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Tentec

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Instruction Document
Tips on Bolt Tensioning.

Clamp Length
All Detachable Type Bolt Tensioners.

Document No: TDR146r2


Issued: 09/09/14

Load Transfer Factor. (LTF)


Any stretch bolt tensioner regardless of make, exhibits a load
loss as the bolt load is transferred from the tensioner to the joints Through Bolt
hexagon or round nuts. Load loss is a direct loss of bolt elongation;
this is due to many different factors, such as thread deflections,
radial expansion of the nut and ‘ bedding in’ of the nut into the joint
reaction surface. Because of this phenomenon it is essential that a
load allowance (LTF) is made when calculating the working load of
a tensioner, to achieve a known final bolt load. Extra load must be
applied so the bolt will relax down to the required load on transfer.
The load transfer factor is a direct function of joint clamp length
and the nominal diameter of the bolt, and can be calculated using

Clamp Length
the following formula: *First engaged thread
Clamp Length

Load Transfer Factor (LTF) = 1.01 + (D / C)


Units:-
D = Nominal Bolt Thread Diameter (mm or In)
C = Joint Clamp Length (mm or In)
Note: If the calculated LTF is less than 1.15, then use 1.15

Blind Bolt

Load Loss
1.6

1.5
Load Transfer Factor (LTF)

1.4

1.3

1.2

1.1

1
0.50 0.33 0.25 0.20 0.17 0.14 0.13 0.11 0.10 0.09 0.08 0.08 0.07 0.07 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.05 0.05
Ratio of Stud Diameter to Joint Clamp Length (D/C)

Tentec Limited
Plymouth House
Guns Lane
West Bromwich. West Midlands
United Kingdom. B70 9HS
BS-EN-ISO 14001 BS OHSAS 18001 BS-EN-ISO 9001

Tentec products are subject to continual development and Tentec reserve the right to make changes in the
Internet: www.tentec.net
specification and design of there products without prior notice. email:sales@tentec.net
All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without the permission of Tentec Limited is prohibited.
Telephone: +44(0)121 524 1990
© 2013 - Tentec Limited Telefax: +44(0)121 525 1999
100 This indicates the lost
load due to the cross
Cross Load Factor (CLF) 90 loading factor as Bolt 2
is being tensioned
80
For less than 100% bolt to tool ratio tensioning it is recommended This indicates the lost
70
to use two tightening pressures. Tentec refer to these pressures as load due to the load
transfer factor occuring
Pressure A and Pressure B. These two pressures compensate for 60
when the tool pressure is
the bolt load loss that occurs when a bolt is tensioned adjacent to 50 released

an already tensioned bolt. The already tensioned bolt looses load as 40 This indicates the final
retained load in the bolt
load is being applied to its adjacent partner. 30
To compensate for this load loss, extra load is applied in the form 20
of pump pressure A, to the first bolt so that it relaxes down to the
10
required load.
0 2 Shows the breakdown of load losses and the final
Generally Tentec recommend a cross load factor of 1.2. Fig
retained Bolt
load 1 Bolt 2 Bolt 3 Bolt 4 B

Load generated at
100
Pressure A
90
Load generated at
80
Pressure B
70

60

50 Retained Load
40

30

20

10

0
Bolt 1 Bolt 2 Bolt 3 Bolt 4 Bolt 5 Bolt 6 Bolt 7 Bolt 8 Bolt 9 Bolt 10 Bolt 11 Bolt 12 Bolt 13 Bolt 14 Bolt 15 Bolt 16

Fig 1 This diagram shows the normal load losses associated with stretch bolt tensioners

The 2 pressure tightening pressure procedure is not mandatory,


BTS - Bolt Tightening Software.
however it is a procedure that when followed, reduces the number Available form the Tentec website.
of times a bolt is tensioned before equal load is achieved in all bolts. www.tentec.net
If it is not possible to apply an elevated A pressure, then simply Takes the complexity out of bolt tightening calculations.
apply Pressure B to all bolts and continue tensioning until the break
loose check is satisfied. (Refer to the Tentec Instruction manual
supplied with your tensioners).

Useful Formula Relating to Bolt Tensioners


Determining required bolt load from known bolt stress.

Retained Bolt Load = Retained Bolt Stress x Bolt Tensile Stress Area
Units:
Retained Bolt Load = (N or Tons)
Bolt Tensile Stress Area = (mm2 or In2)

Determine Tool Pressure B to achieve required Bolt Load.


Tool Pressure = (Retained Bolt Load x LTF) / Tool Hydraulic Pressure Area
Units
Tool Pressure = (N/mm2 or Ton/In2)*
retained Bolt Load = (N or Ton)
LTF = (No Units)
Tool Hydraulic Pressure Area = (mm2 or In2)
*To convert N/mm2 to bar: Multiply by 10
** To Convert Ton/In2 to psi: Multiply by 2240

Determine Tool Pressure A to achieve required Bolt Load.


Tool Pressure =
(Required Bolt Load x LTF x CLF) / Tool Hydraulic Pressure Area
Units
Tool Pressure = (N/mm2 or Ton/In2)*
Retained Bolt Load = (N or Ton)
LTF = (No Units)
Tool Hydraulic Pressure Area = (mm2 or In2)
*To convert N/mm2 to bar: Multiply by 10
** To Convert Ton/In2 to psi: Multiply by 2240

% of Bolt Yield
(Bolt Stress Required / Yield Strength of bolt ) x 100 x LTF x CLF

Units
Bolt Stress Required (N/mm2 or Ton/In2)
Bolt Stress Required (N/mm2 or Ton/In2)
The tool Hydraulic Pressure Area and Max Working
Pressure can be found hard stamped on the Tentec tool.