrient use in intensive rice at the American Association of Cereal Chemists Conference.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 91


Galbraith D, Edwards J, Janda J, Gaikwad A, Schwab S, Liu Jabbar SMA, Siopongco JDLC, Amarante ST, Cosico WC,
B, Leung H. 2006. Microarray-based genotyping in large Sta. Cruz PC, Haefele SM. 2006. Nitrogen use efficiency
populations. Poster presented at the Fourth International in selected rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes grown under
Rice Functional Genomics Symposium, 9-11 Oct 2006, varying water regimes and nitrogen levels. Poster
Montpellier, France. presented at the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13
Gamuyao R, Tecson-Mendoza E, Laurena A, Bennett J. Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
2006. Expression of WUSCHEL-related homeobox Jacob JDC, Johnson SE, Buresh RJ. 2006. Spectrophoto-
(WOX) genes in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Poster presented metric determination of zinc in plant, soil, and fertilizer
at the 33rd Philippine Society for Biochemisry and samples. Poster presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Molecular Biology Annual Convention, 7-8 Dec 2006, American Society of Agronomy, 12-16 Nov 2006,
Iloilo City, Philippines. Indianapolis, USA.
Gatdula KA, Lu X, Yano M. Wissuwa M. Chua T, Ismail AM, Jacob JDC, Johnson SE, Buresh RJ. 2006. Spectrophoto-
Heuer S. 2006. Candidate genes in the Pup1 locus for metric determination of zinc in plant, soil, and fertilizers.
tolerance of phosphorus deficiency in rice (Oryza sativa Poster presented at the 36th Annual Scientific Confer-
L.). Poster presented at the 8th International Congress of ence of the Crop Science Society of the Philippines, 8-12
Plant Molecular Biology, 20-25 Aug 2006, Adelaide, May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines.
Australia. Jantasuriyarat C, Coughlan S, Zhou B, Leung H, Wang GL.
Gines HC, Buresh RJ, Pampolino M, Torres RD, Elliot MN. 2006. Functional analysis of novel ubiquitin-related E2
2006. Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) for and E3 rice genes in the defense response to rice
rice: guide for Filipino farmers. Poster presented at the pathogens. Poster presented at the Plant & Animal
9th Annual Meeting and Symposium of the Philippine Genome XIV. International Conference on the Status of
Society of Soil Science and Technology, 1-2 Jun 2006, Plant & Animal Genome Research, 14-18 Jan 2006, San
Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Diego, USA.
Gregorio GB, Sie M, Ndjiondjop M-N, Tsunematsu H, Ji X, Liu J, Raveendran M, Kathiresan A, Oane R, Shobbar
Wissuwa M, Brar DS, Singh RK, Bennett J, Ismail AM, ZS, Liao D, Mushtaq R, Chen J, Lafitte R, Bruskiewich R,
Mackill DJ. 2006. Designing abiotic stress-tolerant rice Leung H, Satoh K, Kikuchi S, Tuberosa R, Van den Ende
varieties for the rainfed lowlands of sub-Saharan Africa. W, Bennett J. 2006. Dissection of drought sensitivity and
Poster presented at the Africa Rice Congress 31 Jul-4 Aug tolerance in rice. Poster presented at the Plant & Animal
2006, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Genome XIV. International Conference on the Status of
Haefele SM. 2006. The Consortium for Unfavorable Plant & Animal Genome Research, 14-18 Jan 2006, San
Environments (CURE) at Raipur: integrated crop Diego, USA.
management options for higher productivity and lower Lafarge T. 2006. Identifying common crop traits to address
production risk in drought-prone eastern India. Poster the variability in tiller production between sorghum and
presented at the IFAD-CURE Workshop, Raipur, India. rice canopies. Poster presented at the International
Haefele SM. 2006. The Consortium for Unfavorable Rainfed Workshop on Gene-Plant-Crop Relations, 23-26 Apr
Environments (CURE) at Raipur: the various compo- 2006, Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
nents of farmer’s participation in the process of technol- Lafarge T, Bueno C, Pasuquin E. 2006. Are architectural
ogy development. Poster presented at the IFAD-CURE traits at flowering stage relevant components to account
Workshop, Raipur, India. for yield advantage of hybrid rice? Poster presented at the
Haefele SM, Konboon Y, Knoblauch C, Koyama S, Gummert International Workshop on Gene-Plant-Crop Relations,
M, Ladha JK. 2006. Black carbon from rice residues as 23-26 Apr 2006, Wageningen University, The Nether-
soil amendment and for carbon sequestration. Poster lands.
presented at the 18th World Congress of Soil Science, Lane A, Jarvis A, Hijmans RJ. 2006. Crop wild relatives and
9-15 Jul 2006, Philadelphia USA. climate change: predicting the loss of important genetic
Jabbar SMA, Haefele SM, Cosico WC, Amarante ST, resources. Poster presented at the Global Environmental
Siopongco JD. 2006. Interaction of water and nitrogen Change Open Science Conference, 9-12 Nov 2006,
stress at the vegetative stage of rice. Poster presented at Beijing, China.
the 36th Scientific Conference of the Crop Science Larazo WM, Pampolino MF, Buresh RJ. 2006. Long-term
Society of the Philippines, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, productivity of rice-maize and rice-rice production
Philippines. systems. Poster presented at the 36th Annual Scientific

92 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Conference of the Crop Science Society of the Philip- L, Rivallan R, Courtois B, Billot C, Garavito A, Lorieux
pines, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, M, Martinez CP, Borba T, Brondani RV, Brondani C,
Philippines. Cissoko M, Ndjiondjop MN, Famoso A, McCouch SR,
Laureles EV, Larazo WM, Correa T, Samson MI, Moscoso E, Zhang YY, Han LZ, McNally KL. 2006. Population
Foyjunnessa S, Buresh RJ. 2006. Benefits of real-time N structure of the rice composite set. Poster presented at
fertilizer management on yield of irrigated rice applied the 9th National Genetics Symposium, 25-28 Oct 2006,
with inorganic and organic nitrogen sources. Poster Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet,
presented at the 9th Annual Meeting and Symposium of Philippines.
the Philippine Society of Soil Science and Technology, 1-2 Manzano R, Macatangay M, Redondo M, Lacorte V, Zaidem
Jun 2006, Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, M, Detras J, Barile M, Pabale D, Hamilton NRS, Benoit
Philippines. L, Rivallan R, Courtois B, Billot C, Garavito A, Lorieux
Leung H, Liu B, Mauleon R, Qiu F, Carrillo G, Vera Cruz C, M, Martinez CP, Borba T, Brondani RV, Brondani C,
McNally K, Han SS, Roh J, Manosalva P, Davidson R, Cissoko M, Ndjiondjop MN, Famoso A, McCouch SR,
Leach J, Satoh K, Kikuchi S. 2006. Identifying favorable Zhang YY, Han LZ, McNally KL. 2006. Population
alleles in host defense genes for broad-spectrum structure of the rice composite set. Poster presented at
resistance in rice. Poster presented at the 2nd Interna- the Generation Challenge Program Annual Review
tional Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Meeting, 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil.
Leung H, Mauleon R, Muthurajan R, Liu B, Choi IR, Leach J, McNally K, Wang H, Naredo EB, Raghavan C, Atienza G,
Satoh K, Kikuchi S. 2006. Bridging the genotype- Leung H. 2006. EcoTILLING in rice. Poster presented at
phenotype gap using genome-wide transcript maps of the Plant & Animal Genome XIV. International Confer-
rice. Poster presented at the 4th International Rice ence on the Status of Plant & Animal Genome Research,
Functional Genomics Symposium, 9-11 Oct 2006, 14-18 Jan 2006, San Diego, USA.
Montpellier, France. Mercado E, Reveche MY, Chen J, Skinner D, Carrillo G,
Liu B, Satoh K, Mauleon R, Zhang S, Zhu X, Yang J, Yang Q, Collard BCY, Bernardo M, William M, Xu Y, Vera Cruz
Wu S, Hulbert S, Leach J, Kikuchi S, Leung H. 2006. CM. 2006. Development of gene-based marker technolo-
Integration of expression and QTL analyses reveals new gies for high-throughput genotyping. Poster presented at
candidate genes contributing to quantitative resistance the 2006 Generation Challenge Program Annual Review
against rice blast. Poster presented at the Plant & Animal Meeting, 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil.
Genome XIV. International Conference on the Status of Namuco O, Cope A, Migo T, Johnson D. 2006. Rice seedling
Plant & Animal Genome Research, 14-18 Jan 2006, San growth and its impact on weeds. Poster presented at the
Diego, USA. 36th Annual Conference of the Crop Science Society of
Llanto GP, Cruz RT, Barroga KET, Bordey FH, Redoña ED. the Philippines, 8-13 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City,
2006. Palaycheck: the Philippine rice integrated crop Palawan, Philippines.
management system. Poster presented at the 36th CSSP Naredo MEB, Gamalinda MB, Atienza GA, Melgar RJA,
Scientific Conference, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa McNally KL. 2006. EcoTILLING: a technique for
City, Palawan, Philippines. detecting natural variation and a diagnostic tool for
Luffor R, Khanam S, Chu SH, Jeung JU, Jena KK, Koh HJ. biosystematic studies in Oryza. Poster presented at the
2006. Mapping quantitative trait loci for spikelet per 9th National Genetics Symposium, 25-28 Oct 2006,
panicle and grain characters using an introgression line Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet,
from Oryza minuta. Poster presented at the 2nd Philippines.
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, Naredo MEB, Wang H, Atienza GA, Billot C, Rivallan R,
India. Fonceka D, Deu M, Rami JF, McNally KL. 2006.
Mabilangan AE, Pablico P, Sheehy JE, Dionora MJA. 2006. EcoTILLING: assessment as a methodology for targeted
Screening for C4 traits through analysis of leaf anatomi- genotyping and SNP delivery. Poster presented at the
cal structure. Poster presented at the 36th Crop Science Generation Challenge Program Annual Review Meeting,
Society of the Philippines Scientific Conference, 8-12 May 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil.
2006, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. Pamplona A, Septiningsih E, Sanchez D, Ella E, Vergara G,
Manzano R, Macatangay M, Redondo M, Lacorte V, Zaidem Ismail A, Mackill DJ. 2006. Breeding rice with tolerance
M, Detras J, Barile M, Pabale D, Hamilton NRS, Benoit for submergence during germination for irrigated and

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 93


rainfed areas. Poster presented at the 2nd International Reveche MY, Mercado E, Skinner D, Carrillo G, Collard B,
Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. William M, Xu Y, Vera Cruz CM. 2006. Dot blot assay
Pampolino MF, Witt C, Buresh RJ. 2006. Site-specific technology: low-cost, non-gel-based, high-throughput
nutrient management (SSNM): an approach for optimiz- technology for marker-assisted selection in cereals.
ing nutrient use in rice production. Poster presented at Poster presented at the 2006 Generation Challenge
the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agrono- Program Annual Review Meeting, 12-16 Sep 2006, São
my, 12-16 Nov 2006, Indianapolis, USA. Paulo, Brazil.
Park CH, Jung KH, Phetsom J, Babu M, Bruce M, Mauleon Samson MI, Pampolino MF, Witt C, Abes J, Buresh RJ.
R, Bordeos A, Bellizzi M, Leach J, Leung H, Ronald P, 2006. Site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) for
Wang GL. 2006. Characterization of rice defense rice: principles, practices, and tools of SSNM on the Web.
mutants using whole genome expression profiling. Poster Poster presented at the 36th Annual Scientific Confer-
presented at the Plant & Animal Genome XIV. Interna- ence of the Crop Science Society of the Philippines, 8-12
tional Conference on the Status of Plant & Animal May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines.
Genome Research, 14-18 Jan 2006, San Diego, USA. Samson MI, Pampolino MF, Witt C, Buresh RJ. 2006. Site-
Pasuquin E, Lafarge T, Magbanua R. 2006. Crop establish- specific nutrient management (SSNM) for rice: prin-
ment, water management, and plant type characteristics: ciples, practices, tools, and web site. Poster presented at
moving toward more productive cultural practices. the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
Poster presented at the 2nd International Rice Congress, Delhi, India.
9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Sanchez DL, Pamplona AM, Septiningsih EM, Maghirang-
Prantilla RH, Alcantara A, Habito MC, de Guzman F, Metz Rodriguez R, Neeraja C, Iftekharuddaula K, Vergara GV,
T, Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. Integration of Interna- Heuer S, Ismail A, Mackill DJ. 2006. Recent progress in
tional Rice Genebank Collection Information system converting rice mega varieties into submergence-tolerant
(IRGCIS) to International Rice Information System lines with the Sub1 locus. Poster presented at the 2nd
(IRIS) for crop improvement. Poster presented at the International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi,
36th Crop Science Society of the Philippines Scientific India.
Conference, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Septiningsih EM, Pamplona AM, Neeraja CN, Sanchez DL,
Palawan, Philippines. Heuer S, Ismail AM, Mackill DJ. 2006. Confirmation and
Prasad KVSV, Ravi D, Virk P, Blϋmmel M. 2006. Opportuni- further mapping of a submergence tolerance QTL on the
ties for improving the fodder value of rice straw by long arm of chromosome 5. Poster presented at the 2nd
multidimensional crop improvement. Poster presented at International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi,
the 6th Biennial Conference of the Animal Nutrition India.
Association, 15-17 Sep 2006, Jammu, India. Serraj R. 2006. Variation of transpiration and leaf gas
Raghavan, C, Liu B, Leach, JE, Nelson RJ, McNally, K, exchange responses to progressive water deficit in rice.
Leung H. 2006. Application of a simple SNP detection Poster presented at the workshop on The Biology of
method for mapping and association studies. Poster Transpiration: from Guard Cells to Globe, 10-14 Oct
presented at the Plant & Animal Genome XIV. Interna- 2006, Utah, USA.
tional Conference on the Status of Plant & Animal Singh S, Singh ON, Chandra R, Rao GJN, Virk PS. 2006.
Genome Research, 14-18 Jan 2006, San Diego, USA. Towards breaking the yield ceiling for shallow lowland
Rajendran R, Chelliah N, Ravi V, Stalin P, Chandrasekaran rice: new plant type approach. Poster presented at the
B, Buresh RJ. 2006. Impact of improved crop manage- 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
ment and site-specific nutrient management on irrigated Delhi, India.
rice productivity and profitability. Poster presented at the Singh V, Sharma SK, Jat ML, Singh KK, Buresh RJ. 2006.
2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New On-farm evaluation of site-specific nutrient management
Delhi, India. in rice-wheat cropping system of Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Ramos M, Alvare L, Ferreyra C. 2006. The CGIAR Virtual Poster presented at the 2nd International Rice Congress,
Library Service: spanning the gap between CGIAR 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
knowledge and potential users. Poster presented at the Vadez V, Devi JM, Bhatnagar P, Serraj R, Sharma KK. 2006.
6th Annual CGIAR Information Managers Meeting, Evaluation and deployment of transgenic drought-
22-26 May 2006, Nairobi, Kenya. tolerant groundnut at ICRISAT. Poster presented at the

94 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Annual Review Meeting of the Generation Challenge pects. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice
Program, 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil. Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 483.
Vadez V, Krishnamurthy L, Varshney RK, Serraj R, Devi JM, Alberto MCR, Larazo WM, Correa TQ, Buresh RJ. 2006.
Nigam SN, Chandra S. 2006. Variation in transpiration Nitrogen-supplying capacity of rice soil as affected by
efficiency in a groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) mapping residue, water, and crop management. Paper presented at
population. Poster presented at the Annual Review the 36th Annual Scientific Conference of the Crop
Meeting of the Generation Challenge Program, 12-16 Sep Science Society of the Philippines, 8-12 May 2006,
2006, São Paulo, Brazil. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines.
Vergara GV, Ella E, Holt D, Pamplona A, Heuer S, Mackill Ammar MHM, Pandit A, Tyagi K, Khandelwal V, Rai V,
DJ, Ismail AM. 2006. Tolerance for flooding during Gaikwad K, Singh AK, Singh RK, Gautam RK Singh NK.
germination in rice. Poster presented at the 8th Interna- 2006. Mapping of QTLs for salt tolerance traits in indica
tional Congress of Plant Molecular Biology, 20-25 Aug rice variety CSR 27. In: Abstracts of the 2nd Internation-
2006, Adelaide, Australia. al Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 300.
Vergara GV, Pamplona A, Septiningsih E, Maghirang- Angeles OR, Alberto MCR, Jacob JDC, Johnson SE, Buresh
Rodriguez R, Sanchez D, Ismail A, Mackill D, Heuer S. RJ. 2006. Water-saving technologies and straw incorpo-
2006. Analyses of Oryza sativa Sub1 transcription ration: best bet combination? Paper presented at the 36th
factors in submergence-tolerant and -intolerant landra- Annual Scientific Conference of the Crop Science Society
ces. Poster presented at the 2nd International Rice of the Philippines, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City,
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Palawan, Philippines.
Wissuwa M, Haubermann U, Singh RK, Ismail AM. 2006. Atlin GN, Venuprasad R, Bernier, Kumar A, Verulkar S,
Genotypic differences for tolerance to iron toxicity in rice Sahu RK, Lafitte HR, Serraj R, Cairns J, Sinha PK,
(Oryza sativa L.). Poster presented at the 13th Interna- Mandal NP, Shashidhar HE , Chandrababu R, Robin RS ,
tional Symposium on Iron Nutrition and Interactions in Dwivedi JL, Rathi S. 2006. Developing drought-tolerant
Plants, 3-7 Jul 2006, Montpellier, France. rice cultivars by selection for yield under managed stress:
progress in breeding and genetic analysis at IRRI. Paper
Conference and workshop papers−presented presented at the Drought Frontier Project Planning
Abeysekera ASK, Johnson D, Herath HMS, Wickrama UB. Workshop, 2-6 Oct 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.
2006. Diversity of weed flora in wet seeded rice in Sri Austria CS. 2006. Basic indexing techniques: data entry
Lanka. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice using the WebAGRIS. Paper presented at the Seminar
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 499. Workshop on Retooling Librarians on Digital Resources,
Agarcio JMS, Ordoñez SA, Baliuag NNA, dela Cruz IA, Database Creation, and Management, 23-24 Feb 2006,
Redoña ED. 2006. Marker-aided introgression of La Trinidad, Benguet, Philippines.
bacterial leaf blight resistance genes to CMS Line Bagchi B, Islam Z, Hossain M. 2006. Adoption of LCC for
(IR58025A) and Meztizo hybrid. In: Abstracts of the 19th nitrogen use efficiency: impact assessment of a farmer-
National Rice R&D Conference, PhilRice, Muñoz, Nueva participatory experiment in West Bengal, India. In:
Ecija, Philippines. Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13
Agrama HA, Eizenga GC, Bryant RJ, Neves PCF, Mackill DJ. Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 519.
2006. Genetic analysis of agronomic and grain quality Baldedara L, dela Cruz IA, de Leon JC, Padolina TF, Redoña
traits in an Oryza sativa/Oryza nivara advanced ED. 2006. Evaluation of elite JAAS rice hybrids for field
backcross population. Paper presented at the Annual performance and standard heterosis. In: Abstracts of the
Meetings of the American Society of Agronomy. India- 19th National R&D Conference, PhilRice, Muñoz, Nueva
napolis, Indiana, USA. Ecija, Philippines.
Aladakatti YR, Patil SG, Channagoudar RF, Hanamaratti Barry G. 2006. Access to IP: the Golden Rice resolution and
NG, Gupta RK, Ladha JK. 2006. Adoption of resource new mechanisms. Paper presented at the Commercializa-
conservation technologies for sustainable direct seeded tion of Biotechnology Crops in Asia Workshop, 19-23 Jun
rice production in Karnataka. In: Abstracts of the 2nd 2006, Makati City, Philippines.
International Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Barry G. 2006. Advances in the development of Golden Rice.
p 509. Paper presented at the APEC High-level Policy Dialog on
Alam MM, Rashid MH, Khan AH, Ladha JK. 2006. Wet Agricultural Biotechnology-Private Sector Day, 25 Feb
drum-seeded rice in Bangladesh: problems and pros- 2006, Hanoi, Vietnam.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 95


Barry G. 2006. Breeding progress and prospects for Bennett J, Ji X, Raveendran M, Liu J, Mushtaq R, Chen J,
provitamin A and other micronutrients in rice. Paper Oane R, Shobar Z, Liao D, Jagadish K, Satoh K, Mauleon
presented at the International Plant Breeding Sympo- R, Craufurd P, Kikuchi S, Tuberosa R, van den Ende W,
sium, 20-25 Aug 2006, Mexico City. Bruskiewich R, Leung H, Ismail A, Serraj R. 2006.
Barry G. 2006. Costs and technical challenges of regulatory Response of reproductive-stage processes to drought and
compliance for the public sector in agricultural biotech- heat stresses in rice. Paper presented at the Drought
nology. Paper presented at the ASEAN-US Roundtable on Frontier Project Planning Workshop, 2-6 Oct 2006,
Agricultural Biotechnology Policy and Strategy, 4-5 Apr IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.
2006, Bangkok, Thailand. Bennett J, Raveendran M, Ji X, Liu J, Oane R, Mushtaq R,
Barry G. 2006. Current situation of development of GM rice. Shobbar Z-S, Satoh K, Kikuchi S, Tuberosa R. 2006.
Paper presented at the National Institute for Agroenvi- Molecular dissection of sensitivity to reproductive-stage
ronmental Sciences International Symposium, 12-15 Dec drought stress in rice. Paper presented at the Tropical
2006, Tsukuba, Japan. Crops Biotechnology Conference, 16-19 Aug 2006,
Barry G. 2006. Establishing biosafety guidelines within a Cairns, Australia.
research consortium. Paper presented at the C4 Rice Bhandari H, Preeda P, Pandey S, Yasunobu K. 2006. Impact
Workshop, 17-21 Jul 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines. of drought and household coping mechanisms in
Barry G. 2006. Food security: priorities and challenges. northeast Thailand. Paper presented at the Annual
Paper presented at the Public Intellectual Property Academic Meeting of the Farm Management Society of
Resource for Agriculture Executive Committee Annual Japan, 19-23 Jan 2006, Kagoshima University, Japan.
Meeting, 28 Feb-1 Mar 2006, Orlando, Florida, USA. Bijay-Singh, Johnson SE, Shan YH, Yadvinder-Singh,
Barry G. 2006. Global perspective on nutritionally enhanced Buresh RJ. 2006. On-farm crop residue management
crops and opportunities for harmonization. Case study: options in rice-based cropping systems in Asia. Paper
Golden Rice. Paper presented at the 10th APEC/ATCWG/ presented at the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13
RDEAB Workshop on Agricultural Biotechnology, 5-12 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
Nov 2006, Manila, Philippines. Brar DS, Khush GS. 2006. Breeding rice for resistance to
Barry G. 2006. Golden Rice and other biofortified rice: biotic stresses: conventional and molecular approaches.
applying agricultural research to address human Paper presented at the 2nd International Rice Congress,
nutrition needs. Paper presented at the Crop Science and 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
Biotechnology in the 21st Century, Preliminary Sympo- Brar DS, Ramos J, Tambalo D, Hue NT, Jena KK, Khush GS.
sium for the 5th International Crop Science Congress, 30 2006. Broadening the gene pool of rice for tolerance for
Nov-1 Dec 2006, Jeju, Korea. biotic and abiotic stresses through introgression of genes
Barry G. 2006. Opportunities for cooperation of the public from wild species of Oryza. Paper presented at the 13th
and private sectors. Paper presented at the 2nd Interna- Australasian Plant Breeding Conference, 18-21 Apr 2006,
tional Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Christchurch, New Zealand.
Barry G. 2006. Practical experiences of the public sector in Bruskiewich R, Davenport G, Senger M, Metz T, Ruiz M,
plant biotechnology product development and biosafety Dereeper A, Takeya M, Hazekamp T, Rouard M, Simon
regulations. Paper presented at the 2nd International R, Rojas E, Balaji J, Akintunde A, Costa M, Bink M,
Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Wanchana S, Mauleon R, Morris J, Farmer A, Chandra S,
Barry G. 2006. The role of Golden Rice and other bioforti- Kikuchi S, Gaiji S, McLaren G, Van Hintum T. 2006.
fied rice in human nutrition improvement. Paper Crop information systems–the next generation. Paper
presented at the Tropical Crop Biotechnology Confer- presented at the Plant Genomics European Meetings,
ence, 16-19 Aug 2006, Cairns, Queensland, Australia. 11-14 Oct 2006, Venice, Italy.
Bennett J, Ji X, Raveendran M, Liao D, Shobbar Z, Satoh K, Buresh RJ. 2006. Principles of managing soil and nutrients
Ismail A, Dolferus R, Chandra Babu R, Ma Z-Q, Kikuchi in aerobic cultivation. Paper presented at the Interna-
S, van den Ende W, Tuberosa R, Serraj R. 2006. Identify- tional Workshop on Aerobic Rice: Progress and Pros-
ing genes responsible for failure of grain formation in pects, 4 Apr 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.
rice and wheat under drought. Paper presented at the Buresh RJ. 2006. Site-specific nutrient management. Paper
Annual Review Meeting, Generation Challenge Program, presented at the Workshop on Site-specific Nutrient
12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil. Management, 1 Apr 2006, Beijing, China.

96 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Buresh RJ. 2006. Site-specific nutrient management in low- Management Society of Japan, 19-23 Jan 2006, Kagoshi-
tech agriculture. Paper presented at the IFA Agriculture ma University, Japan.
Conference, 27 Feb-2 Mar 2006, Kunming, China. Chi T, Paris T, Luis J. 2006. Incidence, patterns and
Buresh RJ, Hien BH, Vinh NC, Tan PS, Samson MI, Peng S. determinants of labor out-migration: results of village-
2006. Increasing rice productivity through crop canopy level analysis of North and South Vietnam (ACIAR-
management. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of funded labor migration project). Paper presented at the
the American Society of Agronomy, 12-16 Nov 2006, Social Sciences Division, Oct 2006, IRRI, Los Baños,
Indianapolis, USA. Philippines.
Buresh RJ, Larazo WM, Laureles EV, Samson MI, Pampo- Cho YC, Choi IS, Kwon SW, Jeung JU, Roh JH, Oh MK, Choi
lino MF. 2006. Sustainable soil management in lowland IB, Jena KK, Kim YG, Yang SJ. 2006. Haplotype diversity
rice ecosystems. Paper presented at the 9th Annual and durability of blast resistance genes in Japonica rice.
Meeting and Symposium of the Philippine Society of Soil In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress,
Science and Technology, 1-2 Jun 2006, Central Luzon 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 453.
State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Correa TQ, Larazo WM, Buresh RJ. 2006. Sustaining yields
Buresh RJ, Pixley K. 2006. Managing rice-maize systems for in double and triple rice cropping systems: experiences
high sustainable productivity. Paper presented at the from two IRRI long-term experiments. Paper presented
Annual Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, at the 36th Annual Scientific Conference of the Crop
12-16 Nov 2006, Indianapolis, USA. Science Society of the Philippines, 8-12 May 2006,
Buresh RJ, Witt C, Pampolino MF, Samson MI. 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philiipines.
Opportunities for increasing efficiency of N, P, and K Deka N, Paris T. 2006. Baseline socio-economic report on
management for rice. Paper presented at the 2nd accelerating technology adoption to improve rural
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, livelihoods in rice-rice flood prone ecosystems in Assam.
India. Paper presented at the Social Sciences Division, Sep
Cairns JE, Dimayuga G, Lafitte R, Price A, Torres R, Serraj 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.
R. 2006. Enhancing drought tolerance in rice: progress Deka N, Paris T. 2006. Participation of women in rice
and challenges. Paper presented at the 36th Scientific cultivation in Assam: the caste effect. In: Abstracts of the
Conference of the Crop Science Society of the Philip- 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
pines, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Delhi, India. p 546.
Philippines. Delos Reyes-Cueno A, Paris T, Singh A, Singh YP, Saha S.
Carrillo G, Ona I, Goodwin PH, Variar M, Leach J, Leung H, 2006. Development of technologies to harness the
Vera Cruz C. 2006. Integrating molecular, phenotypic productivity potential of salt-affected areas of the Indo-
and in silico approaches for quantitative resistance to Gangetic River Basin: socioeconomic component. Paper
rice blast. Paper presented at the 6th IE Melhus Graduate presented at the 2nd Review and Planning Meeting of
Student Symposium, 30 Jul-2 Aug, 2006, Quebec City, CPW, 24-27 Apr 2006, Karnal, India.
Canada. Dwivedi JL, Ismail A, Mackill DJ, Singh RK, Ram PC. 2006.
Centeno HGS, Sheehy JE, Lomas J. 2006. Quantifying the Farmers’ participatory varietal selection on unfavorable
effects of ‘typhoons’ on rice yields. Paper presented at the flood-prone rice in eastern Uttar Pradesh: a case study.
36th Crop Science Society of the Philippines Scientific In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress,
Conference, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 236.
Palawan, Philippines. Ella ES, Ismail AM. 2006. Silica and nitrogen effects on rice
Chandrasekar V, Gummert M, Thangavel K, Rickman JF. seedling survival after complete submergence. In:
2006. Development and testing of rice hull furnace for Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13
preheating of the air for paddy drying. Paper presented at Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 384.
the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Fitzgerald MA. 2006. All about nice rice: finding the keys to
Delhi, India. a new toolbox. Paper presented at the Meeting of the
Chea S, Yasunobu K. 2006. Present situation of dry season American Association of Cereal Chemists, 17-20 Sep
rice farming in Cambodia. An initial observation of 2006, San Francisco, USA.
farming practices and expenses from farm data. Paper Fitzgerald MA. 2006. Certification and the international rice
presented at the Annual Academic Meeting of the Farm trade: developing a way forward. Paper presented at the
World Rice Congress, Nov 2006, Vietnam.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 97


Fitzgerald MA. 2006. Finding a new box of tools for Frontier Project Planning Workshop, 2-6 Oct 2006,
measuring the quality of rice grains. In: Abstracts of the International Rice Research Institute, Los Baños,
2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Philippines.
Delhi, India. p 133. Haefele SM, Hijmans RJ. 2006. Soil quality in rice-based
Fukuta Y, Yanoria MJT, Senoo S, Kobayashi N. 2006. rainfed lowlands of Asia: characterization and develop-
Genetic variation of resistance to blast disease in rice ments. Paper presented at the 2nd International Rice
(Oryza sativa L.). Paper presented at the 2nd Interna- Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
tional Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. Haefele SM, Konboon Y, Patil S, Mishra VN, Mazid MA,
Gabinete GG, Samson MI, Pampolino MF, Cosico WC, Tuong TP. 2006. Water by nutrient interactions in rainfed
Buresh RJ. 2006. Developing and evaluating site-specific lowland rice: mechanisms and implications for improved
nutrient management (SSNM) recommendation for rice nutrient management. Paper presented at the CURE
in Iloilo. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Scientific Resource Management Workshop, Mar 2006, Dhaka,
Conference of the Crop Science Society of the Philip- Bangladesh.
pines, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Heuer S. 2006. ERF transcription factor genes at the Sub1
Philippines. locus, a major QTL for submergence tolerance in rice
Gathala M, Ladha JK, Pathak H, Saharawat YS, Gupta RK, (Oryza sativa L.). Paper presented at the 8th Interna-
Yadav MP. 2006. Performance of no-till rice-wheat tional Congress of Plant Molecular Biology, 19-26 Aug
system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains. In: Abstracts of the 2006, Adelaide, Australia.
2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Hijmans RJ. 2006. High-resolution climate surfaces for
Delhi, India. p 474. past, current, and future conditions: interpolation and
Gautam RK, Singh RK, Chauhan MS, Ismail AM. 2006. downscaling. Paper presented at the 2nd National Meteo-
Phenotypic and physiological tolerance of rice genotypes rological-Hydrological Convention, 27-28 Nov 2006,
for saline and sodic soil environments. In: Abstracts of Manila, Philippines.
the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Hoanh CT, Phong ND, Gowing JW, Tuong TP, Ngoc NV, Hien
Delhi, India. p 246. NX. 2006. Hydraulic and water quality modeling: a tool
Gummert M. 2006. IRRC Postproduction Workgroup. Paper for managing land use conflicts in inland coastal zones.
presented at the Indonesia IRRC Dialogue: Collaborative Paper presented at the CPWF Water Forum, 12-17 Nov
Research and Extension in Natural Resource Manage- 2006, Vientiane, Laos.
ment Workshop, 20-21 Jul 2006, Bogor, Indonesia. Hossain M. 2006. Agricultural policies and reduction of
Gummert M, Chandrasekar V, Phan Hieu Hien, Nguyen poverty in Bangladesh. Paper presented at the sympo-
Thanh Nghi, Le Van Ban, Aquino E, Borlagdan P, sium on Economic Policies and Rural Development in
Rickman JF. 2006. Automatic downdraft rice husk South Asia at the 26th Conference of the International
furnace for use with commercial paddy dryers. Paper Association of Agricultural Economists, 12-18 Aug 2006,
presented at the National Rice Hull Utilization Seminar Gold Coast, Australia.
Workshop, 24-25 Oct 2006, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. Hossain M. 2006. Biotechnology for food and nutrition secu-
Gummert M, Meas Pyset, Hoang Thi Tuat. 2006. Increasing rity in Bangladesh. Paper presented at the workshop on
poor farmers’ livelihood through improved rice posthar- New Issues in the Bangladesh Economy, 4 Jul 2006,
vest management (ADB/JFPR Project). Paper presented Centre for Policy Dialogue, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
at the Project Networking and Planning Workshop “Link- Hossain M. 2006. Financial and economic profitability in
ing Extension and Research Needs through Information rice farming: comparative study of Philippines and
Technology (Learn IT),” 6-8 Nov 2006, Bangkok, Bangladesh. Paper presented at the 2nd International
Thailand. Rice Congress, 10-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
Gummert M, Rickman JF, Aquino E, Myo Aung Kyaw, Diep Hossain M. 2006. Food security for unfavorable rice
Chan Ben, Rachmat R. 2006. Hermetically sealed environments in Asia: achievements and challenges.
storage systems for farmers and millers. Paper presented Paper presented at the special workshop on Natural
at the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, Resource Management for Poverty Reduction and
New Delhi. India. Environmental Sustainability in Fragile Rice-based
Haefele SM. 2006. Rainfed lowland rice: limitations and System, 8-9 Mar 2006, BRAC Centre, Dhaka, Bangla-
management options. Paper presented at the Drought desh.

98 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Hossain M. 2006. Recent developments in Bangladesh rural Ismail AM. 2006. Biotechnological approaches for develop-
economy: findings of repeat village studies. Paper ing improved rice varieties for marginal lands. Paper
presented at the DFID-CPP Meeting, 4-5 Mar 2006, presented at the Symposium on Current Status and
BRAC Center, Dhaka, Bangladesh . Prospects of Modern Agricultural Biotechnology, 23-24
Hossain M. 2006. Rice technology for poverty reduction in Aug 2006, ICABIOGRAD, Bogor, Indonesia.
unfavorable areas. Paper presented at the Regional Ismail AM. 2006. Exploiting crosstalk of drought and other
Workshop on the Evaluation of IFAD’s Strategy in Asia stresses. Paper presented at the Drought Frontier Project
and the Pacific, 28-29 Jun 2006, Asian Development Planning Workshop, 2-6 Oct 2006, International Rice
Bank, Manila, Philippines. Research Institute, Los Baños, Philippines.
Hossain M. 2006. Technological progress and profitability in Ismail AM, Wissuwa M, Gregorio G, Thomson M, Singh RK,
rice production in the Philippines and Bangladesh. In: Heuer S, Mackill DJ. 2006. Salinity, submergence, and
Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 nutrient deficiency in rice: bases of tolerance and
Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 41. progress through breeding. Paper presented at the 2nd
Hossain M. 2006. Technological progress for sustaining International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi,
food-population balance: achievement and challenges. India.
Paper presented at the 26th Conference of the Interna- Janiya JD, Johnson DE. 2006. Spatial and temporal shifts in
tional Association of Agricultural Economists, 12-18 Aug weed species in aerobic rice: implications in designing a
2006, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. weed management system. Paper presented at the 37th
Hossain M. 2006. World rice economy and challenges for Annual Scientific Conference of the Pest Management
food security in rainfed ecosystem. Paper presented at Council of the Philippines, 2-5 May 2006, Grand Regal
the Technology Dissemination Workshop, 20 Apr 2006, Hotel, Davao City, Philippines.
Birsa Agricultural University, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India. Jat ML, Gathala M, Sharma SK, Ladha JK, Gupta RK,
Hossain M, Garcia Y, Oo Marlar. 2006. Factors behind Saharawat YS, Pathak H. 2006. Productivity and
changes in income in four villages in Myanmar. Paper profitability of rice-wheat system with double no-till
presented at the Symposium on Factors Affecting practice. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice
Poverty Dynamics: An Analysis of Panel Data from Congress 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 88.
Repeat Village Studies, 26th Conference of the Interna- Jena KK. 2006. Breeding temperate japonica rice for cold
tional Association of Agricultural Economists, 12-18 Aug tolerance. Paper presented at the International Workshop
2006, Gold Coast, Australia. on Cold Tolerance in Japonica Rice, 4-8 Dec 2006,
Islam MR, Gregorio GB, Salam MA, Collard BCY, Moham- Yanco, Australia.
madi-Nejad G, Singh RK, Hassan L. 2006. Validation of Jena KK. 2006. Identification and fine mapping of a novel
SSR markers and haplotype diversity at the Saltol locus gene conferring resistance to Korean blast isolates. Paper
on chromosome 1 of rice. In: Abstracts of the 2nd presented at the International Rice Conference and 75th
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, anniversary celebration of the All-Russia Rice Research
India. p 172. Institute, Krasnodar, 5-9 Sep 2006, Krasnodar, Russia.
Islam MR, Salam MA, Hassan L, Collard BCY, Singh RK, Jena KK. 2006. Identifying valuable genes for japonica
Gregorio GB. 2006. QTL mapping for salinity tolerance hybrid rice improvement. Paper presented at the
of rice at seedling stage. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Japonica Hybrid Rice Conference, 13-15
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, Sep 2006, Shen Yang, China.
India. p 171. Jena KK. 2006. Recent trends of rice research at IRRI and
Islam MR, Singh RK, Mohammadi-Nejad G, Salam, MA, IKO research strategy. Paper presented at the Training
Hassan L, Gregorio GB. 2006. Molecular diversity of Workshop on Rice Production, 15 Jun 2006, ITCC, RDA,
stress-tolerant rice genotypes using SSR markers. In: Ab- Republic of Korea.
stracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct Jena KK, Jeung JU, Han SS, Lee YT, Mackill DJ, Brar DS.
2006, New Delhi, India. p 174. 2006. Identification and fine mapping of a novel blast
Islam Z, Heong KL, Bell M, Shires D. 2006. CD-based lesson resistance gene in rice. Paper presented at the Plant &
followed by review questions: an effective and economic Animal Genome XIV Conference, 14-18 Jan 2006, San
in-country training delivery system. In: Abstracts of the Diego, CA, USA.
2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Jena KK, Jeung JU, Lee JH, Lee YT, Mackill DJ, Brar DS.
Delhi, India. p 105. 2006. Marker-assisted breeding for BPH resistance using

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 99


a novel gene, Bph18, in rice. Paper presented at the 2nd on Integrated Soil Water and Nutrient Management for
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, Sustainable Rice-Wheat Cropping System in Asia, 6-10
India. Nov 2006, Vienna, Austria.
Jena KK, Lee YT, Mackill DJ. 2006. Identifying new BPH Ladha JK. 2006. Enhancing farmer’s income and livelihoods
and blast resistance genes for rice improvement. Paper through integrated crop and resource management in the
presented at the Conference on Rice Breeding in the 21st rice-wheat production systems of Asia. Paper presented
Century, 1-3 Mar 2006, Tamil Nadu Agricultural at the first ADB Review and Planning Meeting, 14-16 Feb
University, Coimbatore, India. 2006, International Water Management Institute,
Ji X, Liu J, Raveendran M, Oane R, Shobbar Z-S, Liao D, Lahore, Pakistan.
Mushtaq R, Bruskiewich R, Leung H, Satoh K, Kikuchi S, Ladha JK. 2006. Enhancing farmer’s income and livelihoods
Tuberosa R, van den Ende W, Bennett J. 2006. Dissec- through integrated crop and resource management in the
tion of drought sensitivity and tolerance in rice at the rice-wheat production systems of Asia: an overview of an
reproductive stage. Paper presented at the International ADB-sponsored project. Paper presented at the 11th
Symposium on Rice Functional Genomics, 20-21 Apr Meeting of the Regional Steering Committee, 7-9 Feb
2006, Daegu, Korea. 2006, Indian Institute of Vegetable Research Institute,
Johnson DE, Haefele SM, Rathore AL, Romyen P, Pane H. Varanasi, India.
2006. Direct seeding of rice and opportunities for Ladha, JK. 2006. Performance of furrow-irrigated raised
improving productivity in Asia. Paper presented at the beds in rice-wheat cropping system of the Indo-Gangetic
DFID/NRI/IRRI Workshop, 4-5 Mar 2006, Dhaka, Plains. Paper presented at the International Workshop on
Bangladesh. Evaluation and Performance of Permanent Raised Bed
Johnson SE, Jacob JDC, Buresh RJ, Duxbury JM, Lauren Systems in Asia and Australia, 4-5 Sep 2006, Punjab
JG. 2006. How zinc soil chemistry affects health of Agriculture University, Ludhiana, India.
people who eat rice. Paper presented at the Annual Ladha, JK. 2006. Role of biological nitrogen fixation in
Meeting of the American Society of Agronomy, 12-16 Nov replenishing soil nitrogen in cropping sytem. Paper
2006, Indianapolis, USA. presented at the Deparment of Plant and Environmental
Johnson SE, Jacob JDC, Buresh RJ, Duxbury JM, Lauren JG Sciences, 6 Jun 2006, University of California-Davis,
2006. Increased rice uptake of zinc by optimization of USA.
water and crop residue management. Paper presented at Ladha JK. 2006. Soil health. Paper presented at the 2nd
the World Congress of Soil Science, 9-15 July 2006, International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi,
Philadelphia, USA. India.
Kang K, Gim GM, Paris T, Kim Y, Choi YJ, Lee JY. 2006. Ladha JK. 2006. Tillage and direct-seeded rice: new
Comparative gender role analysis of IPM in rice farming experiences from working with farmers. Paper presented
systems in Korea and the Philippines. Paper presented at at the International Workshop on Aerobic Rice, 3-4 Apr
the RDA-Korea and IRRI Review and Planning Meeting, 2006, Los Baños, Philippines.
19-24 Jun 2006, Seoul, Korea. Ladha JK, Padolina W. 2006. Rice research towards
Ko JC, Lee KS, Jin JH, Kim BK, Islam MR, Singh RK. 2006. achieving the Millennium Development Goals. Paper
Identified markers for Saltol QTL in chromosome 1 of presented at the 93rd Indian Science Congress, 3-7 Jan
rice at the seedling stage. In: Abstracts of the 2nd 2006, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, India.
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, Ladha JK, Pathak H. 2006. Enhancing N use efficiency.
India. p 271. Paper presented at the workshop on Policy Options for
Kreye C, Reversat G, Fernandez L, Vera Cruz C, Elazegui F, Enhancing N Use Efficiency, 14-15 Mar 2006, Indian
Llorca L, Faronilo J, Bouman B. 2006. Yield failure of National Science Academy, New Delhi, India.
aerobic rice and the possible role of root-knot nematodes Lafarge T, Pasuquin E, Susanti Z, Tubana B, Bueno C. 2006.
and fungal pathogens. Paper presented at the 2nd Achieving higher grain yield through integrated crop
International Rice Congress 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, establishment in irrigated rice fields. Paper presented at
India. the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
Ladha JK. 2006. Developing alternative tillage and crop Delhi, India.
establishment strategies for higher resource use efficien- Lafarge T, Susanti Z, Pasuquin E. 2006. Can higher grain
cies in the rice-wheat system. Paper presented at the yield be achieved in irrigated rice fields through desirable
FAO/IAEA-sponsored Research Coordination Meeting

100 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


nursery management? Paper presented at the 36th Plant & Animal Genome XIV Conference, 14-18 Jan
Annual Scientific Conference of the Crop Science Society 2006, San Diego, CA, USA.
of the Philippines, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Mohammadi-Nejad G, Singh RK, Rezai AM, Arzani A,
Palawan, Philippines. Adorada DL, Sajise AG, Nakhoda B, Islam MR, Gregorio
Lakra V, Sajita S, Paris T. 2006. Baseline socioeconomic GB. 2006. Analysis of salinity tolerance at seedling stage
report on accelerating technology adoption to improve from BC3F4 NILs derived from FL478/IR29. In:
rural livelihoods in Jharkhand. Paper presented at the Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13
Social Sciences Division, Sep 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 243.
Philippines. Mohammadi-Nejad G, Singh RK, Rezai AM, Arzani A,
Laureles EV, Larazo WM, Correa TQ, Samson MI, Moscoso Moumeni A, Adorada DL, Sajise AG, Islam MR, Gregorio
ET, Foyjunnessa S, Buresh RJ. 2006. Integrated GB. 2006. Allelic variation and haplotype diversity of salt
management of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources tolerance region (Saltol) at chromosome 1 in rice (Oryza
for rice. Paper presented at the 36th Annual Scientific sativa). In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice
Conference of the Crop Science Society of the Philip- Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 178.
pines, 8-12 may 2006, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Mussgnug F, Becker M, Son TT, Buresh R, Vlek PLG. 2006.
Philippines. Comparing static and dynamic soil tests for the assess-
Li ZK, Dwivedi D, Gao YM, Xu JL, Serraj R, Cairns JE, ment of nutrient availability in a low-fertile lowland rice
Zhebg TQ, Zhao XQ, Hua ZT, Fu BY, Jiang YZ, Domingo soil in the Red River Delta, Vietnam. Tropentag, 11-13
J, Ali J, Zhu LH, Mackill D. 2006. Breeding drought- Oct 2006, Bonn, Germany (www.tropentag.de/links/
tolerant and/or water use-efficient rice cultivars by Mussgnug_I8NuK1bI.pdf).
designed QTL pyramiding (DQP): current status and Nakhoda B, Leung H, Egdane J, Mohammadi-Nejad G,
prospects. Paper presented at the Drought Frontier Ismail AM. 2006. Morphological, physiological and
Project Planning Workshop, 2-6 Oct 2006, IRRI, Los biochemical evaluation of IR64 mutant lines under
Baños, Philippines. salinity and normal conditions. In: Abstracts of the 2nd
Luis J, Paris T. 2006. Incidence, patterns and determinants International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi,
of labor out-migration: results of village-level analysis in India. p 244.
Luzon, Philippines (ACIAR-funded labor migration Namuco OS, Johnson DE. 2006. Can early growth traits of
project). Paper presented at the Social Sciences Division, rice indicate competitiveness against weeds? In:
Oct 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines. Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13
Magor NP. 2006. Transferring complex technologies to Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 497.
farmers. Paper presented at the workshop on Improving Namuco OS, Mortimer AM, Migo TR, Johnson DE. 2006.
Agricultural Productivity in Rice-based Systems of the Toward understanding the role of water in weed manage-
High Barind Tract, Bangladesh, 4-5 Mar 2006, BRAC ment: weed growth and survival under submergence.
Centre, Dhaka, Bangladesh. Paper presented at the 37th Annual Scientific Conference
Mahata KR, Singh DP, Saha S, Ismail AM. 2006. Integrated of the Pest Management Council of the Philippines, 2-5
nutrient management for enhancing rice productivity in May 2006, Grand Regal Hotel, Davao City, Philippines.
coastal saline soils of eastern India. In: Abstracts of the Nargis, N, Hossain M. 2006. Pathways for poverty dynamics
2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New in Bangladesh, 1998-2004. Paper presented at the
Delhi, India. p 369. Symposium on Factors behind Poverty Dynamics: an
McNally KL. 2006. Targeted SNP discovery in rice. Paper Analysis of Panel Data from Village Studies, 26th
presented at C4: Supercharging the Rice Engine Conference of the International Association of Agricul-
Workshop, 17-21 Jul 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines. tural Economists, 12-18 Aug 2006, Gold Coast, Australia.
McNally KL, Naredo MEB, Wang H, Leung H. 2006. SNP Neeraja CN, Sakthivel K, Singh RK, Padmavati G, Sundram
discovery at candidate genes for drought tolerance. Paper RM, Balachandran SM, Mishra B. 2006. Screening of
presented at the Drought Frontier Project Planning salt-tolerant landraces of rice for natural variants of
Workshop, 2-6 Oct 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines. functional alleles. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International
McNally KL, Wang H, Naredo EB, Raghavan C, Atienza G, Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 245.
Leung H. 2006. EcoTILLING in rice. Paper presented at Nitta Y, Funtanilla M, Tatlonghari G, Yasunobu K. 2006. a
the Allele Mining and Genomic Diversity Workshop, primary factor of ISF collection fee: case study of Nueva

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 101


Ecija Province in the Philippines. Paper presented at the Paris T, Singh A, Singh RKP, Saha NK, Lakra V, Luis J.
Annual Academic Meeting of the Farm Management 2006. Labor outmigration, rural livelihood, and gender
Society of Japan, 19-23 Jan 2006, Kagoshima University, issues in eastern India. Paper presented at the 2nd
Japan. International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi,
Ordoñez SA, Baliuag NNA, dela Cruz IA, de Leon JC, India.
Redoña ED, Sebastian LS. 2006. Development and Paris T, Singh A, Singh VN, Ram PC. 2006. Mainstreaming
improvement of super restorer lines. In: Abstracts of the social and gender concerns in participatory rice varietal
19th National Rice R&D Conference, PhilRice, Muñoz, improvement for rainfed environments in eastern India.
Nueva Ecija. Paper presented at the International Symposium on
Palis FG. 2006. KAP surveys–an overview. Paper presented Participatory Breeding and Knowledge Management for
at the start-up workshop of the project on Integrated Strengthening Rural Livelihoods, 17-19 Jul 2006, M.S.
Ecologically Based Rodent Pest Management, 14-15 Feb Swaminathan Research Foundation, Chennai, India.
2006, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. Pasuquin JM, Witt C, Dobermann A, Buresh RJ. 2006.
Palis FG, Phengchang S, Hamilton RS. 2006. The in-situ Nutrient management in rice-maize systems of Asia.
conservation of rice farmers in the uplands of Laos: Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American
indigenous knowledge at work. Paper presented at the Society of Agronomy, 12-16 Nov 2006, Indianapolis, USA.
Annual Meeting of the Society of Applied Anthropology, Pathak H. 2006. Estimation and economic evaluation of
28 Mar-4 Apr 2006, Vancouver, Canada. greenhouse gas mitigation in rice-based agriculture.
Pampolino MF, Larazo WM, Alberto MCR, Buresh RJ. 2006. Paper presented at the Indian Science Congress, 3-7 Jan
Carbon and nitrogen cycling under rice-maize cropping. 2006, ANGRAU, Hyderabad, India.
Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Pathak H. 2006. Nitrogen fertilizer and global warming.
Society of Agronomy, 12-16 Nov 2006, Indianapolis, Paper presented at the workshop on Policy Options for
USA. Enhancing N Use Efficiency, 14-15 Mar 2006, Indian
Pampolino MF, Laureles EV, Gines HC, Buresh RJ. 2006. National Science Academy, New Delhi, India.
Long-term dynamics of soil carbon and nitrogen in Pathak H. 2006. Use of DNDC simulation model for
lowland rice cropping systems. Paper presented at the estimating greenhouse gas emission from Indian
9th Annual Meeting and Symposium of the Philippine agriculture. Paper presented at the Workshop on Nitro-
Society of Soil Science and Technology, 1-2 Jun 2006, Europe Project, 2-10 May 2006, Garmisch-Partenkirch-
Central Luzon State University, Nueva Ecija, Philippines. en, Germany.
Pandey S. 2006. Impact of rice research: overview and Pathak H, Ladha JK. 2006. Simulating water and nitrogen
challenges with emphasis on rainfed environments. interactions in the rice-wheat cropping systems. RCM on
Paper presented at the 2nd International Rice Congress, integrated soil, water, and nutrient management for
9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. sustainable rice-wheat cropping systems in Asia, 6-10
Pandey S, Bhandari HN, Ding S, Prapertchob P, Sharan R, Nov 2006, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Tech-
Naik D, Taunk SK, Sastri ASRAS. 2006. Coping with niques in Food and Agriculture, International Atomic
drought in rice farming in Asia: insights from a cross- Energy Agency, Vienna.
country comparative study. Paper presented at the 26th Pathak H, Ladha JK, Sahrawat YS, Gathala MK. 2006.
Conference of the International Association of Agricul- Quantitative evaluation of resource conservation
tural Economists, 12-18 Aug 2006, Gold Coast, Australia. technologies in rice-wheat system for productivity,
Paris T. 2006. Contributions of social science perspective in income, and environmental impact. In: Abstracts of the
rice research and technology development in eastern 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
India. Challenges and opportunities to make a differ- Delhi, India. p 473.
ence. Paper presented at the International Conference on Pathak H, Li C, Ladha JK, Wassman R. 2006. Nitrogen
Social Science Perspective in Agricultural Research and balance in the rice-wheat systems of the Indo-Gangetic
Development, 15-18 Feb 2006, New Delhi, India. Plains: simulation and upscaling using the DNDC model.
Paris T, Singh AJ, Delos Reyes-Cueno A. 2006. Helping poor In: Abstracts of the 2006 ASA/CSSA/SSSA annual
women farmers improve their livelihoods in rice areas meetings,12-16 Nov 2006, Indianapolis, USA.
suffering from sodicity: a case in eastern Uttar Pradesh. Peng S. 2006. Canopy characteristics related to sheath blight
In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, development in rice. Paper presented at the Planning
9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 548.

102 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Workshop on Nutrient and Pest Management in High- Reddy JN, Sarkar RK, Patniak SSC, Singh S, Atlin G, Mackill
production Rice Ecosystems in Southeast Asia, 10 Jan DJ, Ismail AM. 2006. Rice germplasm improvement for
2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines. submergence-prone lowlands in eastern India. In:
Peng S. 2006. Prospects for genetic improvement to increase Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13
lowland rice yields with less water and nitrogen. Paper Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 68.
presented at the International Workshop on Gene-Plant- Redoña ED. 2006. INGER 2005-2006: updates and the
Crop Relations, 23-26 Apr 2006, Wageningen, The proposed way forward. Paper presented at the 10th
Netherlands. Annual Meeting of the Council for Rice Research in Asia,
Ram PC, Singh PN, Singh VN, Singh U, Ismail A. 2006. 13-14 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India.
CNRM approach for breaking the yield barrier of flood- Redoña ED. 2006. Toward a more focused, effective, and
prone rice. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice client-sensitive Philippine Rice R&D agenda. In:
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 337. Abstracts of the 19th National Rice R&D Conference,
Ramos M. 2006. Discovering digital resources on the PhilRice, Muñoz, Nueva Ecija, Philippines.
WWW: e-books, e-journals, and open access databases. Redoña ED, Javier EL, Reaño RA, Toledo MCU, Alejar GPM,
Paper presented at the Library Management in a Nazareno FG. 2006. Development of regional sets of
Changing Environment: a National Conference, 4 May example varieties for test guidelines for rice. Paper
2006, Tagaytay Country Hotel, Tagaytay City, Philippines. presented at the 7th Asian Regional Technical Meeting
Ramos M. 2006. FAO’s Center for Agricultural Information for Plant Variety Protection, 6-11 Nov 2006, Kuala
Management Standards (with emphasis on metadata). Lumpur, Malaysia.
Paper presented at the Workshop on Retooling Librar- Regalado MJC, Cabardo CT, Dela Cruz JA, Ramos PS,
ians and Information Managers on Digital Resources, Borlagdan PC, Elepaño AR, Alojado DD Jr., Manalabe
Database Creation, and Management, 23-24 Feb 2006, RE. 2006. Pilot utilization of the PRPC batch recirculat-
Benguet State University, La Trinidad, Benguet, ing grain dryer. Paper presented at the 18th Department
Philippines. of Agriculture-Bureau of Agricultural Research National
Ramos M. 2006. The role of libraries and librarians in the Research Symposium, 4-5 Oct 2006, Quezon City,
21st century. Paper presented at the Forum on Library Philippines.
Advocacy: Making a Difference, 6 Dec 2006, Cavite, Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. Aligning genebank concepts
Philippines. with ICIS objects. Paper presented at the ICIS workshop,
Ramos M, delos Reyes N. 2006. Developing an online May 2006.
journal collection: prospects and problems at the Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. Beyond core collections:
International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) Library. strategies for allele mining within large collections.
Paper presented at the XIII Congress of Southeast Asian Paper presented at the Generation Challenge Program
Librarians, Mar 2006, Mandaluyong City, Philippines. Annual Review Meeting, 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo,
Ramos M, Laxamana E. 2006. Sharing digital resources in Brazil.
the millennium environment: the IRRI Library and Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. Biodiversity and sustainabil-
Documentation Service experience. Paper presented at ity. Paper presented at the workshop on The Impact of
the 7th Annual Hong Kong Innovative Users Group Rice Production on Environmental Sustainability:
Meeting, Dec 2006, Hong Kong. Development of Environmental Sustainability Indica-
Rao AN, Mortimer AM, Johnson DE, Sivaprasad B, Ladha tors, 13-14 Feb 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.
JK. 2006. Challenges and future research needs in weed Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. Implications of the ITPGRFA
management in direct-seeded rice. In: Abstracts of the for genebank management and international coopera-
2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New tion. Paper presented at the APEC Workshop on Effective
Delhi, India. p 533. Genebank Management for an Integrated System on
Rathore AL, Romyen P, Mazid AM, Pane H, Haefele SM, Sustainable Conservation and Utilization of Plant
Johnson DE. 2006. Challenges and opportunities of Genetic Resources in APEC Member Economies, June
direct seeding in rice-based rainfed lowlands in Asia. 2006, Korea.
Paper presented at the CURE Resource Management Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. Overview of developments in
Workshop, Mar 2006, Dhaka, Bangladesh. intellectual property management of plant genetic
resources and the role of Myanmar in future develop-

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 103


ments. Paper presented at the inaugural session of a 5- R, Bennett J. 2006. Drought-resistant rice: physiological
day workshop, 2-6 May 2006, Myanmar. framework for an integrated research strategy. Paper
Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. Strategies for allele mining presented at the Drought Frontier Project Planning
within large collections. Paper presented at CLIMA, Feb Workshop, 2-6 Oct 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines.
2006, Australia. Sheehy JE, Pablico P, Ferrer AB, Mabilangan AE, Delgado T.
Sackville Hamilton NR, Redoña ED. 2006. Intellectual 2006. Matching nitrogen supply to crop requirements at
property rights management in rice: germplasm high yields using a simple model. Paper presented at the
exchange and breeding. In: Abstracts of the 2nd Interna- 36th Scientific Conference of the Crop Science Society of
tional Rice Congress, New Delhi, India. the Philippines, 8-12 May 2006, Puerto Princesa City,
Saha S, Paris T, Singh DP, Mahata KR, Delos Reyes-Cueno Palawan, Philippines.
A, Sharma SG. 2006. Including gender analysis in Sherchan DP, Ranjit JD, Shrestha S, Guachan D, Regmi AP,
assessing the needs, constraints, and opportunities for Ladha JK. 2006. Improving the livelihood of the
improving the livelihoods of farming households in the Nepalese farmers through integrated crop and resource
coastline saline areas of Orissa. In: Abstracts of the 2nd management in the rice-wheat system in the hills of
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, Nepal. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice
India. p 542. Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 383.
Saharawat YS, Ladha JK, Gathala M, Pathak H, Mallik RK, Singh D, Atlin G, Ladha JK, Gupta RK, Singh A, Singh S.
Singh S. 2006. On-farm evaluation of resource needs in 2006. Selection of suitable rice genotypes for aerobic
weed management in direct-seeded rice. In: Abstracts of conditions in Indo-Gangetic Plains. In: Abstracts of the
the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
Delhi, India. p 571. Delhi, India. p 231.
Saharawat YS, Ladha JK, Pathak H, Gathala M. 2006. On- Singh D, Sirohi A, Atlin G, Gupta RK, Ladha JK. Singh S.
farm evaluation of conservation tillage and crop estab- 2006. Screening and estimation of parameters of rice
lishment for yield, income, and global warming potential genotypes under aerobic conditions. In: Abstracts of the
in rice-wheat system. Paper presented at the 2006 ASA/ 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New
CSSA/SSSA annual meetings, 12-16 Nov 2006, India- Delhi, India. p 225.
napolis, USA. Singh DP, Mahata KR, Saha S, Ismail AM. 2006. Crop
Samal P, Paris T. 2006. Baseline socioeconomic report on diversification options for rice-based cropping system for
accelerating technology adoption to improve rural higher land and water productivity in coastal saline areas
livelihoods in rice-rice flood prone ecosystems in Orissa. of eastern India. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International
Paper presented at the Social Sciences Division, Sep Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 475.
2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philippines. Singh HN, Pandey S, Lapitan A. 2006. Patterns of modern
Sarkar RK, Reddy JN, Sharma SG, Ismail AM. 2006. Impact rice variety adoption in rainfed areas and constraints to
of Sub1 QTL on plant survival and productivity of rice in their diffusion: empirical evidence from eastern Uttar
flood-prone areas and physiological bases of tolerance. Pradesh, India. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International
In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 43.
9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 221. Singh PN, Singh N, Singh RP, Singh U, Ismail A, Ram PC.
Sebastian LS, Redoña ED, Payumo JG. 2006. NARS capacity 2006. Improving health and productivity of sodic soils of
in relation to international treaties and conventions on Indo-Gangetic Plains. In: Abstracts of the 2nd Interna-
intellectual property rights, agricultural biotechnology, tional Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 349.
and plant genetic genetic resources management. In: Singh S, Bhushan L, Chhokar RS, Sharma RK, Ladha JK,
Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, New Gupta RK. 2006. Effect of cultural practices and
Delhi, India. p 145. herbicides on weeds in dry seeded rice (Oryza sativa L.).
Sen P, Mahata KR., Singh DP, Singh RK. 2006. Identification In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress,
of suitable salt-tolerant rice genotypes for coastal saline 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 527.
areas of eastern India. In: Abstracts of the 2nd Interna- Singh S, Mackill DJ, Ismail AM. 2006. Field performance of
tional Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. SwarnaSub1 introgression line under normal and
p 222. submerged conditions. In: Abstracts of the 2nd Interna-
Serraj R, Cairns J, Atlin G, Bernier J, Hong He, Liu DC, Li tional Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 237.
ZK, Brar D, McNally K, Leung H, Herve P. Bruskiewich

104 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Singh U, Ram PC, Singh PN, Singh N, Ismail A. 2006. Tuong TP. 2006. Brackish water coastal zones of the
Genetic variability in anti-oxidative defense system in monsoon tropics: challenges and opportunities. Paper
relation to submergence tolerance of lowland rice. In: presented at the international workshop on Natural
Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Resource Management for Poverty Reduction and
Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 250. Environmental Sustainability in Fragile Rice-based
Singh VN, Ram PC, Singh A, Paris T, Ismail A. 2006. Systems, 8-9 Mar 2006, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Germplasm improvement for submergence tolerance in Tuong TP. 2006. Water-wise management in rice produc-
rainfed lowland rice: a participatory approach. In: tion. Paper presented at the Vietnam-Irrigated Rice
Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Research Consortium Dialogue on Bridging Research
Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 189. and Extension for Better Natural Resource Management
Singh VP, Singh SP, Dhyani VC, Kumar A, Singh MK, in Irrigated Rice-based Cropping Systems, 24-25 Aug
Mortimer M, Johnson DE. 2006. The impact of crop 2006, Vietnam Agriculture Academy of Science, Ministry
establishment method on weed growth in the rice-wheat of Agriculture and Rural Development, Thanh Tri, Hanoi
rotation. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Vera Cruz CM, Castilla NP, Suwarno, Santoso, Hondrade E.
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 478-479. 2006. Strategies for disease management in the uplands.
Singh Y, Singh B, Ladha JK. 2006. Efficiency management Paper presented at the CURE Natural Resource Manage-
of nutrients in rice-based cropping systems in Asia. In: ment Workshop, 8-9 Mar 2006, Dhaka, Bangladesh.
Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 Vera Cruz CM, Han SS, Roh R, Cho YC, Carillo G, Kim BR,
Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 31. Hong YK, Kim YH, Yoon DW, Jung KH, Lee JY, McNally
Singh YP, Singh KN, Singh RK, Gautam RK. 2006. Identifi- K, Leach JE, Leung H. 2006. Functional genomics
cation of salt-tolerant and adaptable genotypes of rice approach to identification of broad-spectrum resistance
and wheat for sodic lands of the Indo-Gangetic plains. In: genes against rice blast. Paper presented at the RDA-
Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Congress, 9-13 IRRI Biennial Meeting, 26-27 Apr 2006, Suwon, Korea.
Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 248. Vera Cruz CM, Kim KY, Shin MS, Kim WJ, Noh TH, Ko JK,
Singleton GR. 2006. Overview of the Irrigated Rice Re- Lee JK. 2006. Development of Japonica cultivars with
search Consortium. Paper presented at the workshop on pyramided genes for resistance to bacterial blight. Paper
Site-specific Nutrient Management (SSNM) Technology presented at the RDA-IRRI Biennial Meeting, 26-27 Apr
Adoption and Extension in Rice Production, 1 Apr 2006, 2006, Suwon, Korea.
Beijing, China. Vera Cruz CM, Kobayashi N, Fukuta Y. 2006. Rice blast
Singleton G, Brown P, Sudarmaji, Tuan NP, Jacob J, Krebs C. situation, research in progress, needs and priorities:
2006. Ecologically based management to reduce rodent summary of results from a blast survey in 13 countries.
damage to lowland rice crops. Paper presented at the 2nd Paper presented at the Workshop on Differential System
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, for Blast Resistance for a Stable Rice Production
India. p 83. Environment, 29 Aug 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philip-
Sirohi A, Singh D, Gupta RK, Ladha JK, Sharma AK, pines.
Gathala MK. 2006. Selection of suitable varieties and Vera Cruz CM, Kobayashi N, Leung H. 2006. Collaboration
optimum seeding depth for mechanized cultivation of for rice blast research at IRRI. Paper presented at the
aerobic rice. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Workplan Meeting for JIRCAS Project on Blast Research
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 259. Network for Stable Rice Production, 30 Aug 2006, IRRI,
Thuy NH, Bijay-Singh, Shan Y, Cai Z, Buresh RJ. 2006. Mea- Los Baños, Philippines.
sured and simulated effects of crop residues on nitrogen Vera Cruz CM, Mercado E, Reveche MY, Chen J, Skinner D,
supply, soil organic matter, and yield in rice-based Carrillo G, Collard BCY, Bernardo M, William M, Xu Y.
systems. Paper presented at the 2nd International Rice 2006. Development of low-cost gene-based trait assay
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. technologies in cereals. Paper presented at the 2006
Tirol-Padre A, Ladha JK, Inubushi K, Bhandari AL, Regmi Generation Challenge Program Annual Review Meeting,
AP, Tsuchiya K. 2006. Evaluating effects or organic 12-16 Sep 2006, São Paulo, Brazil.
amendments on soil properties in three rice-wheat long- Vergara GV, Ella E, Holt D, Pamplona A, Heuer S, Mackill
term experiments. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International DJ, Ismail AM. 2006. Tolerance for flooding during
Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 479. germination in rice. In: Abstracts of the 8th Internation-

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 105


al Congress of Plant Molecular Biology, 20-25 Aug 2006 Witt C, Buresh RJ, Dobermann A, Jin Ji-Yun, Ladha JK.
Adelaide, Australia. p 134. 2006. Innovations for improving productivity and
Vergara GV, Pamplona AM, Septiningsih E, Maghirang- nutrient use efficiency in cereal systems of Asia. Paper
Rodriguez R, Sanchez D, Mackill DJ, Ismail AM, Heuer presented at the World Congress of Soil Science, 9-15 Jul
S. 2006. Analysis of Oryza sativa Sub1 transcription 2006, Philadelphia, USA.
factors in submergence-tolerant and -intolerant rice Wongsamun C, Paris T. 2006. Incidence, patterns and
accessions. Paper presented at the 2nd International Rice determinants of labor out-migration: results of village-
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. level analysis of northeast Thailand (ACIAR-funded
Virk P, Barry G, Bouis H. 2006. Genetic enhancement for the labor migration project). Paper presented at the Social
nutritional quality of rice. In: Abstracts of the 2nd Sciences Division, Oct 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philip-
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, pines.
India. p 22. Xie Fangming. 2006. Current status of hybrid rice develop-
Virk P, Peng S. 2006. C4 rice: plant breeder’s perspective. ment in tropical Asia. Paper presented at the Third
Paper presented at the workshop C4: Supercharging the National Japonica Hybrid Rice Conference, 12 Sep 2006,
Rice Engine, 17-21 Jul 2006, IRRI, Los Baños, Philip- Shenyang, China.
pines.
Wanchana S, Mauleon R, Ulat VJM, McNally K, Bennett J, Magazines and newsletters
Leung H, Heuer S, Vera Cruz C, Raveendran M, Ruiz M, Barclay A. 2006. The direct approach. Rice Today 5(2): 12-18.
Conte M, Courtois B, Satoh K, Doi K, Jayashree B, Bell M. 2006. It’s not all about the research. Rice Today 5(1):
Pereira A, Cosico A, Anacleto M, Echavez M, Manansala 38-39.
K, Yap JM, Gregorio S, Senger M, Kikuchi S, McLaren G, Bruskiewich R, Metz T, McLaren G. 2006. Bioinformatics
Bruskiewich R. 2006. Identifying stress-responsive and crop information systems in rice research. Int. Rice
genes in the Rice Annotation Project (RAP) Annotated Res. Notes 31(1):5-12.
Rice Genome using the Bioinformatics Platform of the Fanslow G. 2006. Balanced on a wing. Rice Today 5(3): 34-36.
Generation Challenge Program. Paper presented at the Fanslow G. 2006. False color gives a true impression. Rice
Rice Annotation Project 3 Workshop, 9-10 Dec 2006, Today 5(3): 14.
Tsukuba, Japan. Goloyugo J. 2006. Virtual challenges. Rice Today 5(3): 12.
Wang K, Lu HZ, Wang KF, Buresh RJ. 2006. Residue Hettel G. 2006. Claiming rice fields from wild rivers. Rice
management for improving soil fertility and sustainable Today 5(2): 19-21
productivity in China. Paper presented at the 2nd Hettel G. 2006. Tricks of the trade. Rice Today 5(3): 16-19.
International Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, Hossain M. 2006. Breeding rice for rainfed ecosystems. Rice
India. Today 5(3): 11.
Ward R, Gilbert R, Fitzgerald MA. 2006. Probable allelic Hossain M. 2006. Rice in Africa: can rice help reduce
variation in the Wxa locus of nonwaxy rice. Paper hunger and poverty in sub-Saharan Africa? Rice Today
presented at the 31st Rice Technical Working Group 5(1):41.
Meeting, Feb 2006, Texas, USA. Jena KK. 2006. Beating blast. Rice Today 5(1): 36-37.
Wassmann R, Dobermann A. 2006. Greenhouse gas Johnson D. 2006. Work needed to weed out farmers’
emissions from rice field: what do we know and where problems. Rice Today 5(2):38.
should we head for? Paper presented at the NIAES Johnson S. 2006. Are we at risk from metal contamination
International Symposium, Tsukuba, Japan. in rice? Rice Today 5(3): 38.
Weerakoon WMW, Wickramasinghe WMADB, Bandara Macintosh D. 2006. The gene revolution. Rice Today 5(1): 14-18
KMC, Mutunayake MP, Ladha JK. 2006. Constraints to Mackill DJ, Heuer S, Vergara G, Ismail A. 2006. From genes
maximize production and resource utilization efficien- to farmers’ fields. Rice Today 5(4): 28-30.
cies of direct seeded lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) in Sri Maclean J, Hettel G. 2006. Bringing hope, improving lives.
Lanka. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International Rice Rice Today 5(4): 10-15
Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 338. Pandey S, Bhandari HN. 2006. Drought perpetuates
Wissuwa M, Yanagihara S, Thomson M, Ismail AM. 2006. poverty. Rice Today 5(2):37.
Genetic factors contributing to tolerance for zinc Sackville Hamilton NR. 2006. How many varieties of rice
deficiency in rice. In: Abstracts of the 2nd International are there? Rice Today 5(4): 50.
Rice Congress, 9-13 Oct 2006, New Delhi, India. p 63.

106 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Serraj R, Cairns J. 2006. Diagnosing drought. Rice Today Community Seminar Series, 28 Mar, Asian Development
5(3): 32-33. Bank, Manila.
Shires D. 2006. Training for greater impact. Rice Today 5(1): Ismail AM. 2006. Germplasm and natural resource
42. management for enhanced rice production in flood-prone
Singh RK, Mishra B, Gregorio GB. 2006. CSR 23–new salt- agroecosystems. Presented at ICFORD, Bogor, Indonesia,
tolerant rice variety for India. Int. Rice Res. Notes 31(1): 24 Aug.
16-18. Peng S. 2006. How to write and publish a SCI paper.
Templeton DJ. 2006. Do rice prices affect malnutrition in Presented at Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan,
the poor? Rice Today 5(3):37. China, 31 May.
Van Mele P, Salahuddin A, Magor NP. 2006. Innovations in Peng S. 2006. Prospects for genetic improvement to increase
project documentation. Rural Dev. News 1:39-45. lowland rice yields with less water and nitrogen.
Presented at the Anhui Academy of Agricultural
Others Sciences, Hefei, China, 29 Aug.
Azmi M, Johnson D. 2006. Be aware of weedy rice in Asia. Peng S. 2006. Recent advancement and hot topics of IRRI’s
Los Baños (Philippines): International Rice Research research. Presented at Chiayi University, Chiayi, Taiwan,
Institute. 19 Apr.
Fukuta Y, Araki E, Ebron LA, Cuevas RP, Mercado-Escueta Tuong TP. 2006. Combating water scarcity and environment
D, Khush GS, Sheehy JE, Tsunematsu H, Kato H. 2006. degradation: real time N management in water-saving
Identification of low tiller gene in two rice varieties, irrigation of rice. Presented at the Honam Agricultural
Aikawa 1 and Shuho of rice (Oryza sativa L.). JIRCAS Research Institute, 28 Apr.
Work. Rep. 46: 86-92.
Fukuta Y, Ebron LA, Araki E, Kobayashi S, Uga Y, Mercado- Thursday rice research seminars (http://Bulletin.irri.
Escueta D, Sheehy JE, Tsunematsu H, Kato H, Imbe T, cgiar.org)
Santos REM, Khush GS. 2006. Development of isogenic Effects of consuming biofortified rice on human iron status:
lines including unique agricultural traits with elite the facts behind the trends. Dr. Angelina Felix, Institute
indica-type varieties, IR64 and IR72, genetic back- of Human Nutrition and Food, College of Human
grounds. JIRCAS Work. Rep. 46: 85. Ecology, University of the Philippines Los Baños.
Gregorio GB, Haas JD. 2006. Nutritional revolution in rice: The IRRI-CIMMYT Crop Research Informatics Lab. Dr.
a new scientific challenge. Nestle Foundation. Graham McLaren.
Targets and priorities for biodiversity conservation in
Seminars natural and agricultural landscapes. Dr. Thomas Brooks,
Barry G. 2006. Advances in the development of biofortified The Conservation Synthesis Department, Center for
rice. Presented at the Progress on the Development of Applied Biodiversity, Science Conservation International.
Golden Rice and other Biofortified Rice Seminar, 14 Jul, Surprising consequences of putting architecture into crop
National University of Singapore, Singapore. models: developmental biology provides concepts for
Barry G. 2006. Biofortified rice: status of the development of enhancing crop growth. Dr. Michael Dingkuhn, French
Golden Rice and higher iron and zinc rice. Presented at Agricultural Research Centre for International Develop-
the University of Tokyo, 11 Dec, Tokyo, Japan. ment (CIRAD), France.
Brar DS. 2006. Broadening the gene pool of rice for toler- IRRI information products as global public goods. Dr.
ance to biotic and abiotic stresses through introgression Thomas Metz.
of genes from wild species. Presented at the Bangladesh Simulation of plant breeding programs. Prof. Ian DeLacy,
Rice Research Institute, Gazipur, Bangladesh, 22 Oct. School of Land and Food Sciences, University of
Brar DS. 2006. Wide hybridization and alien gene introgres- Queensland.
sion for rice improvement. Presented at the Cuu Long Isolation of agriculturally important genes and their
Delta Rice Research Institute, Omon, Cantho, Vietnam, utilization for rice breeding. Dr. Moto Ashikari, BioSci-
22 Sep. ence and Biotechnology Center, Nagoya University,
Gummert M, Rickman J. 2006. Reducing postharvest losses Japan.
and adding value to farmers’ grain crops. Presentation Insect immune defenses. Dr. Norman A. Ratcliffe, personal
given at the Agriculture and Natural Resource Sector chair, University of Wales, Swansea, UK.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 107


The Australian rice industry: a grower’s perspective. Dr. Possibility of abiotic factors on the gradual yield decline
Leigh Vial, Australian rice farmer. under continuous aerobic rice cropping system. Dr. Yuka
Applications of thermal imaging in plant stress physiology. Sasaki, Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University,
Prof. Hamlyn Jones, University of Dundee, Scotland. Japan.
Transgenic breeding for biotic and abiotic stresses: the Nitrogen cycle in a tropical watershed with predominant
Indonesian experience. Dr. Inez H. Slamet-Loedin. land use of paddy field. Dr. Sho Shiozawa, Department of
IRRI’s strategic plan for 2007-2015: what we did and what Biological and Environmental Engineering, Graduate
we produced. Dr. Robert S. Zeigler. School of Agriculture and Life Sciences, The University
QA at IRRI: reflections and directions. Dr. Edgar F. Paski, of Tokyo, Japan.
British Columbia Institute of Technology, Burnaby, B.C., Yield performance of hybrid and NPT rice varieties. Dr.
Canada. Woon-Ho Yang.
Green Revolution in the mountains of Vietnam: old or new Recent research in rice-based cropping systems in India:
recipes. Dr. Francois Affholder, agronomist/Cropping aerobic rice, SSNM, rice-maize and more. Dr. S.K.
System Diagnosis and Modelling SAM, VASI-NOMARC/ Sharma, Project Directorate of Cropping Systems
IRRI/CIRAD/IRAD Project. Research, India.
The role of the general public in national development–why Rice resistance to insect pests: old challenges and new
a country needs good citizens. Atty. Alexander Lacson, directions. Dr. Yolanda Chen.
MALCOLM Law Office, Makati, Metro Manila. Update on IRRI-CIMMYT Alliance for rice-maize produc-
Genomic approach for the improvement of water and tion systems. Dr. Roland Buresh.
nutrient use efficiency in rice. Dr. Huixia Shou, College of Drought resistance in rice: insights toward an integrated
Life Science, Zheijiang Univeristy, China. crop improvement strategy. Dr. Rachid Serraj.
Yield gaps in irrigated rice: experiences from long-term Lodging characteristics and crop management for improv-
experiments and implications for future research. Dr. ing lodging resistance of hybrid rice. Mr. Md Sirajul
Roland J. Buresh. Islam.
ALARM–a system to assess risks to biodiversity loss. Dr. Effect of blue green algae (Nostoc sp.) on soil characteristics,
Josef Settele, UFZ, Centre for Environmental Research, plant growth, and nutrient uptake. Mr. Shohei Obana,
Germany. Chiba University, Japan.
Improving performance in water-limited environments– Methane production and community structure of methano-
maintenance of growth under stress. Dr. Jill Cairns. genic archae in Indonesian paddy soil. Mr. Tsubasa
Submerged at IRRI: development of water-proof rice. Dr. Shimonishi, Chiba University, Japan.
David J. Mackill. Cotton resistance to bacterial blight. Dr. Michel Nicole,
The BiOS Initiative: biological open source; patent transpar- Research Unit–Plant Resistance to Pathogens, Institut de
ency and distributive innovation for the future of recherche pour le développement, Montpellier, France.
agricultural research. Dr. Richard Jefferson, CEO, Yield failure of aerobic rice and the possible role of root-knot
CAMBIA, Australia. nematodes and fungal pathogens. Dr. Christine Kreye.
Breeding rice cultivars for water-limited environments: Rice nematodes: fundamentals and recent advances. Dr.
progress and prospects. Dr. Gary Atlin. Georges Reversat.
Ecosystem services as a framework for agriculture and
resource management. Dr. Steven Cork, EcoInsights, Entomology and Plant Pathology
Canberra, Australia. IPM in rice mixtures and rice-vegetable cropping systems.
Submergence tolerance: physiology of water-proof rice. Dr. Dr. Karen Garrett, Kansas State University, USA.
Abdel Ismail.
Submergence tolerance: molecular mechanisms in water- Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology
proof rice. Dr. Sigrid Heuer. QTL mapping and identification of beneficial alleles from
Oryza rufipogon. Dr. Endang Septiningsih.
Division seminars Evolution of rice invertase gene family and its regulation
Crop and Environmental Sciences under drought stress. Dr. Xuemei Ji.
Phenotyping with plant/crop growth models–new needs for A rice gene activation/knockout mutant library and its
new scientific challenges: case of Ecomeristem model. utilization in beeding. Dr. Yue-le Hsing, Academia Sinica,
Dr. Delphine Luquet, CIRAD, France. Taiwan.

108 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


A tour from mapping QTLs, comparative genomics, artificial Genetic studies for resistance to green rice leafhopper
micro RNAs and back. Dr. Norman Warthmann, Max (Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler) in rice. Dr. Daisuke Fujita.
Planck Institute, Germany. Transgenic approaches for enhancing nutritional quality of
Biotechnological strategies to manipulate micronutrients in rice. Dr. Gerard Barry.
rice. Dr. Susanna Poletti, ETH Zurich, Switzerland.
Detecting useful QTLs quickly and cheaply. Dr. Gary Atlin. Social Sciences
Breeding rice for drought tolerance: response to selection Channels of agricultural innovations within a structured
and QTL identification. Dr. Arvind Kumar. space. Dr. Florencia Palis.
Marker-assisted salinity tolerance breeding: validation of Project research evaluation and impact assessment: the
Saltol QTL in rice. Mr. Rafiqul Islam. dream model. Dr. Deborah Templeton and Ms. Lorena
Mapping QTLs for cold tolerance in rice. Dr. Hee-Jong Koh, Villano.
Seoul National University, Korea. Trends of poverty in rural Bangladesh, 1988-2004: Objec-
Rice LTR retrotransposons: their impact on genome tive estimates and people’s perception. Dr. Mahabub
structure, expression, and evolution. Dr. Olivier Panaud, Hossain.
University of Perpignan, France. New wine in an old bottle. Dr. Monina Escalada.
Breeding for yield under drought stress in rice: response to Transforming research to benefit millions: the case of the
selection and allele effects. Dr. Venuprasad Ramaiah. Three Reductions–Three Gains Program in Vietnam. Dr.
Transbacker: open source gene transfer technology in rice. K.L. Heong.
Mr. Richard Jefferson, CEO, CAMBIA, Australia. Impact of micro-credit on the livelihood of the poor: the case
Molecular understanding of drought responses in rice. Dr. of the Center for Agriculture and Rural Development
Muthurajan Raveendran. (CARD) in the Philippines. Ms. Mary Charlotte Hanley,
World Food Prize intern, Xavier High School, Iowa.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 109


Staff Changes in 2006

January
Dr. Rachid Serraj joined as senior scientist, crop physiology, Mr. Orlando Santos, consultant, Office of the Deputy
Crop, Soil, and Water Sciences Division. Director General for Partnerships, died.
Mr. Ian Wallace, director for administration and human Dr. Humnath Bhandari, visiting research fellow, Social
resources, left. Sciences Division, left after completion of his assignment.
Dr. Samart Wanchana joined as postdoctoral fellow,
Biometrics and Bioinformatics Unit. February
Dr. Madhusudan S. Kundu joined as consultant, Social Dr. Hari Gurung joined as international research fellow
Sciences Division. (farming systems), Social Sciences Division.
Dr. Bijay Singh joined as consultant, Crop, Soil, and Water Dr. Rubenito Lampayan joined as postdoctoral fellow, Crop,
Sciences Division. Soil, and Water Sciences Division.
Dr. Joong-Hyoun Chin joined as visiting research fellow, Mr. Yong-Hee Jeon, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division. Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
Dr. Binying Fu joined as visiting research fellow, Plant tion of his assignment.
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division. Dr. Jung-Phil Suh joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
Mr. San-Jin Han joined as consultant, Plant Breeding, Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left after Dr. Jae-Hwan Roh joined as visiting research fellow,
completion of his assignment. Entomology and Plant Pathology Division.
Mr. Woo-Tack Hyun joined as consultant, Plant Breeding, Dr. Walter Roeder joined as consultant, Lao-IRRI project.
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left after Dr. Jeong-Eung Gi joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
completion of his assignment. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Dr. Manoranjan K. Mondal joined as postdoctoral fellow, Dr. Hatsadong joined as consultant, Lao-IRRI project.
Crop, Soil, and Water Sciences Division. Dr. Yongming Gao, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
Dr. Yuichiro Furukawa joined as project scientist, Crop, Soil, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
and Water Sciences Division. tion of his assignment.
Mr. Doh-Won Yun, visiting research fellow, Entomology and Dr. Young-Chan Cho, visiting research fellow, Entomology
Plant Pathology Division, left after completion of his and Plant Pathology Division, left after completion of his
assignment. assignment.
Prof. Guoan Lu, visiting research fellow, Crop, Soil, and Dr. Yuka Sasaki, project scientist, Crop, Soil, and Water
Water Sciences Division, left after completion of his Sciences Division, left after completion of her assign-
assignment. ment.

110 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Dr. Bijay Singh, consultant, Crop, Soil, and Water Sciences Mr. Michael Janich joined as consultant, Crop Research
Division, left after completion of his assignment. Informatics Laboratory, and left after completion of his
assignment.
March Dr. Zoe Lawson joined as visiting research fellow, Genetic
Dr. Inez H. Slamet-Loedin joined as shuttle scientist, Resources Center.
Intellectual Property Management Unit. Dr. Jian-Long Xu joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
Dr. Zahirul Islam joined as international research fellow, Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Social Sciences Division Mr. A.K.M. Alamgir Chowdhury, consultant, Social Sciences
Dr. Seepana Appa Rao joined as consultant, Genetic Division, left after completion of his assignment.
Resources Center. Dr. Jin-Il Choung, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
Dr. Florencia Palis joined as postdoctoral fellow, Entomology Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
and Plant Pathology Division. tion of his assignment.
Mr. Geert Claessens joined as consultant, Agricultural Dr. Kyu-Seong Lee, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
Engineering Unit. Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
Mr. A.K.M. Alamgir Chowdhury joined as consultant, Social tion of his assignment.
Sciences Division. Mr. O-Young Jeong, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
Mr. Sam Bona joined as consultant, Agricultural Engineer- Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
ing Unit. tion of his assignment.
Ms. Fatema Zohora joined as consultant, Social Sciences Mr. Jong-Cheol Ko, collaborative research fellow, Plant
Division. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after
Dr. Walter Roeder, consultant, Lao-IRRI project, left after completion of his assignment.
completion of his assignment. Dr. Madhusudan S. Kundu, consultant, Social Sciences
Dr. Jung-Hoon Kang, visiting research fellow, Plant Division, left after completion of his assignment.
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after Dr. Binying Fu, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
completion of his assignment. Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
Ms. Karen McAllister joined as consultant, Lao-IRRI tion of his assignment.
project, and left after completion of her assignment.
Dr. Hatsadong, consultant, Lao-IRRI project, left after May
completion of his assignment. Dr. Benjamin Samson joined as scientist, agronomy, for the
Mr. Chang-Sik Oh, collaborative research fellow, Plant Highland Systems of the Greater Mekong Subregion,
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after Crop, Soil, and Water Sciences Division.
completion of his assignment. Dr. Kei Kajisa joined as scientist, agricultural economics,
Dr. Jung-Phil Suh, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding, Social Sciences Division.
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple- Dr. Inez H. Slamet-Loedin, shuttle scientist, Intellectual
tion of his assignment. Property Management Unit, left after completion of her
appointment.
April Dr. Hao Chen joined as postdoctoral fellow, Plant Breeding,
Mr. Abu Nasar Md. Mahfuzur Rahman joined as consultant, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division
Social Sciences Division. Mr. Jonas Rune joined as consultant, Crop, Soil, and Water
Dr. Madhusudan S. Kundu, consultant, Social Sciences Sciences Division.
Division, left after completion of his assignment. Dr. Daisuke Fujita joined as project scientist, Plant Breeding,
Dr. Len Wade joined as consultant, Crop, Soil, and Water Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Sciences Division. Dr. Bertrand Collard, postdoctoral fellow, Plant Breeding,
Dr. Zenaida Sumalde joined as consultant, Social Sciences Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, resigned.
Division. Dr. Chitra Raghavan, postdoctoral fellow, Entomology and
Dr. David Edwards joined as consultant, Crop Research Plant Pathology Division, resigned.
Informatics Laboratory, and left after completion of his Dr. Phan Hieu Hien joined as consultant, Agricultural
assignment. Engineering Unit.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 111


Dr. Hong-Kyu Park joined as visiting research fellow, Crop, Mr. Ahmad Salahuddin joined as consultant, International
Soil, and Water Sciences Division. Programs Management Office.
Dr. Edgar Paski joined as consultant, Crop, Soil, and Water Dr. Dongcheng Liu joined as visiting research fellow, Crop
Sciences Division. and Environmental Sciences Division.
Dr. Zenaida Sumalde, consultant, Social Sciences Division, Dr. Huixia Shou joined as consultant, Plant Breeding, Genet-
left after completion of her appointment. ics, and Biotechnology Division.
Mr. James Denver joined as consultant, Operations Manage-
June ment.
Dr. Peter Mitchell joined as consultant, Crop and Environ- Mr. Nguyen Van Doan joined as consultant, Grain Quality,
mental Sciences Division. Nutrition, and Postharvest Center.
U Ba Hein joined as consultant, International Programs Mr. Vu Cong Khanh joined as consultant, Grain Quality,
Management Office. Nutrition, and Postharvest Center.
Dr. Nigar Nargis joined as consultant, Social Sciences Ms. Ho Thi Tuyet joined as consultant, Grain Quality,
Division. Nutrition, and Postharvest Center.
Dr. Bhanudeb Bagchi joined as consultant, Social Sciences Mr. Oeun Sophath, consultant, Grain Quality, Nutrition, and
Division. Postharvest Center, left after completion of his assign-
Dr. Edgar Paski, consultant, Crop and Environmental ment.
Sciences Division, left after completion of his assign- Dr. Nigar Nargis, consultant, Social Sciences Division, left
ment. after completion of her assignment.
Dr. Eufemio Rasco, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding, Dr. Arvind Kumar, postdoctoral fellow, Plant Breeding,
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple- Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
tion of his assignment. tion of his assignment.
Dr. Jeom-Ho Lee, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding, Dr. Jian-Long Xu, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple- Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
tion of his assignment. tion of his assignment.
Mr. Shabaz Mustaq, consultant, Social Sciences Division, Ms. May Ann Sallan, consultant, Crop Research Informatics
left after completion of his assignment. Laboratory, left after completion of her assignment.
Dr. Liu Bin, postdoctoral fellow, Plant Breeding, Genetics, Ms. Yoke Sau Metz, consultant, Training Center, left after
and Biotechnology Division, left after completion of his completion of her assignment.
assignment. Mr. Tim Overett, consultant, Information Technology
Mr. Jonas Rune, consultant, Crop and Environmental Services, left after completion of his assignment.
Sciences Division, left after completion of his assign- Dr. Peter Mitchell, consultant, Crop and Environmental
ment. Sciences Division, left after completion of his assign-
Ms. Fatema Zohora, consultant, Social Sciences Division, ment.
left after completion of her assignment. Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam joined as visiting research fellow,
Mr. Oeun Sophath joined as consultant, Grain Quality, Social Sciences Division.
Nutrition, and Postharvest Center.
Ms. May Ann Sallan joined as consultant, Crop Research August
Informatics Laboratory. Mr. Joseph F. Rickman, senior scientist and head, Agricul-
Mr. Cao Van Hung joined as consultant, Grain Quality, tural Engineering, and acting head, Operations Manage-
Nutrition, and Postharvest Center. ment, appointed as IRRI representative in East and
Southern Africa Region and leader, Program 3.
July Mr. Terry Jacobsen joined as head, Operations Management.
Dr. Jill Cairns, postdoctoral fellow, Crop and Environmental Dr. Edwin L. Javier, senior scientist, plant breeding and
Sciences Division, resigned and then was appointed coordinator, INGER, Plant Breeding, Genetics and
international research fellow in the same division. Biotechnology Division, left after completion of his
Dr. Damien Jourdain joined as senior scientist, agricultural assignment.
economics, Social Sciences Division. Dr. Vethaiya Balasubramanian, senior scientist, agronomy,
Dr. Dule Zhao joined as postdoctoral fellow, Plant Breeding, Training Center, retired.
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.

112 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Dr. Francois Affholder, IRS seconded from CIRAD, left after Dr. Susanna Poletti joined as postdoctoral fellow, Plant
completion of his assignment. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Dr. Usha Palaniswamy joined as visiting research fellow, Dr. Un-Sang Yeo joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
Social Sciences Division, and left after completion of her Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left
assignment. after completion of his assignment.
Dr. Sant S. Virmani joined as consultant, Plant Breeding, Dr. Young-Seop Shin joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left
Dr. Hong-Kyu Park, visiting research fellow, Crop and after completion of his assignment.
Environmental Sciences Division, left after completion of Dr. Jeong-Kwon Nam joined as visiting research fellow,
his assignment. Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division,
Mr. James Denver, consultant, Operations Management, left and left after completion of his assignment.
after completion of his assignment. Mr. Jonas Rune rejoined as consultant, Crop and Environ-
Dr. Abdul Bayes joined as consultant, Social Sciences mental Sciences Division.
Division. Dr. Xiaoli Sun joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
Dr. V. Balasubramanian joined as consultant, International Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Programs Management Office. Dr. Deepinder Grewal joined as visiting research fellow,
Dr. Hong-Soo Choi joined as visiting research fellow, Plant Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left Dr. Yongming Gao rejoined as visiting research fellow, Plant
after completion of his assignment. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Dr. Minu Joseph joined as postdoctoral fellow, Plant Dr. Sant S. Virmani, consultant, Plant Breeding, Genetics,
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division. and Biotechnology Division, left after completion of his
Ms. Daniele Marechal, consultant, Grain Quality, Nutrition, assignment.
and Postharvest Center, left after completion of her Dr. S. Appa Rao, consultant, Genetic Resources Center, left
assignment. after completion of his assignment.
Dr. Bhanudeb Bagchi, consultant, Social Sciences Division,
September left after completion of his assignment.
Dr. Edilberto Redoña joined as senior scientist, plant Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam, visiting research fellow, Social
breeding and coordinator, INGER, Plant Breeding, Sciences Division, left after completion of his assign-
Genetics and Biotechnology Division. ment.
Dr. Mohammed Zainul Abedin joined as IRRI representative Dr. Huixia Shou, consultant, Plant Breeding, Genetics, and
in Bangladesh and leader, FoSHoL. Biotechnology Division, left after completion of her
Dr. Reiner Wassmann joined as coordinator of Rice and assignment.
Climate Change Consortium, Crop and Environmental
Sciences Division. October
Dr. Elizabeth Humphreys joined as international research Dr. Zhao Ming joined as part-time liaison scientist for China,
fellow and leader for Theme 1 of the Challenge Program International Programs Management Office.
on Water and Food. Dr. Noel Magor was appointed head of the Training Center.
Dr. Kaijun Zhao, liaison scientist for China, International Mr. Chua Gia Thuy joined as consultant, Crop and Environ-
Programs Management Office, left after completion of mental Sciences Division.
his assignment. Dr. Abdul Bayes, consultant, Social Sciences Division, left
Mr. Nguyen Nang Nhuong joined as consultant, Grain after completion of his assignment.
Quality, Nutrition, and Postharvest Center. Dr. Joong-Hyoun Chin, visiting research fellow, Plant
Mr. Tim Overett rejoined as consultant, Information Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, resigned
Technology Services. and then rejoined as postdoctoral fellow in the same
Mr. Duncan Graham joined as consultant, Communication division.
and Publications Services, and left after completion of Dr. Steven Cork joined as consultant, Crop and Environmen-
his assignment. tal Sciences Division.
Dr. Ramil Mauleon joined as postdoctoral fellow, Crop Dr. Shengxiang Tang joined as consultant, Plant Breeding,
Research Informatics Laboratory. Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 113


Dr. Yunlong Xia joined as consultant, Genetic Resources Mr. Khuon Kompheak joined as consultant, Grain Quality,
Center. Nutrition, and Postharvest Center.
Dr. Jingsheng Zheng, postdoctoral fellow, Crop and Environ- Dr. Subir Kumar Bardhan Roy joined as visiting research
mental Sciences Division, left after completion of his fellow, Social Sciences Division.
assignment.
Mr. Chua Gia Thuy, consultant, Crop and Environmental December
Sciences Division, left after completion of his assign- Mr. Paul O’Nolan, IT adviser to the director general, left
ment. after completion of his assignment.
Dr. Zoe Lawson, visiting research fellow, Genetic Resources Dr. Monina Escalada, international research fellow,
Center, left after completion of her assignment. development communications, Social Sciences Division,
Dr. Md. Rafiqul Islam, visiting research fellow, Social left after completion of her assignment.
Sciences Division, left after completion of his assign- Mr. Isaiah Mukema, international research fellow, GIS
ment. specialist, Genetic Resources Center, left after comple-
tion of his assignment.
November Dr. Impa Somayanda joined as postdoctoral fellow, Plant
Mr. Hector V. Hernandez joined as head of Human Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Resources Services, Office of the Director for Manage- Dr. Olivier Panaud joined as collaborative research scientist,
ment Services. Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Mr. Paul O’Nolan, head of Information Technology Services, Dr. Jong-Hee Lee joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
left after completion of his assignment and then was Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
appointed IT adviser to the director general. Ms. Subramaniam Geethanjali joined as collaborative
Mr. Marco van den Berg joined as head of Information research fellow, Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotech-
Technology Services. nology Division.
Dr. Gary Atlin, senior scientist, plant breeding, Plant Mr. Young-Bok Lee joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
Breeding, Genetics and Biotechnology Division, resigned. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left
Dr. Kyeong-Ha Kang, visiting research fellow, Social after completion of his assignment.
Sciences Division, left after completion of his assign- Mr. Kwang-Sub Yoon joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
ment. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left
Dr. Binying Fu rejoined as visiting research fellow, Plant after completion of his assignment.
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division. Mr. Prom Chan Rasmey joined as consultant, Grain Quality,
Dr. Kyu-Seong Lee rejoined as visiting research fellow, Plant Nutrition, and Postharvest Center.
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left Dr. Min-Kyu Choi joined as visiting research fellow, Plant
after completion of his assignment. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, and left
Dr. Myung-Kyu Oh joined as visiting research fellow, Plant after completion of his assignment.
Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division. Dr. Sang-Su Kim joined as visiting research fellow, Crop and
Mr. Robert Hill joined as consultant, Visitors and Informa- Environmental Sciences Division, and left after comple-
tion Services. tion of his assignment.
Mr. Diwan Gupta joined as visiting research fellow, Social Mr. O-Young Jeong rejoined as visiting research fellow, Plant
Sciences Division. Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division.
Dr. V. Balasubramanian, consultant, International Programs Dr. Zenaida Sumalde rejoined as consultant, Social Sciences
Management Office, left after completion of his assign- Division.
ment. Dr. Subir Kumar Bardhan Roy, visiting research fellow,
Mr. Oeun Sophath rejoined as consultant, Grain Quality, Social Sciences Division, left after completion of his
Nutrition, and Postharvest Center. assignment.
Dr. Muthurajan Raveendran, visiting research fellow, Crop Mr. Diwan Gupta, visiting research fellow, Social Sciences
Research Informatics Laboratory, left after completion of Division, left after completion of his assignment.
his assignment. Dr. Yongming Gao, visiting research fellow, Plant Breeding,
Dr. Mark Bell joined as consultant, International Programs Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, left after comple-
Management Office, and left after completion of his tion of his assignment.
assignment.

114 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


Dr. Nguyen Hong Thuy, postdoctoral fellow, Crop and Ms. Alma Redillas-Dolot, consultant, Office of the Director
Environmental Sciences Division, left after completion of for Program Planning and Communications, left after
her assignment. completion of her assignment.
Mr. Geert Claessens, consultant, Agricultural Engineering Dr. Tapash Biswas, postdoctoral fellow, International
Unit, left after completion of his assignment. Programs Management Office, left after completion of
Mr. Martin Senger, consultant, Crop Research Informatics his assignment.
Laboratory, left after completion of his assignment. Dr. Phan Hieu Hien, consultant, Grain Quality, Nutrition,
Mr. Jonas Rune, consultant, Crop and Environmental and Postharvest Center, left after completion of his
Sciences Division, left after completion of his assignment
assignment.
Dr. Shengxiang Tang, consultant, Plant Breeding, Genetics,
and Biotechnology Division, left after completion of his
assignment.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 115


Research support services

ANALYTICAL SERVICE LABORATORIES


ASL Table 2. Profile of samples and analyses completed in 2006, by OU.

As the centralized analytical service facility for the Institute, OU Samples (no.) Percent Analyses (no.) Percent

the Analytical Service Laboratories (ASL) continues to CESD 17,806 82.98 44,778 80.73
provide routine analyses in plant, soil, and water samples to PBGB 2,983 13.90 8,785 15.84
various clients within IRRI and outside collaborators and to GQNPC 50 0.23 140 0.25
SSS 4 0.02 4 0.01
UPLB. It also provides liaison-related services to projects IPMO 72 0.34 72 0.13
involving use of radioactive materials. ICRAF 61 0.28 61 0.11
UPLB 451 2.10 1,591 2.87
PHILSURIN 32 0.15 32 0.06
Analytical services
ASL completed a total of 55,463 analyses for routine plant, Total 21,459 100.00 55,463 100.00
soil, and water samples. Plant samples accounted for 65% of
the completed analyses with N, Fe, and Zn as the most
requested determinations (ASL Table 1). About 83 % of the Nutrition, and Postharvest Center (GQNPC), Safety and
total samples received came from Crop and Environmental Security Services (SSS), International Programs Management
Sciences Division (CESD); the rest came from Plant Breeding, Office (IPMO), World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Univer-
Genetics, and Biotechnology Division (PBGB), Grain Quality, sity of the Phillipines Los Banos (UPLB), and the Philippine
Sugar Research Institute (PHILSURIN) (ASL Table 2).

Laboratory information management system


ASL Table 1. Analyses completed in 2006.
Information management and automated data processing are
Analysis ASL Section Total Percent important functions of ASL. A commercial laboratory

information management system (LIMS) is very expensive
PSLa MSLb
and requires significant customization for the type of work
Plant 28,646 7,633 36,279 65.41 done at ASL. The cost of a commercial system would easily
Soil 14,919 1,068 15,987 28.82 exceed several hundred thousand dollars and this may greatly
Water 3,197 0 3,197 5.76
exceed potential benefits. The ASL LIMS project with the
Total 46,762 8,701 55,463 100.00 UPLB-FI through the Institute of Computer Science devel-
oped a new ASL LIMS web site at http://swsdsrv1/lims/index.
a
Plant and Soil Laboratory. bMass Spectrometry Laboratory.
jsp. ASL clients are now provided with a web application that
manages all information and requests related to their

116 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


experiments. ASL clients can send online requests for
Client submits a request1 ASL approves
analysis, facilities, and services as well as submit sample (disapproves) the
information that will be used in processing and tracking the request
status of their requests. LIMS uses an email notification
system to alert both ASL and clients on any changes in ASL checks and assigns
Client submits sample
request status. an ASL number to each
information online
sample and a reference
The chart at right shows the steps involved in processing a
number to each request
request for analysis. LIMS requires that all clients register for
an account to avail of ASL’s online services. When making Client submits physical
Analysis proper2
samples to ASL2
requests for sample analysis, the client submits a request
using his/her account. ASL reviews and approves the request ASL technician submits
online. Once the request is approved, the client submits run results to LIMS
Client downloads results
sample information online and physical samples are sent to
ASL for analysis. Chemical processes then begin in the ASL researcher
respective laboratories. Once analyses are done, results are reviews results
submitted by the technician in a format suitable for LIMS for
review and assessment of quality of results by a researcher.
ASL manager reviews
The ASL manager does the final review and approval.
and approves run results
Afterward, LIMS processes the results and saves the data for 1
Client must register for an
the online data retrieval system (DRS). Clients are notified of ASL account to enable
the availability of their results, which can be downloaded him/her to submit a request. LIMS DRS processes
2
Done outside of LIMS. approved results
using their accounts.

New inductively coupled argon plasma LIMS DRS notifies


As endorsed by the Advisory Committee (AC), through the client through email
recommendations of the ASL resource person, Dr. Sarah
The process of analysis using LIMS.
Johnson-Beebout, and the ASL ICP Selection Committee, ASL
purchased a new Perkin Elmer Optima 5300 dual-view
inductively coupled argon plasma (ICP) in November 2006 ent analysis with its new ICP was endorsed by the AC, with
and the unit arrived at IRRI on 22 Dec 2006. This very priority given to the analysis of plant samples for elements
important acquisition for IRRI has an expected useful life of already determined on the current ICP plus arsenic and
about 15 years. The new ICP will enable the unit to perform cadmium. IRRI scientists will be asked whether additional
multielement, heavy-metal, and total-arsenic determinations priority elements need to be considered for method develop-
to meet the Institute’s future strategic need for such analyses. ment. The old ICP will be retained until the new ICP is fully
ASL’s operational plan for the new ICP-optical emission operational, and a decision on the fate of the old ICP will then
spectrometer (OES) is presented in ASL Figure 1. Multinutri- be made.

ASL Fig. 1. Timeline for operating the new ICP-OES.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 117


Radioisotope Laboratory sufficient critical mass to accomplish previously unattainable
Ms. Lilia R. Molina was designated as IRRI’s radiological goals and help establish a more powerful platform for
health and safety officer (RHSO) on 6 Feb 2006 by the synergizing progress across cereal species.
Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI). The following A primary pillar of the CRIL vision is the integration and
projects were assisted through the use of radioisotope comparative analysis of data across disciplines (within the
laboratory facilities and liaison services of the PNRI: germplasm enhancement value chain) and across species
• Identification and characterization of RTSV-responsive (within the well-studied cereal crops). By capturing synergies
gene in rice and harnessing complementarities across both institutes; by
• Identification and characterization of small RNA-related developing improved scientific data management systems
genes in rice (including genebank, plant breeding, agronomy, socioeco-
• Sulfur cycling in rice-maize cropping systems nomic, and GIS data), including harmonizing data standards
• Analysis of gene expression in response to rice tungro across disciplines and institutions; by supporting crop
virus infection in rice plants research (especially comparative biology and genomics across
• Southern blotting and hybridization cereals); by providing training in scientific informatics; and
• Applying genetic diversity and genomic tools to benefit rice by developing increasingly powerful decision-support tools
farmers at risk from drought for plant breeding; the CRIL will contribute to the common
• Fertilization-independent formation of embryo, IRRI and CIMMYT institutional mission of promoting food
endosperm, and pericarp for apomictic hybrid rice security and material livelihoods of resource-poor farmers
A new document, Security measures for IRRI, was and consumers with reference to the production, distribution,
prepared and submitted to PNRI on 3 Mar 2006, in compli- and consumption of the world’s three main staple cereals rice,
ance with security provisions in IAEA-TECDOC-1355 to maize, and wheat that collectively represent more than half a
ensure security of its radioactive sources to prevent unauthor- billion hectares of global food and feed production.
ized access, as well as loss, theft, and unauthorized transfer of
sources for possible malevolent use. Biometrics consultation
A radiation safety course for IRRI staff was conducted by Statistical consultation was provided by CRIL statistics staff
PNRI trainers from 31 Jul to 4 Aug 2006. Five scholars and to 110 clients in 2006 and several papers were reviewed for
seven staff members participated in the training. International Rice Research Notes and international refereed
journals.
Training
All ASL staff participated in the institutewide quality
assurance training by Dr. Edgar Paski from the British
Organizational unit Clients (no.)
Columbia Institute of Technology (29-31 May 2006). All
technicians also attended the glass blowing training (hands- CESD 46
on) with Mr. Robert Jimenez of DOST (24-27 Apr 2006) and PBGB 35
glass blowing (lecture) with Engr. Perfecto Braganza, also of GRC/CPS/SSD/GQNPC/AEU 10
Others 19
DOST (5 Jun 2006). Ms. Molina participated in a short Total 110
postgraduate course on soil and plant analysis and data
handling in Wageningen University, The Netherlands, 6-30
Jun 2006, while Mr. Chavez attended the 12th Canadian CF-
IRMS Workshop in the University of Victoria, Victoria, BC,
Statistical software
Canada on 11-14 Jun 2006.
Statistical models have been developed to incorporate
knowledge of the coefficient of parentage between lines into
CROP RESEARCH INFORMATICS LABORATORY the estimation of breeding values and additive by additive
The new Crop Research Informatics Laboratory (CRIL) and genetic components and their interaction with environments.
its associated research program were officially launched via a This will enhance the efficiency of breeding evaluations and
video conference link between IRRI and CIMMYT in January should lead to improved genetic gains in breeding programs.
2006. This is the first major output of an Alliance between Simulation of top-cross strategies to simultaneously
IRRI and CIMMYT that was formally established. The centers capture favorable allele combinations of nine marker-linked
see several areas where this unified facility will help build a genes from three parental wheat lines were studied with the

118 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


QuCim/QuLine simulation package. Results offer opportuni- Database development and deployment—International Rice
ties for improving efficiency of marker-assisted breeding Information System (ICIS)
programs. The simulation package has been enhanced and is 1. ICIS development (released ICIS 5.3)
now available to simulate alternative breeding strategies for 2. Implementation of the Genetic Resources Information
almost any crop. The package has also been linked to a Management System (GRIMS) of ICIS is progressing well
physiological model so that genetics and physiology can be and scheduled for completion in 2007
integrated into the same simulation environment. 3. ICIS sample tracking implemented for the wheat
CRIL has continued the development of IRRISTAT to genebank of CIMMYT and ICIS inventory management
handle logistic regression and log-linear modeling and set up and awaiting stock-taking and bar-coding exercise
further development of REML to allow multiplicative with Dr. Payne, CIMMYT
covariance structures, fixed symmetric covariance structures, 4. Wheat breeding information system at CIMMYT
and sections of error covariance with structures and/or integrated with ICIS (IWIS3) and available for deploy-
parameters. ment in wheat breeding projects of CIMMYT and
partners. IWIS3 published on the Web using ICIS
Biometrics training and workshops technology
CRIL conducted four in-house (85 participants) and two in- 5. Strategy developed for integrating Maize Fieldbook and
country (48 participants) trainings. Three of these courses Maize Finder database with ICIS. Programming started
were newly developed and were offered only during this on capturing maize pedigrees into ICIS GMS with Dr.
period. These were Analysis of Experimental Data Using the Vivek (Zimbabwe)
SAS System, Introduction to Data Quality Management, and 6. Further development of ICIS breeder application with
Introduction to SPSS and Analysis of Categorical Data. It has Nunza and GBA to support traditional and molecular
also participated in two IRRI-based workshops (37 partici- breeding. ICIS 5.3 released
pants). 7. Refinement of the ICIS browse application to allow rapid
computation of large COP matrices for use in modeling
evaluation data from crop improvement

Bioinformatics
Course/workshop Date Participants (no.)
Bioinformatics activities in 2006 focused primarily on the
In-house training work related to two projects: the Generation Challenge
Introduction to the SAS System 7-11 Nov 2005 22 Program (GCP) and the Perlegen SNP Discovery Project.
Basic Experimental Design and Data 17-21 Apr 2006 21 For the GCP, IRRI staff convened back-to-back scientific
Analysis Using IRRISTAT
consultations on IRRI-led GCP projects for platform software
Analysis of Experimental Data Using the SAS System 10-14 Jul 2006 19
Introduction to Data Quality Management 24-28 Jul 2006 23 and the GCP scientific domain model development, in
partnership with the African Centre for Gene Technology, in
Other short-term course/workshop Pretoria, South Africa. Following these review meetings, the
Interpretation of Research Results from 9-20 Jan 2006 15 domain models and platform technologies were developed
Experiments on Crop Residue Management
further, resulting in new Web-based tools for accessing GCP
Increasing the Impact of Rice Breeding 17-18 Apr 2006 22
Programs
research data across local and internet-dispersed databases
(prototype site at http://rice.generationcp.org).
In-country training/workshop Complementary to these GCP software development
Introduction to SPSS and Analysis of 4-8 Apr 2006 20 activities, two postdoctoral scientists, Dr. Samart Wanchana
Categorical Data, RNR-RC, The of Thailand and Dr. Ramil Mauleon of the Philippines joined
Kingdom of Bhutan
CRIL in 2006 as bioinformatics data curators on two GCP-
International Crop Information System 8-12 May 2006 28
(ICIS) Training Course, El Batan, funded projects: a comparative stress gene catalog (see http://
Mexico dayhoff.generationcp.org) and comparative microarray data
analysis, respectively.
Concurrently, the CRIL bioinformatics team, led by NRS
team leader Victor Jun Ulat, was engaged in bioinformatics
analysis of rice genome sequences for the IRRI-hosted

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 119


Perlegen germplasm resequencing experiment. This experi- COMMUNICATION AND PUBLICATIONS SERVICES
ment, whose data are expected to be delivered in the spring of Publications and publishing
2007, is undertaking to perform DNA-DNA hybridization of Through CPS, IRRI produced 14 titles in 2006, including
100 million base pairs of relatively unique Nipponbare seven scientific books, four issues of Rice Today, the Annual
reference sequence against 19 other Oryza sativa landraces Report of the Director General 2005-06, and IRRI’s strategic
representing a broad spectrum of biological diversity in rice. plan, Bringing hope, improving lives. Also produced were
The aim of the experiment is to construct a valuable new two issues of the International Rice Research Notes (IRRN)
whole genome mapping resource of rice DNA polymorphism and three issues of Rice Research for Intensified Production
markers (so-called “single nucleotide polymorphisms” or and Prosperity in Lowland Ecosystems (RIPPLE). Currently,
SNPs) for use in association genetics analysis, classical 26 titles are in the production queue for 2007 and beyond.
genetic mapping, and marker-assisted selection in plant In the area of copublishing, the Chinese version of
breeding. Breeding rice for drought-prone environments, published by
the Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, has become the
Research data management model for such translation projects with such outside
• An IRF position with the major focus on research data publishers in the future. Also, Sid Harta Publishers in
management and data quality was established at IRRI. Australia published Sharing rice for peace and prosperity in
• As part of the CRIL MTP, the work will be conducted at the Greater Mekong Subregion, by Peter Fredenburg and
IRRI and CIMMYT. During a visit to CIMMYT, initial Robert Hill. This title, also advertised on Sid Harta’s Web site,
discussions and consultations mainly on crop manage- follows the same style and format as The burning of the rice,
ment and socioeconomic data took place. by Don Puckridge, and serves as the second installment of a
• At IRRI, work has started on socioeconomic data, popularly written book series on IRRI’s impact that CPS is
climate records, and several experimental data sets. establishing with Sid Harta. CPS also collaborated with CABI
• IRRI has continued to lead a GCP-commissioned to produce Environment and livelihoods in tropical coastal
research project on data quality improvement and zones: managing agriculture-fishery-aquaculture conflicts.
assurance. We are collaborating with the science publisher World
Scientific Publishing Co. (WSPC), based in Singapore. In
Collaboration systems 2007, WSPC and IRRI will copublish the proceedings of Rice
As part of a GCP project, Web-based collaborative systems genetics V as an e-proceedings, a hard copy print-on-demand
are maintained to support software development and textual (POD) book, and as part of a CD to be called The rice genetics
content development. The use of these systems has expanded collection that will contain the searchable files of all past rice
in 2006 as follows: genetics symposium proceedings and other historical
• The use of the Wiki system (http://cropwiki.irri.org) was publications on rice genetics and cytogenetics from 1964
extended to host the internal collaboration space as well through 2006.
as the external Web site of CRIL. The GCP and the ICIS
development communities have continued to be the main IRRI on the Web
users of this system. New features added to the IRRI intranet in 2006 included
• The use of the collaborative software development links to tracking Pacific tropical cyclones, the IRRI announce-
system (http://cropforge.org) has increased from 49 ments Wiki, the Los Baños Wiki, the Strategic plan 2007-15,
hosted projects in 2005 to 67 projects in 2006. The the Medium-term plan 2007-09, latest earthquakes in the
projects are related to the development of software, world, a searchable IRRI staff list for 1961-2005, IRRI
mainly from the GCP and the ICIS communities. Other Alumni.net, and planning for pandemic flu. Rice News
projects hosted include IRRISTAT (IRRI), DIVA (CIP), Worldwide (available internally and externally at http://
MGIS (INIBAP), and ICRISAT LIMS (ICRISAT). ricenews.irri.org and RSS compatible) has become a very
useful current summary (and archival listing dating back to
Open source/open content licensing 15 Apr 2005, now containing more than 1,350 news and
After approval by the BOT, IRRI’s intellectual property policy feature stories) of links to stories and features about rice from
for information products was changed. The default is now around the world.
open source and open content licensing and efforts are under
way to put the new policy into practice for software and the
content of collaborative (Wiki) sites.

120 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


We also continue to add articles and audio feeds at www. A trial version of these IRRI rice images on Flickr can be
irri.org/media/articles.asp that quote IRRI staff via other found at www.flickr.com/photos/ricephotos. Anyone can view
Web sites such as SciDevNet, Science, Washington Post, Time and there is no need to sign up. Persons with a (free) Flickr/
Asia, BBC News, ABC Radio Australia, Reuters, and Discov- Yahoo account can also leave comments about the images.
ery Channel. This collection of now more than 110 features
and audio feeds dates back to June 1968. IRRI Digital Publications Project and the Rice
Google Custom Search using Google Co-op is now the Thesaurus Project
featured search engine on the IRRI external Web site (www. CPS funded both phases 1 and 2 of these projects, managed by
irri.org). Also, a pilot donor page set up at www.irri.org/ Library and Documentation Services (LDS). Phase 2 was
donors/SDC/index.asp for the Swiss Agency for Development completed 31 May 2006. As stated in the terminal report, as
and Cooperation can be used as a model for uploading similar more publications are digitized, so must the database be
materials related to funded projects for other key donors. updated along with the Rice Thesaurus. Subject access is very
And, as IRRI approaches its 50th anniversary in 2010, the important in information retrieval. New keywords must be
Web page on Significant dates in IRRI history at www.irri. generated as the database grows. These keywords will be
org/about/history.asp is continually being updated as new important in the metadata for both the IRRI Photo Bank and
events occur and more past historical events are added. the IRRI Publication Archives. The comprehensive Rice
Thesaurus now has 2,479 terms with subject trees related to
New IRRI photo bank rice.
IRRI’s 2nd-generation, user-friendly photo bank at www.
ricephotos.org went online in early January 2007. At its Communications support
debut, the bank contained around 1,000 new images in this CPS continues to provide communication support for the
bank with more to be added monthly. However, until a critical entire Institute, including editing, graphic design, art and
mass of new photos is added and classic photos from IRRI’s illustration, audiovisual, photography, video, and advice on
first photo bank are transferred, the classic photo bank will printing.
remain online at http://rice-photos.irri.org. Special features On 1 Mar 2006, the IRRI print shop was closed perma-
of the new facility include nently to make way for a new digital copy center, managed by
• New breath-taking images of rice landscapes, farmers, ITS, that officially opened on this same date. Since 1985 when
children, events, research, and other related subjects; records were first kept until its closing, the print shop had
• Fresh images added monthly; produced approximately 174 million impressions for a wide
• Advanced keyword search; array of IRRI publications and forms. Truly, this date marked
• All images at high resolution (300 dpi); the end of an era and the beginning of a new one. ITS reports
• Instant downloads via a special link; that the new copy center generated 202,864 copies in 2006
• Image slideshow feature for a category; and between 1 Mar and 31 Dec.
• Share alike Creative Commons License Deed. In 2006, approximately 26,351 new digital photographs
When using the new photo bank for the first time, users were produced. Eighteen video programs were produced and
need to register one time only if they want to download 131 shorter clips were provided for the Bulletin (IRRI’s weekly
images. In its debut, the front page of the new photo bank newsletter for staff, BOT, and alumni; http://bulletin.irri.
featured images of the Mayon Volcano in July and November cgiar.org) and PowerPoint presentations.
2006 tied to the Rice Today feature, Once were rice fields, Graphic artists produced 60 illustrations, laid out 2,252
showing the before-and-after effects of the devastating mud pages for publications, and prepared and printed 151 posters.
flows that rushed down the mountainside with the passing of IRRI editors worked on more than 900 pages appearing in
Typhoon Durian. refereed journal articles, 1,495 pages appearing in IRRI’s
CPS and Information Technology Services (ITS) are also scientific books, plus 123 pages for the International Rice
running a parallel photo distribution experiment by putting Research Notes, and more than 500 pages of additional
selected IRRI images on Flickr, a Yahoo company, that conference papers, abstracts, proposals, and other docu-
provides online photo management and sharing applications. ments.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 121


EXPERIMENT STATION in the 2006 dry season. Another 168 t of mixed varieties were
The Experiment Station (ES) provided support services to a harvested from researchers’ excess materials and border
total of 325 field and greenhouse experiments. Of this, the rows. Harvesting in large plots was mainly done with the use
Field Operations Unit served 163 field experiments, while the of mechanical combine harvesters.
Controlled Plant Growth Facilities and Grounds Unit (CGFG)
supported 64 experiments in the Phytotron and CL4 trans-
genic greenhouse facilities and 98 experiments in all other
greenhouses. A total of 9,083 maintenance and service
requests were served by the various support units of the ES
during the year.

Land use
A total of 312.28 ha were used in 2006. ES was the biggest
user of the farm with the utilization of some 144.06 ha for
field demonstration, seed increase, and rice production
purposes. PBGB, the second biggest user, planted a total of
127.91 ha.
Seedling requirements of the various field experiments
were established and maintained by the ES in 5.72 ha of dry
and wet nursery beds, using field nurseries covering 3.72 ha ES crop production hectarage (1994-2006).

and 2 ha, respectively. The rest of the seedling requirements


Agrochemical applications and crop protection services
were grown on a 40-m × 10-m pavement using modified
A total of 96 t of different kinds of fertilizers were served to
dapog nurseries.
various users of the farm in the form of ammonium sulfate,
complete, muriate of potash, solophos, urea, zinc oxide, and
Division Dry season (ha) Wet season (ha) Total zinc sulfate. This total amount reflected a 17% reduction in
fertilizer application as compared with the previous year.
CSWS 14.16 14.16
CESD 8.82 8.82 Sustained pesticide use reduction efforts resulted in 36%
EPPD 2.99 2.99 and 4% reduction in insecticide and molluscicide use,
ES 56.72 87.34 144.06 respectively, compared with 2005 levels. Use of resistant
GRC 10.17 2.92 13.09
PBGB 83.35 44.56 127.91
varieties and zero insecticide application in most ES-
TC 1.25 1.25 managed production plots, as well as reduced use in research-
Total 168.64 143.64 312.28 ers’ plots and reduced insect pressure about the fields,
contributed to the decrease in insecticide use. Routine
Crop production operations manual snail and snail egg collections in the fields and
ES seed increase and rice production operations in 2006 greenhouses, on the other hand, contributed to the reduction
reflected a 7% increase in cropped area compared with the in molluscicide use.
2005 cropping of 134 ha and a 60% increase over the annual Herbicide use, however, increased by 10%. This can be
target of 90 ha of rice production crop. attributed to the predominantly wet weather during the year
More than 43% of all rice field crops were established that enhanced weed growth, as well as to the increased
mainly by direct seeding through manual broadcasting of preference for chemical weed control in view of reduced
pregerminated seeds, drum seeding on wet fields and by seed operating budgets and rising costs of manual and mechanized
drilling on dry-prepared areas, whereas the rest were weed control using mowers and grass cutters. Manual weed
established using manual and mechanical transplanting control remains to be the single most costly, labor-intensive
methods, particularly in deep plots and during the wetter field maintenance operation at the farm. Herbicide use has
periods of the year when weather and field conditions did not been a more cost-effective option. While preference to
favor direct seeding operations. herbicide use in field experiments is gradually growing, the
ES harvested 326 t of paddy from ES-managed production bulk is still in the application of nonselective herbicide in
plots. The highest yield noted in ES-managed production maintaining production plots, perimeter areas, fallow fields,
plots was 5 t ha-1 from blocks 1002 to 1005 planted to NSIC122 and levees. Integrated pest management practices, combined

122 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


with the use of machines and chemical applicators, helped lowland, upland, and old areas. Minimum downtime of
reduce the cost of pest control as well as improve the safety of damaged pumps was maintained up to only a maximum of 3
field operations. d in allowable delay. An automated water level sensor control
For the nonchemical control of avian pests, manual bird system was installed and tested in block C1 reservoir. The new
scaring remains the preferred method, while bird nets and setup can potentially save on pumping costs as well as avoid
bird tapes were installed on 3.56 and 16 ha, respectively. irrigation water wastage and over-pumping and help improve
Current rat management practices, which mainly include the reliability of water supply in the reservoirs.
trap barrier systems, maintenance of fallow areas, burrow
destruction, flame throwing, field sanitation and hygiene, and Land development and civil works
closed seasons, resulted in zero incidence of severe rat More than 2 ha of upland fields were converted to lowland
damage in all rice crops. Rat control services included the fields in blocks UG, UL, UR1, UR2, UR3, the 900 series, and
installation of 250 baiting stations, 37.83 ha of active barrier the 2000 series. One hectare in block UI and another hectare
systems, and 227 live traps. This reflected a reduction of in upper MN were reworked to improve hard pan and field
15.2%, 40.9%, and 72.7%, respectively, compared with 2005 levels. Some 20 km of farm access roads were rehabilitated
installations. The rat traps yielded a total of 877 live catches and developed from the main ES building. The rest of the 44
for 2006. km of farm roads were routinely maintained through
scraping, backfilling, road patching, and compaction using the
road roller. Routine civil maintenance work done included
rice straw collection, regular mowing of 15 farm water
reservoirs, weekly bulldozing of garbage into excavated pits of
the dumpsite area, and roadside mowing. Heavy equipment
operations done involved the regular maintenance of some 44
km of farm road network through surface scraping, backfill-
ing, patching, and compaction. As part of the continuous farm
perimeter fence improvement plan, an additional 150 m of
concrete wall was put up along the perimeter areas in block
1000, whereas more than 100 m of wire fence were repaired
in perimeter areas from block 100 to block 800. Floodwaters
and strong winds of typhoon “Milenyo” in September caused
severe damage to more than half of all perimeter fences of the
Insecticide use at ES from 1993 to 2006.
institute, including over 100 m of concrete wall. These were
all repaired toward the end of the year.
Irrigation and drainage services
Irrigation requirements of all field experiments were met and
Equipment fabrication, repair, and maintenance services
maintained through staggered work schedules by ES research
The ES Mechanical Shop provided repair, fabrication, and
technicians. Sprinkler and perforain irrigation systems were
maintenance services for the tractors, farm equipment,
set up on 8.4 ha in blocks UZ, UQ, UM, UP1, UR, D24, and B2
implements, machineries, and irrigation facilities. Requests
during the 2006 dry season and on 13.3 ha in blocks UO, UW,
for repair and maintenance of light and heavy equipment and
UP1, D24, and in the UN and UX seedling nurseries during
farm implements from the different units and research
the wet season. Portable pipes equipped with overhead
divisions (total of 1,224) were accomplished. Defective and
sprinklers were used to supply the water requirements in
malfunctioning vertical motors and submersible pumps in
most upland blocks, including blocks B, D, the 833 series, the
blocks UW, UK, C1, UT, and the 2000 series were extracted
900 series, UD, UJ, UI, UP, UO, UQ, UW, UX, UR, UL, UM,
and repaired with minimum downtime. Fifty units of
UN, UMN, UV, UW, and in the dry bed nurseries. Ten units of
different types of threshers and 32 units of different dryers
drainage outlets at the old area, new lowland, and upland
were also repaired and maintained. Routine maintenance and
area were developed and constructed. Major irrigation repair
repair services were also provided to the Rice Mill Unit. A
work involved the extraction, repair, and reinstallation of
strip tillage machine was designed and fabricated for use by
malfunctioning submersible pumps in block UW, UK, C1, UT,
the CESD.
and the 2000 series and three main gate valves in the

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 123


Postharvest services and rice mill operations cooling system included the replacement of the old controllers
Postharvest support services provided by ES included in the glasshouse bays with new upgraded models, the
threshing, cleaning, drying, and storage, among others. installation of a new air compressor and upgrade of the
Majority of the drying requirements of researchers for plant memory card and hard disk of the central computer. Installa-
samples and harvested grains were accommodated using the tion of a new centralized and energy efficient setup to replace
oven dryers and flatbed dryers being maintained by the the old cooling system of the transgenic greenhouses was
station. Two typhoons caused significant damage to the initiated during the year. Sustained efforts toward efficient
drying and milling facilities in May and September of 2006, energy utilization at the Phytotron helped achieve a 17%
affecting crop yield and milled rice output as well, in terms of reduction in total kwh used compared with the previous
timeliness, quality, and quantity of the produce. year’s electricity consumption.
From 494 t of dried (at 14% moisture) rice paddy intended The demand for the use of Phytotron facilities almost
for milling in 2006, the Rice Mill Operations Unit produced doubled this year. Several waitlisted requests were not
290 t of milled rice. About 16 t were issued in response to accommodated due to lack of available space.
various requests from different organizational units for
milled rice, while 5 t were sold to the highest bidder via sealed Greenhouse services
public bidding process organized by the Materials Manage- The Greenhouse Unit provided basic support services to all
ment (MM) unit. The rest of the milled rice, equivalent to experiments conducted in the glasshouses, screenhouses, and
some 272 t, was issued to the MM unit for distribution to associated facilities. This included the servicing of 318
nationally recruited staff’s (NRS) monthly rice entitlement. maintenance requests, provision of 3,355 assorted pots, and
The Rice Mill output for 2006 was able to meet 8 months’ delivery of 735 t of ground soil to support the soil require-
supply of milled rice for all IRRI NRS. ments of greenhouse experiments and some field require-
The byproducts of the milling operations totaled 21 t of ments for soil cover on seedbeds as well. Routine operations
broken rice, 57 t of rice bran, and some 12,000 sacks of rice of the Greenhouse Unit included soil hauling, grinding and
hulls. The broken rice was sold through a bidding process, delivery, glass roof cleaning, and overall upkeep and mainte-
while the rice hulls were sold to regular buyers who use hulls nance of greenhouse surroundings and landscapes.
for insulation, animal beddings, and landscaping/composting Staggered 1-mo greenhouse shutdown operations in most
purposes. Set aside were 37 t of rice bran used as fish feed in greenhouse facilities facilitated unhampered annual preven-
the fish production project of the ES; another 20 t were sold to tive maintenance operations. The procedure helped reduce
the highest bidder. pesticide applications by providing a long break in the crop,
pest, and disease cycles inside these facilities. Shutdown
Phytotron/CL4 services operations included general clean-up, surface wash down, and
Basic research support services were provided by the repair of roofing and all support structures. Some researchers
Phytotron/CL4 unit to all experiments conducted in the though have opted to forego the shutdown operations in some
Phytotron and transgenic greenhouse facilities. Some 186 glasshouses and screenhouses in view of special requirements
maintenance and service requests were served during the to continuously use available space. Increased frequency of
year. The main bulk of manual operations at the CL4 involved pesticide applications, buildup of pest populations, and
the autoclaving of incoming and outgoing soil and plant recurring pest-related problems were noted in such facilities
materials. A significant increase in autoclaving operations that did not have the standard shutdown period.
was noted, along with the increased frequency of breakdown Two strong typhoons caused extensive damage to the
of the pass-through autoclave, further highlighting the need greenhouses. Worst hit by typhoon Caloy in May 2006 were
to upgrade the old autoclave unit and augment the setup with greenhouses CS01 to CS04, CS09, CS10, US01, US02, AG01,
an additional autoclaving machine. The staggered annual BG02, and CG01. Relatively minor damage was noted in
preventive maintenance shutdown of each transgenic MG01 and AG02. In September, typhoon Milenyo wreaked
greenhouse bay in the CL4 facility was implemented one bay havoc on AS01, BS05, BS07, CS05, CS06, CS08, OS02, OS03,
at a time throughout the year, while the annual preventive MS01, US03, AG01, BG01, BG02, BG13, BG14, CG01, NG03,
maintenance shutdown operations for the Phytotron were MG01, and NS02. Repair work in the typhoon-damaged
done in November. Phytotron users consumed a total of greenhouse facilities was the main activity in the last quarter
25,280 gallons of reverse-osmosis grade water for their of 2006. The last quarter also saw the upgrading and
experiments. Improvements done in 2006 for the Phytotron modification of transgenic screenhouses CS01, CS02, and

124 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


CS07 to enable implementation of new procedures/protocols Man-hour utilization of kabesilya services rendered by two
and to meet work requirements of the PBGB and CESD. service providers as requested by the various research
divisions and support units totaled 624,206 man-hours in
Grounds services 2006. This represents a 17% reduction in utilization from the
The Grounds Services Unit served 253 requests for plant previous year. Manual bird-scaring services also went down
decorations, landscape maintenance and development, and by 4%, from 112,852 man-hours in 2005 to 108,589 man-
other services. Service requests from office staff at the hours in 2006. Wage rates for the kabesilya workers went up
research center and from residents at the staff housing includ- twice in 2006, amounting to a total of 5% pay hike, following
ed indoor plant decorations and outdoor landscaping support two regional wage orders issued by the National Wage Board.
services for various residential areas, offices, the auditorium,
and building halls and during seminars, workshops, and Partnership activities and other support services
special events conducted at IRRI. Routine operations mainly In coordination with the Partnerships Office, various external
included lawn maintenance and regular mowing services, requests for equipment assistance and associated technical
road sweeping, brush cutting, and garbage collection in the support services from the surrounding communities,
research center, meteorological stations, reservoirs, and organizations, and institutions such as the local government
various staff housing units of the institute. Areas that were units of Bay and Los Baños, nongovernment organizations,
improved and landscaped in 2006 included the old IRRI PhilRice, the Los Baños Science Community Foundation
marker in Tabon gate, the main entrance gate, the board Incorporated, the University of the Philippines Los Baños
room, Rice World Museum, Staff Housing swimming pool (UPLB), and the UP Open University were accommodated by
surroundings, and house numbers JH10, JH12, JH13, JH26, the ES. Equipment and manpower assistance were provided
JH37, PD5C, and PV11. The waste segregation schemes in the by ES to various UPLB and municipal government units,
greenhouse area and staff housing were also continuously schools, and communities and during clearing operations
implemented. Trimming of trees and clearing operations on after typhoon Milenyo. Communication linkages and close
perimeter fence areas were done at the IRRI Staff Housing as coordination with UPLB were also maintained by the station
part of the annual clearing program. Old hedges in several through regular meetings of the IRRI-UPLB Management
locations around the institute were removed to lower Committee and personal communication between UPLB and
landscape maintenance costs. The Grounds Unit also ES staff. Other support activities provided by ES in 2006
managed the fish production project in the farm reservoirs. included the conduct of field tours and demonstration for
Low-cost maintenance operations included periodic pond visitors endorsed by the Visitors and Information Services
clean-up, weekly harvesting, and regular feeding of the fish (VIS) as well as the orientation of new staff and scholars
with rice bran from the rice mill. Some 949 kg of fresh fish endorsed by the Training Center (TC). ES staff also partici-
were harvested and sold to IRRI staff. New equipment pated as facilitators and trainers in course offerings of the TC
acquisitions for the year included a new electric boom and provided planning and logistical support for the conduct
machine, three brush cutters, five push mowers, one pressure of various field demonstration and tours.
washer, a new mower attachment, assorted tools and gadgets,
one telescopic tree pruner, and personal protective gears. Environmental management system implementation
Forty worn-out trash bins were also replaced with new units, In line with the goals of the IRRI Environmental Agenda, the
while eight segregation bins were rehabilitated during the ES continued implementing its Environmental Management
year. System (EMS) in 2006. The EMS team was constituted with
lead staff of each of the ES work units serving as members
Kabesilya labor services and the ES senior manager as the team leader and overall
Performance monitoring of kabesilya services was continu- EMS coordinator. The review and in-house registration of the
ously implemented by the ES Administrative Unit. The first draft of the EMS manual and system procedures were
summary of performance data taken from the job completion completed during the last quarter of the year. Environmental
feedback forms revealed very high annual total acceptability aspects identified by ES staff during the 2005 workshop were
values of 99.9% for bird-scaring services and 99.7% for the reviewed and prioritized by the EMS team and used as basis
other contractual labor services in 2005. Feedback ratings for establishing five environmental management programs−
given by endusers ranged from good to excellent, with no i.e., management of environmental aspects related to air
more than 0.1% incidence of poor performance rating. emissions, solid wastes, energy use, pesticide use, and waste

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 125


water effluents. Highlights of this year’s EMS-related information providers helped to augment the limited
activities included a seminar workshop and the review of the resources available.
EMS, which is part of the continual improvement program of
the ES. It primarily aims to ensure continuing suitability, Information resources
adequacy, and effectiveness of various management practices, Collection development is hampered by the universal problem
environmental management programs, and activities to of the ever-increasing volume of new relevant books and
efficiently manage potential environmental impacts of ES journals plus the rising costs of access licenses and the
operations, products, and services. The workshop was limited budget. A summary of collection growth is given in
attended by all ES staff and major manpower service LDS Table 1.
contractors for farm labor supply and agrochemical applica- Rice technical literature. The literature output of rice
tion. The activities of these groups at IRRI can significantly scientists is growing at an unprecedented rate. Alerts,
influence the various environmental aspects of farm opera- generated by Current Contents Connect for rice articles
tions and potentially can cause environmental impacts. The published in peer-reviewed journals, carry an average of 50
workshop focused on introducing and reviewing various EMS citations per week. Procurement of these articles is a top
and ISO 14001 concepts, giving updates on the status of EMS priority and those published in nonsubscribed journals
implementation, presenting various environmental manage- usually become problematic due to the limited budget. All five
ment programs, and business continuity planning. librarians teamed up to get free copies from authors and
partner institutions. Hence, the number of journal articles
purchased via pay-per-view was very minimal at 44. Rice
LIBRARY AND DOCUMENTATION SERVICE articles, numbering 2,259 (excluding those in print journals),
Enabling information and communication technologies (ICT) were added to the collection: 10 reprints and 2,249 in pdf.
transformed traditional library services into better and faster Ninety-eight percent of these were acquired free of charge.
information delivery modes focusing more on electronic Translating this number into savings, assuming that the
rather than print resources. This trend is evident in the IRRI average cost of pay-per-view is US$30, the amount saved
Library and Documentation Service (LDS), as it uses a would be approximately $66,450.
combination of traditional and modern means of knowledge Partner libraries in the CGIAR system were instrumental
sharing with clients. Utilizing the latest advances in ICT, the in acquiring electronic copies of some rice articles. Rice
Library continued to strengthen its collection of print and literature procurement received a major boost through the
electronic technical literature on rice and related subjects to availment of periodic free trials from publishers of journals
sustain its ability to put appropriate information sources into and databases.
the hands of the world’s rice researchers. Digital resources. For instant access to full-text docu-
Enhancement of the electronic contents of the Library’s ments, electronic links were created regularly on the Library’s
home page (http://ricelib.irri.org) was given top priority. The databases. Added to the online catalog were 243 electronic
staff regularly provided information service through current journals and 207 electronic monographs (including theses).
awareness, answering of reference questions, computerized There were 3,557 links added to the rice database; it now has
literature searches, and electronic document delivery. The a total of 5,757 hyperlinks. Through a single mouse click,
Library continued to assume the role of a public library in the 8,319 full text documents in pdf are instantly accessible. This
community, as evidenced by 11,631 walk-in clients, consisting is continually increasing as new items are added daily.
mostly of students and faculty members from neighboring Regular searching of rice technical literature on the WWW
and remote universities and researchers from various was pursued vigorously by a full-time project employee up to
institutions, who availed of LDS facilities and services during September 2006.
the year. Print monographs. Three thousand and two hundred
Making information available via IRRI researchers’ eighty-five monographic materials (books, theses, and
desktops and other services were accomplished through the reprints) were added to the print collection. Only 292
Library’s knowledgeable and dedicated staff, the robust monographs, books, and theses were purchased for the
collection, and state-of-the-art library system, the Millen- Library and 146 for other units. Most of the monographs
nium, which is currently running on Release 2005. In acquired were donations or exchange materials.
addition, collaboration with other libraries, institutions, and Databases/journal subscriptions. Subscriptions to vital
databases such as Current Contents Connect, Web of science,

126 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


CABDirect, LC classification Web, and TEEAL (The Essential Information access
Electronic Agricultural Library) were sustained. An addition- The Library’s integrated system: the Millennium. Innovative
al vital full-text resource added is Anthrosource, which makes Interfaces, Inc., the software provider, continually develops
up for the limited number of current journals in Anthropology the software by issuing annual or semiannual upgrades.
available. Release 2005 was installed in December, after adding 36.4
The LDS is slowly moving from print journals to online GB of disk storage space to the Innopac server. To further
only, which sometimes poses a problem in archival access. improve search and retrieval capabilities, two additional
Selection of journal titles for subscription is a very compli- modules were purchased. A URL checker was installed on 20
cated process, as the Library already reduced the number of Jan to monitor activity of hyperlinks on the two databases.
subscriptions to core titles only. While rice technical article The Advanced Searching module was acquired on 15 Jul.
content is the main criterion for prioritizing journals for These modules enable faster and more sophisticated searches.
subscription, those titles that are read regularly by local scien- The rice database and the online public access catalog
tists must also be delivered promptly. To make sure that the (OPAC). The rice database provides instant access to the
LDS is in the right track in selection, a survey of journal world’s technical rice literature. It grew with 5,467 rice
preferences of IRRI staff was conducted from April to July. literature citations added this year, making a total of 251,610
The 2006 survey was done via SurveyMonkey, a freeware on bibliographic records, with all documents available upon
the web. Results show that the top 20 titles cited by respon- request. About 5,757 citations have links to the full text. As in
dents are already accessible to IRRI staff, which implies that the past, the database is available in both print (Rice litera-
selection is on the right track. The results also indicate a ture update) and electronic formats.
strong preference for electronic journals. Bibliographic records for 1,146 books, journals, pamphlets,
The costs of journals in scientific disciplines relevant to and nonrice reprints, nonprint materials, and remote
IRRI’s research program increased by an average of 38% for electronic resources were added to the OPAC. There are
the period 2002-06. The LDS subscribed to 174 journal titles, 76,304 records in this catalog, with 2,562 electronic links to
of which 104 are available online. Membership in the CGIAR full-text documents, Web sites, or databases.
Libraries and Information Services Consortium (CGIAR- The Library’s Web site at http://ricelib.irri.cgiar.org, which
LISC) increased access to e-journals. While only paying for is available to global users with Internet connection, was
licenses to 34 titles, access is enabled for a total of 131 titles regularly updated with new information sources: Web sites,
through the payment of cross-access fees. Open access databases, and links to electronic journals and monographs.
journals available via the WWW were promptly linked to the A regular review of information provided and hyperlinks was
online catalog and the e-journal links on the web site. done for accuracy and seamless connectivity. New informa-
tion resources were added soon after they are discovered. In
2006, 53,874 users visited the Library’s Web site, an average
LDS Table 1. Collection development in 2006. of 4,489 visits per month.

Publication type Added in 2006 Total collection


LDS services
Monographs (books and pamphlets) 1,026 76,304 The LDS staff worked as a team to fulfill the needs of clients.
Rice reprints 2.259 27,763 Normally, requested articles were delivered on the same day
PDF 2,249 8,319
Journals (print and electronic) 6 print the requests were received. Documents were delivered
17 electronic 1,575 active titles electronically using the latest version of the Ariel software,
Rice theses 119 4,589 which is the most cost-effective way of transmitting electronic
Video cassettes 10 221
documents. Only requests without email addresses were filled
CD ROM 13 173 titles
Online databases 1 47 (includes free using the conventional way−i.e., photocopies sent via snail
sources ) mail. As a research support service, the LDS staff jointly
Electronic links created
accomplished the following:
OPAC 207 2,562
Rice database 490 5,757 • Delivered information to scientists and librarians in 46
Total 3,282 141,198 countries worldwide with 1,068 documents delivered and
1,308 reference questions answered.

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 127


• Did 47 literature searches for IRRI and other scientists.
LDS Table 2. Document delivery/reference questions answered in 2006.
• Published 2 issues of the Rice literature update, the print
edition of the rice database. Center name Articles delivered Reference questions answered
• Processed 16,167 book loans, renewals, reserves, and (no.) (no.)

holds. CIAT 2 3
• Lent 40 books to the libraries of UPLB, PhilRice, and the CIFOR 2 14
Badham Library, University of Sydney. LDS borrowed 37 CIMMYT 47 49
CIP 110 39
books from the UPLB Main Library and 1 from the
ICARDA 6 7
Badham Library. ICRAF 58 48
• Issued 55 current awareness announcements in the ICRISAT 85 38
IFPRI 35 20
electronic IRRI Bulletin and the IRRI Announcements
IITA 37 24
Wiki. These included New Books of General Interest, ILRI 13 16
New Reference Sources, Useful Web Sites, Publications IPGRI 9 9
IRRI 289 231
by IRRI Staff, Newly Acquired Technical Rice Literature,
IWMI 19 25
Rice Theses, Table of Contents Alerts, Free Access to WARDA 22 3
Journal Issues, etc. Some lists carry links to electronic WorldFish 2 5
full-text documents. Other institutions 332 777
Total 1,068 1,308
• Updated the featured lists of new acquisitions, videocas-
settes in the AVLC, and rice theses on the library’s Web
site monthly.
LDS Table 3. Document delivery/reference questions answered in 2006.
• Conducted orientation and briefings to 161 new staff,
scholars, trainees, and visitors. Country Reference Documents Country Reference Documents
• Gave instruction to 15 IRRI staff on the installation and questions delivered (no.) questions delivered (no.)
received (no.) received (no.)
use of database and management software such as
EndNote, Procite, and WebAGRIS. Australia 4 13 Peru 39 110
• Facilitated the inclusion of IRRI Library’s online catalog Bangladesh 1 Philippines 494 362
Benin 3 22 Poland 2
in the CG Virtual Library. This can be searched, along
Brazil 2 Singapore 3
with other CGIAR library catalogs, at http://cgvlib.cgiar. Cambodia 1 Spain 1 3
org. Several requests for literature were answered Canada 5 Sri Lanka 25 19
Chile 1 Switzerland 2
through this portal.
China 8 Syria 7 6
• Added content to the CG Virtual Library by compiling a Colombia 4 2 Taiwan 1
list of CGIAR databases and feeding the information to Costa Rica 1 2 Thailand 1 1
the Virtual Library Team. Croatia 1 1 Turkey 3
Egypt 58 UK 1
• Purchased and cataloged 146 books for other units of Ethiopia 16 13 USA 26 43
IRRI. France 2 Vietnam 1
• Trained a library science student from Germany, Mr. Kai Germany 1 IRRI staff 231 289
Ghana 1 (local &
Scheuing, on all aspects of library operation up to foreign)
Guyana 1
February 2006. India 53 152 Total 1,068 1,308
• Bound 1,128 volumes of books and journals and fabri- Indonesia 15 2
Iran 1 5
cated 136 Princeton files and folders.
Italy 12 9
As in the past, IRRI continued to be a major provider of Japan 6 6
free documents to CGIAR center libraries (LDS Table 2). In Kenya 48 58
return, IRRI received 58 free documents from CGIAR center Lao PDR 3
Malawi 2
libraries. Malaysia 1 11
Countries, availing of LDS services, were reduced from 49 Mexico 28 47
in 2005 to 46 in 2006 (LDS Table 3). One possible explana- Myanmar 1 1
Nepal 2 1
tion is the increasing number of hyperlinks to full-text Netherlands 3
documents provided via the library’s databases. Nigeria 25 37
Pakistan 5 9

128 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


LDS Table 4. Projects pursued in 2006.

Project title Entries added in 2006/remarks Total

International Directory of Rice Workers 415 (revisions and additions) 2,168


Searching of Free Rice Articles/Monographs from the WWW 1,267 2,040 (linked and added to pdf archives)
PDF Archives 6,863 8,319
Rice Thesaurus (jointly with CPS) 841 2,479 terms with subject trees
Database of IRRI Digital Collections (jointly with CPS) 1,976 5,283
Survey of Journal Preferences of IRRI Scientists Full report may be requested from the LDS
Digitization of Rice in the News and IRRI Digitization of retrospective up to early 2006 was finished on 4 Jul 2006
in the News Clippings (jointly with VIS)
IRRI in the News and Rice in the News Database 1,518 15,931
New Publications by IRRI Staff (e-list posted on the Library’s Web site) 73 334

Library projects Outside the Philippines, assistance was received


In addition to basic services, some projects were undertaken from some CGIAR libraries; the IRRI outreach offices in
to improve library services and to preserve the existing collec- China, India, Korea, and Thailand; the National Agricul-
tion for the use of future generations (LDS Table 4). tural Library in Maryland; the Badham Library,
Searching and downloading freely available pdf files of University of Sydney; Developing Libraries Network
technical rice articles and dissertations from the Web (India); FAO, and the Hong Kong University of Science
continued until September 2006. This is still being done but and Technology Library. Many foreign authors gave pdf
no longer on a full-time basis. A total of 1,267 rice articles, copies of their papers, free of charge. Dr. Takanori
books and conference proceedings, and dissertations were Hayashi of the Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries
downloaded and linked to bibliographic records in the Research Information Center (AFFRIC) in Japan
Library’s databases. supplied some of the Japanese rice literature needed by
the LDS.
Partnerships within and outside IRRI • CGIAR libraries. The IRRI LDS supported the creation
No library, working on its own, can supply all the needs of its of the CG Virtual Library (http://vlibrary.cgiar.org),
clients. At this age of dwindling resources, collaboration with which gave wider exposure to the Library’s online catalog
other libraries and institutions enables the LDS to avail of and to IRRI publications as well. Joint subscriptions with
additional services and resources, e.g. interlibrary loans, CGIARLISC members continued. Systemwide coordina-
document delivery, etc. tion was done by the IRRI chief librarian. Free-docu-
Within IRRI, the LDS collaborated with Communication ment delivery is another major benefit derived from the
and Publications Services (CPS) and Visitors and Information consortium.
Services (VIS) in undertaking three projects: Phase 2 of the • Agriculture Centers Information Network (AGNIC). A
Rice Thesaurus Project and the Database of IRRI Digital project on digitization of selected pages of IRRI-assisted
Collections (DIDP), and the Digitization of Newspaper theses and dissertations started in October in partner-
Clippings about IRRI and Rice. Phase 3 of the Rice Thesaurus ship with AGNIC. The digitized collection will be posted
and the DIDP started in December. in the AGNIC database for wider awareness and acces-
The partners outside of IRRI include sibility. From the LDS end, links to these resources will
• Exchange partners. 600+ libraries in the Philippines be created on the online catalog and the rice database.
and overseas received IRRI’s free publications. • Food and Agriculture Organization of the United
• Document delivery partners. Some local libraries that Nations (FAO). Bibliographic records (257)were contrib-
lent support to IRRI are the Thomas Jefferson Informa- uted to FAO’s AGRIS database. The FAO-developed
tion Center, the libraries of the University of the Philip- software, WebAGRIS, and Information Management
pines Los Baños, the Asian Development Bank, Univer- Resource kit CD-ROM were promoted for use by local
sity of the Philippines-Diliman, the Philippine Rice librarians.
Research Institute, Ateneo de Manila University, and the • International Association of Agricultural Information
De La Salle University. Specialists (IAALD). Dr. Enrica Porcari, CGIAR chief

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 129


information officer, strengthened the CGIAR’s organiza- VISITORS AND INFORMATION SERVICES
tional ties with IAALD by contracting for institutional The Institute welcomed some 46,031 visitors (VIS Table 1).
memberships all 15 CGIAR centers and the CG Secre- These included distinguished guests such as the president of
tariat libraries. India, HE A. P. J. Abdul Kalam; the mayor of the California
• Hong Kong Innovative Users’ Group. This association of city of Davis, Ruth Asmundson; Senator Ramon Magsaysay,
Innopac users invited IRRI librarians to serve as Jr. of the Philippines; five ambassadors; 1,671 government
resource persons and to participate in the annual officials; six ministers; various members of the diplomatic
meeting with no charge for registration. community; and representatives of donor and international
• Local library associations/networks: organizations, including the ADB, the US embassy, and
◦ Agricultural Librarians Association of the Philip- ACIAR. The Institute was also visited by 1,054 farmers.
pines (ALAP). As in the past, three IRRI librarians IRRI via the Visitors Office also hosted the first Rice Camp
served as trainers during the Seminar-Workshop on for young students from Thailand and the Philippines on 24-
Retooling Librarians and Information Managers on 28 Apr. This was done to mark the start of a major new effort
Digital Resources, Database Creation and Manage- to encourage young Asians to consider a future in rice. During
ment, Benguet State University, 23-24 Feb. the 5 days, the students–selected because of their interest in
◦ PhilAgriNet. IRRI librarians participated in its or knowledge of rice–learned the very latest scientific
annual general assembly and assisted in the techniques in rice research and more specifically were
drafting of a project proposal for submission to convinced of how rice research can make the future of rice in
FAO. Five members of the network were trained on the region brighter.
WebAGRIS installation and database management. Three new sets of activity books for the three school
◦ Cavite Librarians Association. The IRRI chief categories (pre-school, elementary, and high school) were
librarian was invited to serve as a resource person introduced to the 38,804 students who visited IRRI last year.
in two of its major conferences. The books are intended to educate children on the importance
The library continued to share extra resources, consisting of rice as a staple food and at the same time help them enjoy
of superseded editions, duplicate materials, and IRRI their tour of the Riceworld Museum and Learning Center.
publications with local libraries. The following institutions In providing audio visual support, the Visitors Office also
are beneficiaries of these donations: Aklan State University, handled 205 Institute seminars, training sessions, and
Mapua University, University of the Philippines Los Baños, workshops and an overall total of 664 audiovisual requests
Camarines Sur State Agricultural College, Center for Agricul- compared with last year’s 535.
ture and Rural Development (CARD-MRI Development
Institute (Laguna), University of Southern Mindanao, and V. Workshops, conferences, and meetings
Mapa High School (Manila). During the year, IRRI hosted or cohosted 27 regional and
international conferences, workshops, and symposia (VIS
Professional growth of staff Table 2). The regional and international workshops attracted
Most of the Library staff availed of in-house training courses 982 delegates from 37 countries.
on various Microsoft modules, personnel management, and
personal development offered by IRRI. Riceworld and facilities
To be aware of different library facilities and practices, the Representing IRRI, the Riceworld Museum and Learning
staff visited the following advanced libraries of the following Center staff were able to participate in six exhibitions:
institutions: the De La Salle University Library, the Philippine a. Agri-Aqua Fair and Exhibit at the House of Representa-
Women’s University, Brent School, and the Asian Institute of tives, Quezon City, May 2006
Management. b. National Science and Technology Week and DOST
Through IRRI’s professional growth program, all LDS Annual Science and Technology Fair, Pasay City, Jul
staff participated in the 3-day Millennium Refresher Course 2006
conducted by Ms. Krissana Thampalo of Innovative Inter- c. Los Baños Science Community Exhibit, Los Baños, Aug
faces, Inc., the provider of the current automation system. 2006
d. Bañamos Tuklas-Agham Exhibit, Los Baños, Sep 2006
e. International Rice Congress, New Delhi, India, Oct 2006

130 Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07


VIS Table 1. IRRI visitors, by group, in 2006.

Visitor group Philippines Asia Africa Australasia Europe Latin America North America USA Total

Students 38,339 375 4 57 11 18 38,804


Conference participants 577 11 588
Nongovernment organizations 284 35 1 1 321
Donors 52 19 3 2 76
Government officials 1,376 286 7 2 1,671
Farmers 585 469 1,054
Faculty members/parents 378 179 8 3 12 580
Scientists, researchers 332 174 1 7 14 3 1 10 542
Private sector 736 325 12 10 2 17 1,102
UN agencies, CGIAR, TAC, etc. 1 2 1 3 7
Diplomatic corps 2 7 12 1 22
Media 57 48 1 1 107
Religious groups 120 59 1 4 184
Tourists 72 170 4 23 4 27 300
Others 548 39 3 11 9 1 6 56 673
Total 43,458 2,186 24 41 136 16 16 154 46,031

Museum improvements were done on the art and culture Md. Abu Yusuf Mia, additional deputy director, administra-
exhibit section by restoring two kiping (rice wafer) chande- tion, DAE, Bangladesh, 7 Mar
liers, two Riceworld panicle signage, and three rice panicle Hon. Qinglin Du, minister of agriculture, People’s Republic of
chandeliers. Repairs were also done on the Rice Song section. China, 26 Mar
The Rice History section was painted over to make way for Hon. Ruth Uy Asmundson, mayor of Davis City, California,
a future updated version. USA, 30 Mar
Non-IRRI groups requesting to use IRRI facilities but with Atty. Noel Servigon, division director, DFA-UNIO, 13 May
activities not in line with IRRI’s mission and vision were not Ms. Azlina Binti Abdullah, Division of Paddy and Rice
allowed in the Institute in 2006. IRRI, however, hosted Industry, Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based
ICRAF, PhilRice/Department of Agriculture/UPLB, UPLB Industry, Malaysia, 29 Jun
Dev Com, and the Southern Luzon Association of Museums. H.E. Abdalla Yahia Adam, secretary general, Afro-Asian
Rural Development Organization, New Delhi, India, 24 Jul
Distinguished visitors in 2006 Hon. Dr. Xu Guanhu, minister, Ministry of Science and
Legislators and government officials Technology, China, 25 Aug
Hon. Thomas Mandlate, minister of agriculture, Maputo, Hon. Ramon Magsaysay, Jr., member of the Philippine Senate,
Mozambique, 13 Jan 7 Sep
H.E. Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam, president of H.E. Lyonpo Sangay Ngedup, minister of agriculture, Royal
India, 5 Feb Government of Bhutan, 20 Oct
Hon. Roberto M. Pagdanganan, secretary, Department of Dr. Kyaw Than, vice president, Myanmar Academy of Agricul-
Tourism, Philippines, 5 Feb tural, Forestry, Livestock and Fischery Sciences, 13 Nov
Mr. Kentaro Kawaguchi, assistant director, Biotechnology Chief internal auditors, The Royal Kingdom of Bhutan, 5 Dec
Safety Division, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries Mr. Ir. Sutarto Alimoeso, director general, Good Crop,
Research Division, MAFF, Tokyo, Japan, 21 Feb Ministry of Agriculture, Indonesia,14 Dec
Md. Hamidur Rahman, director general, Department of Mrs. Atik Wasiati, director, Plant Crop Protection, Indonesia,
Agricultural Extension (DAE), Bangladesh, 7 Mar 14 Dec
Md. Abdur Razzaque Buiyam, project coordinating director, Ms. Yang Xinyu, deputy secretary general , China Scholarship
Small Holders Agricultural Improvement Project, DAE, Council, Ministry of Education, China, 14-15 Dec
Bangladesh, 7 Mar Mr. Xu Haijiang, deputy director, Foreign Economic Coopera-
Md. Rejaul Haider, private secretary to the Secretary, tion Center (FECC), Ministry of Agriculture (MOA),
Ministry of Agriculture, Bangladesh, 7 Mar China, 22 Dec
Md. Fazlul Jaque Mollah, deputy director, administration, Ms. Zhang Li, director, Foreign Economic Cooperation
DAE, Bangladesh, 7 Mar Department, FECC, MOA, 22 Dec

Annual Report of the Director General, 2006-07 131


Representatives of various organizations Dr. Nihal Amerasinghe, international consultant, ADB, 16 Sep
Dr. Sandra Lee Kunimoto, head, Hawaii State Department of Dr. Urooj S. Malik, director (SEAE), Agriculture, Environ-
Agriculture, 9 Jan ment and Natural Resources Division, ADB, 7 Sept
Dr. Andrew Hashimoto, dean, College of Tropical Agriculture Dr. Achmad Suryana, director general, Indonesian Agency for
and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, Manoa, 9 Agricultural Research and Development, 4-5 Sep
Jan Developing member country (DMC) officials, ADB, 16 Sep
Mr. Yasuhiro Onozaki, senior officer, General Affairs Section, Dr. Kay Porter, director of rice research, Pioneer Hi-Bred
Japan International Research Center for Agricultural International, Inc., 25-27 Sep
Sciences (JIRCAS), 5-8 Feb Dr. Selvam Ramaraj, vice president, Industrial Malaysian
Mr. Toshiki Kikuchi, senior officer, Overseas Staff Support Biotechnology Corporation, 1 Oct
Section, Administrative Division, JIRCAS, 5-8 Feb Dr. Richard Jefferson, CEO, CAMBIA, Australia, 5 Oct
Dr. Stephen McGurk, regional director, Regional Office for Ms. Amelia Goh, communications officer, CGIAR Gender and
South East and East Asia, International Development Diversity Program; molecular genetics researcher,
Research Centre (IDRC), 20-21 Feb Worldfish Center, 11 Oct
Dr. Ellie Osir, senior program specialist, Regional Office for Mr. Erin Zink, scientific program coordinator for social
South East and East Asia, IDRC, 20-21 Feb sciences, International Foundation for Science, 11 Oct
Mr. John Mwangi, associate director, CGIAR IAU, Nairobi, Dr. Hu Peisong, head, Department of Program Management
Kenya, 27 Feb and International Cooperation, China National Rice
Mr. Thotekat N. Menon, head, Internal Audit, International Research Institute, 18 Oct
Crops Research Institute for the Semi-arid Tropics, India, Dr. Larry Beach, biotechnology advisor, United States Agency
27 Feb for International Development, W