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Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development Jouko Malinen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland
Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development Jouko Malinen VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Advances in miniature spectrometer and sensor development

Jouko Malinen

VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Click Co-authors to edit Master title style

Click to edit Master text styles

Dr. Anna Rissanen

MEMS FPI technoloy

Dr. Heikki Saari

Second level

Piezo-actuated FPI and hyperspectral technology Spectrometer integration R2R printed sensors Silicon photonics ASIC design

Third level

Fourth level

Dr. Mikko Karppinen Dr. Pentti Karioja Dr. Timo Aalto Mr. Kari Tukkiniemi

Fifth level

Karioja Dr. Timo Aalto Mr. Kari Tukkiniemi Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
Outline Click to edit Master title style Why Click miniature to edit Master text styles

Outline

Click to edit Master title style

Why Click miniature to edit Master text styles

Second level

Fabry-Perot tunable filter

Third level

MEMS spectral engines

Fourth level

Spectrometer integration Piezo-actuated FPI Emerging sensor developments

Fifth level

FPI Emerging sensor developments Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
FPI Emerging sensor developments Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
FPI Emerging sensor developments Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
FPI Emerging sensor developments Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
Motivation for miniaturization Click to edit Master title style • Miniaturizing spectrometers into hand

Motivation for miniaturization

Click to edit Master title style

Miniaturizing spectrometers into hand held-mobile-connected sensors

Click to edit Master text styles

creates opportunity for novel applications:

Second level

Third level

Cost critical process on-line measurements

Fourth Environmental level sensing (Internet of Things)

Gas sensing

Health and wellness, diagnostics

Fifth level

Gas sensing Health and wellness, diagnostics Fifth level From benchtop to handheld 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation
Gas sensing Health and wellness, diagnostics Fifth level From benchtop to handheld 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation
Gas sensing Health and wellness, diagnostics Fifth level From benchtop to handheld 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation

From benchtop to handheld

05/05/2014

SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014

44

Click Introduction to edit Master – Fabry title style Perot interferometer Second level Third level

Click Introduction to edit Master – Fabry title style Perot interferometer

Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level

Click to edit Master text styles

Fourth level Fifth level Click to edit Master text styles Basic equation for transmitted wavelengths: =

Basic equation for transmitted wavelengths:

= 2d/m

styles Basic equation for transmitted wavelengths: = 2d/m Passband = 430 nm 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation

Passband = 430 nm

Click to edit Master title style

The two filter platforms - summary

edit Master title style The two filter platforms - summary PIEZO-ACTUATED Click to edit Master text

PIEZO-ACTUATED

Click to edit Master text styles

Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
MEMS
MEMS

Optical apertures up to ~2 mm

Superior mirror flatness

Insensitive to vibrations or positioning

Low operational voltages

For medium to high annual volumes

6

6

Large aperture sizes, ~20 mm Accurate gap control through integrated capacitance measurement Easily customized For low to medium annual volumes

~20 mm Accurate gap control through integrated capacitance measurement Easily customized For low to medium annual
~20 mm Accurate gap control through integrated capacitance measurement Easily customized For low to medium annual
~20 mm Accurate gap control through integrated capacitance measurement Easily customized For low to medium annual

05/05/2014

SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014

MEMS spectral engines
MEMS spectral engines
MEMS spectral engines

MEMS spectral engines

MEMS spectral engines
MEMS Click to spectrometer edit Master title development style and commercialization at VTT 20 year

MEMS Click to spectrometer edit Master title development style and commercialization at VTT

20 year development effort, 15M€+ investment, 100 man years

Click to edit Master text styles

MEMS-FPI solutions covering UV-VIS-NIR-IR-TIR, 350nm – 12 µm

Supporting patent portfolio

Partners: Vaisala, VTT Memsfab, Spectral Engines …

Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Spectral Engines … Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 1997 - 2003 2006 2009
Spectral Engines … Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 1997 - 2003 2006 2009

Fifth level

… Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 1997 - 2003 2006 2009 2012 2013
… Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level 1997 - 2003 2006 2009 2012 2013
1997 - 2003 2006 2009 2012 2013 2014 Pen Fuel quality GasSensor memsNIR Imager spectrometer
1997 - 2003
2006
2009
2012 2013
2014
Pen
Fuel quality
GasSensor
memsNIR
Imager
spectrometer
sensor
quality GasSensor memsNIR Imager spectrometer sensor Vaisala CarboCap Ethylene sensor for ESA Imaging platform

Vaisala

CarboCap

memsNIR Imager spectrometer sensor Vaisala CarboCap Ethylene sensor for ESA Imaging platform dvlpt 05/05/2014

Ethylene

sensor for

ESA

Imaging

platform dvlpt

CarboCap Ethylene sensor for ESA Imaging platform dvlpt 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
CarboCap Ethylene sensor for ESA Imaging platform dvlpt 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
CarboCap Ethylene sensor for ESA Imaging platform dvlpt 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
CarboCap Ethylene sensor for ESA Imaging platform dvlpt 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
CarboCap Ethylene sensor for ESA Imaging platform dvlpt 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies

Wavelength

Wavelength Click MEMS to FPI edit process Master platforms title style & wavelengths Click to edit

Click MEMS to FPI edit process Master platforms title style & wavelengths

Click to edit Master text styles

UV/visible FPI Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Ultra-compact chip spectrometer
UV/visible FPI
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Ultra-compact chip spectrometer
NIR/MIR FPI
NIR/MIR FPI
MIR/TIR FPI
MIR/TIR FPI
UV 200 – 350 nm Visible 350 – 800 nm Low NIR 0.8 – 1.1µm
UV
200 – 350 nm
Visible
350 – 800 nm
Low NIR
0.8 – 1.1µm
Near IR
1,1 – 2,5 µm
Mid IR
3 – 7 µm
Thermal IR
7 – 12 µm

NIR Click spectrometer to edit Master engine title style

Click to edit Master text styles

Wavelength ranges

1.3

1.6

- 1.7 µm

- 2.0 µm

Second level

 

1.7

- 2.2 µm

Resolution

 

(% of wavelength)

Third level

1

 

0.7-1.4 %

Wavelength settling time

Fourth level

< 0.8 ms

SNR (typical)

Fifth level

3000

Power consumption

 

<

1 W

Optical interface

 

SMA 905

Input fiber core diameter

Max. 400 µm diam.

Numerical aperture

 

0.22

Wavelength stability

 

< 0.1 nm / C

Dynamic range

 

> 15 bits

Size

50 x 35 x 20 mm 3

Weight

 

<

50 g

Operating temperature range

 

+10

+35

C

g Operating temperature range   +10 +35 C memsNIR prototype Moisture in paper (0.1, 3.5 and
g Operating temperature range   +10 +35 C memsNIR prototype Moisture in paper (0.1, 3.5 and

memsNIR prototype

range   +10 +35 C memsNIR prototype Moisture in paper (0.1, 3.5 and 10.1%) 05/05/2014 SPIE

Moisture in paper (0.1, 3.5 and 10.1%)

Click MEMS to hydrocarbon edit Master title gas style sensor Click to edit Master text

Click MEMS to hydrocarbon edit Master title gas style sensor

Click MEMS to hydrocarbon edit Master title gas style sensor Click to edit Master text styles

Click to edit Master text styles

Main Second characteristics level

Wavelength range

Third level

3000-3500 nm

level Wavelength range Third level 3000-3500 nm Spectral resolution Fourth level 50-60 nm Optical path

Spectral resolution

Fourth level

50-60 nm

Optical path length

Fifth level 17 mm

Spectrum acquisition time

2 s (10 spectral points)

Power consumption (continuous mode)

< 2 W

Size

77 x 38 x25 mm

Weight

95 g

Mannila R., Tuohiniemi , M., Mäkynen, J., Näkki, I., Antila, J., "Hydrocarbon gas detection with microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer ", Proc. SPIE 8726, 872608 (2013).

Thermal IR MEMS Fabry-Perot

Interferometer Click to edit Master title style

Fabry-Perot Interferometer Click to edit Master title style Wavelength range from 7.5 µm to 9.5 µm

Wavelength range from 7.5 µm to 9.5 µm

Click to edit Master text styles

Control voltage from 0-30V

Second level

FWHM of 140nm Aperture size Third 1.2 level mm

Fourth level

/4 layers of polysilicon-air-polysilicon

Fifth level

level /4 layers of polysilicon-air-polysilicon Fifth level MEMS FPI cross section MEMS FPI characterization Mirror

MEMS FPI cross section

MEMS FPI characterization

Mirror structure
Mirror
structure

Tuohiniemi, M., Blomberg, M., Akujärvi, A., Antila, J., Saari, H., “Optical transmission performance of a surface-micromachined Fabry-Pérot interferometer for thermal infrared” J. Micromech. Microeng. Vol. 22(11), 115004, (2012).

Tuohiniemi, M., Näsilä, A., Mäkynen, J., “Characterization of the tuning performance of a micro-machined Fabry-Pérot interferometer for thermal infrared”, J. Micromech. Microeng. Vol. 23 (7), 075011, (2013).

Click to edit Spin-off Master starting title style from VTT Click to edit Master text

Click to edit Spin-off Master starting title style from VTT

Click to edit Master text styles

Second level

Fourth level Fifth level
Fourth level
Fifth level

Third level

styles Second level Fourth level Fifth level Third level Spectrometer performance at sensor price point
styles Second level Fourth level Fifth level Third level Spectrometer performance at sensor price point
styles Second level Fourth level Fifth level Third level Spectrometer performance at sensor price point

Spectrometer performance at sensor price point

www.spectralengines.com

Click to edit Master title style

Click to edit Master text styles

Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level

title style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level

Spectrometer integration

Competences and challenges for miniaturization Click to edit Master title style High-precision alignment (passive or

Competences and challenges for miniaturization Click to edit Master title style

for miniaturization Click to edit Master title style High-precision alignment (passive or active; Click to edit

High-precision

alignment

(passive or active;

Click to edit Master text styles

e.g. fiber pigtailing)

Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level
Fifth level

Thermal management

(CTE matching, temperature control, minimized dissipation)

(CTE matching, temperature control, minimized dissipation) 3D integration and packaging (electronics, bare die
(CTE matching, temperature control, minimized dissipation) 3D integration and packaging (electronics, bare die

3D integration and packaging (electronics, bare die mounting gas/liquid channels,…)

Encapsulation (hermetic sealing, windows)

Electronics integration (performance, EMI issues)

windows) Electronics integration (performance, EMI issues) Silicon photonics (propagation losses, optical throughput,
windows) Electronics integration (performance, EMI issues) Silicon photonics (propagation losses, optical throughput,

Silicon photonics (propagation losses, optical throughput, polarization)

Click System-on-package: to edit Master title mid-IR style gas analyzer Click to edit Master text

Click System-on-package: to edit Master title mid-IR style gas analyzer

Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level
Click to edit Master text styles
Second level
Third level
Fourth level
Fifth level
Test setup 10 cm
Test setup
10 cm

Proto sensor head

Click to edit Master title style

Click to edit Master text styles

Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level

Piezo-actuated FPI - spectrometers and hyperspectral cameras

styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Piezo-actuated FPI - spectrometers and hyperspectral cameras

Piezo-FPI Click to edit platform Master title style

Piezo-FPI Click to edit platform Master title style Piezo-actuator tuneable FPI assembled from MEMS- Click to

Piezo-actuator tuneable FPI assembled from MEMS-

Click to edit Master text styles

based reflectors

Small- to medium volume production

Second level

Easy customization and fast device prototyping

Third level

Easy customization and fast device prototyping Third level compared to MEMS Fourth level Large optical aperture

compared to MEMS Fourth level Large optical aperture provides excellent sensitivity

Fifth level

Large tuning range with single element Robust construction (tested for space requirements) Wavelengths from UV to thermal IR

for space requirements) Wavelengths from UV to thermal IR Wavelength 05/05/2014 UV 200 – 350 nm
for space requirements) Wavelengths from UV to thermal IR Wavelength 05/05/2014 UV 200 – 350 nm

Wavelength

Wavelength 05/05/2014
05/05/2014

05/05/2014

Wavelength 05/05/2014
Wavelength 05/05/2014
Wavelength 05/05/2014 UV 200 – 350 nm Visible 350 – 800 nm Low NIR 0.8 –
UV 200 – 350 nm Visible 350 – 800 nm Low NIR 0.8 – 1.1µm
UV
200 – 350 nm
Visible
350 – 800 nm
Low NIR
0.8 – 1.1µm
Near IR
1,1 – 2,5 µm
Mid IR
3 – 7 µm
Thermal IR
7 – 12 µm

SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014

– 2,5 µm Mid IR 3 – 7 µm Thermal IR 7 – 12 µm SPIE

1818

VIS-VNIR Click to edit hyperspectral Master title camera style Second level Third level Fourth level

VIS-VNIR Click to edit hyperspectral Master title camera style

Second level Third level Fourth level
Second level
Third level
Fourth level

Click to edit Master text styles

Fifth level
Fifth level

Small

biomass

Large

biomass

Publications:

Saari, H et al, “Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) operated spectral camera system for forest and agriculture applications”, Proc. SPIE 8174 (2011).

Light-weight (~0.5 kg): can be operated with low-cost UAVs Wavelength range 500 - 900 nm Wavelength resolution 10 nm CMOS image sensor 1 – 5 Mpix

Wavelength resolution 10 nm CMOS image sensor 1 – 5 Mpix Commercially available: www.rikola.fi 05/05/2014 1919

Commercially

available:

Wavelength resolution 10 nm CMOS image sensor 1 – 5 Mpix Commercially available: www.rikola.fi 05/05/2014 1919

www.rikola.fi

VIS-VNIR Click to edit hyperspectral Master title camera style in medical application studies Click to

VIS-VNIR Click to edit hyperspectral Master title camera style in medical application studies

Master title camera style in medical application studies Click to edit Master text styles Second level
Master title camera style in medical application studies Click to edit Master text styles Second level

Click to edit Master text styles

Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level

VTT’s camera can detect skin cancer within seconds

Easy-to-use hand held instrument Fast screening and early detection of skin cancer

Application being studied at the University of Jyväskylä

Application being studied at the University of Jyväskylä Wavelength range : 500-900 nm Wavelength resolution

Wavelength range:

500-900 nm

Wavelength resolution:

Ca. 10-30 nm

Spatial resolution:

2 Mpix

Development status:

• 1st generation prototype done

• Application studies ongoing

Neittaanmäki-Perttu, N., Grönroos, M., Tani, T., Pölönen, I., Ranki, A., Saksela, O. and Snellman, E., “Detecting Field Cancerization using Hyperspectral Imaging System”, accepted for publication in Lasers in Surgery & Medicine Journal in June

2013.

Wavelength ranges of Piezo-FPI and Click image to edit sensors Master title style

Piezo-FPI and Click image to edit sensors Master title style Available, dielectric mirrors Available, metallic
Available, dielectric mirrors

Available, dielectric mirrors

Available, metallic mirrors

Available, metallic mirrors

Customizable, dielectric mirrors

Customizable, dielectric mirrors

styles Fourth level Fifth level 1 10 .2 .3 .4 .6 .8 1 2 3
styles
Fourth
level
Fifth level
1
10
.2
.3
.4
.6
.8
1
2
3
4
6
8
10
11
12
14

Click to edit Master text

Dielectric FPI

mirrors

Second level

Metallic FPI

mirrors

Dielectric FPI mirrors

Third level

Wavelength (µm)

CMOS&CCD

InGaAs

Ext-InGaAs

InSb

MCT

Wavelength (µm) CMOS&CCD InGaAs Ext-InGaAs InSb MCT .2 .3 .4 .6 .8 1 1 2 3

.2

.3

.4

.6

.8

1

1

2

3

4

6

8

10

10

11

12

14

Wavelength (µm)

Stand-off Click to edit Raman Master spectroscopy title style at FOI with UV-FPI Click to

Stand-off Click to edit Raman Master spectroscopy title style at FOI with UV-FPI

Raman Master spectroscopy title style at FOI with UV-FPI Click to edit Master text styles Precise

Click to edit Master text styles

Precise selection of Raman shifts

in combination with high out-of-

band blocking Third level

Second level

Works in the UV range where no

comparable filtering systems are

commercially available Compact, high resolution (~0.2 nm @ FWHM) UV-FPI Module operation stable under varying environmental conditions

Fourth level

Fifth level

Glimtoft, M., Bååth, P., Östmark , H., Saari, H., Mäkynen, J., Näsilä, A., “Towards eye-safe standoff Raman imaging systems”, SPIE Proceedings 9072,

(2014).

Large Click to aperture edit Master piezo-FPI title style gas sensors Separately assembled Mid-IR FPI

Large Click to aperture edit Master piezo-FPI title style gas sensors

Separately assembled Mid-IR FPI tunable filter platforms for

Click to edit Master text styles

Multi-gas measurements

Second level

Correlation spectroscopy Third level

Large apertures provide high optical throughput

Fourth level

Application testing with an industrial gas analysis system

Quantitative multi-gas analysis possible

Fifth level

system Quantitative multi-gas analysis possible Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
system Quantitative multi-gas analysis possible Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
Click Single-Band to edit Master Tunable title FPI style Filter Platform Air gap Electrodes Replacement

Click Single-Band to edit Master Tunable title FPI style Filter Platform

Air gap

Electrodes

Tunable title FPI style Filter Platform Air gap Electrodes Replacement for filter wheel Click to edit

Replacement for filter wheel

Click to edit Master text styles

Bragg Second mirrors level fabricated on silicon wafers

Third level

Capacitive air gap

Fourth level

measurement and off-the-

Fifth level

shelf piezos for actuation

Dedicated assembly and calibration procedure Tunability: 4-5 µm Spectral resolution (wide band due to application need): ~70 nm (FWHM)

Piezo

actuation

n=1 2

air gap=2

3

µm

nm (FWHM) Piezo actuation n=1 2 air gap=2 3 µm 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
nm (FWHM) Piezo actuation n=1 2 air gap=2 3 µm 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
Click Correlation to edit Spectroscopy Master title style FPI Platform Correlation spectroscopy for Click to

Click Correlation to edit Spectroscopy Master title style FPI Platform

Correlation spectroscopy for

Click to edit Master text styles

high sensitivity

Air gap Second in millimeters level (high

Third level

diffraction order)

Fourth level

Spacers provide small gap for

Fifth level

Air gap

Electrodes

Spacers provide small gap for Fifth level Air gap Electrodes Piezo actuation Spacers n=~550 air gap=~1.2

Piezo

actuation

small gap for Fifth level Air gap Electrodes Piezo actuation Spacers n=~550 air gap=~1.2 mm accurate

Spacers

n=~550

air gap=~1.2 mm

accurate capacitive measurement Transmission pattern mimics absorption of CO Tunability for correlation and anti-correlation with CO

Tunability for correlation and anti-correlation with CO 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies

Click to edit Master title style

Click to edit Master text styles

Second level

Third level

Fourth level

Fifth level

Emerging sensor developments

style Click to edit Master text styles Second level Third level Fourth level Fifth level Emerging
Printed Click and to edit Hybrid Master Functionalities title style research at VTT Research Focus

Printed Click and to edit Hybrid Master Functionalities title style research at VTT

Research Focus

From printed components to printed and hybrid systems

Click to edit Master text styles

Solutions

Technology (material development and tuning, process planning and design,

Second level

device and systems designs and modelling) and business development services,

examples:

Third level

Printed solar cells, lighting solutions (ILEDs, OLEDs), printed transistors,

printed sensors and indicators, printed power sources, nanoparticles and

Fourth level

Fifth level

functional inks Scaling up services using printing and hybrid pilot lines

Benefit to Customers

New thin flexible product concepts made possible Help in finding new business opportunities available Low risk for scaling up production

available Low risk for scaling up production 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
05/05/2014
05/05/2014
available Low risk for scaling up production 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014 2727
available Low risk for scaling up production 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014 2727

SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014

available Low risk for scaling up production 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014 2727
available Low risk for scaling up production 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014 2727
available Low risk for scaling up production 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies 2014 2727
2727
2727

Click Nanoimprint to edit Master lithography title style NIL

Click Nanoimprint to edit Master lithography title style NIL UV nanoimprint process Roll to roll UV-imprinting

UV nanoimprint process

Roll to roll UV-imprinting process

UV nanoimprint process Roll to roll UV-imprinting process Second level Third level Click to edit Master

Second level

Third level

Roll to roll UV-imprinting process Second level Third level Click to edit Master text styles Fourth

Click to edit Master text styles

Fourth level

Fifth level

Aspect ratios for different processes at present day

 

Sheet level

R2R UV-replication

Current status

3

… 5

1.5 … 2

R&D status

4

… 7

2 … 3

Best results in the field

6

… 10

3

R2R waveguide sensors

R2R waveguide sensors Sensor roll S e n s o r c h i p Sensor

Sensor roll

R2R waveguide sensors Sensor roll S e n s o r c h i p Sensor

Sensor chip

waveguide sensors Sensor roll S e n s o r c h i p Sensor waveguide

Sensor waveguide

Sensor roll S e n s o r c h i p Sensor waveguide Sensor roll

Sensor roll length is some hundreds of meters Sensor chip dimensions are in centimeters mostly due to robust sample handling -> one roll can contain tens of thousands of sensor chips Typical waveguide width is 1…3 µm Sensor elements are functionalized/passivated in post-process

R2R SERS sensor chip development in Photosens consortium project Nanoimprinted roll of substrate showing continuous

R2R SERS sensor chip development in Photosens consortium project

SERS sensor chip development in Photosens consortium project Nanoimprinted roll of substrate showing continuous SERS

Nanoimprinted roll of substrate showing continuous SERS array

roll of substrate showing continuous SERS array Nanoimprinted roll of substrate showing and cut out 96

Nanoimprinted roll of substrate showing and cut out 96 well plate (gold coated)

Enabling technology: Silicon photonics Photonic integrated circuits on SOI wafers VTT has developed a unique

Enabling technology: Silicon photonics

Photonic integrated circuits on SOI wafers VTT has developed a unique µm-scale SOI waveguide platform Dense integration and low-cost volume production Low propagation losses (0.1 dB/cm) Small polarisation dependency Single-mode operation over an ultra-wide wavelength range

dB/cm) Small polarisation dependency Single-mode operation over an ultra-wide wavelength range 05/05/2014 3131
dB/cm) Small polarisation dependency Single-mode operation over an ultra-wide wavelength range 05/05/2014 3131
dB/cm) Small polarisation dependency Single-mode operation over an ultra-wide wavelength range 05/05/2014 3131
Click Microspectrometers to edit Master title with style silicon photonics ? Click Emerging to edit

Click Microspectrometers to edit Master title with style silicon photonics ?

Click Emerging to edit technology Master text for styles microspectrometers in the future

Multiple wavelength filters in a single circuit

Second level

Wideband & narrowband filtering combined

Third level

Fourth level

Filter tunability, switching and modulation Light sources and detectors can be hybrid integrated on SOI chips

Fifth level

detectors can be hybrid integrated on SOI chips Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
detectors can be hybrid integrated on SOI chips Fifth level 05/05/2014 SPIE Next Generation Spectroscopic Technologies
Thank you for your attention ! jouko.malinen@vtt.fi
Thank you for your attention ! jouko.malinen@vtt.fi
Thank you for your attention ! jouko.malinen@vtt.fi

Thank you for your attention !

jouko.malinen@vtt.fi