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Manfred Kratzenberg, Hans Helmut Zürn, Pål Preede Revheim, Hans Georg Beyer,

Identification and Handling of Critical Irradiance Forecast Errors Using a Random


Forest Scheme – A Case Study for Southern Brazil,
Energy Procedia,
Volume 76,
2015,
Pages 207-215,
ISSN 1876-6102,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.900.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610215016768)
Abstract: Large forecast errors of solar power prediction cause challenges for the
management of electric grids. Here, the classification technique Random Forests is
applied to analyze the possible linkage of hourly or daily forecast errors to the
actual situation given by a set of meteorological variables. This form a prediction
of the forecast error and is thus usable to update the forecast. The performance of
this scheme is assessed for the example of irradiance forecasts in Brazil. While
limited to none improvements are obtained for next-hour forecasts, significant
improvements are obtained for the next-day forecasts.
Keywords: solar irradiance forecasts; post-processing; Random Forest classification

M.F. Gómez, A. Téllez, S. Silveira,


Exploring the effect of subsidies on small-scale renewable energy solutions in the
Brazilian Amazon,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 83,
2015,
Pages 1200-1214,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.05.050.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148115300136)
Abstract: The Brazilian government aims at universal electricity access. The
national rural electrification initiative has provided electricity services to more
than 14 million people since 2003, mainly through grid extension. However, the
initiative has not been able to reach remote areas in the Amazon, thus requiring a
review of conditions for small scale off-grid power generation projects. As a
result, new rules established under the national rural electrification program
address the design and implementation of off-grid power generation projects with an
installed capacity up to 100 kW. The objective of this paper is to explore the
effects of the new set of rules on the levelized cost of electricity for different
power generation solutions in the Amazon. Our study shows that the new rules may be
beneficial to isolated communities, as they reduce the levelized cost of
electricity, favor renewable energy technologies and may contribute to reduce CO2
emissions. In addition, the new rules may help engage new actors to provide rural
electrification of the Amazon region. To fully take advantage of the current
scheme, action at local level is required to define the most appropriate model for
small-scale power generation projects and establish synergies between
concessionaires and local energy providers.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Rural electrification; Off-grid electrification; Remote
areas; Amazon

C. Tiba, A.L.B. Candeias, N. Fraidenraich, E.M. de S. Barbosa, P.B. de Carvalho


Neto, J.B. de Melo Filho,
A GIS-based decision support tool for renewable energy management and planning in
semi-arid rural environments of northeast of Brazil,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 35, Issue 12,
2010,
Pages 2921-2932,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2010.05.009.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148110002272)
Abstract: This work describes the development of a management and planning system
on a GIS (Geographic Information System) platform destined to decision makers that
is, administrators, planners or consultants in renewable energies. It was conceived
to deal with the management and planning of solar systems, biomass and aeolics in
rural regions of Brazil. The prototype of the GIS tool covers an area of 183,
500 km2 and is made up of three blocks: management of installed renewable systems,
inclusion (planning) of new systems and updating of the data banks. The GISA SOL
1.0 (Geographic Information System Applied to Solar Energy) has a total of 80
layers of information that permit the realization of spatial analyses on management
and planning of renewable sources of energy at macro-spatial (state) and local
(municipality) levels. A description and the methodology used for its development
and a description of the functionalities will be made here. The system was
developed mainly for PV systems as a support tool for management and planning of
the Energy Development Program for States and Municipalities (PRODEEM), a program
for inclusion in large scale of solar photovoltaic energy in the rural environment,
conducted by the Ministry of Mines and Energy of Brazil.
Keywords: GIS; Planning and management; Photovoltaic energy; Rural electrification
biomass; Wind energy

Conrado Augustus de Melo, Gilberto de Martino Jannuzzi, Aline Ferreira Tripodi,


Evaluating public policy mechanisms for climate change mitigation in Brazilian
buildings sector,
Energy Policy,
Volume 61,
2013,
Pages 1200-1211,
ISSN 0301-4215,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.06.056.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421513005417)
Abstract: This paper applies a multi-criteria analysis (MCA) and marginal abatement
cost curves (MACC) to evaluate public policies mechanisms to promote the
dissemination of energy efficiency (EE) and on-site renewable energy sources (RES)
technologies in Brazilian buildings sector. The objective here is to bring together
the advantages of both methods in order to provide more valuable insights to policy
makers. The MCA results show that in the case of more integrative policies, which
considers, for instance, potential of jobs creation, the mechanisms to foster
distributed RES and solar water heaters are better ranked than in MACC analysis,
where only cost-effectiveness of each option is evaluated. Other key finding is
that: (1) there is a significant cost effective potential that could be reached
through alternative mechanisms not implemented yet in the country, such as public
procurement regulation and building codes and; (2) minimum energy performance
standards (MEPS) could be broader in scope and more stringent and include the use
of energy in standby mode and tubular fluorescent lamps. In particular, some
important appliances such as large air conditioning devices should have more
aggressive MEPS.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; Renewable energy sources; Policy mechanisms

Maria F. Gómez, Semida Silveira,


Rural electrification of the Brazilian Amazon – Achievements and lessons,
Energy Policy,
Volume 38, Issue 10,
2010,
Pages 6251-6260,
ISSN 0301-4215,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2010.06.013.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421510004763)
Abstract: The Brazilian government has the ambition to provide complete electricity
coverage for all citizens as a means to promote development and reduce
inequalities. Full coverage implies the provision of electricity to 15 million
people in the country by the end of 2010 through the program Luz para Todos (LPT –
light for all) launched in 2003. So far, 11 million people have benefited, 2
million of which live in the Amazon. In this paper, we analyze the linkages between
development and rural electrification through the Human Development Index (HDI) and
within the context of the Amazon. We examine the suitability of the HDI as a
planning and monitoring tool for improving energy access and development. We show
that the recognition of electricity access as a driver for development has led to
concrete goals for electrification, actual action and welfare improvement. Our
study serves to highlight the role of LPT in the development of the Amazon region,
and the specific features and achievements of the Brazilian policy for universal
electrification. We conclude that some challenges related to the electrification of
isolated areas still lie ahead. We finalize with a discussion on the relevance of
the Brazilian experience to other developing countries.
Keywords: Development; Rural electrification; HDI

Alberto Pavlick Caetani, Luciano Ferreira, Denis Borenstein,


Development of an integrated decision-making method for an oil refinery
restructuring in Brazil,
Energy,
Volume 111,
2016,
Pages 197-210,
ISSN 0360-5442,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.05.084.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544216307010)
Abstract: This paper describes an integrated decision analysis method to support
the managing board to define a restructuring plan for a small oil refinery in south
Brazil. The refinery is facing an extreme crisis situation due to the obsolescence
of its production plant. The decision approach proposed in this paper consists of
four phases. Initially, potentially performing restructuring alternatives were
identified, as well a set of criteria covering the dimensions of corporate
sustainability. Based on the relative importance evaluation of each criteria given
by a group of decision-makers, and on the performance of the alternatives in each
of the criteria, a fuzzy decision-making method, called FETOPIS, was applied for
ranking the alternatives. The information resulting from this analysis, along with
economic data, was used in a portfolio optimization model to identify restructuring
investment projects (RIPs), a combination of feasible restructuring alternatives.
FETOPSIS was used again to generate overall performance scores of each RIP,
aggregating the individual performances of the constituent alternatives. The
application of the method in the refinery demonstrated the efficiency and efficacy
of the proposed approach to facilitate the understanding and exploitation of the
problem, considering simultaneously several distinct and conflicting dimensions.
Keywords: Restructuring; Oil refinery; Fuzzy; TOPSIS; ELECTRE; Portfolio
optimization

M. Muratori, V. Marano, G. Rizzo, G. Rizzoni,


Electric Mobility: from Fossil Fuels to Renewable Energy, Opportunities and
Challenges,
IFAC Proceedings Volumes,
Volume 46, Issue 21,
2013,
Pages 812-817,
ISSN 1474-6670,
ISBN 9783902823489,
https://doi.org/10.3182/20130904-4-JP-2042.00161.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474667016384750)
Abstract: This paper presents an overview of current trends and future perspectives
of different solutions for personal electric mobility. After a picture of global
trends about oil consumption and CO2 emissions, a brief review of opportunities and
challenges related to electricity as an energy carrier for transportation, is
presented, with particular focus on the integration of plug-in electric vehicles
into the existing energy network, the recourse to renewable energy sources, and the
integration of photovoltaic in hybrid cars.
Keywords: Sustainability; Personal Vehicles; Transportation Energy Consumption;
Electric Mobility; Energy Saving; oil Dependency

Amaro Olimpio Pereira, Ricardo Cunha da Costa, Cláudia do Vale Costa, Juliana de
Moraes Marreco, Emílio Lèbre La Rovere,
Perspectives for the expansion of new renewable energy sources in Brazil,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 23,
2013,
Pages 49-59,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.02.020.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032113001226)
Abstract: The aim of this article is to show the opportunities for penetration of
new renewable energy sources into the Brazilian energy mix, enabling it to continue
generating a high quantity of clean energy compared to the world average. Different
scenarios for the evolution of such sources in Brazil and in the world were
analyzed within the 2010–2030 horizon. The study showed not only the benefits
brought by these sources in terms of GHG emission avoidance but also the impact in
terms of employment creation and the public investment necessary to obtain such
benefits.
Keywords: Renewable energy sources; Energy scenarios; Greenhouse gas emission

Konark Sharma, Lalit Mohan Saini,


Power-line communications for smart grid: Progress, challenges, opportunities and
status,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 67,
2017,
Pages 704-751,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.019.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116305111)
Abstract: Power-line communications (PLC) have proven to be susceptible to the
next-generation power transmission/distribution systems with end-to-end
communication capability, considered as a revolutionary and evolutionary regime of
existing power grids. More importantly, with recent advancements in PLC
technological regulation, standardization and certification have spurred a lot of
interest in the field of advanced communication and control technologies for
heterogeneous networks. These advancements are expected to greatly enhance
efficiency and reliability of future power systems with renewable energy resources,
as well as distributed intelligence and demand response (DR) programs. As various
national and international organizations have started to draw PLC regulations,
standards and technologies for countries, these standards intend to determine
important criteria such as bandwidth, modulation types, channel coding schemes,
operating frequency and electromagnetic capability limits from fixed indoor/outdoor
applications to smart grid (SG) applications. Depending on the worldwide PLC
regulation, standardization and technological developments, security schemes built
around them can become interoperable from a standard point of view, but still have
incompatible configurations or different maturity levels, or include non-
standardized PLC functions. Moreover, the PLC based systems/solutions for renewable
energy integration, are also surveyed in terms of distributed-power system (DPS)
and distributed energy resources (DERs) units monitoring/controlling and management
purposes. Thus, a particular section is dedicated to PLC based systems/solutions
utilization of renewable energy sources (RESs) in SG covering all aspects of a
monotype and hybrid energy plants. Finally, the survey is carried on by reviewing
the most recent and comprehensive articles to highlight the importance of PLC in a
logical way in the smart grid for readers.
Keywords: Distributed-power system; Power-line communications; Power-line
transceivers; Renewable energy sources; Smart meters; Smart grid technologies

N. Phuangpornpitak, S. Tia,
Opportunities and Challenges of Integrating Renewable Energy in Smart Grid System,
Energy Procedia,
Volume 34,
2013,
Pages 282-290,
ISSN 1876-6102,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2013.06.756.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610213009995)
Abstract: Smart grid technology is the key for an efficient use of distributed
energy resources. Noting the climate change becomes an important issue the whole
world is currently facing, the ever increasing price of petroleum products and the
reduction in cost of renewable energy power systems, opportunities for renewable
energy systems to address electricity generation seems to be increasing. However,
to achieve commercialization and widespread use, an efficient energy management
strategy of system needs to be addressed. Recently, the concept of smart grid has
been successfully applied to the electric power systems. This paper presents the
study of integrating renewable energy in smart grid system. The introductory
sections provide the role of renewable energy and distributed generation in smart
grid system. Subsequent sections cover the concept of smart grid as well as
benefits and barrier of smart grid renewable energy system. Pricing is a
significant variable in success of renewable energy promotion. Thus, it is
important to gain insight to renewable energy pricing by considering unique
characteristics associated with renewable energy alternatives. A review of work
done in renewable smart grid systems in recent years indicates the promising
potential of such research characteristics in the future. This would be useful to
developers and practitioners of renewable energy systems and to policy makers.
Keywords: Distributed generation; Renewable energy; Smart grid; Sustainable
development

Marcio Giannini Pereira, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos Freitas, Neilton Fidelis da


Silva,
Rural electrification and energy poverty: Empirical evidences from Brazil,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 14, Issue 4,
2010,
Pages 1229-1240,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2009.12.013.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032109003025)
Abstract: The aim of this article is to evaluate the impact of rural
electrification on the reduction of energy poverty in Brazil through the analysis
of 23,000 rural domiciles or rural properties between the years 2000 and 2004. The
results indicate a fast change in the profile of energy consumption and a reduction
of energy poverty. This new approach works as a complement, among other variables,
to analyze and quantify the real economic, social and energy impacts in rural
electrification programs, generally applied in developing countries.
Keywords: Rural electrification; Energy poverty; Electric reform sector; Public
policy; Brazil

B. Asare-Bediako, W.L. Kling, P.F. Ribeiro,


Future residential load profiles: Scenario-based analysis of high penetration of
heavy loads and distributed generation,
Energy and Buildings,
Volume 75,
2014,
Pages 228-238,
ISSN 0378-7788,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.02.025.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037877881400139X)
Abstract: Electric load profiles are useful for accurate load forecasting, network
planning and optimal generation capacity. They represent electricity demand
patterns and are to a large extent predictable. However, new and heavier loads
(heat pumps and electric vehicles), distributed generation, and home energy
management technologies will change future energy consumption pattern of
residential customers. This article analyses future residential load profiles via
modelling and simulation of residential loads and distributed generations. The
household base loads are represented by synthetic load profiles. Mathematical
models are implemented for heat pumps, micro combined heat and power units,
electric vehicles and photovoltaic systems. Scenario-based simulations are
performed with different combination and penetration levels of load and generation
technologies for different seasons. The results of the analyses show that with
varying penetration levels of distributed generation and heavy loads, future
residential load profiles will be more dynamic and dependent on multiple factors
deviating from the classical demand pattern.
Keywords: Residential load profiles; Load simulation; Distributed generation;
Distribution grid

D. Hotza, J.C. Diniz da Costa,


Fuel cells development and hydrogen production from renewable resources in Brazil,
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,
Volume 33, Issue 19,
2008,
Pages 4915-4935,
ISSN 0360-3199,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2008.06.028.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319908007428)
Abstract: In this work we review the Brazilian energy supply matrix, in particular
focusing on environmentally friendly pathways to hydrogen production and fuel cell
utilisation. Brazil is currently building capacity in these areas, evident in the
spectrum of technological research carried out by several universities in the
fields of hydrogen production processes, catalysts and electrolyte materials.
Although the fuel cell installed capacity in Brazil is limited, there are several
government-funded research activities – mainly on PEM, DMFC, DEFC and SOFC, in
addition to reforming and catalysis of ethanol as cell fuel. Brazil has a robust
energy matrix, and 45% of its energy supply is derived from renewable resources.
The future hydrogen economy in Brazil will probably rely on renewable resources,
mainly from hydroelectric power and biofuels, which are plentifully available.
Keywords: Fuel cells; Hydrogen; Energy supply; Renewable sources; Brazil

Johann A. Hernandez, Francisco Santamaría, César L. Trujillo,


Impacts of Regulation in the Development of Distributed Generation,
The Electricity Journal,
Volume 28, Issue 7,
2015,
Pages 83-95,
ISSN 1040-6190,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2015.07.002.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040619015001451)
Abstract: Policies governing DG in various European countries, the United States
and some parts of Latin America have encouraged the use of renewable energy
technologies such as solar and wind power, not just in large projects but also on a
small scale within distribution grids. Colombia offers a useful case study of DG
schemes that have begun to be projected at a more modest pace.

Zhenya Liu,
Chapter 1 - Global Energy Development: The Reality and Challenges,
Editor(s): Zhenya Liu,
Global Energy Interconnection,
Academic Press,
2015,
Pages 1-64,
ISBN 9780128044056,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-804405-6.00001-4.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128044056000014)
Abstract: Energy security carries socioeconomic implications. Global energy
development is closely linked with resource endowment. The Earth is endowed with
not only plenty of fossil energy, that is, coal, oil, and natural gas, but also
with large quantities of renewable clean energy, such as hydro, wind, and solar
power. Global energy development has traditionally depended excessively on fossil
energy, resulting in a host of increasingly prominent problems, such as resource
constraints, climate change, and environmental pollution, which severely threaten
human existence and development. In response to the challenges of the situation,
mankind must develop a good understanding of the new features of globalization on
the economic development, resource allocation and environmental fronts to set the
stage for secure, clean, efficient and sustainable development of world energy.
Keywords: energy development; global energy interconnection; energy supply; fossil
energy; clean energy; energy environment

E. Despotou,
1.10 - Vision for Photovoltaics in the Future,
Editor(s): Ali Sayigh,
Comprehensive Renewable Energy,
Elsevier,
2012,
Current as of 02 May 2012,
Pages 179-198,
ISBN 9780080878737,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-087872-0.00109-8.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080878720001098)
Abstract: This chapter has the ambition to answer the complex questions: How is
photovoltaic (PV) technology and market evolving in the world and how will it
evolve in the coming years and decades? In a world driven by increased energy needs
(1.5 billion people have no access at all to electricity), the necessity to fight
climate change and the imperatives of energy security, solar PV electricity
represents today a mature technology that has already proven to be a mature
technology that has a bright future ahead. In 2010, the total new PV installations
globally, amounted to the equivalent (in terms of electricity produced) to a couple
of new nuclear reactors. In Spain during summer, PV produces in some regions more
almost 15% of the electricity demand. In Germany, over 15GW of PV installations are
covering around 2% of the electricity demand. Worldwide, more countries are
stepping into the PV world each year: next to Germany and Spain, Italy, Czech
Republic, Japan, and the United States have crossed the GW mark and more countries
are approaching that symbolic target as well. China, India, Mexico, Brazil, and
many others are considering PV as part of their energy in the future. PV systems
are now operated in over 50 countries with multiple benefits for both developed and
developing countries with on-grid and off-grid applications. PV experiences
impressive price decreases (more than 60% in the last 5 years and even more to
come), massive deployment in many developed countries, technologies suitable to all
market segments and regions of the world. Moreover, it can already compete with
conventional energy sources without or with limited support in various locations.
With the evolution toward full competitiveness of PV on the electricity markets, PV
will enter new markets and provide electricity to a growing number of consumers.
The shift from households consuming electricity to households producing electricity
will revolutionize the way power grids will operate and how market will deal with
electricity. It is now time to envisage the future of PV markets with double-digit
market penetration, with up to 12% that are reachable in Europe by 2020 and by 2030
in many developing economies, including China and India. In that respect, PV could
represent up to 21% of the world electricity demand in 2050 which opens up a
bright, clean, and sunny future.
Keywords: Competitiveness; Photovoltaics; Photovoltaic electricity; Photovoltaic
future; Photovoltaic market; Photovoltaic vision; Renewable Energy

Andrew Higgins, George Grozev, Zhengen Ren, Stephen Garner, Glenn Walden, Michelle
Taylor,
Modelling future uptake of distributed energy resources under alternative tariff
structures,
Energy,
Volume 74,
2014,
Pages 455-463,
ISSN 0360-5442,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2014.07.010.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544214008329)
Abstract: Current residential price tariff structures in Australia, which are
predominately based on a flat daily supply charge combined with a per kWh
electricity charge, create a distortion to the electricity consumption pattern,
leading to larger afternoon and evening peak demands across the networks. Battery
storage connected to solar PV (photovoltaic) array would reduce these effects in
the presence of alternative price tariffs that incentivise households to shift load
and reduce the peak demand. This challenge is addressed using a choice-diffusion
model to forecast PV and battery storage uptake to 2025 for a case study in
Townsville, Australia. Sensitivity of uptake is tested for six different price
tariffs based on flat, time-of-use and critical-peak-pricing. Uptake of battery
storage connected to solar PV ranged between 3% and 5.4% of households at 2025,
depending on the price tariff, with the larger PV/battery options being more
popular. Percentage of households disconnecting from the grid at 2025 is in the
order of one percent depending on the price tariff. A sensitivity analysis showed
battery price was a major driver to uptake whilst typical financial subsidies to
purchase price have a lower effect.
Keywords: Choice-diffusion model; Solar photovoltaic; Price tariffs

Teng Jia, Yanjun Dai, Ruzhu Wang,


Refining energy sources in winemaking industry by using solar energy as
alternatives for fossil fuels: A review and perspective,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 88,
2018,
Pages 278-296,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.02.008.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032118300285)
Abstract: Winemaking is a global industry that needs to advance with the times
taking into consideration the developing drinking needs, tastes of human beings and
the growing demand on the world's renewable energy sources. Climate changes have
brought nowadays challenges of energy requirements, subsequent emissions and the
detrimental effects facing the winemaking industry and mankind. Given its energy
requirements, concomitant emissions and the pernicious effects, winemaking industry
should bear the brunt of improving energy utilization efficiency and promoting the
development and adoption of renewable energy utilization technologies. Various
kinds of renewable energy are being used in winemaking industry worldwide,
especially solar energy in the form of solar thermal and solar photovoltaic, which
offer a clean solution to fossil fuels shortage and pollutant emissions caused by
or involved in winemaking processes. The objective of this paper to present
challenges facing solar energy utilization in winemaking by summarizing the status
of solar energy utilization in wineries worldwide, by outlining the current solar
energy profile of these wineries and by stressing the existing and potential
application aspects of solar energy in winemaking. Considering the more rapid
development of PV industry, PV chain and economic feasibility are analyzed. By
taking China as an example, the comparison and asymmetry between PV production and
active solar-related winemaking are stressed aimed at appealing to winemakers and
policymakers to turn more to renewable energy like solar energy. Based on that,
essential suggestions are provided, which are expected to extend solar energy
systems for subsequent contributions to energy conversation, environmental
protection and reduction of land occupation.
Keywords: Winemaking; Solar thermal; Photovoltaic; Winery wastewater treatment

Miguel Pacheco, Roberto Lamberts,


Assessment of technical and economical viability for large-scale conversion of
single family residential buildings into zero energy buildings in Brazil: Climatic
and cultural considerations,
Energy Policy,
Volume 63,
2013,
Pages 716-725,
ISSN 0301-4215,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.07.133.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421513008331)
Abstract: This paper addresses the viability of converting single-family
residential buildings in Brazil into zero energy buildings (ZEBs). The European
Union and the United States aim ZEBs implementation to address ‘peak oil’ and
environmental concerns. However, literature shows no agreement on a consensual
definition of ZEB. Seeking a Brazilian ZEB definition, this paper addresses
PassivHaus and thermal comfort standards for hot climates, source metrics for ZEB,
Brazil′s energy mix, residential energy end uses and Brazilian legal framework for
residential photovoltaic (PV) generation. Internal Rate of Return for PV systems in
two Brazilian cities is calculated under various scenarios. It shows grid parity
was reached from April 2012 to November 2012 assuming residential electric tariffs
of that period and the financial conditions given by the Brazilian government for
the construction of new dams in the Amazon and the lowest rates offered by
Brazilian banks to private individuals. Governmental decision to lower electric
residential tariffs in November 2012 reduced the scope of grid parity. Later
revocation of a tax exemption in April 2013 ended grid parity in Brazil. It
concludes, conversely to developed countries, it is the volatile Brazilian energy
policy, instead of economical barriers, the main obstacle for ZEB viability in
Brazil.
Keywords: Zero energy buildings; Hot climates; PV parity

M. Moner-Girona, S. Szabo, S. Bhattacharyya,


Off-Grid Photovoltaic Technologies in the Solar Belt: Finance Mechanisms and
Incentives☆,
Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences,
Elsevier,
2016,
Current as of 08 March 2016,
,
ISBN 9780124095489,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-409548-9.09713-X.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012409548909713X)
Abstract: Access to modern energy is a social and economic priority to rural
population and policy-makers because of its direct socio economic and environmental
benefits, as well as the indirect benefits of energy as an important input factor
to growth and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this sense, renewable
technologies offer the option to provide access to sustainable energy services and
foster economic development. However, there are many barriers to the widespread
diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the rural environment. One of the
main barriers is financial, as many rural families have little expendable capital
and lack access to credit on one hand and entrepreneurs face challenges due to the
small size and risky nature of the projects arising from their remoteness, limited
demand and poor consumer base on the other. Therefore, schemes for financing off-
grid electrification are just as important as technological innovations. This
chapter reviews existing support mechanisms and incentives for off-grid
photovoltaic (PV) deployment in developing countries, particularly combining
market, energy use, and socio-economic elements. Additionally, it analyses the
progress and adaptation of the support mechanisms depending on the degree of
failure in the past, and suggest new solutions for promoting sustainable energy
options for remote rural areas in developing countries. We must note that the
schemes reviewed can be used to finance also other forms of renewable energy, as
all renewable energy suffer from similar barriers – high initial cost and low
operational cost in an environment where long term credit is difficult to acquire.
PV projects are the focus of this chapter because there is more data about off-grid
PV projects in developing countries than any other type of renewable energy
technology. To this end, we acknowledge the extensive work of the wider energy
research community represented in this chapter; in particular the Alliance for
Rural Electrification (ARE), the Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st
Century (REN 21), Grameen Shakti, International Solar Energy Society (ISES), Energy
Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP) of the World Bank, United Nations
Development Program (UNDP), United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), United
Nations-General’s Advisory Group on Energy and Climate Change (UN-AGEC), Deutsche
Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ), Energy for Sustainable
Development (ESD), International Energy Agency (IEA), ENERGIA, Fundacion Bariloche,
Climate Action, TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi) and DB Climate
Change advisors.
Keywords: Finance mechanisms; Financial channels; Incentives; Minigrids; off-grid
Feed-in-tariff (FiT); PhotoVoltaic (PV); pico-PV; Power purchase agreements; Risk
management; Rural electrification; Solar Home Systems; Sustainable Development
Goals (SDG); Tariff

Fernando Ramos Martins, Enio Bueno Pereira,


Enhancing information for solar and wind energy technology deployment in Brazil,
Energy Policy,
Volume 39, Issue 7,
2011,
Pages 4378-4390,
ISSN 0301-4215,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2011.04.058.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421511003417)
Abstract: Brazil's primary energy matrix is based on more than 47% of renewables,
and more than 85% of its electricity is generated by hydro power sources. Despite
this large fraction of renewable energy resources, less than 0.3% of the national
energy supply comes from solar or wind sources. This paper presents a diagnostic
review on the penetration of the solar and wind energy technologies in Brazil. It
also includes a survey of the latest government policies and incentives for
renewable energies deployment by entrepreneurs, industry and commercial and
residential consumers. In addition, the paper analyses how to best meet the
requirements for policy support and information technology to boost the deployment
of solar technology and wind energy in Brazil. This study was mostly based on
results of a widely distributed survey covering key issues, and also by personal
interviews carried out with key stakeholders in order to better understand the
issues highlighted in the survey responses. The study pointed out some of the main
obstacles to effectively promote and improve government policies and actions for
investment in solar and wind energy market in Brazil.
Keywords: Solar energy; Wind energy; Incentive policies

Jeyakumar Ramanujam, Amit Verma, B. González-Díaz, R. Guerrero-Lemus, Carlos del


Cañizo, Elisa García-Tabarés, Ignacio Rey-Stolle, Filip Granek, Lars Korte, Mario
Tucci, Jatin Rath, Udai P. Singh, Teodor Todorov, Oki Gunawan, S. Rubio, J.L.
Plaza, Ernesto Diéguez, Björn Hoffmann, Silke Christiansen, George E. Cirlin,
Inorganic photovoltaics – Planar and nanostructured devices,
Progress in Materials Science,
Volume 82,
2016,
Pages 294-404,
ISSN 0079-6425,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmatsci.2016.03.005.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0079642516300056)
Abstract: Since its invention in the 1950s, semiconductor solar cell technology has
evolved in great leaps and bounds. Solar power is now being considered as a serious
leading contender for replacing fossil fuel based power generation. This article
reviews the evolution and current state, and potential areas of near future
research focus, of leading inorganic materials based solar cells, including bulk
crystalline, amorphous thin-films, and nanomaterials based solar cells. Bulk
crystalline silicon solar cells continue to dominate the solar power market, and
continued efforts at device fabrication improvements, and device topology
advancements are discussed. III–V compound semiconductor materials on c-Si for
solar power generation are also reviewed. Developments in thin-film based solar
cells are reviewed, with a focus on amorphous silicon, copper zinc tin sulfide,
cadmium telluride, as well as nanostructured cadmium telluride. Recent developments
in the use of nano-materials for solar power generation, including silicon and
gallium arsenide nanowires, are also reviewed.

Hubert Seigneur, Nahid Mohajeri, R. Paul Brooker, Kristopher O. Davis, Eric J.


Schneller, Neelkanth G. Dhere, Marianne P. Rodgers, John Wohlgemuth, Narendra S.
Shiradkar, Giuseppe Scardera, Andrew C. Rudack, Winston V. Schoenfeld,
Manufacturing metrology for c-Si photovoltaic module reliability and durability,
Part I: Feedstock, crystallization and wafering,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 59,
2016,
Pages 84-106,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.12.343.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115017268)
Abstract: This article is the first in a three-part series of manufacturing
metrology for c-Si photovoltaic (PV) module reliability and durability. Here in
Part 1 we focus on the three primary process steps for making silicon substrates
for PV cells: (1) feedstock production; (2) ingot and brick production; and (3)
wafer production. Each of these steps can affect the final reliability/durability
of PV modules in the field with manufacturing metrology potentially playing a
significant role. This article provides a comprehensive overview of historical and
current processes in each of these three steps, followed by a discussion of
associated reliability challenges and metrology strategies that can be employed for
increased reliability and durability in resultant modules. Gaps in the current
state of understanding in connective metrology data during processing to
reliability/durability in the field are then identified along with suggested
improvements that should be considered by the PV community.
Keywords: Siemens; Fluidized bed reactor; Czochralski; Directional solidification;
Crystalline silicon; Wafer; Kerfless

Angeliki Kylili, Paris A. Fokaides,


Competitive auction mechanisms for the promotion renewable energy technologies: The
case of the 50MW photovoltaics projects in Cyprus,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 42,
2015,
Pages 226-233,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.022.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114008399)
Abstract: There are a range of policy frameworks and support mechanisms to promote
the penetration of renewable energy technologies into the energy mix assembled by
the governments and regulatory bodies around the world. The three dominant and most
common support schemes that have also been implemented within the EU and proven
successful in the past include the competitive auctions, the Feed-in Tariff scheme
(FiT), and Tradable Green Certificates (TGCs). This study reviews the use of the
competitive auction mechanism for the promotion of power generation from renewable
energy technologies. The process of the specific policy instrument as well as its
pros and cons are introduced. Successful and failed case studies from countries
that have already incorporated this mechanism into their renewable energy
technologies development policies are also presented. Among these cases is the
Cyprus auction procurement for the licensing of 50MW of photovoltaic power plants,
conducted in January 2013, which is thoroughly elaborated in this paper. The
timeline of the bids is presented, and the auction winner strategy is tracked and
examined. A discussion is also presented on the feasibility of the awarded
projects. Eventually, the entire auction procurement procedure is evaluated to
expose the defects of the mechanism and to offer some recommendations for the
viability of the process.
Keywords: Renewable energy sources; Photovoltaics; Auction; Support mechanisms

Carmen L.T. Borges, Eduardo Cantarino,


Microgrids Reliability Evaluation with Renewable Distributed Generation and Storage
Systems,
IFAC Proceedings Volumes,
Volume 44, Issue 1,
2011,
Pages 11695-11700,
ISSN 1474-6670,
ISBN 9783902661937,
https://doi.org/10.3182/20110828-6-IT-1002.01090.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474667016454947)
Abstract: Abstract
This paper presents a model for reliability evaluation of Microgrids with
Distributed Generation based on renewable energy resources. In this approach, DG
participates in the network operation coordination as an active agent and not as a
decentralized generation under which the utility has no control. Stochastic models
are considered for representing generation availability related to wind energy and
solar energy. The use of storage is explored as a means of reducing supply
intermittency by a specific model for representing the charge state. The influence
of microgrids on distribution network reliability is evaluated considering also the
probability of success of the islanding operation and the impacts of the storage
systems on the power availability.
Keywords: Reliability; Microgrids; Smart Grids; Distributed Generation; Renewable
Energy; Storage
Maria F. Gómez, Semida Silveira,
Delivering off-grid electricity systems in the Brazilian Amazon,
Energy for Sustainable Development,
Volume 16, Issue 2,
2012,
Pages 155-167,
ISSN 0973-0826,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2012.01.007.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0973082612000099)
Abstract: In Brazil, more than 14million people have benefited from the rural
electrification program Luz Para Todos (LPT — Light for all), mainly through grid-
extension. A new off-grid model is now required if remote areas in the Amazon
region are to fully benefit from the program. In this paper, we explore the
institutional and financial schemes that support LPT and their suitability for
delivering off-grid solutions in the Amazon region. Our conclusions draw attention
to the need for more local and site specific solutions, and new regulatory
frameworks to allow the participation of new actors. We argue that the uniqueness
of the Amazon region justifies renewable technologies focused on local needs and
potential, adaptation of the LPT institutional framework and rethinking of funding
channels. An off-grid approach will enhance the inclusion of remote areas in
universal access goals while adjustments will help guarantee the sustainability of
the electrification program.
Keywords: Universal electricity access; Isolated communities; Off-grid solutions

Suani T. Coelho, José Goldemberg,


Energy access: Lessons learned in Brazil and perspectives for replication in other
developing countries,
Energy Policy,
Volume 61,
2013,
Pages 1088-1096,
ISSN 0301-4215,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2013.05.062.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S030142151300414X)
Abstract: Energy access has been singled out by the AGECC in 2010 as one of the
important problems to be tackled in the next few decades in a world where 1.3
billion people do not have access to electricity and 2.7 use primitive fuels –
mainly fuel wood – for cooking and heating. To solve such problems, innumerous
small scale projects have been implemented around the world either on the
improvement of cooking stoves, biogas and others, as well as in generating
electricity in decentralized systems. We discuss here the “large scale approach” to
solve these problems in Brazil through the introduction of LPG (liquid petroleum
gas) in Brazil 70 years ago, all over the country, as a cooking fuel that replaced
significantly the use of fuel wood in rural areas. In addition to that, we describe
the governmental program (Luz para Todos – LPT – Light for all) introduced more
recently to extend the electricity grid to around 10 million people, reducing
considerably the number of people without access to electricity in the rural areas
of the country. Such experiences and the corresponding lessons learned could be
replicated in other developing countries, contributing significantly to poverty
alleviation.
Keywords: Developing countries; Energy access; Energy for productive uses

Şiir Kılkış,
Sustainability-oriented innovation system analyses of Brazil, Russia, India, China,
South Africa, Turkey and Singapore,
Journal of Cleaner Production,
Volume 130,
2016,
Pages 235-247,
ISSN 0959-6526,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.03.138.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652616302116)
Abstract: The coherency of research, development, and innovation processes are
vital in promoting a more resource efficient society. Sustainability-oriented
innovation systems define specific kinds of innovation systems, i.e. those that are
directed to the aims of sustainable development. This paper develops an integrated
method with four layers of analysis to evaluate the priorities and performances of
such systems. The method is applied to a sample of emerging and innovation based
economies, namely Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa, Turkey, and
Singapore. The analyses consider the 6 main activities or functional dynamics of
innovation systems and a set of 19 keywords. The keywords relate to the thematic
clusters of renewable energy technologies, energy efficiency, and environmental
management. The priorities of the countries in each main interaction of the system
are classified accordingly. The priorities are compared to the existing level of
specialization in the keywords based on the intermediate outputs of the system. The
analyses cover 153,838 papers and 15,138 patents between the years 2003 and 2014. A
Sustainable Innovation Index is developed to aggregate the normalized values of
country performance across all keywords. Singapore receives the highest value
(21.17) and the average of Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa is 14.91.
The results determine the ability of countries to align priorities and performance
towards more mature innovation systems for sustainable development.
Keywords: Innovation system; Functional dynamics; Sustainable development; Emerging
economy

A. Sheikhi Fini, M. Parsa Moghaddam, M.K. Sheikh-El-Eslami,


A dynamic model for distributed energy resource expansion planning considering
multi-resource support schemes,
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems,
Volume 60,
2014,
Pages 357-366,
ISSN 0142-0615,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2014.03.030.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014206151400132X)
Abstract: In this paper, a system dynamics based model is developed to investigate
the impacts of multi-resource regulatory policies on distributed energy resource
(DER) expansion planning. DERs usually include a variety of renewable and fossil
based generation technologies such as wind and gas engine resources, combined heat
and power (CHP), demand response (DR) and energy storage. The intermittent nature
and uncertainty in power generation of some of these resources and other
uncertainties that exist in the market environment would cause investors to
encounter risk in their investment decisions. Implementation of any supporting
policy affects any investor’s behavior and investment level of other investors.
Regulators should properly identify long-term impacts of their support policies in
the energy resource expansion in order to choose a proper support scheme. These
support schemes should ensure the long-term market stability. It is important for a
DER investor to properly identify his/her long-term investment behavior to select
an appropriate strategy. In this paper, the system dynamics method is used to
investigate these issues. The impacts of various multi-resource regulatory policies
on market dynamics are modeled and compared with the single-resource support
schemes ones. In this study, support schemes are considered for supporting DR, wind
resources, CHPs and photovoltaic resources.
Keywords: Distributed energy resources; Expansion planning; Multi-resource support
scheme; System dynamics

J.M. Pacas, M.G. Molina, E.C. dos Santos,


Design of a robust and efficient power electronic interface for the grid
integration of solar photovoltaic generation systems,
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,
Volume 37, Issue 13,
2012,
Pages 10076-10082,
ISSN 0360-3199,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2011.12.078.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319911027716)
Abstract: Nowadays, the penetration of photovoltaic (PV) solar power generation in
distributed generation (DG) systems is growing rapidly. This condition imposes new
requirements to the operation and management of the distribution grid, especially
when high integration levels are achieved. Under this scenario, the power
electronics technology plays a vital role in ensuring an effective grid integration
of the PV system, since it is subject to requirements related not only to the
variable source itself but also to its effects on the stability and operation of
the electric grid. This paper proposes an enhanced interface for the grid
connection of solar PV generation systems. The topology employed consists of a
three-level cascaded Z-source inverter that allows the flexible, efficient and
reliable generation of high quality electric power from the PV plant. A full
detailed model is described and its control scheme is designed. The dynamic
performance of the designed architecture is verified by computer simulations.
Keywords: Photovoltaic (PV) generation; Maximum power point tracking (MPPT); Power
conditioning system (PCS); Three-level cascaded Z-source inverter; Detailed
modeling; Control techniques

Rudi Henri van Els, João Nildo de Souza Vianna, Antonio Cesar Pinho Brasil,
The Brazilian experience of rural electrification in the Amazon with decentralized
generation – The need to change the paradigm from electrification to development,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 16, Issue 3,
2012,
Pages 1450-1461,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.11.031.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032111005776)
Abstract: There are at least 607 thousand households in the Brazilian Amazon that
need to be attended with some form of regular electricity service. These households
are not attended by the electricity sector through its electricity distribution
companies and most of them have some form of precarious decentralized electricity
generation that is not registered or regulated in the institutional framework.
Diverse initiatives were taken by Brazilian government to attend these household
through alternatives that relied on locally available renewable energy. This paper
accesses this initiatives of rural electrification in the Brazilian Amazon. First
an overview of the problems of rural electricity are discussed and its
specificities in the Brazilian Amazon. Then the Brazilian institutional framework
that organizes the decentralized electricity generation is described with its
various limitations. The diverse initiatives undertaken to attend the rural
communities in the Amazon since the 1990s are described, as well as how these
initiatives are linked to the policies for rural electrification. The results shows
that it can be inferred that sole market mechanisms are not sufficient to guarantee
economic sustainability of these projects. This can be one of the reasons why
traditional electricity distribution companies showed the lack of interest in
promoting rural electrification with other means than grid extension. The most
successful projects had financed efforts to integrate the generation of electricity
into local development initiatives in order to guarantee sustainability and used
substantial part of funding for local mobilization and organization. It needs a
paradigm chance by treating these initiatives as local development initiatives and
promoting alternative ways for its implementation through partnership between local
new actors in the electricity sector and government and implementing policy on a
local municipal level.
Keywords: Rural electrification; Amazon; Local development

Tamer Khatib, Azah Mohamed, K. Sopian,


A review of photovoltaic systems size optimization techniques,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 22,
2013,
Pages 454-465,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.02.023.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032113001251)
Abstract: Based on the fact that PV systems are clean, environment friendly and
secure energy sources, PV system installation has played an important role
worldwide. However, the drawback of PV system is the high capital cost as compared
to conventional energy sources. Currently, many research works are carried out
focusing on optimization of PV systems so that the number of PV modules, capacity
of storage battery, capacity of inverter, wind turbine capacity as well as diesel
generator size optimally selected. In this paper, the current status of research on
PV systems size optimization is reviewed taking into account standalone PV systems,
hybrid PV/diesel generator systems, hybrid PV/wind systems, hybrid PV/wind/diesel
generator systems as well as grid connected systems. In addition, size optimization
techniques for the inverter in PV systems are reviewed. The outcome of this paper
shows that the optimization of PV system is strongly depends on meteorological
variables such as solar energy, ambient temperature and wind speed. Furthermore,
the numerical methods are the mostly used methods. Meanwhile the artificial
intelligence techniques have been employed recently to improve the process of PV
system size optimization.
Keywords: PV system; Optimization of PV system; Size optimization; Photovoltaic

Gracieli Sartório Cardoso de Lima, Elaine Coelho Lopes, Juliana Gutierrez Motta,
Roberto Asano, María Valverde, Ricardo Suyama, Patricia Teixeira Leite,
Sustainable development enhanced in the decision process of electricity generation
expansion planning,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 123,
2018,
Pages 563-577,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2018.02.012.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148118301551)
Abstract: The dissemination of distributed electric power generation is increasing
despite some current technical, commercial and regulative limitations. Its
development is a new reality which proper consideration is required in the planning
of the expansion of the electric matrix. The use of renewable sources, smaller
generation units and local availability of energy are characteristics that need to
be considered in the planning process due to their impacts beyond the grid and
energy supply when aspects of sustainable development are regarded. In order to
strengthen distributed generation's contribution for sustainable development, this
paper introduces additional social and environmental variables that are evaluated
in conjunction with the technical and economic aspects in the indication of
potential sites for deployment of wind turbines. Therefore, selected indicators
corresponding to each of the dimensions of the sustainable development were used as
inputs for multi-criteria evaluation techniques such as Rank Sum, Analytical
Hierarchy Process and Weighted Linear Combination, and fuzzy logic. The techniques
were applied and then compared in a case study for screening appropriate locations
which are favorable to the wind turbines installation under the perspective of
sustainable development. Actual data and wind characterization of the state of São
Paulo, Brazil, were used and as a result state's municipalities with higher
potential for installation of wind generators at 50 and 100 m height were
identified according to each evaluation technique. It was noted that each technique
promotes a specific trade-off between the criteria while balancing the evaluation
output, however with a significant result convergence. Thus, the use of an
objective methodology to incorporate dimensions involved in the sustainable
development is effective and a valuable tool to support important decisions during
the planning process in the generation expansion.
Keywords: Distributed generation; Sustainable development; Sustainability
indicators; Interdisciplinary matrix; Multi-criteria analysis; Fuzzy logic

H.A. Pereira, F.D. Freijedo, M.M. Silva, V.F. Mendes, R. Teodorescu,


Harmonic current prediction by impedance modeling of grid-tied inverters: A 1.4MW
PV plant case study,
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems,
Volume 93,
2017,
Pages 30-38,
ISSN 0142-0615,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2017.05.009.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142061517305227)
Abstract: Grid-tied inverters are the main responsible for the successful
integration of photovoltaic (PV) plants in the power grid. Two important challenges
are the integration of power plants based-inverters and their contribution to the
power system quality. This work analyzes the features of inverter impedance models
when used in harmonic integration studies. It is aimed to estimate the harmonic
current contribution as a function of the background harmonic voltages components.
Time domain simulations based on detailed and average models are compared with the
impedance model developed in frequency domain. In grids with harmonic voltages,
impedance models can predict the current distortion for all active power injection
scenarios. Furthermore, measurements in a 1.4MW PV plant connected in a distributed
grid are used to validate the simulation based on impedance models during different
power injections and harmonic voltage profiles. Results reinforce that impedance
models can represent with relatively accuracy the harmonic current emitted by the
PV plants at the point of common coupling (PCC). Lastly, a stress test is performed
to show how a variation in the harmonic voltage phase angle impacts the PV plant
harmonic emission.
Keywords: Distributed system; Grid-tied inverter; Harmonic current emission;
Impedance model; Photovoltaic (PV) plant; Voltage-source converter (VSC)

Moein Manbachi, Hassan Farhangi, Ali Palizban, Siamak Arzanpour,


Smart grid adaptive volt-VAR optimization: Challenges for sustainable future grids,
Sustainable Cities and Society,
Volume 28,
2017,
Pages 242-255,
ISSN 2210-6707,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2016.09.014.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210670716304103)
Abstract: In recent years, smart grid technologies such as Distribution Management
Systems (DMS) and Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) have created remarkable
opportunities for distribution grids in terms of operation, control and
optimization. The advent of AMI has created considerable amount of data that can be
used in optimization applications. Other smart grid functionalities could increase
the performance of energy conservation and optimization solutions. As such, this
paper aims to review the main requirements of two important smart grid adaptive
energy conservation and optimization solutions called Volt-VAR Optimization and
Conservation Voltage Reduction, in terms of control, measurement, communication and
standards for grids.
Keywords: Advanced metering infrastructure; Conservation voltage reduction;
Distribution network; Energy conservation; Energy optimization; Smart grid; Volt-
VAR optimization

Francisco Santamaria, Cesar L. Trujillo, Johann A. Hernandez,


A proposed index to evaluate the state of legislation fostering distributed
generation in Latin America and the Caribbean,
The Electricity Journal,
Volume 29, Issue 2,
2016,
Pages 66-74,
ISSN 1040-6190,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2016.02.007.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040619016300112)
Abstract: A proposed index has been constructed to compare different nations’ state
of regulation and policies regarding the promotion of distributed generation. The
index, called DGLI, takes into account technical, environmental and economical
issues. An application of the methodology to the nations of Latin America and the
Caribbean indicates that the countries with a higher DGLI are in Central America.

Yannick-Serge Zimmermann, Andreas Schäffer, Christoph Hugi, Karl Fent, Philippe F.-
X. Corvini, Markus Lenz,
Organic photovoltaics: Potential fate and effects in the environment,
Environment International,
Volume 49,
2012,
Pages 128-140,
ISSN 0160-4120,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2012.08.015.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0160412012001894)
Abstract: In times of dwindling fossil fuels it is particularly crucial to develop
novel “green” technologies in order to cover the increasing worldwide demand for
energy. Organic photovoltaic solar cells (OPVs) are promising as a renewable energy
source due to low energy requirement for production, low resource extraction, and
no emission of greenhouse gasses during use. In contrast to silicium-based solar
cells, OPVs offer the advantages of light-weight, semi-transparency and mechanical
flexibility. As to a possible forthcoming large-scale production, the environmental
impact of such OPVs should be assessed and compared to currently best available
technologies. For the first time, this review compiles the existing knowledge and
identifies gaps regarding the environmental impact of such OPVs in a systematic
manner. In this regard, we discuss the components of a typical OPV layer by layer.
We discuss the probability of enhanced release of OPV-borne components into the
environment during use-phase (e.g. UV- and biodegradation) and end-of-life phase
(e.g. incineration and waste disposal). For this purpose, we compiled available
data on bioavailability, bioaccumulation, biodegradation, and ecotoxicity. Whereas
considerable research has already been carried out concerning the ecotoxicity of
certain OPV components (e.g. nanoparticles and fullerenes), others have not been
investigated at all so far. In conclusion, there is a general lack of information
about fate, behavior as well as potential ecotoxicity of most of the main OPV
components and their degradation/transformation products. So far, there is no
evidence for a worrying threat coming from OPVs, but since at present, no policy
and procedures regarding recycling of OPVs are in action, in particular improper
disposal upon end-of-life might result in an adverse effect of OPVs in the
environment when applied in large-scale.
Keywords: Environmental impact; Ecotoxicity; Nanoparticles; Fullerenes; Renewable
energy; Solar power

Wai Lip Theo, Jeng Shiun Lim, Wai Shin Ho, Haslenda Hashim, Chew Tin Lee,
Review of distributed generation (DG) system planning and optimisation techniques:
Comparison of numerical and mathematical modelling methods,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 67,
2017,
Pages 531-573,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.09.063.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116305421)
Abstract: An overview of numerical and mathematical modelling-based distributed
generation (DG) system optimisation techniques is presented in this review paper.
The objective is to compare different aspects of these two broad classes of DG
optimisation techniques, explore their applications, and identify potential
research directions from reviewed studies. Introductory descriptions of general
electrical power system and DG system are first provided, followed by reviews on
renewable resource assessment, load demand analysis, model formulation, and
optimisation techniques. In renewable resource assessment model review, uncertain
solar and wind energy resources are emphasised whereas applications of forecasting
models have been highlighted based on their prediction horizons, computational
power requirement, and training data intensity. For DG optimisation framework,
(solar, wind and tidal) power generator, energy storage and energy balance models
are discussed; in optimisation technique section, both numerical and mathematical
modelling optimisation methods are reviewed, analysed and criticised with
recommendations for their improvements. In overall, this review provides
preliminary guidelines, research gaps and recommendations for developing a better
and more user-friendly DG energy planning optimisation tool.
Keywords: Distributed generation (DG); Energy planning; Renewable resources;
Numerical methods; Mathematical modelling methods; Optimisation

Claudia do Valle Costa, Emilio La Rovere, Dirk Assmann,


Technological innovation policies to promote renewable energies: Lessons from the
European experience for the Brazilian case,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 12, Issue 1,
2008,
Pages 65-90,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2006.05.006.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032106000712)
Abstract: Over the past few years we have been seeing a trend in the Brazilian
political scenario towards increasing the share of new renewable energy sources
(RES-E), other than large hydropowers, in electricity generation. The central
policy was achieved through PROINFA (Program to Encourage Alternative Energy
Sources), which defined two distinct stages and mechanisms to promote biomass, SHPs
and wind energy. This study aims to analyze the developments in renewable energy
policies and the prospects for Brazil based on the European experience in promoting
RES-E. It evaluated the policy instruments adopted by the United Kingdom, the
Netherlands and Germany, as well as the barriers and results of these policies.
Based on these case studies, proposals and recommendation are given to overcome the
problems in the Brazilian case.
Keywords: Renewable energy sources; Energy policy; Wind energy; Biomass; Brazil;
PROINFA

Tillmann Lang, Erik Gloerfeld, Bastien Girod,


Don‫׳‬t just follow the sun – A global assessment of economic performance for
residential building photovoltaics,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 42,
2015,
Pages 932-951,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2014.10.077.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032114009022)
Abstract: Rooftop photovoltaic (PV) power generation stands as a promising
technology for the transition towards a low-carbon power and buildings sector.
However, in the past deployment has been strongly dependent on policy support. With
the recent rapid decrease in module costs, rooftop PV is exhibiting a growing
potential to be an attractive investment even in the absence of subsidies. While
many drivers of economic performance have been investigated in isolation, a
holistic analysis of how realistic combinations of influencing factors determine
rooftop PV‫׳‬s economics is still missing. We identify the most important influencing
factors through a comprehensive review of the literature. We then provide a model-
based techno-economic analysis of a small-scale grid-connected residential building
PV system, assessing how region-specific geographic, technological, and economic
parameters jointly influence performance. We find that in many regions rooftop PV
can already today be an attractive investment, even in the absence of subsidies. No
regional influencing factor can in isolation guarantee or impede performance.
Moreover, in most regions it might be possible to further improve economic
performance. Self-consumption is identified as a likely driver of value in the
future, while low electricity prices (and thus fossil fuel subsidies) present a
powerful barrier in some regions. Based on these insights, we discuss implications
for policy makers and investors with regard to recognizing and shaping attractive
markets and investments.
Keywords: Photovoltaics (PV); Rooftop PV; Economic performance; Residential
buildings

Irene Fernández García, Aida Mérida García, Juan A. Rodríguez Díaz, Pilar M.
Barrios, Emilio C. Poyato,
Chapter 2 - Water–Energy Nexus in Irrigated Areas. Lessons From Real Case Studies,
Editor(s): Iván Francisco García Tejero, Víctor Hugo Durán Zuazo,
Water Scarcity and Sustainable Agriculture in Semiarid Environment,
Academic Press,
2018,
Pages 41-59,
ISBN 9780128131640,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813164-0.00002-8.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128131640000028)
Abstract: Irrigated agriculture will have to face the challenge of ensuring the
food demands of an increasing population over the coming years, making sustainable
use of water and energy resources essential. Irrigation networks have undergone a
thorough transformation toward systems with higher water use efficiency, but in
general these are more energy demanding. Thus different strategies focused on the
joint optimization of water and energy resources have been developed, achieving
significant reductions in the use of both resources. In this chapter, energy-saving
strategies for water distribution networks are presented and the role of
photovoltaic energy in the irrigation sector is discussed. An example of smart
solar irrigation in olive orchards is presented proving that photovoltaic energy
represents a real, viable, and sustainable alternative in areas with appropriate
irradiation levels, providing energy independence and reducing greenhouse gas
emissions.
Keywords: Energy efficiency; Irrigation networks; Optimized irrigation management;
Smart solar irrigation systems; Solar energy; Water–energy nexus

Marcio Giannini Pereira, José Antonio Sena, Marcos Aurélio Vasconcelos Freitas,
Neilton Fidelis da Silva,
Evaluation of the impact of access to electricity: A comparative analysis of South
Africa, China, India and Brazil,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 15, Issue 3,
2011,
Pages 1427-1441,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.11.005.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032110003746)
Abstract: Most developing countries include rural electrification programs in their
efforts to improve social conditions. There are, however, several obstacles to the
evaluation of such programs and therefore of their social, economic, environmental
and energy impacts on the target population, particularly on impoverished
communities located in remote areas. Evaluation of the efficacy of public policies
aimed at rural electrification in South Africa, China, India and Brazil enables
such actions to be quantified and re-considered so as to bolster the sustainability
of their planning and implementation and also so as to enable comprehension of the
significance of access to electricity in relation to other aspects of the drive to
improve living standards. The provision of electric energy amounts to more than
access to a public service and should be considered an essential right, in a
context of social equity and justice, which permits social integration and the
access to other equally essential services.
Keywords: Rural electrification; Impacts; South Africa; China; India; Brazil

Giorgiana Pinheiro, Gonçalo Rendeiro, João Pinho, Emanuel Macedo,


Sustainable management model for rural electrification: Case study based on biomass
solid waste considering the Brazilian regulation policy,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 37, Issue 1,
2012,
Pages 379-386,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2011.07.004.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148111003867)
Abstract: This paper presents a proposal of sustainable management model
alternative for electrification of remote communities in the Amazon region,
considering the Brazilian regulation policy. This paper presents also a case study
of the electrification in a river-dwelling community in the State of Pará, Brazil,
within the scope of the Program for Electric Power Service Universalization in
Brazil. The community shall be provided with electrification facilities through a
small biomass-based power plant, directly firing residues produced by the local
economic activity. The objective of the paper is to make a proposal for a
sustainable management model that is suitable for the community’s isolation
conditions, considering the high costs with operation and maintenance related to
the supply for isolated consumers in small locations. A simulation is conducted for
the operation of the small biomass-based power plant; the generation costs are
determined; the legal aspects are analyzed; and a suggestion for the management
model is presented.
Keywords: Rural electrification; Biomass; Waste; Management model; Regulation

Falko Ueckerdt, Robert Pietzcker, Yvonne Scholz, Daniel Stetter, Anastasis


Giannousakis, Gunnar Luderer,
Decarbonizing global power supply under region-specific consideration of challenges
and options of integrating variable renewables in the REMIND model,
Energy Economics,
Volume 64,
2017,
Pages 665-684,
ISSN 0140-9883,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eneco.2016.05.012.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S014098831630130X)
Abstract: We present two advances in representing variable renewables (VRE) in
global energy-economy-climate models: accounting for region-specific integration
challenges for eight world regions and considering short-term storage. Both
advances refine the approach of implementing residual load duration curves (RLDCs)
to capture integration challenges. In this paper we derive RLDCs for eight world
regions (based on region-specific time series for load, wind and solar) and
implement them into the REMIND model. Therein we parameterize the impact of short-
term storage using the highly-resolved model DIMES. All RLDCs and the underlying
region-specific VRE time series are made available to the research community. We
find that the more accurate accounting of integration challenges in REMIND does not
reduce the prominent role of wind and solar in scenarios that cost-efficiently
achieve the 2°C target. Until 2030, VRE shares increase to about 15–40% in most
regions with limited deployment of short-term storage capacities (below 2% of peak
load). The REMIND model's default assumption of large-scale transmission grid
expansion allows smoothening variability such that VRE capacity credits are
moderate and curtailment is low. In the long run, VRE become the backbone of
electricity supply and provide more than 70% of global electricity demand from 2070
on. Integration options ease this transformation: storage on diurnal and seasonal
scales (via flow batteries and hydrogen electrolysis) and a shift in the non-VRE
capacity mix from baseload towards more peaking power plants. The refined RLDC
approach allows for a more accurate consideration of system-level impacts of VRE,
and hence more robust insights on the nature of power sector decarbonization and
related economic impacts.
Keywords: Integration of variable renewables; Climate mitigation; Electricity
storage; Integrated Assessment Models

L.K. Wiginton, H.T. Nguyen, J.M. Pearce,


Quantifying rooftop solar photovoltaic potential for regional renewable energy
policy,
Computers, Environment and Urban Systems,
Volume 34, Issue 4,
2010,
Pages 345-357,
ISSN 0198-9715,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compenvurbsys.2010.01.001.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0198971510000025)
Abstract: Solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has matured to become a technically
viable large-scale source of sustainable energy. Understanding the rooftop PV
potential is critical for utility planning, accommodating grid capacity, deploying
financing schemes and formulating future adaptive energy policies. This paper
demonstrates techniques to merge the capabilities of geographic information systems
and object-specific image recognition to determine the available rooftop area for
PV deployment in an example large-scale region in south eastern Ontario. A five-
step procedure has been developed for estimating total rooftop PV potential which
involves geographical division of the region; sampling using the Feature Analyst
extraction software; extrapolation using roof area-population relationships;
reduction for shading, other uses and orientation; and conversion to power and
energy outputs. Limitations faced in terms of the capabilities of the software and
determining the appropriate fraction of roof area available are discussed. Because
this aspect of the analysis uses an integral approach, PV potential will not be
georeferenced, but rather presented as an agglomerate value for use in regional
policy making. A relationship across the region was found between total roof area
and population of 70.0m2/capita±6.2%. With appropriate roof tops covered with
commercial solar cells, the potential PV peak power output from the region
considered is 5.74GW (157% of the region’s peak power demands) and the potential
annual energy production is 6909GWh (5% of Ontario’s total annual demand). This
suggests that 30% of Ontario’s energy demand can be met with province-wide rooftop
PV deployment. This new understanding of roof area distribution and potential PV
outputs will guide energy policy formulation in Ontario and will inform future
research in solar PV deployment and its geographical potential.
Keywords: GIS; Roof area; Feature analyst; Renewable energy; Solar photovoltaic;
Sustainable future
J.D. van den Wall Bake, M. Junginger, A. Faaij, T. Poot, A. Walter,
Explaining the experience curve: Cost reductions of Brazilian ethanol from
sugarcane,
Biomass and Bioenergy,
Volume 33, Issue 4,
2009,
Pages 644-658,
ISSN 0961-9534,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2008.10.006.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953408002390)
Abstract: Production costs of bio-ethanol from sugarcane in Brazil have declined
continuously over the last three decades. The aims of this study are to determine
underlying reasons behind these cost reductions, and to assess whether the
experience curve concept can be used to describe the development of feedstock costs
and industrial production costs. The analysis was performed using average national
costs data, a number of prices (as a proxy for production costs) and data on annual
Brazilian production volumes. Results show that the progress ratio (PR) for
feedstock costs is 0.68 and 0.81 for industrial costs (excluding feedstock costs).
The experience curve of total production costs results in a PR of 0.80. Cost
breakdowns of sugarcane production show that all sub-processes contributed to the
total, but that increasing yields have been the main driving force. Industrial
costs mainly decreased because of increasing scales of the ethanol plants. Total
production costs at present are approximately 340 US$/methanol3 (16 US$/GJ). Based
on the experience curves for feedstock and industrial costs, total ethanol
production costs in 2020 are estimated between US$ 200 and 260/m3 (9.4–12.2
US$/GJ). We conclude that using disaggregated experience curves for feedstock and
industrial processing costs provide more insights into the factors that lowered
costs in the past, and allow more accurate estimations for future cost
developments.
Keywords: Ethanol; Sugarcane; Cost reductions; Experience curve; Brazil

E. Lorenz, D. Heinemann,
1.13 - Prediction of Solar Irradiance and Photovoltaic Power,
Editor(s): Ali Sayigh,
Comprehensive Renewable Energy,
Elsevier,
2012,
Current as of 26 August 2015,
Pages 239-292,
ISBN 9780080878737,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-087872-0.00114-1.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080878720001141)
Abstract: Power generation from solar and wind energy systems is highly variable
due to its dependence on meteorological conditions. An efficient use of these
fluctuating energy sources requires reliable forecast information for management
and operation strategies. We give an overview of different applications and state-
of-the-art models for solar irradiance and photovoltaic power prediction, including
time series models based on on-site measured data, models based on the detection of
cloud motion in satellite images, and numerical weather prediction-based models. In
the second part of this chapter, we show evaluation results for selected irradiance
and power prediction schemes.
Keywords: Accuracy assessment; Confidence intervals; Grid integration of PV power;
Irradiance from satellite data; Irradiance prediction; Motion vector fields;
Numerical weather prediction; PV power prediction; PV simulation; Tilted irradiance
models; Time series models

Ernesto C. Pereira, Angel Cuesta,


A personal perspective on the role of electrochemical science and technology in
solving the challenges faced by modern societies,
Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry,
Volume 780,
2016,
Pages 355-359,
ISSN 1572-6657,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2016.05.008.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S157266571630234X)

José A. Oliveira-Lima, Vasco Delgado-Gomes, João F. Martins, Celson Lima,


Standard-based service-oriented infrastructure to integrate intelligent buildings
in distributed generation and smart grids,
Energy and Buildings,
Volume 76,
2014,
Pages 450-458,
ISSN 0378-7788,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2014.03.013.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378778814002333)
Abstract: Buildings are ecosystems that influence and are influenced by internal
and external factors concerning both Distributed Generation (DG) and Distributed
Energy Systems (DES). Existing communication and integration standards, tools and
platforms for buildings and power systems still show several limitations in terms
of data integration and correlation, applicability and vendor independence. These
are required to support adequate online forecasting, management and decision, in
the context of DG and DES. To overcome this drawbacks a holistic view is necessary,
combining streamed (real-time) and asynchronous data communication of relevant
sources of information influencing both the building and the distributed energy
system, such as weather, occupancy, energy system characteristics and associated
devices, among others. This work proposes a communication infrastructure supported
by communication standards and by a Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA). This
Standard-based Service-oriented Infrastructure (SSI) addresses the communication
between buildings and power system management tools and each of the building
systems, devices and sources of information. Open communication standards are used,
such as IEC 61850 and Device Profile for Web Services (DPWS). The SSI becomes an
interoperability enabler regarding complex systems’ management where occupants and
energy production, distribution and consumption are considered, thus encouraging
the development of Plug and Play and vendor independent operation.
Keywords: Power system management; Networked control systems; IEC 61850; Device
Profile for Web Services (DPWS); Intelligent buildings

Nien-Che Yang, Tsai-Hsiang Chen,


Evaluation of maximum allowable capacity of distributed generations connected to a
distribution grid by dual genetic algorithm,
Energy and Buildings,
Volume 43, Issue 11,
2011,
Pages 3044-3052,
ISSN 0378-7788,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enbuild.2011.07.025.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378778811003306)
Abstract: This paper proposes a dual genetic algorithm based approach to evaluate
the maximum allowable capacity of distributed generations (DGs) connected to a
distribution grid. The uncertainties in the existing deterministic approaches for
evaluating the steady-state voltage deviation due to distributed generation are
discussed as well. Nowadays, deterministic approaches are widely adopted by those
who propose the interconnection of DGs. However, the existing deterministic
approaches overlook some operation conditions that may give rise to an incorrect
result and lead to a wrong decision in practical applications. In this paper,
various factors affecting steady-state voltage deviation are discussed first. Then,
a maximum allowable DG capacity evaluation approach based on the dual genetic
algorithm is proposed. Finally, the uncertainties of the existing deterministic
approaches are discussed. It is intended as reference for utility engineers
processing DG interconnection applications.
Keywords: Distributed generation; Distribution grid; Genetic algorithm; Power flow
analysis; Power quality; Voltage deviation

Fabian Gotzens, Heidi Heinrichs, Jürgen-Friedrich Hake, Hans-Josef Allelein,


The influence of continued reductions in renewable energy cost on the European
electricity system,
Energy Strategy Reviews,
Volume 21,
2018,
Pages 71-81,
ISSN 2211-467X,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2018.04.007.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211467X18300221)
Abstract: In the recent years, variable renewable energy (VRE) technologies – most
importantly solar photovoltaics and wind power – have undergone a remarkable
transformation from niche technologies to increasingly competitive energy
suppliers. As the potential for VRE is distributed unevenly across Europe, a
Europe-wide cost optimal expansion of VRE will lead to different national and
regional expansion rates of VRE. To facilitate such a Europe-wide cost optimal
expansion of VRE a fair cost distribution among all European countries is needed.
Therefore, we analyse and discuss how expected future decreases in investment costs
for selected VRE (photovoltaics, concentrated solar power, wind onshore, and wind
offshore) will affect the pan-European and national electricity systems. This is
done by comparing three cost scenarios with a reference case, calculated using a
European electricity system model. Our results show that the assumed cost
reductions lead to an especially pronounced increase of PV distributed unevenly
across Europe. In addition, higher shares of VRE show the effect of shifting
electricity exchange patterns throughout Europe which also reduce cost benefits for
economies of electricity exporting countries. Hence, there might be a lack of
agreement in Europe about where and how to expand and integrate VRE if costs of
expanding and integrating VRE are not distributed in a fair way between the
European countries. In addition, these possible barriers of expanding VRE Europe-
wide in a cost-optimal way might hinder the exploitation of cost synergies or even
slow down VRE expansion on a European scale.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Europe; TIMES; Electricity system model; Cost decrease

Nataly Bañol Arias, John F. Franco, Marina Lavorato, Rubén Romero,


Metaheuristic optimization algorithms for the optimal coordination of plug-in
electric vehicle charging in distribution systems with distributed generation,
Electric Power Systems Research,
Volume 142,
2017,
Pages 351-361,
ISSN 0378-7796,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.epsr.2016.09.018.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378779616303704)
Abstract: This paper proposes three metaheuristic optimization techniques to solve
the plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging coordination problem in electrical
distribution systems (EDSs). Optimization algorithms based on tabu search, greedy
randomized adaptive search procedure, and a novel hybrid optimization algorithm are
developed with the objective of minimizing the total operational costs of the EDS,
considering the impact of charging the electric vehicle batteries during a specific
time period. The proposed methodologies determine a charging schedule for the
electric vehicle batteries considering priorities according to the PEV owners
charging preferences. A 449-node system with two distributed generation units was
used to demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed methodologies, taking into
account different PEV penetration levels. The results show that the charging
schedule found makes the economic operation of the EDS possible, while satisfying
operational and priority constraints.
Keywords: Electrical distribution system; Hybrid algorithm; Metaheuristic; Plug-in
electric vehicle charging coordination

Wolf D. Grossmann, Iris Grossmann, Karl W. Steininger,


Distributed solar electricity generation across large geographic areas, Part I: A
method to optimize site selection, generation and storage,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 25,
2013,
Pages 831-843,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.08.018.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S136403211200487X)
Abstract: Perhaps the greatest obstacle to large-scale solar energy generation is
the intermittent nature of solar energy and the associated costly storage. This
paper presents a method to optimize combinations of selected worldwide regions in
different time zones with the surprising capability of providing sufficient
electricity generation to overcome intermittency or reduce it to such an extent
that substantially less storage and generation capacity are needed. The recent
sharp drop in the cost of photovoltaic (PV) generation capability accompanied by
worldwide increased investment in PV plants suggests a new economic base for
cooperative efforts to sequentially combine day time insolation. The approach
presented here optimizes two aspects, first, the selection of sites across large
geographic areas, and second, the size and relative proportion of generation and
storage capacity at each site. Our approach converts 20 years of daily insolation
data by NASA Solar Sizer to hourly scale. The hourly data are used to assess and
compare supranational distributed solar networks in different parts of the globe
that have recently been proposed, and to subsequently optimize their generation
capacity and storage. We show that linking regions in different time zones and on
the two hemispheres can fully eliminate intermittency without the need for fuel and
renewable energy other than solar.
Keywords: Large-scale solar energy network; Renewable energy storage; Photovoltaics
and concentrating solar power; Intermittency; Desertec; High voltage direct current

M. Moner-Girona, S. Szabo, S. Rolland,


1.07 - Finance Mechanisms and Incentives for Photovoltaic Technologies in
Developing Countries,
Editor(s): Ali Sayigh,
Comprehensive Renewable Energy,
Elsevier,
2012,
Pages 111-141,
ISBN 9780080878737,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-08-087872-0.00148-7.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080878720001487)
Abstract: Access to modern energy is a social and economic priority to rural
population and policy-makers because of its direct socioeconomic and environmental
benefits, as well as the indirect benefits of energy as an important input factor
for growth and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). In this sense, renewable
technologies offer the option of providing access to sustainable energy services
and fostering economic development. However, there are many barriers to the
widespread diffusion of renewable energy technologies in the rural environment. One
of the main barriers is financial, as many rural families have little expendable
capital and lack access to credit. Therefore, schemes for financing off-grid
electrification are just as important as technological innovations. This chapter
reviews existing support mechanisms and incentives for off-grid photovoltaic (PV)
deployment in developing countries, particularly combining market, energy use, and
socioeconomic elements. Additionally, it analyses the progress and adaptation of
the support mechanisms depending on the degree of failure in the past and suggests
new solutions for promoting sustainable energy options for remote rural areas in
developing countries. We must note that the schemes reviewed can also be used to
finance other forms of renewable energy (RE), as all renewable energy suffers from
similar barriers – high initial cost and low operational cost in an environment
where long-term credit is difficult to acquire. PV projects are the focus of this
chapter because there are more data about off-grid PV projects in developing
countries than any other type of renewable energy technology.
Keywords: Developing countries; Economic instruments; Energy policy; Feed-in
tariff; Finance; Photovoltaics; Renewable energy; Risk management; Rural
electrification

Franco Ferrucci, Driss Stitou, Pascal Ortega, Franck Lucas,


Mechanical compressor-driven thermochemical storage for cooling applications in
tropical insular regions,
Energy Procedia,
Volume 142,
2017,
Pages 3415-3420,
ISSN 1876-6102,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.479.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610217362343)
Abstract: The energy situation in tropical insular regions, such as in the French
Polynesian islands, presents a number of challenges, including high dependence on
imported fuel, high transport costs from the mainland and weak electricity grids.
With regards to electrical energy demand, the high temperatures in these regions
throughout the entire year implies that a large proportion of electricity
consumption (~40%) is used to cool buildings, even during evening hours. This paper
presents an air conditioning system driven by photovoltaic (PV) electricity that
combines a mechanical vapor refrigeration system and a thermochemical storage unit.
Thermochemical processes are able to store energy in the form of chemical potential
with virtually no losses, and this energy can be used to produce cooling during the
evening hours without the need to run a compressor. The efficiency of such a hybrid
system is evaluated and compared with alternative processes that utilize either
electrochemical (Pb, Li-ion batteries) or thermal storage (ice, chilled water) for
cooling production.
Keywords: Microgrid; solar air-conditioning; solid/gas sorption; thermochemical
storage; tropical; insular regions

Ashley Brown, Jillian Bunyan,


Valuation of Distributed Solar: A Qualitative View,
The Electricity Journal,
Volume 27, Issue 10,
2014,
Pages 27-48,
ISSN 1040-6190,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2014.11.005.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040619014002589)
Abstract: A critical evaluation of the arguments used by solar DG advocates shows
that those arguments may often overvalue solar DG. It is time to reassess the value
of solar DG from production to dispatch and to calibrate our pricing policies to
make certain that our efforts are equitable and carrying us in the right direction.

Jibran Khan, Mudassar Hassan Arsalan,


Estimation of rooftop solar photovoltaic potential using geo-spatial techniques: A
perspective from planned neighborhood of Karachi – Pakistan,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 90,
2016,
Pages 188-203,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2015.12.058.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148115305620)
Abstract: With an ever increasing population and significant solar resource
availability throughout the whole year, Karachi metropolis hold a promising rooftop
solar photovoltaic (PV) potential considering its millions of urban households.
This research work highlights techniques to combine geographic information systems
(GIS) and object-based image recognition approach to identify the available rooftop
area for PV deployment in a small scale region of DHA Phase 7 Karachi. A six step
methodology has been adopted for the estimation of rooftop PV potential which
involves geographic division of high resolution satellite imagery; sampling and
rooftop feature extraction using FE tool of ENVI EX software; extrapolation of
rooftop areas for the entire ROI using roof area-population relationship; visual
inspection to analyze different rooftop factors such as building orientation,
shading effect from trees and nearby buildings and other roof uses; a comparison of
extracted rooftops to the physically measured sample rooftops, reduction for
shading and other uses; and finally conversion to energy and power outputs. A
relationship of total roof area and population of 13 m2/capita ±5% has been found.
With higher efficiency rooftop PV panels, 12.24 MW of solar power can be generated
which is 122.4% of peak power demand of DHA Phase 7.
Keywords: Rooftop PV potential; Karachi; Solar resource; Urban solar planning; GIS

João M. Lenz, Hamiltom C. Sartori, José R. Pinheiro,


Mission profile characterization of PV systems for the specification of power
converter design requirements,
Solar Energy,
Volume 157,
2017,
Pages 263-276,
ISSN 0038-092X,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2017.08.020.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X17306898)
Abstract: This paper presents a comprehensive methodology to characterize the
mission profile of photovoltaic systems, through which a powerful set of relevant
information may be obtained and used in order to improve the design of power
converters. Characterizing a photovoltaic system accurately is not trivial and this
paper aims to present a detailed methodology on how to obtain a PV real field
mission profile. Three cities with different climate were considered and a large
dataset of four variables was used: global horizontal, direct, and diffuse
irradiances and ambient temperature. Data were measured at one-minute intervals
over multiple years. For each location, four scenarios of panel orientation were
analyzed: horizontal position, fixed tilt, 1-axis and 2-axis mechanical tracker. A
mathematical model to estimate instantaneous in-plane irradiance based on measured
data and mounting type was used. An average profile of solar energy and ambient
temperature for each city were built; these profiles were used as input for
estimation of annual energy yield of a commercial photovoltaic panel, which was
mathematically modeled and validated. Current and power processing throughout ayear
in a one-minute resolution were investigated, along with the most frequent and most
significant operating points in each scenario. Panel operating temperature related
to ambient conditions and its relation to energy yield were also studied. Finally,
a comprehensive discussion to understand how different mission profiles affect
power processing of photovoltaic power converters and the way this characterization
can aid in pre-sizing and lifetime analysis of power electronics is presented.
Keywords: Mission profile; PV converter design; Energy yield; PV operation analysis
Julieta Schallenberg-Rodríguez,
Photovoltaic techno-economical potential on roofs in regions and islands: The case
of the Canary Islands. Methodological review and methodology proposal,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 20,
2013,
Pages 219-239,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.078.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112006922)
Abstract: The literature review shows a wide range of methodologies aiming at
determining the photovoltaic (PV) potential. Very often, the methodology scale is
too large (continents, countries or large regions) or too small (cities) or it is
based on specific and non-commonly available software tools. This is why the
proposed methodology to determine the PV roof potential in regions and/or islands
can be useful. This methodology has been applied to the Canary Islands. Firstly,
the available roof area for PV systems is determined, based on the total roof
surface (using real data from the Spanish Cadastre) and utilization factors
according to the municipality type. The methodology proposed to calculate the
available roof surface is then compared to other well-known methods, including
potential improvements using Geographical Information Systems. Secondly, the mean
annual global solar radiation per municipality on inclined surfaces has been
determined. To do so, a review of different methodologies has been assessed in a
comprehensible manner, seeking for the ones that provide accuracy and simplicity.
Thirdly, the yearly PV production per municipality has been calculated. For this, a
step-by-step method to calculate the PV system efficiency, based on existing
literature, has been detailed. Three different scenarios depending on the shared
use of the available roof surface are defined and the corresponding PV production
is calculated. A sensitivity analysis is also included, analyzing PV production in
two cases: depending on back ventilation of the roof-mounted PV systems and on PV
cell type (poly-crystalline to mono-crystalline). Finally, an economic assessment
based on cost-resource curves is carried out. The spirit of the paper is to develop
a methodology based on accuracy and, at the same, simplicity, understanding such as
a method where all the calculations can be easily done using pen and paper,
calculator and common office software programs.
Keywords: Renewable energy resources; Solar photovoltaic; Potential; Methodology
review; Buildings; Roofs; Canary Islands

Gonzalo Ramírez-Sagner, Carlos Mata-Torres, Alan Pino, Rodrigo A. Escobar,


Economic feasibility of residential and commercial PV technology: The Chilean case,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 111,
2017,
Pages 332-343,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.04.011.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148117303166)
Abstract: This study presents an economic analysis of residential and commercial
Photovoltaic (PV) systems in Chile. Continental Chile presents good solar resource
and is also an interesting country for developing PV projects of all sizes (large-
scale, commercial and residential). The analysis was performed on the two largest
electric power systems, specifically on the 314 districts of 13 regions of Chile,
taking into account the actual Chilean regulatory framework. Economic performance
results of the residential and commercial PV systems were obtained and presented in
geo referenced information systems (GIS) maps. The results show that almost all the
country exhibits a great potential, obtaining in several locations an IRR higher
than the reference value (5%/yr.) for both schemes (residential and commercial),
highlighting that the central-north region reaches the highest IRR values. It was
found that districts can be characterized by the electricity tariffs in clusters
that increase the IRR linearly with the specific yield [kWh/kWp]. This study is of
primordial importance for the development of renewable energies in the region,
giving further understanding on the economic feasibility of the photovoltaic
technology throughout the country.
Keywords: Residential PV; Commercial PV; PV economic feasibility; Chile

Kathleen Araújo,
The emerging field of energy transitions: Progress, challenges, and opportunities,
Energy Research & Social Science,
Volume 1,
2014,
Pages 112-121,
ISSN 2214-6296,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.erss.2014.03.002.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2214629614000164)
Abstract: Energy transitions are an unmistakable part of today's public discourse.
Whether shaped by fuel price fluctuation, environmental and security concerns,
aspects of technology change, or goals to improve energy access, attention
regularly turns to ways in which to improve energy pathways. Yet what is understood
about energy system change is still emerging. This article explores the evolving
field of energy transitions with an aim to connect and enlarge the scholarship.
Definitions and examples of energy transitions are discussed, together with core
ideas on trade-offs, urgency, and innovation. Global developments in energy and
related mega-trends are then reviewed to highlight areas of analytical
significance. Key information sources and suppliers are examined next. The article
concludes with ideas about opportunities for further research.
Keywords: Energy transition; Energy system change; Policy and governance; Learning;
Path dependence; Path creation; Multi-level perspective; Techno-economic paradigm;
Globalization; Urbanization; Population

Ivan Felipe Silva dos Santos, Regina Mambeli Barros, Geraldo Lúcio Tiago Filho,
Economic study on LFG energy projects in function of the number of generators,
Sustainable Cities and Society,
2018,
,
ISSN 2210-6707,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.04.029.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210670718300088)
Abstract: Landfills are inexpensive alternative for the final disposal of solid
waste, which is still in use globally, especially in developing countries. One of
the ways to reduce environmental liabilities of these structures is the use of
biogas produced for electricity generation. Regardless of the advantages of
environmental and energy planning, as well as electric generation, using gas from
landfills (LFG) has caught up to the financial and economic development. In this
context, this paper presents a method for planning the energy use of landfill,
based on an escalation of powers given by the addition of generating units over the
life of exploitation; which determines the number of generators, as well as the
operation time and the power of each generator. The methodology developed was
applied to a sanitary landfill in Brazil to ensure the economic viability. This led
to the conclusion that a maximum of three generating units should be utilized
during the procedure, being the optimal number of generators for a parameter that
varies as a function of economic parameters.
Keywords: Sanitary Landfill; Biogas; Power; Number of Generators

Benjamin K. Sovacool,
Confronting energy poverty behind the bamboo curtain: A review of challenges and
solutions for Myanmar (Burma),
Energy for Sustainable Development,
Volume 17, Issue 4,
2013,
Pages 305-314,
ISSN 0973-0826,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esd.2013.03.010.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0973082613000306)
Abstract: In Myanmar (Burma), only 13% of the country's population has access to
electricity, and almost 95% depends on solid fuels such as wood and rice husks for
cooking and heating. This review discusses four sets of energy poverty and access
challenges in Myanmar related to poverty and subsistence needs, conflicting
priorities, lack of resources, and policy fragmentation. Planners in Myanmar,
however, can utilize a variety of mechanisms to overcome these challenges. They can
offer financing and micro-financing for woodlots, nurseries, and renewable energy
equipment. They can create community mobilization funds to promote women's
empowerment and offer skills training. They can implement education and awareness
campaigns for households and private sector entrepreneurs, and decentralize energy
access programs to communities themselves. The government can promote public
private partnerships for larger, grid-connected wind farms, large-scale
hydroelectric dams, geothermal power plants, biomass power plants, waste-to-energy
facilities, and liquid biofuel manufacturing facilities. Planners can harmonize
regulatory authority for energy access to a single agency, establish national
technology standards to ensure technical quality, and construct maintenance and
training centers to ensure communities care for energy equipment.
Keywords: Energy poverty; Energy access; Myanmar (Burma)

G. Ardizzon, G. Cavazzini, G. Pavesi,


A new generation of small hydro and pumped-hydro power plants: Advances and future
challenges,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 31,
2014,
Pages 746-761,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2013.12.043.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032113008575)
Abstract: Hydropower is not only a renewable and sustainable energy source, but its
flexibility and storage capacity also makes it possible to improve grid stability
and to support the deployment of other intermittent renewable energy sources such
as wind and solar power. As a result, a renewed interest in pumped-hydro energy
storage plants (PHES) and a huge demand for the rehabilitation of old small
hydropower plants are emerging globally. As regards PHES, advances in turbine
design are required to increase plant performance and flexibility and new
strategies for optimizing storage capacity and for maximizing plant profitability
in the deregulated energy market have to be developed. During the upgrading of old
small hydropower plants, the main challenges to be faced are the design of new
runners, that had to match the existing stationary parts, and the development of
optimal sizing and management strategies to increase their economic appeal. This
paper traces an overview of the prospects of pumped-hydro energy storage plants and
small hydro power plants in the light of sustainable development. Advances and
future challenges in both turbine design and plant planning and management are
proposed. PHES and hybrid wind/solar-PHES are illustrated and discussed, as well as
the limits and peculiarities of the new design strategies, based on computational
fluid dynamics, for both PHES and small hydropower plants.
Keywords: Hydropower; Pumped-hydro energy storage plant; Small hydro power plant;
CFD; Variable-speed pump-turbine; Optimal management strategies

Angelo R.R. de Souza, Alexandre R. Aoki, Antonio R. Donadon, Germano Lambert-


Torres, Luiz Eduardo Borges da Silva, Joao Carlos Camargo,
Virtual Power Plant Management considering Energy Storage Systems and Multiple
Power Sources,
IFAC Proceedings Volumes,
Volume 45, Issue 21,
2012,
Pages 138-143,
ISSN 1474-6670,
ISBN 9783902823243,
https://doi.org/10.3182/20120902-4-FR-2032.00026.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1474667016319589)
Abstract: The general strategy of CPFL - Piratininga Power and Light Company in R&D
for distributed generation (DG) is making the connection to grid-connected company
in DG (not diesel) in CPFL network. The CPFL started in 2002 a strategic line for
studying DG and given sources for CPFL in operation, planning, market and standards
in dealing with this type of incoming technology. This line also develops equipment
of DG, for large-scale application. The overall goal is the CPFL be, in Brazil, the
company best positioned to meet the challenges of DG and have knowledge of
technologies and equipment to sell energy through DG, having as sources the sun,
natural gas, ethanol, biomass etc. This process there is already a spill over,
Hytron and Unitec as first industrial partners. This paper presents developments
occurred until now in this project with the main CPFL guidelines for DG.
Keywords: Distributed generation; virtual power plant; power system operation;
intelligent schemes; smart-grids

Lionel Ménard, Daniel Nüst, Khai- Minh Ngo, Philippe Blanc, Simon Jirka, Joan Masó,
Thierry Ranchin, Lucien Wald,
Interoperable Exchange of Surface Solar Irradiance Observations: A Challenge,
Energy Procedia,
Volume 76,
2015,
Pages 113-120,
ISSN 1876-6102,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.867.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1876610215016434)
Abstract: We present how implementations of the Sensor Web Enablement framework of
the Open Geospatial Consortium are integrated into an existing spatial data
infrastructure. The result is registered as a community portal for professionals in
solar energy in the GEOSS Common Infrastructure, demonstrating the benefits of
interoperable exchange of in-situ time-series observations of surface solar
irradiation. Easy access to, and sharing of data improves the information base for
planning and monitoring of solar power resources. Providing users with
visualization and download functionality for in-situ measurements is a key aspect
for engaging the energy community to share, release and integrate in-situ
measurements.
Keywords: GEOSS; web; spatial data infrastructure; open data; sensor web
enablement; solar energy; surface solar irradiance; SSI

J.O. Petinrin, Mohamed Shaaban,


Impact of renewable generation on voltage control in distribution systems,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 65,
2016,
Pages 770-783,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.073.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116303094)
Abstract: The high penetration of renewable generations in the distribution system
(DS) has introduced more uncertainties and technical challenges in the operation of
the grid-like voltage variation; degraded protection; altered transient stability;
two-way power flow; and increased fault level. The reverse power flow due to high
penetration of renewable generation may result to voltage rise which distribution
network operators (DNOs) may not be able to control effectively. To that effect,
this paper therefore reviews the impact of renewable generations such as solar
photovoltaic (PV) and wind energy on distribution system with voltage control
strategies. The work reveals that the application of smart grid technologies such
as demand side integration (DSI) and energy storage (ES) mitigates voltage
variation problems with minimum network reinforcement.
Keywords: Renewable generation; Voltage control; Demand side integration; Energy
storage; Wind turbine; Photovoltaic irradiance

Siddharth Suman,
Hybrid nuclear-renewable energy systems: A review,
Journal of Cleaner Production,
Volume 181,
2018,
Pages 166-177,
ISSN 0959-6526,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.01.262.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652618302993)
Abstract: Climate change and energy security have emerged as the biggest concerns
of the present century. Renewable energy sources are not continuous, dependent upon
geographical location as well as climatic conditions, and require a very large land
footprint. Future of nuclear energy is also uncertain because of public
apprehensions and subsequent government policies. To overcome the issues derailing
these two virtually carbon-free energy sources, a new hybrid or integrated nuclear-
renewable energy system is being proposed and seen as an attractive option. Such
integrated energy systems are conceived as a nuclear power reactor coupled with
renewable energy generation and industrial processes that may simultaneously tackle
the concerns regarding grid flexibility, climate change, energy security, optimal
return on invested capital, and settling public concerns. Apart from highlighting
the key challenges associated with nuclear energy and renewable energy sources
while operating as an independent power generation system, the present paper
delineates the various aspects associated with integrated nuclear-renewable energy
systems. It may be speculated that integrating nuclear energy and renewable energy
into a single hybrid energy system, coupled through informatics linkages, would
enable to overcome the demerits present when they operate individual.
Keywords: Renewable; Nuclear; Solar; Energy; Climate; Sustainability

C. Orozco-Henao, A.S. Bretas, A.R. Herrera-Orozco, Juan Diego Pulgarín-Rivera,


Surya Dhulipala, S. Wang,
Towards active distribution networks fault location: Contributions considering DER
analytical models and local measurements,
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems,
Volume 99,
2018,
Pages 454-464,
ISSN 0142-0615,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2018.01.042.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142061517323050)
Abstract: This paper presents an analytical methodology to estimate the fault
location in active distribution networks. State-of-the-art solutions for active
distribution networks fault location consider wide-area measurements, which include
synchronized measurements obtained by Phasor Measurement Units (PMU). For
distribution networks though, the capital cost of such solutions is prohibitive.
Most recently, solutions have been proposed without considering synchronized
measurements. However, they have some limitations, such as not considering multiple
inverter-interfaced Distributed Energy Resources (DER). The solution presented is
composed of a load flow based approach, which uses only locally available
measurements. A ladder iterative technique is proposed to estimate the system state
variables during the fault period. DERs models, which consider various modes of
operation and fault conditions are used. An impedance formulation which considers
distribution networks inherent characteristics is presented. The proposed
methodology is validated on the IEEE 34-nodes test feeder. The ease of
implementation of design, formulation of parameters and encouraging test results
indicate potential for real-life applications.
Keywords: Fault location; Distribution networks; Distributed energy resources; Load
flow

W. Maria Wang, Jianhui Wang, Dan Ton,


Chapter 5 - Prospects for Renewable Energy: Meeting the Challenges of Integration
with Storage,
Editor(s): Fereidoon P. Sioshansi,
Smart Grid,
Academic Press,
2012,
Pages 103-126,
ISBN 9780123864529,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-386452-9.00005-X.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012386452900005X)
Abstract: Publisher Summary
This chapter focuses on integration issues surrounding solar power since wind
integration is covered in several other chapters. A discussion follows on the
possible solutions to these issues using energy storage, which is applicable to the
integration of both wind and solar resources. Key benefits of energy storage
include providing balancing services (e.g., regulation and load following), which
enable the widespread integration of renewable energy; supplying power during brief
disturbances to reduce outages and the financial losses that accompany them; and
serving as substitutes for transmission and distribution upgrades to defer or
eliminate them. A smart grid is needed to maximize benefits from load shifting and
ancillary services. To maximize these benefits and minimize costs, each energy
storage technology needs to be optimized for certain applications. In particular,
battery technologies are promising due to their wide range of chemistries and
operating conditions for providing services that cover several applications.

Kenan Yigit, Bora Acarkan,


A new electrical energy management approach for ships using mixed energy sources to
ensure sustainable port cities,
Sustainable Cities and Society,
Volume 40,
2018,
Pages 126-135,
ISSN 2210-6707,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.04.004.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210670718300970)
Abstract: The maritime sector representatives are seeking to improve energy usage
habits of ships to ensure sustainability to minimize environmental effects in port
cities. This paper presents new electrical energy management strategies for the
future ship and port designs regarding developments in the maritime sector. This
study focuses on a new electrical energy management approach and algorithm for
ships using mixed energy sources such as renewable energies, energy storage, shore-
side power connection, and different types of marine fuel by the smart grid
features. Five case studies are performed to show the economic and environmental
effects of proposed energy management approach to develop the future ship and port
designs. The data of bulk carrier ship has been taken into account to determine the
ship-side parameters. The data of Brazil, United Kingdom, Turkey, India, and Japan
have also been used to define the port-side parameters to obtain reliable results
in the simulations. The case studies have been simulated and verified in MATLAB.
The results show that the energy management strategies of smart grid infrastructure
will provide significant benefits for the interactions of ship and port. This paper
aims to present the fundamental principles of the future ship and port designs for
sustainable cities.
Keywords: Ship; Electrical energy management; Alternative energy sources; Smart
grid; Sustainability; Port cities

Tullio de Rubeis, Iole Nardi, Domenica Paoletti, Antonella Di Leonardo, Dario


Ambrosini, Ruggero Poli, Stefano Sfarra,
Multi-year consumption analysis and innovative energy perspectives: The case study
of Leonardo da Vinci International Airport of Rome,
Energy Conversion and Management,
Volume 128,
2016,
Pages 261-272,
ISSN 0196-8904,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enconman.2016.09.076.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0196890416308755)
Abstract: Because of the growing need for efficient energy production systems,
energy policies promoted in recent years have also involved complex structures,
like airports. This paper proposes the implementation of an energy management
system for a very energy-consuming structure, composed of different power plants
and many energy consumers: the Leonardo da Vinci International Airport of Rome. In
this study, the examination of historical data related to airport electric power,
thermal energy and fuel consumption is discussed, starting with the analysis of the
production energy plants, mainly based on a combined heat and power system.
Furthermore, pioneering solutions are proposed, not only to cover airport energy
requirements, but also to test the safety and reliability of innovative load
management systems. For this reason, the choice of the Leonardo da Vinci management
company, oriented to install a smart storage in order to manage the bidirectional
energy flows by consumers and producers, is justified. Such innovative energy
procurement systems are examined, with the goal of achieving greater penetration of
renewable sources: mini and micro wind power plants and high concentrator
photovoltaic plants.
Keywords: Energy management system; Airport; Consumption analysis; Smart storage;
Wind power plant; High concentrator photovoltaic plant

Joana Portugal-Pereira, Alexandre C. Köberle, Rafael Soria, André F.P. Lucena,


Alexandre Szklo, Roberto Schaeffer,
Overlooked impacts of electricity expansion optimisation modelling: The life cycle
side of the story,
Energy,
Volume 115, Part 2,
2016,
Pages 1424-1435,
ISSN 0360-5442,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2016.03.062.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544216303061)
Abstract: This work evaluates implications of incorporating LCA-GHG (life cycle
assessment of GHG emissions) into the optimisation of the power generation mix of
Brazil through 2050, under baseline and low-carbon scenarios. Furthermore, this
work assesses the impacts of enacting a tax on LCA-GHG emissions as a strategy to
mitigate climate change. To this end, a model that integrates regional life cycle
data with optimised energy scenarios was developed using the MESSAGE-Brazil
integrated model. Following a baseline trend, the power sector in Brazil would
increasingly rely on conventional coal technologies. GHG emissions from the power
sector in 2050 are expected to increase 15-fold. When enacting a tax on direct-
carbon emissions, advanced coal and onshore wind technologies become competitive.
GHG emissions peak at 2025 and decrease afterwards, reaching an emission level 40%
lower in 2050 than that of 2010. However, if impacts were evaluated through the
entire life cycle of power supply systems, LCA-GHG emissions would be 50% higher in
2050 than in 2010. This is due to loads associated with the construction of plant
infrastructures and extraction and processing of fossil fuel resources. Thus, taxes
might not be as effective in tackling GHG emissions as shown by past studies, if
they are only applied to direct emissions.
Keywords: Energy modelling optimisation; MESSAGE; Climate change mitigation; Life
cycle assessment; Carbon tax; Brazil

Soheila Karimi, Petr Musilek, Andrew M. Knight,


Dynamic thermal rating of transmission lines: A review,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 91,
2018,
Pages 600-612,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2018.04.001.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032118302119)
Abstract: Electrical load growth and the addition of renewable energy generation
occur at a rate that can outpace transmission development. As a consequence,
transmission lines may become constrained. To accommodate load growth or
distributed generation connections, one option is to operate existing transmission
facilities up to their actual physical capacity rather than a conservative estimate
of line capacity. Dynamic thermal rating of transmission lines provides actual
current-carrying capacity of overhead lines based on real-time operating
conditions. Dynamic Thermal Line Rating (DTLR) approaches vary significantly from
one study to another in implementation, objectives and outcomes. Existing
literature has presented several methodologies for DTLR adoption. This paper
provides a comprehensive study of the literature on DTLR. It presents a survey and
evaluation of various DTLR technologies, DTLR equipment, challenges with DTLR
deployment, real world applications, and future approaches to DTLR implementation.
The presented work is organized to allow a reader to understand and compare various
DTLR approaches.
Keywords: Dynamic Thermal Line Rating; Ampacity; Conductor temperature; Sag;
Tension; Clearance

R.P.S. Leão, G.C. Barroso, R.F. Sampaio, J.B. Almada, C.F.P. Lima, M.C.O. Rego,
F.L.M. Antunes,
The future of low voltage networks: Moving from passive to active,
International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems,
Volume 33, Issue 8,
2011,
Pages 1506-1512,
ISSN 0142-0615,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijepes.2011.06.036.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0142061511001451)
Abstract: The growth of energy consumption, the ever extensive use of conventional
fossil fuels from exhaustible resources and concerns about the environment have led
to the development of sustainable renewable energy as a necessary global
requirement. Today, the trend in the electrical sector is the generation of
electrical power at low voltage. Distributed generation at low voltage enables
consumers to contribute to the country’s energy mix system without large
investments by governments. This means that dwellers are able to produce and inject
electrical power into the grid thus enjoying the status of energy producer and also
reducing the burden on the national electrical grid system. In order for this
system to produce high quality energy in a safe and coordinated manner, stringent
health & safety and technical measures must be implemented. Moreover, such systems
require strong legal support and well-established contracts. Technical training of
personnel, implementation of well established planned/corrective maintenance
systems and electrical spare part availability are also crucial to the reliability
and long term operation of such systems. The aims of the paper are to present the
basis for development of renewable energy for household usage in countries such as
Germany, Denmark, Spain and Brazil, in terms of technical requirements for
electrical generation and grid connection at low voltage. In Brazil about 70% of
the electricity comes from hydropower and around 50% of its automobiles run on
renewable biofuel, which results in a low per capita emission. The country however
faces some tough barriers to overcome in order to implement household generation
from renewable sources. These will be discussed in due course.
Keywords: Small size distributed generation; Low voltage producers; Policies;
Regulation; Renewables energies

Vincent Blok, Thomas B. Long, A. Idil Gaziulusoy, Nilgun Ciliz, Rodrigo Lozano,
Donald Huisingh, Maria Csutora, Casper Boks,
From best practices to bridges for a more sustainable future: advances and
challenges in the transition to global sustainable production and consumption:
Introduction to the ERSCP stream of the Special volume,
Journal of Cleaner Production,
Volume 108, Part A,
2015,
Pages 19-30,
ISSN 0959-6526,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.119.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652615004941)
Abstract: This stream of the special volume addresses advances being made towards,
and challenges for sustainable production and consumption. The article presents a
variety of papers that document leading examples of recent developments in
understanding and knowledge, before assessing gaps within current progress and
posing questions and challenges for future research and practice. An overview
framework is constructed to categorise the papers, and to illustrate key actors and
factors for sustainable production and consumption. The themes covered include
specific examples of progress in areas such as sustainable production, covering
topics such as eco-efficiency, waste management and the use of renewable resources,
as well as sustainable consumption and the role of consumers. Supporting actions
and themes are included, showing recent advances in design and innovation for
sustainability and the role of assessment and benchmarking. Finally, contributions
that consider how to connect production with consumption, and upscaling and
bridging, are examined. The article concludes by proposing that continued progress
is reliant on further connecting production and consumption, and ensuring that
consumer and user perspectives are integrated into innovation and design processes
so as to overcome hindering factors such as rebound effects. A call for further
progress is issued on what needs to be done to go beyond ‘good examples’ and on
what actions and strategies are able to share and spread success stories of
sustainable production and consumptions to different contexts and settings.
Keywords: Sustainable production and consumption; Sustainable innovation and
design; Sustainable business; Sustainable assessment & benchmarking

Li-qun Liu, Chun-xia Liu, Zhi-yi Sun,


A survey of China's low-carbon application practice—Opportunity goes with
challenge,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 15, Issue 6,
2011,
Pages 2895-2903,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.02.034.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032111000827)
Abstract: The steady and maintainable energy supply for human development provides
the strong motivation, which is necessary to every country in the whole world. The
high strength carbon emissions has brought great harm to the earth since
industrialization before hundreds of years, and the global warming and extreme
weather cause humans to develop low-carbon economy. Low-carbon economy has become a
consensus of the entire human race no matter developed countries or developing
countries, which is the combination of the lifestyle changing and production
structure basic changing and technical innovation. It is well known that China is
the largest developing country in the world. With the rapid industrialization of
country, energy demand of Chinese society is increasing in an incredible speed,
China has become the second largest energy consumer and the first carbon emissions
country at present. Furthermore, Chinese energy structure and production methods
are very inappropriate, which cannot guarantee the sustainable development of China
in future, and therefore actively developing low-carbon economy is the only road to
realize China's economic development mode change and sustainable development, which
is supported by central government and local governments. Low carbon economy for
China is not only an opportunity but also a great challenge. Firstly, this paper
discusses the current situation of energy supply and energy structure in China.
Secondly, current situation of units’ energy consumption in China is discussed.
Thirdly, some application practices of low carbon are described, such as low carbon
traffic, low carbon city, and low carbon village. Then, the policies and law of
China central government and local governments are described in the following
paragraphs. At the end, the developmental prospect of low carbon economy in future
China and the development barriers and recommendations are introduced,
respectively.
Keywords: Low carbon; Sustainable development; Renewable energy; Application
practice

Akhtar Hussain, Syed Muhammad Arif, Muhammad Aslam,


Emerging renewable and sustainable energy technologies: State of the art,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 71,
2017,
Pages 12-28,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.033.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116310863)
Abstract: In this paper, five most emerging renewable energy sources are analyzed.
These emerging renewables are either special or advanced forms of the mainstream
energy sources (solar, wind, geothermal, biofuels, biomass, and hydro) or brand new
technologies. The five emerging renewable technologies discussed in this paper
include marine energy, concentrated solar photovoltaics (CSP), enhanced geothermal
energy (EGE), cellulosic ethanol, and artificial photosynthesis. Marine energy is
divided into wave energy, tidal energy, tidal/ocean currents, salinity gradient,
and ocean thermal energy conversion. CSP technologies are divided into parabolic
troughs, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dishes, and solar towers. The process
for developing EGE reservoirs is also explained in detail. Cellulosic ethanol
energy extraction is explained for both cellulolysis and gasification. Artificial
photosynthesis is explained by considering semiconductor particles, electrolyzers,
artificial leaves, and dye-synthesized solar cells. Each emerging renewable
source's explanation is followed by its market share, challenges, implications for
increased adoption, future prospects, and drawbacks.
Keywords: Artificial photosynthesis; Cellulosic ethanol; Concentrated solar
photovoltaics; Emerging renewable energy sources; Enhanced geothermal energy;
Marine and ocean energy

M.A. Alghoul, P. Poovanaesvaran, M.H. Mohammed, A.M. Fadhil, A.F. Muftah, M.M.
Alkilani, K. Sopian,
Design and experimental performance of brackish water reverse osmosis desalination
unit powered by 2 kW photovoltaic system,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 93,
2016,
Pages 101-114,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.02.015.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148116301161)
Abstract: Small-scale brackish water reverse osmosis (BWRO) desalination units are
not a major commercial success compared to its large-scale counterpart. Integrating
renewable power systems with small-scale units would theoretically aid in their
deployment and subsequent commercial success. In fact, RO units are constructed
using a modular approach; this would allow them to adapt to a renewable power
supply. Small-scale PV-RO would be a promising form of desalination system in
remote areas, where BW is more common. The aim of this study is to quantify the
effect of climatic-design-operation conditions on the performance and durability of
a PV-BWRO desalination system. A small-scale unit is designed, constructed, and
tested for 6 months. The design was limited to a 2 kWp PV power system, five
different membranes, a feed TDS of 2000 mg/l, and a permeate TDS of less than
50 mg/l. Data pertaining to solar radiation and temperature were subsequently
analyzed to determine their respective influences on current and future operations
of the unit. The results showed that the optimum RO load, membrane type, and design
configuration were 600 W, (4″x40″ TW30-4040), and a two-stage configuration,
respectively. The PV system was able to supply the load without any significant
disturbances; while the RO unit showed stable levels of permeate flow and salinity.
Operating the PV-BWRO system for 10 h during the day would produce 5.1 m3 of fresh
water at a specific energy of 1.1 kWh/m3. It was confirmed that there are many
hours of high temperatures during the operation of the PV module (exceeding 45 °C)
and battery room conditions (exceeding 35 °C), both of which could negatively
affect the power output and battery autonomy. This negative effect is compounded
annually; therefore, optimizing thermal regulation of PV modules and battery bank
room conditions is essential in maintaining excellent operating temperatures.
Keywords: Desalination; Brackish water reverse osmosis ((BWRO) unit; PV power
system; Design and sizing; Experimental validation and performance

Chukwuka G. Monyei, Aderemi O. Adewumi, Daniel Akinyele, Olubayo M. Babatunde,


Michael O. Obolo, Joshua C. Onunwor,
A biased load manager home energy management system for low-cost residential
building low-income occupants,
Energy,
Volume 150,
2018,
Pages 822-838,
ISSN 0360-5442,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.03.016.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544218304146)
Abstract: This research paper presents the development of a biased load manager
home energy management system for low-cost residential building occupants. As a
smart grid framework, the proposed load manager coordinates the operation of the
inverter system of a low cost residential apartment consisting of rooftop solar
photovoltaic panels, converter and battery, and provides a platform for
discriminating residential loads into on-grid and off-grid supply classes while
maximizing solar irradiance for optimum battery charging and improving consumer
comfort from base levels. Modelled in a Matlab simulation environment, the system
incorporates a converter system for maximum power point tracking using a hopping
algorithm, with a dedicated mechanism for smart dispatch of specified loads to meet
the users' comfort based on the priority ranking of the loads. Results obtained
indicate a 34% reduction in electricity cost, 26% reduction in carbon emissions and
a 4% increase in comfort level for the photovoltaic/battery/utility option compared
to the utility only option. The results further show that cost is a major factor
affecting the users' comfort and not necessarily dispatch of appliances to meet
energy needs. The research can be useful for encouraging the adoption of the
photovoltaic/battery/utility option by low/middle income energy users in developing
countries.
Keywords: Low-cost residential buildings; BLM-HEMS; Hopping algorithm; Consumer
comfort; Return on investment; Carbon footprint

J.A. Adebisi, J.O. Agunsoye, S.A. Bello, I.I. Ahmed, O.A. Ojo, S.B. Hassan,
Potential of producing solar grade silicon nanoparticles from selected agro-wastes:
A review,
Solar Energy,
Volume 142,
2017,
Pages 68-86,
ISSN 0038-092X,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.12.001.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038092X16305953)
Abstract: The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) stated that Nigeria
generates around 3080MW of electricity but with actual estimated demand of
10,000MW. Due to the low electricity generation, total energy consumption profile
of Nigeria showed that about 99% of the energy consumed is derived from fossil
fuels which invariably contribute to greenhouse gases emission. Electricity, if
readily available at low cost, can easily replace the fossil fuels which pose
adverse effect on the citizen and climate. Solar photovoltaic is identified as an
effective renewable energy source that has proven to be a promising candidate for
provision of clean and sustainable electricity. Silicon is the leading
commercialized terrestrial PV material for making solar cell due to its relative
efficiency. This review work highlights the viability of using abundant
agricultural wastes in Nigeria to produce nano-sized solar grade silicon employing
methods that will require less energy. Details of previous silicon (nanoparticles)
synthesized from agricultural wastes are dissected. Production of silicon
nanoparticles from this origin could provide low cost solar grade silicon compared
with high temperature robust methods currently been used to obtain them. Hence
various methods of producing nanoparticles are highlighted.
Keywords: Silicon; Agricultural wastes; Nanoparticles; Photovoltaic materials;
Energy

Abdul Waheed Bhutto, Aqeel Ahmed Bazmi, Gholamreza Zahedi,


Greener energy: Issues and challenges for Pakistan—Biomass energy prospective,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 15, Issue 6,
2011,
Pages 3207-3219,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2011.04.015.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032111001523)
Abstract: Diversification of fuel sources is imperative to address the energy
security, climate change, and sustainable development issues; therefore, it is
essential to address the energy crisis through the extensive utilization of
abundant renewable energy resources, such as biomass energy, solar energy, wind
energy and geothermal energy. Improving energy services for poor households in
developing countries remains one of the most pressing challenges facing the
development community. Earlier studies suggest in South Asia the households are
likely to follow the energy ladder comprising fuels like dung, crop residue,
firewood, kerosene, gobar gas, LPG, and electricity for cooking purposes. Evidence
suggests that while it is possible to observe such transition in urban and semi-
urban areas, the change is very slow in rural areas. In rural Pakistan, the access
to commercial energy resources is limited, the majority of the households still
heavily rely on traditional methods of using wood, animal waste and crop waste for
domestic fuel needs. Efficiencies of use are very low and most of the potential is
wasted because of non-scientific conventional technologies. Consequently there is
an obligatory need to develop modern bio-energy technologies since renewable
resources may serve to supplement the long-term energy needs of Pakistan to a
significant level. Though the bio-resource base of Pakistan is substantial, its
contribution to useful energy is low. In this paper we called attention to issues
and challenges in biomass utilization for energy in Pakistan in context of
sustainable development. This paper has identified areas in Pakistan where there is
considerable scope to modernize biomass energy production delivery systems to
provide varied energy carriers such as electricity, industrial and domestic fuel
and gases. Barriers are examined over the whole biomass energy spectrum and policy
issue and institutional roles and responsibilities are discussed.
Keywords: Green energy; Biomass; Modern bioenergy; Sustainable development;
Pakistan; South Asia

Jenny Winkler, Magdalena Magosch, Mario Ragwitz,


Effectiveness and efficiency of auctions for supporting renewable electricity –
What can we learn from recent experiences?,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 119,
2018,
Pages 473-489,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2017.09.071.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148117309357)
Abstract: The current debate about using auctions to support electricity from
renewable sources is very polarised. While their proponents imply that auctions are
the universal remedy, their opponents consider them a major threat to other
formerly successful policies for renewables. In theory, auctions can improve the
effectiveness and efficiency of support. However, the empirical effects of auctions
on renewable support have not yet been fully analysed. Here, we use empirical data
from Brazil, France, Italy, the Netherlands and South Africa to compare the
effectiveness and efficiency of auction-based schemes with previous support
schemes. Comparisons with countries that did not switch to an auction scheme in the
time period assessed complement the study. The analysis shows mixed results. While
auctions can indeed improve efficiency and effectiveness, this cannot be identified
as a generic trend. The evidence based on existing data is neither sufficient to
recommend the introduction of auctions as a generic instrument, nor does it show
that previous support schemes were typically superior. Therefore, policy makers in
countries which already have effective and efficient support schemes of any kind
need to be very careful when designing auctions in order to achieve the targeted
improvements.
Keywords: Renewable electricity; Support schemes; Auctions; Energy policy; Market-
based instruments

Salahuddin Qazi,
Chapter 6 - PV Systems Affordability, Community Solar, and Solar Microgrids,
Editor(s): Salahuddin Qazi,
Standalone Photovoltaic (PV) Systems for Disaster Relief and Remote Areas,
Elsevier,
2017,
Pages 177-202,
ISBN 9780128030226,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803022-6.00006-X.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B978012803022600006X)
Abstract: This chapter starts with the discussion of affordable photovoltaic
systems both in developed and developing countries where over 1.3 billion have no
access to electric grid. The chapter also discusses community solar and solar
microgrids for resilience of electricity generating systems. Both of these
technologies are gaining widespread popularity because of new challenges to the
electric grid caused by weather-related power outages. The chapter includes two
case studies from India and United States. In the Indian case study, the first
example of solar microgrid deals with a large Government funded rural
electrification project while the second example deals with a smaller rural
electrification project that is completed with the help of a global nongovernmental
organization. Both of these projects are located in remote areas of India. In the
US case study, the first example deals with a microgrid for self-generating
electricity of a large university campus with a population of 45,000 students and
the second example deals with a new solar storage project which will be used for
emergency shelters in an area frequented by storms.
Keywords: Photovoltaic energy; affordability of PV systems; bringing solar energy
to developing countries; solar community gardens; solar microgrid; energy storage
for solar energy; UCSD microgrid; solar microgrid in India

Akanksha Chaurey, Tara Chandra Kandpal,


Assessment and evaluation of PV based decentralized rural electrification: An
overview,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 14, Issue 8,
2010,
Pages 2266-2278,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2010.04.005.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032110001164)
Abstract: The challenges of providing electricity to rural households are manifold.
Ever increasing demand–supply gap, crumbling electricity transmission and
distribution infrastructure, high cost of delivered electricity are a few of these.
Use of renewable energy technologies for meeting basic energy needs of rural
communities has been promoted by the Governments world over for many decades.
Photovoltaic (PV) technology is one of the first among several renewable energy
technologies that was adopted globally as well as in India for meeting basic
electricity needs of rural areas that are not connected to the grid. This paper
attempts at reviewing and analyzing PV literature pertaining to decentralized rural
electrification into two main categories—(1) experiences from rural electrification
and technology demonstration programmes covering barriers and challenges in
marketing and dissemination; institutional and financing approaches; and productive
and economic applications, (2) techno-economic aspects including system design
methodologies and approaches; performance evaluation and monitoring; techno-
economic comparison of various systems; and environmental implications and life
cycle analysis. The paper discusses the emerging trends in its concluding remarks.
Keywords: Decentralized rural electrification; Solar Photovoltaics; Tech-economic
comparison; Performance monitoring

Mayank Panwar, Gerald P. Duggan, Robert T. Griffin, Siddharth Suryanarayanan,


Daniel Zimmerle, Marty Pool, Steve Brunner,
Dispatch in Microgrids: Lessons from the Fort Collins Renewable and Distributed
Systems Integration Demonstration Project,
The Electricity Journal,
Volume 25, Issue 8,
2012,
Pages 71-83,
ISSN 1040-6190,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tej.2012.09.011.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1040619012002151)
Abstract: The divergent needs of the various microgrid participants make the
dispatch in microgrids more complicated than typical methods. A review of the
experience in Fort Collins suggests that regulations should be developed to address
the potential financial conflict issues where generation companies may see
microgrids as competition, and also that the cost of integrating assets into a
microgrid need to be lowered.
A.S. Sánchez, E.A. Torres, R.A. Kalid,
Renewable energy generation for the rural electrification of isolated communities
in the Amazon Region,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 49,
2015,
Pages 278-290,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.075.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032115003457)
Abstract: From 1999 to 2013, in a 14 years‫ ׳‬period of time, rural electrification
programs brought access to electricity to 16 million rural inhabitants in Brazil.
Approximately 155,000 rural households remain without access to electricity in the
Amazon Region, conforming very isolated communities that cannot be supplied by the
expansion of the existing grid. To supply electricity to these communities, off-
grid generation through diesel fuel has traditionally been the only option
considered. The Amazon Region has a huge potential in renewable energy, specially:
hydraulic, biomass and biofuels, solar as well as wind in the coast. The Brazilian
Government has started to consider the use of these local renewable sources for the
electrification of isolated communities. Several experimental projects have been
deployed, supplying electrical power through appropriated off-grid renewable energy
technologies: run-of-the-river and hydrokynetic, biomass (direct burning or
gasification), biofuels and vegetable oils, and hybrid (solar–wind–diesel).
Regarding these technologies, the most significant projects conducted in the region
were evaluated. Analyzing the costs, technical and social issues as well as the
performance of these systems, after a 10 year‫׳‬s evaluation period, this paper shows
that some renewable energy technologies have proven to be a more convenient and
economic option than electricity generation through diesel, in these isolated
communities.
Keywords: Rural electrification; Isolated communities; Off-grid; Hybrid; Biomass;
Biofuel

Jenny Riesz, Ben Elliston,


Research and deployment priorities for renewable technologies: Quantifying the
importance of various renewable technologies for low cost, high renewable
electricity systems in an Australian case study,
Energy Policy,
Volume 98,
2016,
Pages 298-308,
ISSN 0301-4215,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enpol.2016.08.034.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301421516304591)
Abstract: This study aims to identify research priorities to enable low cost, high
renewable power systems. An evolutionary program optimises the mix of technologies
in 100% renewable energy portfolios (RE) in the Australian National Electricity
Market. Various technologies are reduced in availability to determine their
relative importance for achieving low costs. The single most important factor is
found to be the integration of large quantities of wind; therefore wind integration
is identified as a research priority. In contrast, photovoltaics are found to
“saturate” the system at less than 10% of total energy (in the absence of storage
or demand management, installation of further photovoltaics does not contribute
significant further value). This indicates that policies to promote utility-scale
photovoltaics should be considered in partnership with complementary measures (such
as demand side participation and storage). Biofuelled gas turbines are found to be
important; a complete absence of bioenergy increases costs by AU$20–30/MWh, and
even having only 0.1TWh per year of bioenergy available reduces average costs by
AU$3–4/MWh. Limits on the non-synchronous penetration (NSP) are found to be
relatively expensive, suggesting a significant research priority around finding
alternative approaches to providing synchronous services, such as inertia.
Geothermal and concentrating solar thermal technologies do not appear essential as
long as sufficient wind and peaking bioenergy is available.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Evolutionary program; Research priorities; Australian
National Electricity Market; Portfolio optimisation

Vijay Devabhaktuni, Mansoor Alam, Soma Shekara Sreenadh Reddy Depuru, Robert C.
Green, Douglas Nims, Craig Near,
Solar energy: Trends and enabling technologies,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 19,
2013,
Pages 555-564,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2012.11.024.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032112006363)
Abstract: The global demand for energy is currently growing beyond the limits of
installable generation capacity. To meet future energy demands efficiently, energy
security and reliability must be improved and alternative energy sources must be
investigated aggressively. An effective energy solution should be able to address
long-term issues by utilizing alternative and renewable energy sources. Of the many
available renewable sources of energy, solar energy is clearly a promising option
as it is extensively available. Solar power, especially as it reaches more
competitive levels with other energy sources in terms of cost, may serve to sustain
the lives of millions of underprivileged people in developing countries.
Furthermore, solar energy devices can benefit the environment and economy of
developing countries. This paper illustrates the need for the utilization of
alternative energy sources, evaluates the global scenario of installed generation
systems, reviews technologies underlying various solar powered devices, and
discusses several applications and challenges in this area. In addition, this paper
addresses the costs of deployment, maintenance, and operation, as well as economic
policies that promote installation of solar energy systems.
Keywords: Distributed generation; Photovoltaic; Renewable energy; Solar energy

Djamel Saba, Fatima Zohra Laallam, Abd Elkader Hadidi, Brahim Berbaoui,
Contribution to the Management of Energy in the Systems Multi Renewable Sources
with Energy by the Application of the Multi Agents Systems “MAS”,
Energy Procedia,
Volume 74,
2015,
Pages 616-623,
ISSN 1876-6102,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.egypro.2015.07.792.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187661021501560X)
Abstract: Given the current energy challenge, renewable energy appear as a real and
strategic solution for electricity generation, but the intermittent nature this
type of energy we forced to combine at least two power sources to ensure continuity
in supply of electricity. Typically multi-source renewable energy systems are
managed by centralized approaches, but the limit of these approaches in several
aspects such as the dynamic aspect management of system, integration or
cancellation of one or more elements we require seek other more reliable approaches
for the management of multi-source renewable energy systems. The proposed solution
is an integration of Multi Agent Systems “MAS” in energy management, this
discipline is the connection of several fields such as artificial intelligence,
distributed computing systems and software engineering. “MAS” it is discipline that
focuses on collective behaviors produced by the interactions of several autonomous
entities called agents, these interactions revolve around cooperation, competition
or coexistence between these agents, introducing the issue of collective
intelligence and the emergence of structures interactions.
Keywords: Renewable energy; Hybrid systems; Centralized approaches; Multi Agent
Systems “MAS”; Artificial intelligence.

Enas R. Shouman,
International and national renewable energy for electricity with optimal cost
effective for electricity in Egypt,
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews,
Volume 77,
2017,
Pages 916-923,
ISSN 1364-0321,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2016.12.107.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1364032116311686)
Abstract: Electricity is the fastest-growing final form of energy. The strong
growth of renewable in many countries raises their share in global power generation
to one-third by 2040 [1]. Lack of access to electricity is one of the biggest
troubles facing the world's poor, with over 1.6 billion left in the dark globally.
The substantial majority of human beings live in rural areas of developing
countries which is too far away to be reached through the national grid. For their
lighting needs they depend on candles, kerosene lanterns, and firewood* This
consequence in an each day rate that is high priced in the long run. Long-term,
solar energy is the most practical and low-budget way of bringing power to far
flung communities. Small-scale, distributed solar home systems provide an effective
and affordable way to bring light to people without electricity. Egypt's
electricity use has been growing swiftly as a end result of economic growth in the
closing decade. However, Egypt has a massive of its populace residing in rural
areas access to energy is still a challenge. The power sector is key to Egypt's
monetary development and poverty decrease goals. This paper represents support
sustainable livelihoods for rural communities. The paper refers to renewable energy
for rural populations with no access to centralized electricity power. The focus is
on solar electrical energy and its economic applications for village
electrification. The Paper goals to compare between electrical energy cost (kWh)
using PV panels, diesel generator and the end of result suggests the cost of 1 kWh
from the PV system is less than diesel system for rural residential electricity are
0.22$/kWh and 0.5$/kWh respectively.
Keywords: Solar energy; Electricity; Egypt; Renewable Energy-PV

Christopher R. Cherry, Perry Gottesfeld,


Plans to distribute the next billion computers by 2015 creates lead pollution risk,
Journal of Cleaner Production,
Volume 17, Issue 18,
2009,
Pages 1620-1628,
ISSN 0959-6526,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2009.08.003.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0959652609002443)
Abstract: Major computer and software companies, along with governments and
philanthropic organizations have embarked on ambitious plans to put computers in
the hands of more than one billion new computer users over the next five to six
years in untapped markets in emerging economies. The most frequently proposed
solution to overcome the electricity shortfall in communities where new computer
users will be located is to use rechargeable lead-acid batteries to provide primary
and back-up power for computers. This paper calculates the lead emissions from
battery manufacturing and recycling that will result if independent market
projections to greatly expand the number, geographic, and socioeconomic
distribution of computer users are realized. By examining several possible
scenarios, we estimate that between 1250 and 2300kt of lead – between four and
seven times the weight of the Empire State Building – could be released into the
environment in the developing world to provide power to computers sold through
2015. Increased lead exposure has a negative impact on children's neurological
development as measured by reduced school performance and on standardized tests. In
order to realize the educational achievement and economic development benefits of
reducing the “digital divide” proponents will need to encourage improvements in
lead battery production and recycling in targeted markets.
Keywords: Electronic waste; Lead acid battery; Lead pollution; Uninterruptible
power supply; Computer market

Sebastian Zapata, Monica Castaneda, Estefany Garces, Carlos Jaime Franco, Isaac
Dyner,
Assessing security of supply in a largely hydroelectricity-based system: The
Colombian case,
Energy,
Volume 156,
2018,
Pages 444-457,
ISSN 0360-5442,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.energy.2018.05.118.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360544218309447)
Abstract: One of the primary challenges of the power industry, worldwide, is making
the capacity investment appropriate for the achievement of security of supply. This
challenge is becoming even more relevant as power generation is increasingly based
on renewables that are intermittent and seasonally dependent. In this context,
policy makers and regulators implement capacity mechanisms that seek to overcome
the intrinsic shortcomings of renewables. Failing to do so, given the uncertainty
and complexity involved, means either that excessive overcapacity will become
persistent and remain idle, or that under-capacity will prompt blackouts and high
electricity prices. To help manage the uncertainty and complexity, this paper
contributes to a better understanding of the effects of the capacity mechanism on
electricity markets with a high share of hydropower – by using a system dynamics
modelling approach applied to Colombia. In the past, though the capacity mechanism
induced large reserve margins, the system has been at serious risk of experience
blackouts and has resulted in extremely high electricity prices over a prolonged
period. In the future, worse scenarios are possible: historically-familiar events –
when backup plants were not available – may recur when new capacity is delayed,
posing an even greater threat to the system.
Keywords: Security of supply; Capacity mechanisms; Electricity markets; Simulation

Soumia Rahmouni, Belkhir Negrou, Noureddine Settou, Javier Dominguez, Abderahman


Gouareh,
Prospects of hydrogen production potential from renewable resources in Algeria,
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy,
Volume 42, Issue 2,
2017,
Pages 1383-1395,
ISSN 0360-3199,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.07.214.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360319916307005)
Abstract: Hydrogen production from renewable energies is a key part in the energy
transition to realize a sustainable energy economy for both developed and
developing nations. For Algeria, successful energy transition toward a hydrogen
economy will require the establishment of its potential. This study was conducted
to estimate the potential for producing hydrogen from renewable resources in
Algeria. The renewable energies considered are: solar photovoltaic and wind. To
accomplish this objective, first, we analyzed renewable resource data both
statistically and graphically using Geographical Information System (GIS), a
computer-based information system utilized to create and visualize the spatial
distribution of the geographic information. Then, the study will evaluate the
availability of renewable electricity production potential from these key renewable
resources. The potential for the hydrogen production, via the electrolysis process
with wind and solar photovoltaic electricity, is described with maps showing it per
unit area in each region. Finally, the results of the estimated hydrogen potential
from both resources for each region are compared and significant conclusions are
drawn.
Keywords: Electrolytic hydrogen production; Renewable energy; Geographical
Information System (GIS); Potential analysis; Algeria

André M. Nobre, Carlos A. Severiano, Shravan Karthik, Marek Kubis, Lu Zhao,


Fernando R. Martins, Enio B. Pereira, Ricardo Rüther, Thomas Reindl,
PV power conversion and short-term forecasting in a tropical, densely-built
environment in Singapore,
Renewable Energy,
Volume 94,
2016,
Pages 496-509,
ISSN 0960-1481,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.renene.2016.03.075.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960148116302592)
Abstract: With the substantial growth of solar photovoltaic installations
worldwide, forecasting irradiance becomes a critical step in providing a reliable
integration of solar electricity into electric power grids. In Singapore, the
number of PV installation has increased with a growth rate of 70% over the past 6
years. Within the next decade, solar power could represent up to 20% of the instant
power generation. Challenges for PV grid integration in Singapore arise from the
high variability in cloud movements and irradiance patterns due to the tropical
climate. For a thorough analysis and modeling of the impact of an increasing share
of variable PV power on the electric power system, it is indispensable (i) to have
an accurate conversion model from irradiance to solar power generation, and (ii) to
carry out irradiance forecasting on various time scales. In this work, we
demonstrate how common assumptions and simplifications in PV power conversion
methods negatively affect the output estimates of PV systems power in a tropical
and densely-built environment such as in Singapore. In the second part, we propose
and test a novel hybrid model for short-term irradiance forecasting for short-term
intervals. The hybrid model outperforms the persistence forecast and other common
statistical methods.
Keywords: PV power conversion; Solar irradiance forecasting; Short-term prediction;
PV systems; Tropical regions

Andrew Harrison Hubble, Taha Selim Ustun,


Composition, placement, and economics of rural microgrids for ensuring sustainable
development,
Sustainable Energy, Grids and Networks,
Volume 13,
2018,
Pages 1-18,
ISSN 2352-4677,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.segan.2017.10.001.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352467717300851)
Abstract: Nearly 20% of the world’s population does not have adequate access to
reliable – or any – electricity, and population growth is exceeding electrification
rates. The desire for power in rural and developing communities is growing
continuously, and access to electricity can now be considered a necessity, not an
extravagance. Lack of electrification contributes to cyclic poverty, child
mortality, and hampers education, leading to an even greater divide between the
developed and developing worlds. Centralized generation and distribution systems
are not suited to rural areas where transmission distances are great, nor
developing areas where the capital cost of large centralized generation plants is
untenable. This work examines the practicality of energy production and storage,
covering a large portion of the globe utilizing HOMER as an optimization tool.
Multiple load profiles based on actual developing rural usage were used to create a
variety of community scenarios, and the demand was optimized with a variety of
generation and storage options. Every model utilizes location-based radiance, wind,
and fuel prices. The goal of developing electrification is twofold: First, to
provide affordable and reliable electricity, and the second is to explore every
avenue of generating that electricity in an environmentally sustainable way. The
sites represented in the paper – one from each country – signify communities in
various states of development based on an earnings metric. Ultimately, the relative
power of irradiance, wind speeds, and diesel prices can be compiled into a single
index to determine whether a community should tie into the grid, or have a
standalone microgrid. This break-even point from an economic standpoint is short,
and favors independent microgrids in many rural areas. Additionally, whether a
community should consider completely renewable energy, or mixed renewable and
diesel generation sources is highly predictable based on only a few metrics, and in
many circumstances, makes little impact to the levelized cost of energy.
Keywords: Microgrids; Grid extension; Distributed generation; Energy storage

Christoph Burger, Jens Weinmann,


Chapter 16 - European Utilities: Strategic Choices and Cultural Prerequisites for
the Future,
Editor(s): Fereidoon P. Sioshansi,
Future of Utilities Utilities of the Future,
Academic Press,
2016,
Pages 303-322,
ISBN 9780128042496,
https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-804249-6.00016-6.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128042496000166)
Abstract: European energy utilities choose diverging paths in redefining their
business models. While some utilities opt for an internationalization strategy with
emphasis on renewable or conventional generation, others envision themselves as
providers of complex service solutions in a “smart” energy world, or as managers of
assets in distributed energy. The analysis reveals that most major European
utilities pursue a strategy of regionalization, rather than internationalization,
while companies that focus on business models as providers of smart services face
the challenge to bridge the revenue gap until the mass market is ready, and to
realign their workforce from “selling” to “managing energy.” Benchmarks from new
entrants reveal cultural prerequisites for an uncertain energy future.
Keywords: internationalization; digitalization; smart grid; distributed energy;
cultural change

Marcelo Menezes Morato, Paulo Renato da Costa Mendes, Julio Elias Normey-Rico,
Carlos Bordons,
Advanced Control for Energy Management of Grid-Connected Hybrid Power Systems in
the Sugar Cane Industry**The authors thank CNPq and Ministerio de Economía y
Competitividad de España for financing the projects CNPq401126/2014-5,
CNPq303702/2011-7 and DPI2016-78338-R.,
IFAC-PapersOnLine,
Volume 50, Issue 1,
2017,
Pages 31-36,
ISSN 2405-8963,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ifacol.2017.08.006.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405896317300174)
Abstract: This work presents a process supervision and advanced control structure,
based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) coupled with disturbance estimation
techniques and a finite-state machine decision system, responsible for setting
energy productions set-points. This control scheme is applied to energy generation
optimization in a sugar cane power plant, with non-dispatchable renewable sources,
such as photovoltaic and wind power generation, as well as dispatchable sources, as
biomass. The energy plant is bound to produce steam in different pressures, cold
water and, imperiously, has to produce and maintain an amount of electric power
throughout each month, defined by contract rules with a local distribution network
operator (DNO). The proposed predictive control structure uses feedforward
compensation of estimated future disturbances, obtained by the Double Exponential
Smoothing (DES) method. The control algorithm has the task of performing the
management of which energy system to use, maximize the use of the renewable energy
sources, manage the use of energy storage units and optimize energy generation due
to contract rules, while aiming to maximize economic profits. Through simulation,
the proposed system is compared to a MPC structure, with standard techniques, and
shows improved behavior.
Keywords: Disturbance Estimation; Model Predictive Control; Decision System;
Microgrids; Renewable Sources

Rebekah Shirley, Daniel Kammen,


Energy planning and development in Malaysian Borneo: Assessing the benefits of
distributed technologies versus large scale energy mega-projects,
Energy Strategy Reviews,
Volume 8,
2015,
Pages 15-29,
ISSN 2211-467X,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.esr.2015.07.001.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2211467X15000292)
Abstract: A contentious debate is taking place over plans for a series of mega-dams
under development in Malaysian Borneo. There is little quantitative analysis of the
energy options or cost and benefit trade-offs in the public discussion or the
literature. To fill this gap we developed a model of the proposed energy system and
alternative scenarios using the commercial energy market software PLEXOS. We
prepared a 15 year long-term capacity energy expansion model for the state of
Sarawak which includes existing generation, resource and operability constraints,
direct and indirect costs. We explore a range of demand growth and policy
assumptions and model the resulting generation mixes and economic trade-offs. Our
central finding is that a diversified generation mix including solar and biomass
waste resources can meet future demand at lower cost than additional dam
construction.
Keywords: Energy Planning; Renewable Energy; Development Tradeoffs; Borneo

Sesil Koutra, Vincent Becue, Mohamed-Anis Gallas, Christos S. Ioakimidis,


Towards the development of a net-zero energy district evaluation approach: A review
of sustainable approaches and assessment tools,
Sustainable Cities and Society,
Volume 39,
2018,
Pages 784-800,
ISSN 2210-6707,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2018.03.011.
(http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2210670717310120)
Abstract: Districts have a significant role in achieving the principles of
sustainability. Within the past decades, a great variety of assessment tools and
methodologies has been developed in an effort to ‘translate’ the sustainability
criteria into applied cases. There is an increasing interest in this contribution
scaled up the assessment to larger territorial analysis and urban agglomerations.
Notwithstanding, developing an assessment tool with sustainable standards requires
strategic approaches to incorporate the theoretical framework to their
implementation of city districts by measuring their performance in a consistent
manner in respect of multiple criteria. Among these issues, energy efficiency and
the zero energy objectives are significant for European policies. This study aims
to provide an overview of the existing assessment tools and methods comparing their
criteria and key parameters. As a second step, it introduces a simplified
methodological assessment theoretical tool (U-ZED) by focusing on the commitment
towards the zero energy targets in a future district. In a more general
perspective, the study deals with the challenge of the development of a tool from
building to district with the main concern to define the context of sustainable and
long-term districts dealing with the challenges of 2050 horizon.
Keywords: Assessment; District; Energy; Sustainability; Tool