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Direct or normal strain

When loads are applied to a body, some


deformation will occur resulting to a change in
dimension.
STRENGTH OF Consider a uniform bar, subjected to axial tensile
loading force, F. If the bar extension is dl and its
MATERIALS original length (before loading) is Lo, then tensile
strain is:
Mechanics of Change in Length
Deformable Bodies Direct Strain =
Original Length 𝐿

i.e. 𝛿
𝜀=
𝐿 𝐿 𝛿

Direct or normal strain Direct or normal strain


Also known as unit deformation, strain is the ratio
ASSUMPTIONS
of the change in length caused by the applied
1. The specimen
force, to the original length. must be of
As strain is a ratio of lengths, it is dimensionless. constant cross
section
Note: Strain is positive for an increase in 2. The material
dimension and negative for a reduction in must be
dimension. homogenous
3. The load must
be axial, that
is, to produce
uniform stress

Direct or normal strain Direct or normal strain


The slope of the straight line portion of the stress- The equation may be used only if the rod is
strain diagram is called Modulus of Elasticity, E. homogeneous, has a uniform cross section of area
A, and is loaded at its ends.
 P A PL
E   If the rod is loaded at other points, or if it consists
  L A of several portions of various cross sections and
possibly of different materials, we must divide it
into component parts that satisfy individually the
PL

required conditions for the application of the
formula.
AE

1
Strain problem 1 Strain problem 1
During a stress strain test, the unit
deformation at a stress of 35MPa was observed Given:
to be 167x10-6m/m and at a stress of 140MPa σ1=35MPa
it was 667x10-6m/m. if the proportional limit ɛ1=167x10-6m/m
was 200MPa, what is the modulus of elasticity? σ2=140MPa
What is the strain corresponding to a stress of
ɛ2=667x10-6m/m
80MPa?
σ3=80MPa
Required:
E=?
ɛ80MPa =?

Strain problem 1 Strain problem 2


A steel wire 10m long hanging vertically
σ σ2 − σ1 140MPa − 35MPa supports a tensile load of 2,000N. Neglecting
E= = =
ε ε2 − ε1 667x10−6m/m − 167x10−6m/m the weight of the wire, determine the required
= 210x103 MPa = 210GPa diameter if the stress in not to exceed 140MPa
and the total elongation in not to exceed 5mm.
Since the modulus of Elasticity is constant: Assume E=200GPa.
σ
E=
ε
σ 80MPa
ε= = = 3.81x10−4 = 381x10−6m/m
E 210x103 MPa

Strain problem 2 Strain problem 2


Based on the axial stress (minimum diameter):
Given: P N 2,000N
σMax=140MPa σ= 140 = 𝐝 = 𝟒. 𝟐𝟔𝐦𝐦
A mm2 πd2
δMax=5mm 4
E=200GPa Based on the strain (minimum diameter):
L=10m 1,000mm
P=2,000N PL 2,000N(10m)( )
δ= 5mm = m 𝐝 = 𝟓. 𝟎𝟓𝐦𝐦
Required: AE πd2 N
200,000
4 mm2
d=?
d = 5.05mm

2
Strain problem 3 Strain problem 3
An aluminum bar having a cross-sectional area Given:
of 160mm2 carries the axial loads at the A=160mm2
position shown. If E=70GPa, compute the total E=70GPa
deformation of the bar. Assume that the bar is Required:
suitably braced to prevent buckling.
δTotal=?
P1 L1
δ1 =
AE
(35,000N)(0.8m)(1,000mm/m)
ΣFH = 0 =
N
(160mm2 ) 70,000
P1 = 35kN mm2
𝛅𝟏 = 𝟐. 𝟓𝐦𝐦(+)

Strain problem 3 Strain problem 3

ΣFH = 0 P2 L2 ΣFH = 0 P3 L3
δ2 = δ3 =
P2 + 15kN = 35kN AE P3 = 10kN AE
P2 = 20kN (20,000N)(1m)(1,000mm/m) (10,000N)(0.6m)(1,000mm/m)
= =
N N
(160mm2 ) 70,000 (160mm2 ) 70,000
mm2 mm2
𝛅𝟐 = 𝟏. 𝟕𝟗𝐦𝐦(+) 𝛅𝟑 = 𝟎. 𝟓𝟒𝐦𝐦(−)

Strain problem 3

δTotal = δ1 + δ2 + δ3
δTotal = 2.5mm + 1.79mm − 0.54mm
δTotal = 3.75mm(elongation)

3
Statically indeterminate bodies

There are certain combinations of axially


loaded members in which the equations of
STRENGTH OF static equilibrium are not sufficient for a
solution. Such cases are called statically
MATERIALS indeterminate and require the use of
additional relation which depend upon the
Mechanics of elastic deformation of the members.
Deformable Bodies

Statically indeterminate problem 1 Statically indeterminate problem 1

The short concrete post is reinforced axially with 6-


symmetrically placed steel bars, each 600mm² in area. If Given:
the applied load P is 1,000kN, compute the stress
developed in each material. Use EC =14GPa, and EC=14GPa
ES=200GPa. ES=200GPa
P=1,000kN
Required:
σC=?
σS =?

Statically indeterminate problem 1 Statically indeterminate problem 2

ΣFV = 0 𝛿C = 𝛿S Consider problem 1, assume their allowable stresses to be


PC + PS = 1000kN σC LC σS LS σS=120MPa, and σC=6MPa. Compute the maximum safe
σC A C + σS A S = 1000kN = axial load P which may be applied.
EC ES
σC σS
A S = 6 600mm2 =
EC ES
A S = 3,600mm2 σC σS
A C = 300mm 2 − A s =
14GPa 200GPa
A C = 86,400mm2 σS = 14.29σC
σC 86,400mm2 + σS 3,600mm2 = 1x106 N
σC 86,400mm2 + 14.29σC 3,600mm2 = 1x106 N
σC = 7.25MPa σS = 14.29σC
σS = 14.29 7.25MPa
σS = 103.60MPa

4
Statically indeterminate problem 2 Statically indeterminate problem 2
ΣFV = 0 A s = 6 600mm2
Given: PC + PS = P A S = 3,600mm2
A C = 300mm 2 − A s
σC A C + σS A S = P
σC =6MPa A C = 86,400mm2
𝛿C = 𝛿S
σS =120MPa σC LC σS LS If σS = 120MPa
Required: = 120MPa = 14.29σC
EC ES σC = 8.40MPa > 6MPa
PMax=? σC σS
= unacceptable
EC ES If σC = 6MPa
σC σS
= σS = 14.29 6MPa
14GPa 200GPa σS = 85.74MPa < 120MPa
σS = 14.29σC 𝐚𝐜𝐜𝐞𝐩𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞
σC A C + σS A S = P
6MPa 86,400mm2 + 85.74MPa 3,600mm2 = P
827,064N = P

Statically indeterminate problem 3 Statically indeterminate problem 3

A reinforced concrete column 250mm in diameter is


designed to carry axial compressive load of 400kN. Using Given:
allowable stresses of σC=6MPa, and σ S=120MPa, determine
the required area of reinforcing steel. Assume that σC=6MPa
EC=14GPa, and ES=200GPa. σS=120MPa STEEL
BAR

EC=14GPa
ES=200GPa P = 400 kN

P =400kN
BEARING
PLATE

Required:
AS=?

Statically indeterminate problem 3 Statically indeterminate problem 4


𝛿C = 𝛿S If σS = 120MPa The composite bar shown is firmly attached to unyielding
σC LC σS LS 120MPa = 14.29σC supports. Compute the stress in each material caused by
= σC = 8.40MPa > 6MPa the application of the axial load P=50kips.
EC ES
σC σS unacceptable
= If σC = 6MPa
EC ES
σC σS σS = 14.29 6MPa Aluminum Steel
= σS = 85.74MPa < 120MPa A=1.25in2 A=2.0in2
14GPa 200GPa E=29x106psi
𝐚𝐜𝐜𝐞𝐩𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞 E=10x106psi
σS = 14.29σC
ΣFV = 0
PC + PS = 400kN σC A C + σS A S = 400kN 15in 10in
σC A C + σS A S = 400kN 6MPa 15,625πmm2 − A S
250mm 2 + 85.74MPa A S = 400kN
AC = π − As A S = 1,322.75mm2
4
2
A C = 15,625πmm − A S

5
Statically indeterminate problem 4 Statically indeterminate problem 4

Aluminum Steel
A=1.25in2 A=2.0in2
Given: E=10x106psi E=29x106psi
ΣFH = 0
AA=1.25in2 R1 R2
R1 + R 2 = 50,000lbs
AS=2.0in2 15in 10in R1 = 50,000lbs − R 2
EA=10x106psi R1 R1
δA = δA = δ
ES=29x106psi Aluminum Steel  PL PL
A=1.25in2 A=2.0in2 =
P =50kips E=29x106psi
R2 R2 AE A AE S
E=10x106psi
Required: R1 15in R 2 10in
=
σC=? 1.25in2 10x106 psi 2.0in2 29x106 psi
15in 10in
σS=? 6.96R1 = R 2
6.96 50,000lbs − R 2 = R 2
𝟒𝟑, 𝟕𝟏𝟖. 𝟓𝟗𝐥𝐛𝐬 = 𝐑 𝟐

Statically indeterminate problem 4 Statically indeterminate problem 5

Steel
A rigid block of mass M is supported by three symmetrically
Aluminum
A=1.25in2 A=2.0in2 spaced rods as shown. Each copper rod has an area of
E=10x106psi E=29x106psi 900mm2; E=120GPa; and the allowable stress is 70MPa.
R1 R2 The steel rod has an area of 1,200mm2; E=200GPa; and the
allowable stress is 140MPa. Determine the largest mass M
15in 10in which can be supported..
M
𝐑 𝟐 = 𝟒𝟑, 𝟕𝟏𝟖. 𝟓𝟗𝐥𝐛𝐬 R1 = 50,000lbs − R 2
R2 43,718.59lbs R1 = 50,000lbs − 43,718.59lbs Copper Steel Copper
σS = = L=160mm L=240mm L=160mm
AS 2.0in2 𝐑 𝟏 = 𝟔, 𝟐𝟖𝟏. 𝟒𝟏𝐥𝐛𝐬 A=900mm2 A=1,200mm2 A=900mm2
σS = 21,859.30psi R1 6,281.41lbs E=120GPa E=200GPa E=120GPa
σA = =
AA 1.25in2
σA = 5,025.12psi

Statically indeterminate problem 5 Statically indeterminate problem 5

Given:
LC=160mm
ΣFH = 0
LS=240mm 2PC + PS = W
AC=900mm2 2 σA C + σA S = Mg
AS=1,200mm2
EC=120GPa
ES=200GPa δC = δS = δ
W=Mg
σL σL
σC=70MPa =
E C E S
σS=140MPa
𝛅
𝐏𝐂 𝐏𝐒 𝐏𝐂
σC 160mm σS 240mm
Required: =
120x103 MPa 200x103 MPa
M=? (largest) 10σC = 9σS

6
Statically indeterminate problem 5 Statically indeterminate problem 5

9 Use
σC = σ
10 S σC = 70MPa and
If σS = 140MPa σS = 77.78MPa
9
σC = 140MPa
10
From
σC = 126MPa > 70MPa
2 σA C + σA S = Mg
unacceptable
2 70MPa 900mm2 +
W=Mg If σC = 70MPa W=Mg
77.78MPa 1,200mm2
10 m
σS = 70MPa = M 9.81 2
𝛅
9 𝛅 s
𝐏𝐂 𝐏𝐒 𝐏𝐂 σS = 77.78MPa < 140MPa 𝐏𝐂 𝐏𝐒 𝐏𝐂
M = 22,358.41kg
𝐚𝐜𝐜𝐞𝐩𝐭𝐚𝐛𝐥𝐞