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13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs X


C. S. BEARD (1970, 1985) B. G. LIPTÁK (1995)

J. P. WILSON (2005)
Expansible tube or
diaphragm valves

pilot line

Fluid interaction valves

Flow sheet symbols

Valve and Trim Designs: A. Anticavitation Valves

B. Dirty Service Valves
C. Low-Noise Valves
D. High-Capacity Valves
E. Cryogenic Valves
F. High-Temperature Valves
G. Steam Conditioning Valves
H. Tank Mounted Valves
I. Expansible Tube or Diaphragm Valve
J. Fluid Interaction Valves

Available Range of Sizes: A. 1 to 36 in. (25 to 915 mm)

B. 1 to 36 in. (25 to 915 mm)
C. 1 to 48 in. (25 to 1220 mm)
D. 12 to 72 in. (300 to 1830 mm)
E. 1 to 36 in. (25 to 915 mm)
F. 1 to 20 in. (25 to 508 mm)
G. 6 to 48 in. (152 to 1220 mm)
H. 4 to 24 in. (100 to 600 mm)
I. 1 to 12 in. (25 to 300 mm)
J. /2 to 4 in. (12.5 to 100 mm)

Design Pressure Limits: A. Up to 8000 PSIG (550 bar)

B. Up to 8000 PSIG (550 bar)
C. Up to 4000 PSIG (275 bar)
D. Up to 3000 PSIG (205 bar)
E. Up to 1500 PSIG (100 bar)
F. Up to 5000 PSIG (345 bar)
G. Up to 5000 PSIG (345 bar)
H. Up to 1500 PSIG (100 bar)
I. Up to 1500 PSIG (100 bar)
J. 100 PSIG (7 bar) or greater (no theoretical limit)

Maximum Operating A. Up to 1100°F (595°C)

Temperatures: B. Up to 1100°F (595°C)
C. Up to 1100°F (595°C)
D. Up to 1100°F (595°C)
E. –325°F (–162°C) to 300°F (150°C)
F. Up to 1800°F (980°C)
G. Up to 1100°F (595°C)


© 2006 by Béla Lipták

1200 Control Valve Selection and Sizing

H. Up to 1100°F (595°C)
I. Up to 150°F (66°C)
J. Can handle molten metals

Partial List of Suppliers: ABB Process Automation (

Emerson Process Management–Daniel Division (
Emerson Process Management–Fisher Valve Division (
Flowserve Corporation (
Masoneilan Division of Dresser Flow Control (
Siemens (www.


This section consists of two distinct parts. In the first part, a Dynamically Balanced Plug Valves
number of control valve designs are described, which are
different in that they are neither linear nor rotary in their This family of control valves has been developed for pres-
operation. These miscellaneous valve designs utilize the sure and flow control applications where no external power
energy content of the flowing fluid for their operation. They is available to operate the valve, and therefore the static
depend on fluid interaction or the static pressure of the pro- pressure of the process fluid is utilized to achieve throttling.
cess fluid and use flexible elements to throttle gas pressure Figure 6.13a illustrates an installation for upstream (back)
regulators and other control valves. These valves are used in pressure control.
specialized services, such as in sensitive level control, in gas Here, the upstream pressure is sent to the control pilot
pressure or flow regulation, and in toxic services. through port D. If the controlled upstream pressure drops, this
In the second part of this section some of the special lowers the pressure in the pilot chamber and the pilot spring
valve trim designs used in the traditional globe control valves moves the pilot poppet valve to the right. This opens port B
are discussed in terms of their suitability for specialized and thereby upstream pressure is applied inside the plug cham-
applications. These applications include applications where ber. This equalizes the pressure acting on the plug and allows
noise; cavitation; flashing; high and low temperatures or pres- the spring to move the plug to the left, to close the valve.
sures; or viscous, dirty, or slurry flows are involved. These valves provide nearly linear characteristics
(Figure 6.13b) and high flow capacities (Cv = 30d ). They
Such trim designs and applications have already been
discussed in Sections 6.1, 6.7, 6.14, and 6.15. are available in sizes up to 12 in. (300 mm), and special units



A C Pilot valve
poppet assembly
Hard faced

Plug guiding
provides stable
and consistent

Seat with
Plug chamber with
low-force spring

FIG. 6.13a
Dynamically balanced valve plug. (Courtesy of Daniel Industries.)

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

6.13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs 1201

Closing Opening
port port

80 balanced
% Flow or Cv

50 tube

FIG. 6.13c
Positioned plug valve in its fully open position. (Courtesy of Eisen-
10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
werk Heinrich Schilling.)
% Stroke

FIG. 6.13b
The characteristics of expansible tube and dynamically balanced one of the dynamic seals should fail. All seats and seals are
plug valves are nearly linear. replaceable by separation at the body flange.
The unit is particularly adaptable to fluids that are toxic
have been made in up to 24 in. (600 mm) sizes. The valves or difficult to contain, such as nitrogen tetroxide, hydrogen,
can be provided with up to ANSI Class 1500 rating and with and others used in the aerospace industry. The unit is fur-
pressure control settings up to 3000 PSIG (205 bar). nished in sizes from 1 /2–18 in. (37.5–450 mm), with ratings
The advantages of this design include its erosion and to 2500 PSIG (17.3 MPa). All types of end connections are
corrosion resistance, due to the hard facing of the plug; its available, and control is dependent upon the auxiliary control
good pressure recovery characteristics, due to the large and components selected for the application. An explosionproof
smooth annular flow area through the valve; its fast speed of limit switch can be furnished for position indication.
response; and its bubble-tight seating.
Diaphragm-Operated Cylinder In-Line Valves An in-line valve
Positioned Plug In-Line Valves using a low convolution diaphragm for positive sealing and long
travel (Figure 6.13f) is designed particularly for gas regulation.
The positioned plug in-line valve, excluding control units,
The low level of vibration, turbulence, and noise of this in-line
resembles a pipe spool. It is only necessary to inject pressure
design makes it suitable for high-pressure gas service.
into its ports for positioning the valve plug. This simple design
(Figure 6.13c) requires only three pressure seals. The plug is
carried on a cylinder that also includes the piston. Pressure in
Opening Closing
one port causes closing, while the opposite port is used for port port
opening. The valve has only one moving part and is available
in sizes from 2–8 in. (50–200 mm) for use to 350 PSIG at
400°F (2.4 MPa at 204°C). Control quality is dependent upon
the pilot valves and auxiliary units employed.
Another in-line valve available in small sizes (Figure 6.13c)
carries the valve plug on a bridge in the operating cylinder, with
the seat as part of a split body.
A spring-loaded version of this design uses the beveled
end of the moving cylinder to seat on a replaceable soft seat,
retained in a dam, held in position by struts from the inside
wall of the valve body. The spring loading may cause fail-
close or fail-open actions, as illustrated in Figure 6.13e. The
unit can be powered with line fluid or by an external pressure FIG. 6.13d
source. A double-bleed feature can be incorporated to elim- Positioned plug valve in closed position. (Courtesy of Control
inate the possibility of actuation and line fluids combining if Air Inc.)

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

1202 Control Valve Selection and Sizing

Opening Opening
port port
Closing Closing
port port

Fail closed design Fail open design

FIG. 6.13e
Spring-loaded positioned plug valve.

Inlet pressures to 1400 PSIG (9.7 MPa) and outlet pres- Expansible Valve Designs
sures to 600 PSIG (4 MPa) are possible in the 2 in. (50 mm)
size. It is a high-capacity valve, as expressed by Cv = 23 d . As
2 The expansible element in these valve designs can be a rubber
a gas regulator the unit is supplied with a two-stage pilot to cylinder, an expansible tube, or an expansible diaphragm.
accept full line pressure. This pilot resists freeze-up and serves The common feature of all of these designs is that they utilize
as a differential limiting valve. All portions of the pilot and line the process pressure to provide tight shut-off of gas flows.
valve will withstand a full body rating of 600 PSIG (4 MPa).
Expansible Element In-Line Valves Streamlined flow of gas
occurs in a valve in which a solid rubber cylinder is expanded
or contracted to change the area of an annular space
(Figure 6.13g). A stationary inlet nose and discharge bullet
allow hydraulic pressure to force a slave cylinder against the
rubber cylinder to vary its expansion. Control is from a dia-
phragm actuator, with the diaphragm plate carrying a piston.
The piston acts as a pump to supply hydraulic pressure to the
slave cylinder.
The rubber cylinder offers the seating ability of a soft seat
valve. It has the capability of closing over foreign matter, and


Inlet pressure Loading pressure

Pilot supply pressure Outlet pressure

FIG. 6.13f FIG. 6.13g

Diaphragm-operated cylinder-type in-line valve used in high-pressure A rubber cylinder provides the soft seat in this low-noise, expand-
gas regulation services. able element, pressure regulator in-line valve.

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

6.13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs 1203


slots Closed Throttling Open

FIG. 6.13h
An expansible tube valve utilizes the process pressure for its operation, while being controlled by a three-way pilot that determines if the
valve is to be closed (left), throttling (center), or open (right).

the design allows for the use of a restricted throat for reduced modulate the jacket pressure in response to the sensed pres-
capacity. With this design, pressure drops as high as 1200 psid sure in the downstream pipeline.
(8.3 MPa) have been handled with a low noise level. The valve As downstream pressure falls below the set point, the
may be utilized as a pressure reducer or for back-pressure double-acting pilot positions itself to reduce the jacket pres-
control, depending upon the system requirements. sure. This allows the valve to open to a throttling position.
Available sizes are 1–6 in. (25–150 mm). The 1 in. (25 mm) Therefore, downstream pressure increases to the set pressure,
valve can have screwed connections, while all sizes can be with attendant change in flow rate to maintain the set pressure.
flanged. The body is steel with flange ratings to 600 PSIG (4 MPa). The static sensing line is separate from the pilot discharge line,
A valve positioner can be used, if the stem position is in order to eliminate the pressure drop effect in the sensing line.
calibrated as a function of the annular space reduction. If Another form simulates a conventional regulator, in that
such calibration is provided, a controller output can throttle system gas is bled into the jacket annular space through a fixed
the valve to obtain accurate flow control. orifice and bled off through the pilot regulator. In this form,
the static sensing line and pilot output are common. Double-
acting pilot systems use seven control ranges from 2 to 1200
Expansible Tube Valves Control of flow is obtained by use
PSIG (0.02–8.3 MPa) with corresponding inlet pressures up
of an expansible tube that is slipped over a cylindrical metal
to 1500 PSIG (10.4 MPa). The fixed orifice design is available
core containing a series of longitudinal slots at each end and
for control from 2 oz–600 PSIG (0.86 kPa–4 MPa).
a separating barrier in between. The characteristics of such
a valve were shown in Figure 6.13b.
A cylindrical, in-line jacket surrounds the tube so that Pilot Design Variations Back-pressure control and pressure
the process pressure can be introduced between the jacket relief are obtained in the same manner as pressure reduction
and the sleeve to cause the sleeve to envelope the slots. This is, except they sense the upstream pressure. By using a sep-
valve will open if the space between the jacket and the sleeve arate sensing and bleed port, a build-up from cracking to
is connected to the downstream (lower) pressure and will open fully open can be varied from 3 to 14% of the set pressure.
if that space in connected to the upstream (higher) pressure. Return to normal operation causes the valve to create absolute
With pressure connected to the downstream line shut-off. Emergency shut-off service may use an external
(Figure 6.13h, right), the line pressure in the valve body will pressure source piloted to obtain immediate shut-off upon
cause the valve to open fully. Control of the pressure on the abnormal conditions.
sleeve creates a throttled flow condition by first uncovering the A diaphragm-operated, three-way slide valve may also
inlet slots and then progressively opening the outlet slots control jacket pressure by proportioning the inlet and outlet
(Figure 6.13h, center). A continuous dynamic balance between pressures. In this design, the controller output signal is sent to
fluid pressure on each side of the sleeve makes it possible to the diaphragm actuator of the three-way slide valve, which causes
obtain wide rangeability between a no-flow and a full flow the sleeve valve to open proportionally, in a manner similar to
(fully open) condition. that of a conventional diaphragm control valve. In this manner,
The basic operation of the valve can be accomplished the valve becomes a throttling control valve (Figure 6.13i).
with a three-way pilot valve positioned from a remote loca- Differential pressure or flow control is accomplished by
tion. A variety of automatic pilots give versatility to the using a pilot valve in which the diaphragm is positioned by
basic valve. For reduced pressure control, a pilot is used to both upstream and downstream pressures. The differential

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

1204 Control Valve Selection and Sizing

Control signal the normal pressure is controlled by pilot #1. An increase in

flow is sensed by the flow element (orifice, or flow tube), which
opens a high-differential pilot to cut in a boost-pressure-control
regulator (pilot #2), which has a higher set point than pilot #1.
Return to normal flow cuts out the boost pressure control
regulator and reinstates the normal control pilot.
The expansible tube valve is made in sizes from 1–12 in.
(25–300 mm) with pressure rating from 200 PSIG (1.4 MPa)
in iron to 1500 PSIG (10.3 MPa) in steel construction. It is
made flanged or flangeless for insertion between line flanges.
The flangeless body is cradled in the studs between the line
flanges. Removal of the body is made easier by expanding
the flanges about 1/8 in. (3 mm) using nuts on the studs inside
the flanges.
Tight shut-off or throttling requires a differential between
the line pressure or external source used for closure and the
downstream pressure sensed on the inside surface of the
sleeve that is exposed to this pressure. This differential
FIG. 6.13i requirement for a special low-pressure 2 in. (50 mm) valve
The expansible tube valve becomes a throttling control valve if it is is 3.6 psid (24.8 kPa) and is 1.6 psid (11 kPa) for a 4 in.
provided with a three-way slide-valve-type control pilot. (100 mm) valve. The low-pressure series requires from 21
psid (145 kPa) for the 1 in. (25 mm) size to 4.6 psid (32 kPa)
for the 10 and 12 in. sizes (250 and 300 mm). High-pressure
static lines may be taken at the inlet and outlet of the line
models require from 58 psid (400 kPa) for the 1 in. (25 mm)
valve or, for flow control, across an orifice plate in the line.
size to 11 psid (76 kPa) for the 10 and 12 in. sizes (250 and
300 mm).
Pressure Boosting A practically unlimited variety of pres-
The body design allows tight shut-off, even with com-
sure and flow regulators can be configured with the range of
pilots that are available. One important application is in pres- paratively large particles in the flow stream. Freezing of the
sure boosting in gas distribution systems. By these boosters, pilot by hydrates is not common because the intermittent and
the line pressure losses due to increased consumption can be small bleed occurs only to open the valve and as such is not
counteracted automatically by increasing the set pressure of conducive to freezing.
the distribution control valve. The pilot may be heated or housed, or even located in a
In such a design, there can be as many as three pilots protected area close to the warm line. With its only moving
controlling the gas distribution control valve. In Figure 6.13j, part a flexible sleeve, this type of valve has no vibration to
contribute to noise. The flow pattern also helps make this
valve from 5 to 30 db more silent than most regulators. Flow
Normal capacities are comparable to those of single-seated as well
Boost pressure control
(opens at high flow)
as many double-seated regulators.
Variable (pilot #1)
orifice Expansible Diaphragm Design In an expansible diaphragm-
type regulator, an expansible element (Figure 6.13k) is stretched
down over a dome-shaped grid causing shut-off of the valve
when pressure above this resilient member overcomes the line
pressure under the element. Line pressure is evenly directed
over the expansible area by a series of pressure channels.
Selection of the correct action on a pilot that supplies
line or external pressure to the exterior of the expansible
Boost Flow element causes the valve to control as a back-pressure or as
pressure element
a reducing control valve. For back-pressure control, or pres-
sure relief, the static line is taken upstream of the valve.
(pilot #2)
Increase in line pressure will increase the bleed from the
FIG. 6.13j annular space between the expansible element and the metal
Expansible tube-type gas distribution control valve can automati- housing. Reducing regulation is accomplished by restricting
cally boost the distribution pressure, when the demand for gas the bleed upon increase in downstream pressure and increas-
increases. ing it upon decrease in downstream pressure.

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

6.13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs 1205



Closed Control

FIG. 6.13l
The Coanda effect is used in the “flip-flop” diversion of flow in the
fluid interaction valves.

70% recovery of potential energy occurs in a diffuser section.

Fifty percent recovery is guaranteed for commercial valves,
and somewhat less for gases above critical flow and for vis-
Wide open
cous fluids (∆ P ~ P1/2).
Installation must allow the recovered pressure to create
FIG. 6.13k
The expansible diaphragm valve can be used as either a pressure the desired flow against friction effects of piping or fittings.
regulator or as a back-pressure relief valve. An uninhibited flow will create some aspirating effects in the
open outlet; restriction causes blocking, while excessive
restriction will cause a leak or diversion to the open port.

The valve is available in iron or steel with ratings to Fast Level Control Industrial valves, with their ability to
600 PSIG (4 MPa). Models are available from −10–150°F divert in less than 100 ms, fill a wide variety of uses. The
(−23–66°C), using a molded, Buna-N diaphragm. Relief valve primary one is for level control in which the effluent not
pressures are from 30–300 PSIG (0.21–2.1 MPa), while reduc- required for filling may be returned to storage. It is necessary
ing service varies from 5–150 PSIG (0.03–1 MPa). Capacity only to use a dip tube set at the control point, as shown in
factors vary from Cv = 11 d in smaller sizes to Cv = 14 d in
2 2
Figure 6.13m. Lack of moving parts or of detrimental effects
larger valves. due to fast diversion action allows the system to provide close
Fluid Interaction Valves

The Coanda effect, the basis of fluidics, is used in diverting Converging

valves from 1/2–4 in. sizes (12.5–100 mm). The Coanda effect walls
means the attachment of a fluid stream to a nearby side-wall
of a flow passage. This effect can be used in a so-called “flip-
flop” valve for diverting a stream from one discharge port to
Figure 6.13l shows the flow through the right-hand port
Side walls
due to both control ports being closed. Opening the right-hand Dip tube
port, to allow air or liquid to enter, will shift the flow. The port Level fluctuates about
industrial valve has rectangular diverting tubes, but the end end of dip tube
connections may be circular. Control is maintained by opening
or closing the control port or by injecting low-pressure air or
liquid through a solenoid or other pilot valve.
In this valve, with stream flowing in one diversion tube,
the flow at the inlet contains some potential (pressure) energy FIG. 6.13m
and some kinetic (flowing) energy. Much of the potential The response of level control with fluid interaction diverting valves
energy is converted to kinetic energy at the nozzle. Up to can be very fast.

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

1206 Control Valve Selection and Sizing

Numerous uses of diversion valves exist, such as tank to expose the fluid to a series of restrictions as opposed to a
filling, which is accomplished by using an external signal. single restriction. Each subsequent restriction dissipates a
Diversion of a process stream upon contamination, sensed certain amount of the available energy and reduces the inlet
by a pH or other analyzer, is important in paper mills and in pressure to the next stage.
chemical plants. As was shown in Figure 6.1x, a well-designed pressure-
The ability to divert rapidly makes this valve applicable staging device prevents cavitation by taking a large pressure
to oscillating flows. The valve may be used for space condi- differential and by maintaining the vena contracta pressure
tioning, if the total bypassing of a heating or cooling medium above the vapor pressure of the liquid, which prevents the
is adequate for space temperature control. liquid from cavitating.
Fluidic valves can also be used for the diversion of engine The expanding flow area concept of damage control is
exhaust gases from tailpipe propulsion nozzles to wing- closely related to the pressure drop staging approach
mounted lift fans with ambient control flow. Other unique appli- (Figure 6.13n). Figure 6.13n shows a pressure vs. distance
cations include a four-ported fluidic valve, which has been used curve for flow through a series of fixed restrictions where
for direction control of a missile. It seems that all the potential the area of each succeeding restriction is larger than the
uses of this valve design have not been exploited yet. previous. Notice that the first restriction takes the bulk of
the pressure drop, and the pressure drop through successive
sections decreases.
In the last restriction, where cavitation is most likely to
occur, the pressure drop is only a small percentage of the
total drop, and the pressure recovery is substantially lower.
In the following paragraphs, the capabilities of one control
The expanding flow area concept requires fewer pressure
valve manufacturer (Fisher Controls) are discussed in han-
drop stages to provide the same cavitation protection as
dling such demanding services as cavitation and sludge. This
does the concept that utilizes nearly identical areas for
is somewhat redundant, because Section 6.1 has already cov-
ered all the special control valve applications. These included
The most common approach to cavitation protection
the products of all valve manufacturers and covered noise,
cavitation, flashing, high and low temperature or pressure employs a drilled-hole cage that incorporates both pressure
services, and viscous, dirty, or slurry flows. staging and expanding flow area concepts. Each drilled hole
has a significant impact on the overall pressure recovery of
Yet, the editor believes that this “manufacturer’s perspec-
tive” that follows is still a valuable addition to the overall the valve.
picture. The reader is reminded that Sections 6.14 and 6.15
provide in-depth information on control valve noise and on Drilled Trim and Multistage Designs Figure 6.13o shows the
valve sizing aspects of the various special applications. For cross-section of three types of drilled holes that could be used
these reasons, the reader is advised to refer to the above- in an anticavitation cage. The thin plate design is a very
mentioned sections for an in-depth treatment of the subject inefficient flow device, but it does provide a high FL value
matters that are discussed below. and therefore a low pressure recovery. The thick plate design
is not only more efficient, but it also provides a high pressure
recovery as denoted by its low FL value.
Cavitation and Flashing 
The Cavitrol trim hole, designed by Fisher Controls, is
As it was already discussed in Section 6.1, a fluid will flash a balance between the thick plate and the thin plate hole
when the downstream pressure is below the vapor pressure designs. It provides relatively high flow efficiency while still
of the flowing process fluid. The vapor bubbles that form maintaining a high FL value, which results in a low pressure
when the pressure falls below the vapor pressure continue to recovery. This design represents the optimal choice between
grow as long as the pressure keeps dropping, and eventually capacity and cavitation control.
the liquid changes or flashes to a vapor. Figure 6.13p shows the cross-section of a three-stage, anti-
In connection with Figure 6.1w, cavitation has been also cavitation trim. This particular design prevents the formation of
explained as it was also shown how vapor bubbles can be damaging cavitation at pressure drops up to 3000 psid (207 bar)
formed at the vena contracta and how these bubbles can by utilizing a unique expanding flow area design, meaning that
implode and release powerful microjets that will damage any each stage has successively larger flow area.
metallic surface, as the pressure rises downstream. In addi- When a series of drilled holes are used to control cavi-
tion, the options available to the process control engineer to tation, it is also easy to characterize the trim. In the trim
eliminate cavitation were also shown in connection with illustrated in Figure 6.13p, as the valve plug travels through the
Figure 6.1x. cage, the cage design changes. It begins as a pressure-staging
There are a number of ways to protect against cavitation. device and transitions to a straight-through, low-restriction
As was shown in Figure 6.1aa, one of the most common is flow design. Consequently, the cavitation control ability of

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

6.13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs 1207


Equal drop through

six stages

Inlet pressure
to final stage
Cavitrol 4


1 2 3 4 5 6
Fluid travel through the valve stages

FIG. 6.13n
Comparison of staged pressure drops to prevent cavitation. (Courtesy of Fisher Controls.)

Thin plate Thick plate Cavitrol hole

Low CV High CV High CV
High FL2 Low FL2 High FL2

FIG. 6.13o
FIG. 6.13p
Comparing various drilled-hole-type anticavitation trim designs.
The cross-section of a three-stage anticavitation trim. (Courtesy of
(Courtesy of Fisher Controls.)
Fisher Controls.)

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

1208 Control Valve Selection and Sizing

this trim design is the greatest at low travels and decreases

as the valve plug travel increases.
In Figure 6.1y, a large number of anticavitation valve
designs are shown. One disadvantage of most anticavitation
trims is their potential for plugging. The flowing media often
contains small particulate matter (e.g., sand) that can plug
the passages, restricting or totally stopping flow through the
valve. If this potential exists, the particles must be removed
from the flow stream (e.g., by filtration), or an alternative
approach to cavitation prevention should be taken.
In situations where it is impossible to remove the partic-
ulates via filtration or separation, valve designs that can pass
the particulate and still resist cavitation and erosion should
be considered. The next paragraph describes some of the
control valves that can be considered for sludge or slurry

Dirty Process Services

In Section 6.1, Figure 6.1ee shows a number of control valve

designs that can be considered for sludge and slurry services.
FIG. 6.13q
These applications involving entrained particulates are some
Type 461 Sweep-Flo Valve by Fisher Controls.
of the most challenging and can be found in all industries
where entrained particulates are present in the process stream,
which can cause extensive erosion to the valve trim and valve
body. For high-temperature applications, up to 1100°F (593°C),
Often these applications also involve high pressure drops the valve body can be specified with an extension bonnet to
that create the added potential for cavitation, flashing, and reduce conduction of heat to the valve packing and the actu-
excessive noise and vibration. It is important to address all ator. Connections on the side of the bonnet are available to
of these damage mechanisms in combination. flush particulate out of the extension bonnet cavity and back
The most common valve selection for process streams into the flowstream as the valve opens.
containing entrained particulates is a rugged valve design Another brute force selection for applications with lower
utilizing erosion-resistant body materials and internal valve pressure drops is to install a rotary ball valve. The plug in
body liners. This brute force approach often does not incor- the rotary valve should be facing towards the downstream
porate any method of staging the pressure drop and therefore side of the valve body, so that the pressure drop will occur
can cause valve and pipe vibration, if cavitating conditions downstream of the valve body. However, with this approach
exist. it is important to provide either a durable downstream pipe
liner or a sacrificial pipe section.
Sweep-Angle and Rotary Ball Valves Figure 6.13q is an As rugged as these sweep-angle and ball valve designs are,
example of a valve that relies on “brute force” in being able to they still can be exposed to conditions that cause excessive noise
operate under dirty service conditions. This valve was initially and vibration. This is because the process fluid is not staged
designed for liquid asphalt service, but has also been successfully through the valve trim in a manner that prevents the onset of
applied in separator let-down and slurry let-down applications. damaging cavitation and the resultant noise and vibration.
This valve utilizes a venturi-type throat design that
directs the fluid into the center of the valve and downstream Dirty Service Trim Another valve design that is available
piping. This prevents impingement of the fluid on the valve for dirty service applications (but not for heavy sludge, slurry
body and downstream piping. The expanded valve outlet services, or particle sizes exceeding 0.5 in., because of plug-
reduces the velocity of the exiting fluid, thereby reducing any ging) incorporates an axial flow path through a series of
associated erosion effects. This is especially important in restrictions. These restrictions divide the pressure drop into
applications that experience flashing or out-gassing, where stages, reducing the potential for cavitation and subsequent
there may be some areas of high velocity. noise generation. Figure 6.13r shows one axial flow multi-
The cylinder-guided valve plug ensures excellent control- stage trim design.
lability by providing plug stability, which results in better, The dirty service trim (DST) trim eliminates damaging
more controlled flow of the fluid through the valve and cavitation and resultant noise and vibration by staging the
reduced wear of the trim components. pressure across a properly determined number of stages. The

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

6.13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs 1209

No significant
pressure drop

FIG. 6.13s
WhisperFlo noise abatement trim by Fisher Controls.
More than 90% of
pressure drop

only by its transmission through the valves and the adjacent

piping. The sound field in the flow stream forces these solid
boundaries to vibrate. These vibrations cause disturbances in
Very low inlet
pressure to final the ambient atmosphere that are propagated as sound waves.
stage There are several ways to eliminate excessive valve noise
(see Section 6.14), but this section will focus mainly on
source treatment methods, which are obtained through spe-
cially designed control valve trim. There are many types of
control valve trims that were designed to reduce valve noise,
but there are only two ways to accomplish this reduction.
One method is referred to as frequency shifting, while
the other is velocity control. The former approach, which has
been used for many years, incorporates small, properly sized
FIG. 6.13r and spaced passages that raise the frequency of the fluid
Dirty service trim (DST) design of Fisher Controls. exiting the trim. The higher frequency reduces acoustic energy
in the audible range by relying on the transmission loss of the
piping. The latter approach (velocity control) can be accom-
plished in many ways, and the highest level of noise attenu-
number of stages selected is dependent upon the pressure
ation is usually accomplished by incorporating both methods.
drop of the application and is designed in the same manner
Figure 6.13s shows the cross-section of a multistage
as was shown in Figure 6.13n.
noise reduction trim that utilizes a combination of noise
The higher the pressure drop, the more stages become
3 reduction strategies and reduces valve noise by up to 40 dB.
necessary. This trim design can pass particulates up to /4 in.
Some of the features of this design include
in diameter without plugging. The large open flow paths and
expanded area staging design also compensate for volumetric • Unique passage shape reduces the conversion of total
expansion in flashing fluids, thus reducing velocities in the stream power generated by the valve into noise power.
trim and the downstream piping. • Multistage pressure reduction divides the stream
Also included in this DST design is a protected seat, power between stages and further reduces the acoustic
because the shut-off function of the trim is separate from its conversion efficiency.
throttling areas. This separation is accomplished by not allow- • Frequency spectrum shifting reduces acoustic energy
ing any significant pressure drop to be taken until the fluid is in the audible range by capitalizing on the transmis-
downstream of the seating surface. This type of design also sion loss of the piping system.
ensures that all clearance flow is subjected to a staged pressure • Exit jet independence avoids noise regeneration due
drop. Unlike in linear cage-style, anticavitation trim sets, here to jet coalescence.
no segment of the process flow can drop directly from the • Velocity management is accomplished with expanding
upstream (P1) to the downstream (P2) pressure after the valve. areas to accommodate the expanding gas.
• Complementary body designs avoid flow impingement
High Noise on the body wall and secondary noise sources.

Section 6.14 covers all aspects of control valve noise, and As explained in detail in Section 6.14, the amount of
Figures 6.14o to 6.14s show some low noise control valve noise that will be generated by a control valve can be pre-
designs from a variety of suppliers. dicted quickly and reasonably by use of industry-standard
In many cases when the process fluid remains contained methods. In order to obtain accurate noise predictions, it is
by the valve and piping, the noise generated becomes airborne important to utilize the standards described in Section 6.14.

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

1210 Control Valve Selection and Sizing

High-Capacity Valves

Globe-style valves larger than 12-in., ball valves over 24-in.,

and high-performance butterfly valves larger than 48 in. are
considered to be special valves. As valve sizes increase, shut-
off static pressure loads also increase. Consequently, shaft
strength, bearing loads, unbalance forces, and available actuator
thrusts all become more significant with increasing valve size.
Noise levels must also be carefully considered in all large-
flow installations because sound pressure levels increase in
direct proportion to the magnitude of flow. To keep valve noise
within tolerable limits, large cast or fabricated valve body
designs have been developed. These bodies, which are normally
cage-style constructions, use very long plug travel, a great num-
ber of small flow openings through the wall of the cage, and
an expanded outlet line connection to minimize noise genera-
tion and to reduce fluid velocity.
With the increase in valve plug travels, the selection of
the actuator used becomes more important. Typically, long-
stroke, double-acting pneumatic piston actuators are selected. FIG. 6.13t
With these types of actuators, the accessories required to The construction of a cryogenic valve with extended bonnet. (Cour-
move the actuator also become more complex. tesy of Fisher Controls.)

Cryogenic Valves the operating process temperature and on the insulation

Cryogenic applications are those with temperatures that When testing cryogenic valves for shut-off or in hydro-
fall below –150°F (–110°C). Globe-style valves in cryogenic static tests, the use of water-based tests should be avoided.
services are used in both cold box applications and non-cold If water tests are conducted, it is possible that moisture can
box applications. be trapped inside the body or extension bonnet, which could
Cold boxes are commonly found in the air separation ultimately form ice in the valve after it is cooled down. For
industry. Valves used in these applications feature bodies with these types of applications, in order to prevent freezing, the
welded extension necks and standard length bonnets to allow proper test medium is usually helium.
in-place trim maintenance from outside the cold box. For
non-cold box applications, a cryogenic valve with an exten- High-Temperature Valves
sion bonnet is used.
For control valves in cryogenic service, the correct selec- Valves that operate at temperatures above 450°F (232°C)
tion of plastic and elastomeric components are important, experience many of the same limitations as do cryogenic
because they often cease to function properly at temperatures valves. At elevated temperatures, the standard materials of
below 0°F (–18°C). In these low-temperature ranges, compo- control valve construction might be inadequate. For instance,
nents such as packing and plug seals require special consid- plastics, elastomers, and standard gaskets generally prove
eration. For plug seals, a standard soft seal will become very unsuitable and must be replaced by more durable materials.
hard and less pliable, thus not providing the shut-off that is Metal-to-metal seating materials are always used. Semime-
required. Special elastomers have been applied in these tem- tallic or laminated flexible graphite packing materials are
peratures, but require special loading to achieve a tight seal. commonly employed, and spiral-wound stainless steel and
Packing is a concern in cryogenic applications because of flexible graphite gaskets are necessary.
the frost that may form on valves. Moisture from the atmo- It is important to select the trim materials and valve
sphere condenses on surfaces where the temperature is below designs that will not experience sticking and gasket failure
freezing and will freeze into a layer of frost. As this frost and due to thermal expansion. If dissimilar trim materials are used,
ice forms on the bonnet and stem areas of control valves and it is possible that one part will react to the high temperature
as the stem is stroked by the actuator, this layer of frost is faster than another, causing the components to gall. It is also
drawn through the packing, causing tears and a loss of seal. important to allow the trim to grow axially in the valve body.
The solution is to use an extension bonnet (Figures 6.1t, Hanging the cage element from the top of the valve body does
6.1u, 6.13t, 6.19p, and 6.19q) that allows the packing box area this. Some designs also incorporate internal springs or load
of the control valve to be warmed by ambient temperatures, rings to allow for the thermal expansion of the trim.
thus preventing frost from forming on the stem and packing Similar to cryogenic applications, extension bonnets are
box areas. The length of the extension bonnet depends upon used to protect the packing box parts from extremely high

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

6.13 Miscellaneous Valve and Trim Designs 1211

temperatures. For the selection of metallic and packing mate-

rials (Figure 6.1o) and the use of jacketed valve designs
(Figures 6.1p to 6.1r), refer to Section 6.1.

Steam Conditioning Valves

Steam conditioning applications are examples of services

where valves are exposed to high temperatures. These valves
serve the function of simultaneously reducing the steam pres-
sure and temperature to the level required for a given appli-
cation. Frequently, these applications deal with high inlet
pressures and temperatures and require significant reduction
of both. They are, therefore, best manufactured as a forged
or a fabricated body that can better withstand steam loads at
elevated pressures and temperatures.
Forged materials permit higher design stresses, improve
grain structure, and offer an inherent material integrity that
is superior to cast valve bodies. The forged construction also
allows the manufacturer to provide up to ANSI Class 4500,
as well as intermediate and special class ratings, with greater
ease vs. cast bodies. FIG. 6.13u
Due to frequent extreme changes in steam properties as The design of a steam conditioning valve, which is provided with
a result of the temperature and pressure reduction, the forged an integral cooling manifold. (Courtesy of Fisher Controls.)
and fabricated valve body design allows for the addition of
an expanded outlet to control outlet steam velocity at the
lower outlet pressure. Similarly, with reduced outlet pres- individual spray nozzles installed in the outlet section, which
sure, the forged and fabricated design allows the manufac- provide a fine spray mist that is injected radially into the
turer to provide different pressure class ratings for the inlet highly turbulent stream of flowing steam.
and outlet connections to more closely match the adjacent The combination of having a large surface area contact-
piping. ing the water and the high turbulence makes the mixing
Other advantages of combining the pressure reduction efficient and the vaporization rapid. For this control system
and desuperheating functions in the same valve versus two an external water control valve is required, which is throttled
separate devices include: by a downstream temperature controller to provide the
• Improved spraywater mixing due to the optimum uti- required fine-tuning of the temperature control.
lization of the turbulent expansion zone downstream These types of valves are most commonly used in power
of the pressure reduction element (utility, cogeneration, and industrial) plant applications,
• Improved rangeability which include the start-up of steam turbines, and the bypass-
• Ease of installation and servicing of only one device ing, dumping, venting, and exporting of steam.

The manifold steam conditioning valve design Tank-Mounted Valves

(Figure 6.13u) is the most common form of steam condition-
ing valve available. This valve design offers all of the benefits Tank-mounted control valves are commonly found in the
of a combined valve, but features the ability to provide mul- chemical industry. These are reverse acting (push down to
tipoint water injection utilizing an externally mounted man- open) control valves designed for handling corrosive fluids.
ifold around the valve outlet. With this manifold, large quan- The throttling element of the valve is positioned at the valve
tities of water can be injected with a homogeneous outlet and is placed inside the receiving tank so that flow
distribution throughout the steam outlet flow. exits directly into the vessel. In flashing applications or
Positioning of the valve plug within the control cage con- those with entrained gas, the erosion potential is greatly
trols the steam pressure and flow. A signal from the pressure reduced.
control loop to the valve actuator moves the valve plug within
the control cage to increase or decrease the amount of free
flow area. As the plug is lifted from the seat, steam passes
into the center of the cage and out through the cage element. Ball, K. E., “Final Elements: Final Frontier,” InTech, November 1986.
The outlet section is outfitted with a water supply man- Carey, J. A., “Control Valve Update,” Instruments and Control Systems,
ifold. The manifold provides cooling water to a number of January 1981.

© 2006 by Béla Lipták

1212 Control Valve Selection and Sizing

“Control Valves—Globe, Plug, Pinch, Needle, Gate,” Measurements and Rahmeyer, W., “The Critical Flow Limit and Pressure Recovery Factor for
Control, February 1993. Flow Control,” InTech, November 1986.
“Control Valves, Regulators,” Measurements and Control, June 1994. The Sourcebook of North American valve, Actuator and Control Manu-
Control Valve Handbook, 4th edition, Fisher Controls, Inc., 2003. facturers, 6th edition, 2004, Valve Manufacturers Association of
Control Valve Sourcebook, 3rd edition, Fisher Controls, Inc., 2003. America.
Fernbaugh, A., “Control Valves: A Decade of Change,” Instruments and Wilson, J., “The Impact of Valve Outlet Velocity on Control Valve Noise
Control Systems, January 1980. and Piping Systems,” Valve World, October 2001.
O’Connor, J., “The Turbine Control Valve,” Instrumentation Technology, Wilson, J., “Tight Shutoff in Boiler Feedwater Control Valves,” Valve World,
December 1973. April 2002.

© 2006 by Béla Lipták