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3G Long Term Evolution

Technology Introduction

Dr. Heino Gerlach

LTE Forum 2007


Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE / SAE - high-level goals
GENERAL
To ensure competitiveness of the 3GPP systems in a time
frame of the next 10 years and beyond

LTE
Evolution of the 3GPP radio-access technology towards a high-data-
rate, low-latency and packet-optimized radio access technology

SAE Evolution or migration of the 3GPP system to a higher-data-rate, lower-


latency, packet-optimized system that supports, multiple RATs

LTE: Long Term Evolution SAE: System Architecture Evolution


LTE Forum 2007
2 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE - requirements and targets, e.g.

Significantly increased peak data rate


Significantly reduced C-plane latency
Significantly improved spectrum efficiency
Scaleable bandwidth
Cost efficiency

LTE is driven by all key players in the mobile industry

LTE Forum 2007


3 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
SAE/LTE - architecture reference model
MME: Mobility Management Entity
S-GW: Serving Gateway
GERAN UTRAN P-GW: Packet Data Network Gateway
E-UTRAN: Evolved UTRAN
Gb Iu EPC: Evolved Packet Core
EPS: Evolved Packet System

S12
SGSN

S4 Operator’s
Rx+ IP services
HSS
S3
S6a PCRF

MME SGi
S7
S1-MME S11
S10

E-UTRAN S-GW P-GW


S1-U S5

EPC S2

Non 3GPP access


EPS

LTE Forum 2007


4 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE - interfaces

LTE Forum 2007


5 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE - protocol architecture

LTE Forum 2007


6 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE - paired and unpaired spectrum

Frequency Division Duplexing (FDD)


full-duplex
– simultaneous downlink / uplink transmission in separate frequency bands
– paired spectrum required
half-duplex
– transmissions and receptions are non-overlapping in time from a UE point-of-view
– half-duplex FDD uses the same frame structure as full-duplex FDD

Time Division Duplexing (TDD)


non-overlapping downlink / uplink transmission in the same frequency band
deployment in unpaired spectrum possible

LTE Forum 2007


7 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – spectrum flexibility
LTE physical layer supports any bandwidth from 1.4 MHz to 20
MHz in steps of 180 kHz (resource block)
Current LTE specification supports only a subset of 8 different
system bandwidths
All UEs must support the maximum bandwidth of 20 MHz
Channel Bandwidth [MHz]

Channel Transmission Bandwidth Configuration [RB]


bandwidth
1.4 1.6 3 3.2 5 10 15 20
BWChannel Transmission
[MHz] Bandwidth [RB]

Channel edge

Channel edge
FDD mode 6 n/a 15 n/a 25 50 75 100

TDD mode [TBD] [7] [TBD] [16] 25 50 75 100 Resource block

number of resource blocks


Active Resource Blocks DC carrier (downlink only)

LTE Forum 2007


8 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – frame structure (FDD)

A radio frame (10 ms) consists of 20 subframes


A subframe (1 ms) consists of 2 slots (0.5 ms)
Two cyclic prefix (CP) lengths are defined
normal CP
– slot consists of 7 OFDM / SC-FDMA symbols
extended CP (to cope with large cell sizes)
– slot consists of 6 OFDM / SC-FDMA symbols

LTE Forum 2007


9 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – downlink radio access

OFDMA - Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing Access


total system bandwidth is divided into small pieces, so-called subcarriers
each subcarrier can be independently modulated (QPSK, 16-QAM, 64-QAM)
easy frequency-dependent scheduling possible

efficient implementation of transmitter / receiver (IFFT / FFT pair)


low-cost equalization due to cyclic prefix
lower complexity MIMO processing

per antenna

LTE Forum 2007


10 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE - DL time-frequency scheduling

in LTE a subcarrier is
called ‘resource element’

link
link adaptation
adaptation
-- user
user orthogonality
orthogonality achieved
achieved in
in time
time and
and frequency
frequency (adaptive
(adaptive scheduling)
scheduling)
-- adaptive
adaptive coding
coding and
and modulation
modulation perper TTI
TTI (Transmission
(Transmission Time
Time Interval)
Interval)

LTE Forum 2007


11 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – uplink radio access

SC-FDMA – Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access

single-carrier property reduces power consumption and cost and improves


coverage (lower peak-to-average ratio than OFDM)
FDMA ensures intra-cell orthogonality in frequency between different UEs
(intra-cell interference is a severe problem with the legacy WCDMA system)
intra-cell orthogonality in time is achieved by time-synchronizing the UEs
within the cyclic prefix length

LTE Forum 2007


12 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – uplink radio access cont’d

DFT Spread OFDM – Discrete Fourier Transform Spread OFDM

equivalent to SC-FDMA (but high commonality to DL OFDM)


data symbols are spread / precoded over the allocated subcarriers (DFT)
each subcarrier carries a portion of each DFT spread data symbol
sub-carrier mapping allows flexible allocation of UE bandwidth
cyclic prefix is inserted for efficient frequency equalization

LTE Forum 2007


13 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE - UL time-frequency scheduling

link
link adaptation
adaptation
-- user
user orthogonality
orthogonality achieved
achieved in
in time
time and
and frequency
frequency (adaptive
(adaptive scheduling)
scheduling)
-- adaptive
adaptive coding
coding and
and modulation
modulation perper TTI
TTI (Transmission
(Transmission Time
Time Interval)
Interval)

LTE Forum 2007


14 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – logical/transport/physical channels
CCCH DCCH DTCH
Uplink
Logical channels

Uplink
Transport channels
RACH UL-SCH

LTE Forum 2007


15 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – time / frequency plan

LTE Forum 2007


16 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – multiple antenna technology

Target requirements of 100 Mbps can only be achieved with


multiple antenna technology
LTE modes of operation for multiple transmit antennas
– multi-layer transmission (spatial multiplexing)
– transmit diversity
– beamforming

Two receiving antennas are mandatory for the UE

LTE Forum 2007


17 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE - multiple antenna technology

code words layers antenna ports

Modulation Resource OFDM signal


Scrambling element mapper
Mapper generation
Layer
Precoding
Mapper
Modulation Resource OFDM signal
Scrambling element mapper
Mapper generation

Generic structure to cover all multiple antenna ‘modi’


Linear codebook-based precoding is used for spatial multiplexing
A maximum of 2 codewords can be transmitted to a single UE

LTE Forum 2007


18 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
MIMO – spatial multiplexing

scattering clusters

spatial layer 2
spatial layer 2
eNB UE

spatial layer 1 spatial layer 1

example: 4x2 single-user MIMO with 2 spatial streams

LTE Forum 2007


19 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
LTE – cell interference

high inter-cell interference


at the cell borders
(frequency re-use 1)

intra-cell interference avoided due


to time/frequency orthogonality

an overload indicator is exchanged via


X2 (carries information on experienced
uplink interference on RB level)
LTE Forum 2007
20 Munich, 26-27 November 2007
UE capability classes for LTE
Class 1 Class 2 Class 3 Class 4 Class 5
Peak rate DL 10 50 100 150 300
UL 5 25 50 50 75
Capability for physical functionalities
RF bandwidth 20MHz (FFS whether band dependent in RAN4)
Modulation D QPSK, 16QAM, 64QAM
L
U QPSK, 16QAM, QPSK,16QAM,
L 64QAM is FFS for class 2-4 64QAM
Multi-antenna
UE support for single codeword transmission with 1,2 and 4 Tx antenna at the eNB mandatory
2 Rx diversity Performance shall be defined based on performance of 2 Rx diversity (should take into account of
band dependency (RAN4))
2x2 MIMO Optional Mandatory
4x4 MIMO Not supported FFS Mandatory

MBMS
Simultaneous Optional Optional Optional Optional Optional
reception of
dedicated MBMS

LTE Forum 2007


21 Munich, 26-27 November 2007